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Sample records for sulfate perlecan enhances

  1. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  2. Perlecan (basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan and its role in oral malignancies: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perlecan means pearl-like structures. Perlecan is a large proteoglycan (400-500 kDa present in virtually all vascularized tissues with a distribution that is primarily confined to basement membranes including those of oral mucosa. It is a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Perlecan is synthesized by basal cells and fibroblasts adjacent to the basal lamina . Perlecan is also synthesized by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells present in the extracellular matrix. It has been demonstrated in recent years that perlecan is distributed in the stromal space of various pathophysiological conditions. The complex pleiotropy of perlecan suggests that this gene product is involved in several developmental processes, at both early and late stages of embryogenesis, as well as in cancer and diabetes. In the oral cavity, perlecan expression is reported to basal cells in normal mucosa and its expression increases in precancer and cancerous conditions. It is also expressed in various odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma, keratocyst odontogenic tumor, and also salivary gland tumors such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, etc.

  3. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  4. Border patrol: insights into the unique role of perlecan/heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 at cell and tissue borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach-Carson, Mary C; Warren, Curtis R; Harrington, Daniel A; Carson, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix proteoglycan (ECM) perlecan, also known as heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 or HSPG2, is one of the largest (>200 nm) and oldest (>550 M years) extracellular matrix molecules. In vertebrates, perlecan's five-domain structure contains numerous independently folding modules with sequence similarities to other ECM proteins, all connected like cars into one long, diverse complex train following a unique N-terminal domain I decorated with three long glycosaminoglycan chains, and an additional glycosaminoglycan attachment site in the C-terminal domain V. In lower invertebrates, perlecan is not typically a proteoglycan, possessing the majority of the core protein modules, but lacking domain I where the attachment sites for glycosaminoglycan chains are located. This suggests that uniting the heparan sulfate binding growth factor functions of domain I and the core protein functions of the rest of the molecule in domains II-V occurred later in evolution for a new functional purpose. In this review, we surveyed several decades of pertinent literature to ask a fundamental question: Why did nature design this protein uniquely as an extraordinarily long multifunctional proteoglycan with a single promoter regulating expression, rather than separating these functions into individual proteins that could be independently regulated? We arrived at the conclusion that the concentration of perlecan at functional borders separating tissues and tissue layers is an ancient key function of the core protein. The addition of the heparan sulfate chains in domain I likely occurred as an additional means of binding the core protein to other ECM proteins in territorial matrices and basement membranes, and as a means to reserve growth factors in an on-site depot to assist with rapid repair of those borders when compromised, such as would occur during wounding. We propose a function for perlecan that extends its role from that of an extracellular scaffold, as we previously

  5. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M

    1996-01-01

    heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species......The presence of proteoglycans bearing galactosaminoglycan chains has been reported, but none has been identified previously in the matrix of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor, which is a source of several basement membrane components. This tumor matrix contains perlecan, a large, low buoyant density......-CSPG are distinct in core protein structure. Both are, however, basement membrane components, although there are tissue-specific differences in their distribution....

  6. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... factor. In vivo, antisense perlecan-transfected cells generated no tumors, whereas untransfected and vector-transfected cells formed tumors with obvious neovascularization, suggesting that tumor perlecan rather than host perlecan controls tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  7. Ablation of Perlecan Domain 1 Heparan Sulfate Reduces Progressive Cartilage Degradation, Synovitis, and Osteophyte Size in a Preclinical Model of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Cindy C; Jackson, Miriam T; Smith, Margaret M; Smith, Susan M; Penm, Steven; Lord, Megan S; Whitelock, John M; Little, Christopher B; Melrose, James

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the role of the heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan perlecan (HSPG-2) in regulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity, bone and joint growth, and the onset and progression of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA) in a mouse gene-knockout model. Maturational changes were evaluated histologically in the knees of 3-, 6-, and 12-week-old wild-type (WT) mice and Hspg2(Δ3-/Δ3-) mice (Hspg2 lacking domain 1 HS, generated by ablation of exon 3 of perlecan). Cartilage damage, subchondral bone sclerosis, osteophytosis, and synovial inflammation were scored at 4 and 8 weeks after surgical induction of OA in WT and Hspg2(Δ3-/Δ3-) mice. Changes in cartilage expression of FGF-2, FGF-18, HSPG-2, FGF receptor 1 (FGFR-1), and FGFR-3 were examined immunohistochemically. Femoral head cartilage from both mouse genotypes was cultured in the presence or absence of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), FGF-2, and FGF-18, and the content and release of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for key matrix molecules, enzymes, and inhibitors were quantified. No effect of perlecan HS ablation on growth plate or joint development was detected. After induction of OA, Hspg2(Δ3-/Δ3-) mice had significantly reduced cartilage erosion, osteophytosis, and synovitis. OA-induced loss of chondrocyte expression of FGF-2, FGF-18, and HSPG-2 occurred in both genotypes. Expression of FGFR-1 after OA induction was maintained in WT mice, while FGFR-3 loss after OA induction was significantly reduced in Hspg2(Δ3-/Δ3-) mice. There were no genotypic differences in GAG content or release between unstimulated control cartilage and IL-1α-stimulated cartilage. However, IL-1α-induced cartilage expression of Mmp3 mRNA was significantly reduced in Hspg2(Δ3-/Δ3-) mice. Cartilage GAG release in either the presence or absence of IL-1α was unaltered by FGF-2 in both genotypes. In cartilage cultures with FGF-18, IL-1α-stimulated GAG loss was significantly reduced only in Hspg2(Δ3

  8. Differential immunohistochemical expression profiles of perlecan-binding growth factors in epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Mayumi; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah; Saito, Chikara; Saku, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The intercellular deposit of perlecan, a basement-membrane type heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is considered to function as a growth factor reservoir and is enhanced in oral epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS). However, it remains unknown which types of growth factors function in these perlecan-enriched epithelial conditions. The aim of this study was to determine immunohistochemically which growth factors were associated with perlecan in normal oral epithelia and in different epithelial lesions from dysplasia and CIS to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Eighty-one surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC containing different precancerous stages, along with ten of normal mucosa, were examined by immunohistochemistry for growth factors. In normal epithelia, perlecan and growth factors were not definitely expressed. In epithelial dysplasia, VEGF, SHH, KGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1were localized in the lower half of rete ridges (in concordance with perlecan, 33-100%), in which Ki-67 positive cells were densely packed. In CIS, perlecan and those growth factors/receptors were more strongly expressed in the cell proliferating zone (63-100%). In SCC, perlecan and KGF disappeared from carcinoma cells but emerged in the stromal space (65-100%), while VEGF, SHH, and VEGF receptors remained positive in SCC cells (0%). Immunofluorescence showed that the four growth factors were shown to be produced by three oral SCC cell lines and that their signals were partially overlapped with perlecan signals. The results indicate that perlecan and its binding growth factors are differentially expressed and function in specific manners before (dysplasia/CIS) and after (SCC) invasion of dysplasia/carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Perlecan and the Blood-Brain Barrier: Beneficial Proteolysis?

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    Jill eRoberts

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral microvasculature is important for maintaining brain homeostasis. This is achieved via the blood-brain barrier (BBB, composed of endothelial cells with specialized tight junctions, astrocytes and a basement membrane. Prominent components of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM include fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV and perlecan, all of which regulate cellular processes via signal transduction through various cell membrane bound ECM receptors. Expression and proteolysis of these ECM components can be rapidly altered during pathological states of the central nervous system. In particular, proteolysis of perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, occurs within hours following ischemia induced by experimental stroke. Proteolysis of ECM components following stroke results in the degradation of the basement membrane and further disruption of the BBB. While it is clear that such proteolysis has negative consequences for the BBB, we propose that it also may lead to generation of ECM protein fragments, including the C-terminal domain V (DV of perlecan, that potentially have a positive influence on other aspects of CNS health. Indeed, perlecan DV has been shown to be persistently generated after stroke and beneficial as a neuroprotective molecule and promoter of post-stroke brain repair. This mini-review will discuss beneficial roles of perlecan protein fragment generation within the brain during stroke.

  10. Morphogenetic roles of perlecan in the tooth enamel organ: an analysis of overexpression using transgenic mice.

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    Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Satokata, Ichiro; Ohshima, Hayato; Sato, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Saku, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is enriched in the intercellular space of the enamel organ. To understand the role of perlecan in tooth morphogenesis, we used a keratin 5 promoter to generate transgenic (Tg) mice that over-express perlecan in epithelial cells, and examined their tooth germs at tissue and cellular levels. Immunohistochemistry showed that perlecan was more strongly expressed in the enamel organ cells of Tg mice than in wild-type mice. Histopathology showed wider intercellular spaces in the stellate reticulum of the Tg molars and loss of cellular polarity in the enamel organ, especially in its cervical region. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells in Tg mice were irregularly aligned due to excessive deposits of perlecan along the inner, as well as on the outer sides of the HERS. Tg molars had dull-ended crowns and outward-curved tooth roots and their enamel was poorly crystallized, resulting in pronounced attrition of molar cusp areas. In Tg mice, expression of integrin β1 mRNA was remarkably higher at E18, while expression of bFGF, TGF-β1, DSPP and Shh was more elevated at P1. The overexpression of perlecan in the enamel organ resulted in irregular morphology of teeth, suggesting that the expression of perlecan regulates growth factor signaling in a stage-dependent manner during each step of the interaction between ameloblast-lineage cells and mesenchymal cells. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved.

  11. Perlecan is required for FGF-2 signaling in the neural stem cell niche

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    Aurelien Kerever

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the adult subventricular zone (neurogenic niche, neural stem cells double-positive for two markers of subsets of neural stem cells in the adult central nervous system, glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD133, lie in proximity to fractones and to blood vessel basement membranes, which contain the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan. Here, we demonstrate that perlecan deficiency reduces the number of both GFAP/CD133-positive neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and new neurons integrating into the olfactory bulb. We also show that FGF-2 treatment induces the expression of cyclin D2 through the activation of the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways and promotes neurosphere formation in vitro. However, in the absence of perlecan, FGF-2 fails to promote neurosphere formation. These results suggest that perlecan is a component of the neurogenic niche that regulates FGF-2 signaling and acts by promoting neural stem cell self-renewal and neurogenesis.

  12. Agrin and Perlecan Mediate Tumorigenic Processes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Kawahara, Rebeca; Granato, Daniela C.; Carnielli, Carolina M.; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Oliveria, Carine E.; Martinez, César A. R.; Yokoo, Sami; Fonseca, Felipe P.; Lopes, Marcio; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer in the oral cavity, representing more than 90% of all oral cancers. The characterization of altered molecules in oral cancer is essential to understand molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression as well as to contribute to cancer biomarker and therapeutic target discovery. Proteoglycans are key molecular effectors of cell surface and pericellular microenvironments, performing multiple functions in cancer. Two of the major basement membrane proteoglycans, agrin and perlecan, were investigated in this study regarding their role in oral cancer. Using real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), we showed that agrin and perlecan are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, cell lines originated from distinct sites showed different expression of agrin and perlecan. Enzymatically targeting chondroitin sulfate modification by chondroitinase, oral squamous carcinoma cell line had a reduced ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and increased sensibility to cisplatin. Additionally, knockdown of agrin and perlecan promoted a decrease on cell migration and adhesion, and on resistance of cells to cisplatin. Our study showed, for the first time, a negative regulation on oral cancer-associated events by either targeting chondroitin sulfate content or agrin and perlecan levels. PMID:25506919

  13. Similarity of recombinant human perlecan domain 1 by alternative expression systems bioactive heterogenous recombinant human perlecan D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, April L; Pan, Wensheng; Yang, Guang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are diverse components of certain proteoglycans and are known to interact with growth factors as a co-receptor necessary to induce signalling and growth factor activity. In this report we characterize heterogeneously glycosylated recombinant human...... perlecan domain 1 (HSPG2 abbreviated as rhPln.D1) synthesized in either HEK 293 cells or HUVECs by transient gene delivery using either adenoviral or expression plasmid technology. RESULTS: By SDS-PAGE analysis following anion exchange chromatography, the recombinant proteoglycans appeared to possess...... glycosaminoglycan chains ranging, in total, from 6 kDa to >90 kDa per recombinant. Immunoblot analysis of enzyme-digested high Mr rhPln.D1 demonstrated that the rhPln.D1 was synthesized as either a chondroitin sulfate or heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in an approximately 2:1 ratio, with negligible hybrids. Secondary...

  14. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  15. [Temporal and spacial expression of perlecan in dental pulp after injury].

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    Li, Qiao; Sun, Hong; Pan, Yi-huai; Liu, Chuan-tong

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the temporal and special expressions and functions of perlecan in dental pulp of rats after injury. Specimens of one side of maxillary molars of 24 male SD rats were collected 1,3,5,7 days after injury, and the other side were used as controls. The specimens were decalcified and embedded in paraffin, sliced by longitudinal section and stained by immunohistochemistry. The staining of perlecan and β1 integrin were examined, and the average optical density (AOD) was compared. The measurement data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 19.0 software package. The staining intensity of perlecan in dental pulp in the experimental group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group. The immunolocalization of perlecan in dental pulp was gradually progressed as the inflamed tissue was progressing after injury, and its AOD was significantly higher than that of control group (F=11.104,P>0.05), especially in the group of 1 d. The staining of β1 integrin was generally enhanced in the pulp 3 d after injury, and its AOD was significantly higher than that of control group (F=124.18,P>0.05). Perlecan may play an important role in tissue defense mechanism after injury through regulating angiogenesis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Supported by Science and Technology Research Project of Department of Education of Zhejiang Province (20051196) and Wenzhou City (Y20100015).

  16. Perlecan controls neurogenesis in the developing telencephalon

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    Fairén Alfonso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perlecan is a proteoglycan expressed in the basal lamina of the neuroepithelium during development. Perlecan absence does not impair basal lamina assembly, although in the 55% of the mutants early disruptions of this lamina conducts to exencephaly, impairing brain development. The rest of perlecan-null brains complete its prenatal development, maintain basal lamina continuity interrupted by some isolated ectopias, and are microcephalic. Microcephaly consists of thinner cerebral walls and underdeveloped ganglionic eminences. We have studied the mechanisms that generate brain atrophy in telencephalic areas where basal lamina is intact. Results Brain atrophy in the absence of perlecan started in the ventral forebrain and extended to lateral and dorsal parts of the cortex in the following stages. First, the subpallial forebrain developed poorly in early perlecan-null embryos, because of a reduced cell proliferation: the number of cells in mitosis decreased since the early stages of development. This reduction resulted in a decreased tangential migration of interneurons to the cerebral cortex. Concomitant with the early hypoplasia observed in the medial ganglionic eminences, Sonic Hedgehog signal decreased in the perlecan-null floor plate basal lamina at E12.5. Second, neurogenesis in the pallial neuroepithelium was affected in perlecan deficient embryos. We found reductions of nearly 50% in the number of cells exiting the cell cycle at E12–E13. The labeling index, which was normal at this age, significantly decreased with advancing corticogenesis. Moreover, nestin+ or PCNA+ progenitors increased since E14.5, reaching up to about 150% of the proportion of PCNA+ cells in the wild-type at E17.5. Thus, labeling index reduction together with increased progenitor population, suggests that atrophy is the result of altered cell cycle progression in the cortical progenitors. Accordingly, less neurons populated the cortical plate and

  17. Perlecan domain 1 recombinant proteoglycan augments BMP-2 activity and osteogenesis

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    DeCarlo Arthur A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, have been shown to interact with polymers of sulfated disacharrides known as heparan sulfate (HS glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, which are found on matrix and cell-surface proteoglycans throughout the body. HS GAGs, and some more highly sulfated forms of chondroitin sulfate (CS, regulate cell function by serving as co-factors, or co-receptors, in GF interactions with their receptors, and HS or CS GAGs have been shown to be necessary for inducing signaling and GF activity, even in the osteogenic lineage. Unlike recombinant proteins, however, HS and CS GAGs are quite heterogenous due, in large part, to post-translational addition, then removal, of sulfate groups to various positions along the GAG polymer. We have, therefore, investigated whether it would be feasible to deliver a DNA pro-drug to generate a soluble HS/CS proteoglycan in situ that would augment the activity of growth-factors, including BMP-2, in vivo. Results Utilizing a purified recombinant human perlecan domain 1 (rhPln.D1 expressed from HEK 293 cells with HS and CS GAGs, tight binding and dose-enhancement of rhBMP-2 activity was demonstrated in vitro. In vitro, the expressed rhPln.D1 was characterized by modification with sulfated HS and CS GAGs. Dose-enhancement of rhBMP-2 by a pln.D1 expression plasmid delivered together as a lyophilized single-phase on a particulate tricalcium phosphate scaffold for 6 or more weeks generated up to 9 fold more bone volume de novo on the maxillary ridge in a rat model than in control sites without the pln.D1 plasmid. Using a significantly lower BMP-2 dose, this combination provided more than 5 times as much maxillary ridge augmentation and greater density than rhBMP-2 delivered on a collagen sponge (InFuse™. Conclusions A recombinant HS/CS PG interacted strongly and functionally with BMP-2 in binding and cell-based assays, and, in vivo, the pln.247 expression plasmid

  18. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  19. The perlecan-interacting growth factor progranulin regulates ubiquitination, sorting, and lysosomal degradation of sortilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Ryuta; Palladino, Chiara; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Buraschi, Simone; Neill, Thomas; Gomella, Leonard G; Peiper, Stephen C; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Despite extensive clinical and experimental studies over the past decades, the pathogenesis and progression to the castration-resistant stage of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Progranulin, a secreted growth factor, strongly binds the heparin-sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, and counteracts its biological activity. We established that progranulin acts as an autocrine growth factor and promotes prostate cancer cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues vis-à-vis non-neoplastic tissues supporting the hypothesis that progranulin may play a key role in prostate cancer progression. However, progranulin's mode of action is not well understood and proteins regulating progranulin signaling have not been identified. Sortilin, a single-pass type I transmembrane protein of the Vps10 family, binds progranulin in neurons and targets progranulin for lysosomal degradation. Significantly, in DU145 and PC3 cells, we detected very low levels of sortilin associated with high levels of progranulin production and enhanced motility. Restoring sortilin expression decreased progranulin levels, inhibited motility and anchorage-independent growth and destabilized Akt. These results demonstrated a critical role for sortilin in regulating progranulin and suggest that sortilin loss may contribute to prostate cancer progression. Here, we provide the novel observation that progranulin downregulated sortilin protein levels independent of transcription. Progranulin induced sortilin ubiquitination, internalization via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and sorting into early endosomes for lysosomal degradation. Collectively, these results constitute a regulatory feed-back mechanism whereby sortilin downregulation ensures sustained progranulin-mediated oncogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Drosophila Perlecan gene trol regulates multiple signaling pathways in different developmental contexts

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    Perry Trinity L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate signaling by a variety of growth factors. The mammalian proteoglycan Perlecan binds and regulates signaling by Sonic Hedgehog, Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, among others, in contexts ranging from angiogenesis and cardiovascular development to cancer progression. The Drosophila Perlecan homolog trol has been shown to regulate the activity of Hedgehog and Branchless (an FGF homolog to control the onset of stem cell proliferation in the developing brain during first instar. Here we extend analysis of trol mutant phenotypes to show that trol is required for a variety of developmental events and modulates signaling by multiple growth factors in different situations. Results Different mutations in trol allow developmental progression to varying extents, suggesting that trol is involved in multiple cell-fate and patterning decisions. Analysis of the initiation of neuroblast proliferation at second instar demonstrated that trol regulates this event by modulating signaling by Hedgehog and Branchless, as it does during first instar. Trol protein is distributed over the surface of the larval brain, near the regulated neuroblasts that reside on the cortical surface. Mutations in trol also decrease the number of circulating plasmatocytes. This is likely to be due to decreased expression of pointed, the response gene for VEGF/PDGF signaling that is required for plasmatocyte proliferation. Trol is found on plasmatocytes, where it could regulate VEGF/PDGF signaling. Finally, we show that in second instar brains but not third instar brain lobes and eye discs, mutations in trol affect signaling by Decapentaplegic (a Transforming Growth Factor family member, Wingless (a Wnt growth factor and Hedgehog. Conclusion These studies extend the known functions of the Drosophila Perlecan homolog trol in both developmental and

  1. Injectable perlecan domain 1-hyaluronan microgels potentiate the cartilage repair effect of BMP2 in a murine model of early osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Padma P; McCoy, Sarah Y; Yang Weidong; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B; Jha, Amit K; Jia Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use bioengineered injectable microgels to enhance the action of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulate cartilage matrix repair in a reversible animal model of osteoarthritis (OA). A module of perlecan (PlnD1) bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains was covalently immobilized to hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels for the controlled release of BMP2 in vivo. Articular cartilage damage was induced in mice using a reversible model of experimental OA and was treated by intra-articular injection of PlnD1-HA particles with BMP2 bound to HS. Control injections consisted of BMP2-free PlnD1-HA particles, HA particles, free BMP2 or saline. Knees dissected following these injections were analyzed using histological, immunostaining and gene expression approaches. Our results show that knees treated with PlnD1-HA/BMP2 had lesser OA-like damage compared to control knees. In addition, the PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees had higher mRNA levels encoding for type II collagen, proteoglycans and xylosyltransferase 1, a rate-limiting anabolic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains, relative to control knees (PlnD1-HA). This finding was paralleled by enhanced levels of aggrecan in the articular cartilage of PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees. Additionally, decreases in the mRNA levels encoding for cartilage-degrading enzymes and type X collagen were seen relative to controls. In conclusion, PlnD1-HA microgels constitute a formulation improvement compared to HA for efficient in vivo delivery and stimulation of proteoglycan and cartilage matrix synthesis in mouse articular cartilage. Ultimately, PlnD1-HA/BMP2 may serve as an injectable therapeutic agent for slowing or inhibiting the onset of OA after knee injury.

  2. Distinct roles for dystroglycan, beta1 integrin and perlecan in cell surface laminin organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henry, M D; Satz, J S; Brakebusch, C

    2001-01-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a cell surface receptor for several extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules including laminins, agrin and perlecan. Recent data indicate that DG function is required for the formation of basement membranes in early development and the organization of laminin on the cell surface...... integrin-deficient ES cells, laminin-1 binds to the cell surface, but fails to organize into more morphologically complex structures. This result indicates that beta1 integrin function is required after DG function in the cell surface-mediated laminin assembly process. In perlecan-deficient ES cells......, the formation of complex laminin-1 structures is defective, implicating perlecan in the laminin matrix assembly process. Moreover, laminin and perlecan reciprocally modulate the organization of the other on the cell surface. Taken together, the data support a model whereby DG serves as a receptor essential...

  3. Perlecan-containing pericellular matrix regulates solute transport and mechanosensing within the osteocyte lacunar-canalicular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Lai, Xiaohan; Price, Christopher; Thompson, William R.; Li, Wen; Quabili, Tonima R.; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Liu, Xiaowei Sherry; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Jun; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Wang, Liyun

    2013-01-01

    The pericellular matrix (PCM), a thin “coating” surrounding nearly all mammalian cells, plays a critical role in many cell-surface phenomena. In osteocytes, the PCM is believed to control both “outside-in” (mechanosensing) and “inside-out” (signaling molecule transport) processes. However, the osteocytic PCM is challenging to study in situ because it is thin (~100nm) and enclosed in mineralized matrix. To this end, we recently developed a novel tracer velocimetry approach that combined fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) imaging with hydrodynamic modeling to quantify the osteocytic PCM in young murine bone (Wang et al., J Bone Miner Res. 2013; 28:1075–86). In this study, we applied the technique to older mice expressing or deficient for perlecan/HSPG2, a large heparan-sulfate proteoglycan normally secreted in osteocytic PCM. The objectives were to i) characterize transport within an altered PCM; ii) to test the sensitivity of our approach in detecting the PCM alterations; and iii) to dissect the roles of the PCM in osteocyte mechanosensing. We found that i) solute transport increases in the perlecan-deficient (hypomorphic: Hypo) mice compared with control mice; ii) PCM fiber density decreases with aging and perlecan deficiency; iii) the osteocytes in the Hypo bones are predicted to experience higher shear stress (+34%), but decreased fluid drag force (−35%) under 3N peak tibial loading, and iv) when subjected to tibial loading in a preliminary in vivo experiment, the Hypo mice did not respond to the anabolic stimuli as CTL mice. These findings support the hypothesis that the PCM fibers act as osteocyte’s sensing antennae, regulating load-induced cellular stimulations and thus bone’s sensitivity and in vivo bone adaptation. If this hypothesis is further confirmed, osteocytic PCM could be new targets to develop osteoporosis treatments by modulating bone’s intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical loading and be used to design patient

  4. Pericellular colocalisation and interactive properties of type VI collagen and perlecan in the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Hayes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to immunolocalise type VI collagen and perlecan and determine their interactive properties in the intervertebral disc (IVD. Confocal laser scanning microscopy co-localised perlecan with type VI collagen as pericellular components of IVD cells and translamellar cross-bridges in ovine and murine IVDs. These cross-bridges were significantly less abundant in the heparin sulphate deficient Hspg2 exon 3 null mouse IVD than in wild type. This association of type VI collagen with elastic components provides clues as to its roles in conveying elastic recoil properties to annular tissues. Perlecan and type VI collagen were highly interactive in plasmon resonance studies. Pericellular colocalisation of perlecan and type VI collagen provides matrix stabilisation and cell-matrix communication which allows IVD cells to perceive and respond to perturbations in their biomechanical microenvironment. Perlecan, at the cell surface, provides an adhesive interface between the cell and its surrounding extracellular matrix. Elastic microfibrillar structures regulate tensional connective tissue development and function. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease study examined 291 disorders and identified disc degeneration and associated low back pain as the leading global musculoskeletal disorder emphasising its massive socioeconomic impact and the need for more effective treatment strategies. A greater understanding of how the IVD achieves its unique biomechanical functional properties is of great importance in the development of such therapeutic measures.

  5. Enhancement of direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuanmin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, Hebei Province (China); Zhuang, Ye [Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, 15 North 23rd Street, Grand Forks, ND 58203 (United States); Wang, Chunbo [Department of Power engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, Hebei Province (China)

    2009-07-15

    For an oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed combustion system, the limestone calcination is normally prevented due to excessive CO{sub 2} partial pressures and the limestone is subject to a direct sulfation reaction. The enhancement of the direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was investigated under high CO{sub 2} partial pressure in a thermogravimetric apparatus (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis method. A commercial limestone with a mean size of 18.8 {mu}m was used. Experimental results indicate that the incorporation of Na{sup +} ions in solid product CaSO{sub 4} lattice structures results in formation of more extrinsic point defects in the crystal lattices of CaSO{sub 4} and a significantly increased solid-state diffusivity/mobility in the solid product. So the direct sulfation of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-doped limestone shows higher rate and higher degree of conversion in the later stage of sulfation, in comparison with the direct sulfation of original limestone. The reaction changes from diffusional control to chemical reaction control in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} because of the effect of foreign ions on accelerating the solid-state diffusion. (author)

  6. Enhancement of direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanmin Chen; Ye Zhuang; Chunbo Wang [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China). School of Environmental Science & Engineering

    2009-07-15

    For an oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed combustion system, the limestone calcination is normally prevented due to excessive CO{sub 2} partial pressures and the limestone is subject to a direct sulfation reaction. The enhancement of the direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was investigated under high CO{sub 2} partial pressure in a thermogravimetric apparatus (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis method. A commercial limestone with a mean size of 18.8 {mu}m was used. Experimental results indicate that the incorporation of Na{sup +} ions in solid product CaSO{sub 4} lattice structures results in formation of more extrinsic point defects in the crystal lattices of CaSO{sub 4} and a significantly increased solid-state diffusivity/mobility in the solid product. So the direct sulfation of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-doped limestone shows higher rate and higher degree of conversion in the later stage of sulfation, in comparison with the direct sulfation of original limestone. The reaction changes from diffusional control to chemical reaction control in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} because of the effect of foreign ions on accelerating the solid-state diffusion. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sulfate and glutathione enhanced arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Ma, Lena Q.; Saha, Uttam; Mathews, Shiny; Sundaram, Sabarinath; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Zhou Qixing

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of sulfate (S) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on arsenic uptake by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after exposing to arsenate (0, 15 or 30 mg As L -1 ) with sulfate (6.4, 12.8 or 25.6 mg S L -1 ) or GSH (0, 0.4 or 0.8 mM) for 2-wk. Total arsenic, S and GSH concentrations in plant biomass and arsenic speciation in the growth media and plant biomass were determined. While both S (18-85%) and GSH (77-89%) significantly increased arsenic uptake in P. vittata, GSH also increased arsenic translocation by 61-85% at 0.4 mM (p < 0.05). Sulfate and GSH did not impact plant biomass or arsenic speciation in the media and biomass. The S-induced arsenic accumulation by P. vittata was partially attributed to increased plant GSH (21-31%), an important non-enzymatic antioxidant countering oxidative stress. This experiment demonstrated that S and GSH can effectively enhance arsenic uptake and translocation by P. vittata. - Sulfate and glutathione increased arsenic uptake and translocation in Pteris vittata.

  8. Can rs3767140 SNP of the perlecan (HSPG2) gene affect the diabetes mellitus through the dyslipidemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz-Gömleksiz, Ö; Tokat, B; Aslan, E I; Yanar, F; Ermiş-Karaali, Z; Öztürk, O; Yilmaz-Aydoğan, H

    2016-07-31

    Perlecan (HSPG2) play an important role in the lipoprotein metabolisms. The G allele of the HSPG2-rs3767140 may affect the binding of heparan sulfate (HS) chains and hence cause loss of HS from the basement membrane. HSPG2-rs3767140 was studied in 60 T2DM patients and 109 healthy controls. In diabetic patients HSPG2-rs3767140 T variant allele carriers (TT+GT) have decreased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum LDL-C levels (p=0.071 and p=0.060, respectively) versus GG genotype carriers. Moreover, in both of the two groups in which the T allele carriers HDL-cholesterol levels tend to be high. We investigated that the HSPG2-rs3767140 promoted to the dyslipidemic phenotype in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We suggest that the HSPG2-rs3767140 might be associated with the decreased FPG and LDL-C and with the increased HDL-C in diabetics. Therefore, the HSPG2-rs3767140 might be a protective for the diabetes mellitus due to its ameliorating effect on the dyslipidemic phenotype.

  9. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  10. Biodegradation of BTEX and Other Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Enhanced and Controlled Sulfate Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2007-07-01

    High concentrations of sulfide in the groundwater at a field site near South Lovedale, OK, were inhibiting sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) that are known to degrade contaminants including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m+p-xylenes (BTEX). Microcosms were established in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment collected from the field site and amended with various nutrient, substrate, and inhibitor treatments. All microcosms were initially amended with FeCl{sub 2} to induce FeS precipitation and, thereby, reduce sulfide concentrations. Complete removal of BTEX was observed within 39 days in treatments with various combinations of nutrient and substrate amendments. Results indicate that elevated concentration of sulfide is a limiting factor to BTEX biodegradation at this site, and that treating the groundwater with FeCl{sub 2} is an effective remedy to facilitate and enhance BTEX degradation by the indigenous SRB population. On another site in Moore, OK, studies were conducted to investigate barium in the groundwater. BTEX biodegradation by SRB is suspected to mobilize barium from its precipitants in groundwater. Data from microcosms demonstrated instantaneous precipitation of barium when sulfate was added; however, barium was detected redissolving for a short period and precipitating eventually, when active sulfate reduction was occurring and BTEX was degraded through the process. SEM elemental spectra of the evolved show that sulfur was not present, which may exclude BaSO{sub 4} and BaS as a possible precipitates. The XRD analysis suggests that barium probably ended in BaS complexing with other amorphous species. Results from this study suggest that SRB may be able to use the sulfate from barite (BaSO{sub 4}) as an electron acceptor, resulting in the release of free barium ions (Ba{sup 2+}), and re-precipitate it in BaS, which exposes more toxicity to human and ecological health.

  11. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, A J; Ruegg, M A; Dijkman, H; van de Velden, T J; Buskens, C A; van den Born, J; Assmann, K J; Monnens, L A; Veerkamp, J H; van den Heuvel, L P

    1998-01-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane (GBM). This is in addition to perlecan, a previously characterized HSPG of basement membranes. Antibodies against agrin and against an unidentified GBM HSPG produced a strong staining of the GBM and the NMJ, different from that observed with anti-perlecan antibodies. In addition, anti-agrin antisera recognized purified GBM HSPG and competed with an anti-GBM HSPG monoclonal antibody in ELISA. Furthermore, both antibodies recognized a molecule that migrated in SDS-PAGE as a smear and had a molecular mass of approximately 200-210 kD after deglycosylation. In immunoelectron microscopy, agrin showed a linear distribution along the GBM and was present throughout the width of the GBM. This was again different from perlecan, which was exclusively present on the endothelial side of the GBM and was distributed in a nonlinear manner. Quantitative ELISA showed that, compared with perlecan, the agrin-like GBM HSPG showed a sixfold higher molarity in crude glomerular extract. These results show that agrin is a major component of the GBM, indicating that it may play a role in renal ultrafiltration and cell matrix interaction. (J Histochem Cytochem 46:19-27, 1998)

  12. Correlation between chondroitin sulfate iron colloid - enhanced MR imaging and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Kodama, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Kamba, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Ohta, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The association between contrast enhancement by chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evaluated in 24 patients diagnosed by histological examination of surgical specimens (26 nodules: 11 well-differentiated and 15 poorly-moderately-differentiated nodules). In the well-differentiated HCC nodules, the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was not significantly increased after i.v. CSIC injection on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. In the moderately-poorly-differentiated HCC, CNR was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). MR imaging using CSIC may be useful for diagnosing the degree of HCC differentiation. (orig.).

  13. Correlation between chondroitin sulfate iron colloid - enhanced MR imaging and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Y.; Kodama, F.; Kamba, M.; Ohta, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The association between contrast enhancement by chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evaluated in 24 patients diagnosed by histological examination of surgical specimens (26 nodules: 11 well-differentiated and 15 poorly-moderately-differentiated nodules). In the well-differentiated HCC nodules, the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was not significantly increased after i.v. CSIC injection on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. In the moderately-poorly-differentiated HCC, CNR was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). MR imaging using CSIC may be useful for diagnosing the degree of HCC differentiation. (orig.)

  14. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Angela S., E-mail: angela.sanches.rocha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, Gustavo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH{sup −} surface group was replaced by a HSO{sub 4}{sup −}. The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO{sub 4}{sup −} species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  15. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Angela S.; Costa, Gustavo C.; Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B.

    2017-01-01

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N 2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH − surface group was replaced by a HSO 4 − . The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO 4 − species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb 2 O 5 ) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  16. Enhancing sludge biodegradability and volatile fatty acid production by tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Bao, Xian; Yin, Ren-Li; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Zheng, He-Shan; Luo, Hai-Chao; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-09-01

    A new pretreatment method based on tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide was tried to enhance sludge disintegration, and improved sludge biodegradability and subsequent volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Sludge activity decreased to less than 10% after 2 days pretreatment using 20mg/g-TSS THPS, which also obviously destroyed EPS and cell membrane, and dissolved more biodegradable substances (48.8%) than raw sludge (19.7%). Moreover, 20mg/g-TSS THPS pretreatment shortened fermentation time to 4days and improved VFA production to 2778mg COD/L (4.35 times than that in control). Therein, the sum of n-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids unexpectedly accounted for 60.5% of total VFA (only 20.1% of that in control). The more high molecular weight VFAs (C4-C5) than low molecular VFAs (C2-C3) resulted from THPS pretreatment benefited to subsequent medium-chain volatile acids (C6-C12) generation to realize the separation and recovery of organic carbon more efficiently. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  18. Sarcomeres pattern proprioceptive sensory dendritic endings through Perlecan/UNC-52 in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing; Dong, Xintong; Moerman, Donald G.; Shen, Kang; Wang, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Sensory dendrites innervate peripheral tissues through cell-cell interactions that are poorly understood. The proprioceptive neuron PVD in C. elegans extends regular terminal dendritic branches between muscle and hypodermis. We found that the PVD branch pattern was instructed by adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM, which formed regularly spaced stripes on the hypodermal cell. The regularity of the SAX-7 pattern originated from the repeated and regularly spaced dense body of the sarcomeres in the muscle. The extracellular proteoglycan, UNC-52/Perlecan, links the dense body to the hemidesmosome on the hypodermal cells, which in turn instructed the SAX-7 stripes and PVD dendrites. Both UNC-52 and hemidesmosome components exhibited highly regular stripes that interdigitated with the SAX-7 stripe and PVD dendrites, reflecting the striking precision of subcellular patterning between muscle, hypodermis and dendrites. Hence, the muscular contractile apparatus provides the instructive cues to pattern proprioceptive dendrites. PMID:25982673

  19. Delivery of vincristine sulfate-conjugated gold nanoparticles using liposomes: a light-responsive nanocarrier with enhanced antitumor efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying Liu,1,* Man He,1,* Mengmeng Niu,1 Yiqing Zhao,1 Yuanzhang Zhu,1 Zhenhua Li,2 Nianping Feng1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Rapid drug release at the specific site of action is still a challenge for antitumor therapy. Development of stimuli-responsive hybrid nanocarriers provides a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic effects by combining the unique features of each component. The present study explored the use of drug–gold nanoparticle conjugates incorporated into liposomes to enhance antitumor efficiency. A model drug, vincristine sulfate, was physically conjugated with gold nanoparticles and verified by UV-visible and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The conjugates were incorporated into liposomes by film dispersion to yield nanoparticles (113.4 nm with light-responsive release properties, as shown by in vitro release studies. Intracellular uptake and distribution was studied in HeLa cells using transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. This demonstrated liposome internalization and localization in endosomal–lysosomal vesicles. Fluorescence intensity increased in cells exposed to UV light, indicating that this stimulated intracellular drug release; this finding was confirmed by quantitative analyses using flow cytometry. Antitumor efficacy was evaluated in HeLa cells, both in culture and in implants in vivo in nude mice. HeLa cell viability assays showed that light exposure enhanced liposome cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with the prepared liposomes coupled with UV light exposure produced greater antitumor effects in nude mice and reduced side effects, as compared with free vincristine sulfate

  20. Enhancement of carboxylic acid degradation with sulfate radical generated by persulfate activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, J; Nebout, P; Karpel Vel Leitner, N

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the generation of sulfate radical for the removal of two carboxylic acids in aqueous solution: acetic and citric acids. From photochemical and radiolytic processes, kinetics of the degradation of these two carboxylic acids was studied as a function of the pH of the solution. It was shown that the maximum of acetic acid degradation occurred at pH 5. Above this pH, competitive reactions with the carbon mineralized inhibit the reaction of with the solute. In the case of citric acid, pH has only a little effect on the kinetic of citric acid degradation. The determination of mineralization yields shows several differences depending on carboxylic acids and pH. The degradation of both carboxylic acids was also studied in the radiolysis process whether with or without persulfate addition. A comparison of the processes of sulfate radical production is presented.

  1. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    of distal tubules and collecting ducts was observed by 4 days with phenol II treatment, but the morphology returned to normal after 7 days of subsequent normal diet. Staining of tissue sections with two mouse monoclonal antibodies to a recently described basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...... to chondroitin sulfate chains confirmed these changes in cystic tubule basement membranes. During the recovery stage, interstitial chondroitin sulfate (representing a CSPG other than BM-CSPG) was greatly increased around these tubules, along with the glycoprotein fibronectin. Staining with antibody to a basement...... membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein related to perlecan did not diminish but rather stained affected tubules intensely, whereas laminin, on the other hand, was apparently diminished in the basement membranes of the cystic tubules. Type IV collagen staining did not change through disease...

  2. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid-enhanced MR imaging in patients with small hepatocellular carcinomas. Correlations with hemodynamic and pathologic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamba, Masayuki; Suto, Yuji; Kodama, Fumiko; Sugihara, Shuji; Yoshida, Kotaro [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    To determine the usefulness of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the histologic grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we performed a comparative study with computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP) and CT arteriography. Twenty-one surgically resected HCCs 3 cm or less in diameter were examined. There were five well-differentiated, six well- to moderately-differentiated and ten moderately- or poorly- differentiated HCCs. T2-weighted spin echo images (repetition time: 2,000 ms, echo time: 90 ms) were taken before and after intravenous injection of 23.6 {mu}molFe/kg of CSIC. The differences between precontrast and postcontrast contrast-to-noise ratios (enhancement index) was correlated with the findings of CTAP, CT arteriography and histological examination. The enhancement index increased with statistical significance as the intranodular arterial perfusion increased (p<0.01), and as the intranodular portal perfusion decreased (p<0.01). Though the enhancement index tended to increase as the grade of malignancy increased, no statistical significance was found. CSIC-enhanced MRI allowed a noninvasive evaluation of the intranodular reticuloendothelial function. We consider this procedure as a supplementary method for evaluation of the histologic grade of HCC prior to performing invasive procedures such as angiography and biopsy. (author)

  3. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid-enhanced MR imaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison with CT during arterial portography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamba, Masayuki [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan); Suto, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan); Kato, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) was used as an MR contrast agent for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The findings of 25 surgically confirmed HCCs in 19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. T1-, T2- and proton density-weighted spin echo MR images were obtained before and after i.v. injection of 23.6 {mu}M Fe/kg of CSIC. Unenhanced and CSIC-enhanced MR images and images obtained by CT during arterial protography (CT-AP) were correlated with surgical pathology findings. The sensitivities of CSIC-enhanced and unenhanced MR imaging, and CT-AP were 92%, 80%, and 88%, respectively. No significant differences were noted. Portal flow abnormalities demonstrated by CT-AP did not affect the detection of HCC by CSIC-enhanced MR imaging. CSIC-enhancement at MR imaging was a disadvantage in the detection of lesions less than 1 cm in diameter. CSIC-enhanced MR imaging is a supplemental method for the detection of HCC. (orig.).

  4. Silk fibroin/gelatin-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronic acid effectively enhances in vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatjui, Nopporn; Damrongrungruang, Teerasak; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee; Hongeng, Suradej; Limpaiboon, Temduang

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is becoming promising for cartilage repair due to the limited self-repair capacity of cartilage tissue. We previously fabricated and characterized a three-dimensional silk fibroin/gelatin-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronic acid (SF-GCH) scaffold and showed that it could promote proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This study aimed to evaluate its biological performance as a new biomimetic material for chondrogenic induction of BM-MSCs in comparison to an SF scaffold and conventional pellet culture. We found that the SF-GCH scaffold significantly enhanced the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs compared to the SF scaffold and pellet culture in which the production of sulfated glycoaminoglycan was increased in concordance with the up-regulation of chondrogenic-specific gene markers. Our findings indicate the significant role of SF-GCH by providing a supportive structure and the mimetic cartilage environment for chondrogenesis which enables cartilage regeneration. Thus, our fabricated SF-GCH scaffold may serve as a potential biomimetic material for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing the transdermal delivery of rigid nanoparticles using the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Renata F V; Seto, Jennifer E; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) was evaluated as a skin pre-treatment method for enhancing the passive transdermal delivery of nanoparticles. We utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an improved application of confocal microscopy to compare the delivery of 10- and 20-nm cationic, neutral, and anionic quantum dots (QDs) into US/SLS-treated and untreated pig split-thickness skin. Our findings include: (a) ∼0.01% of the QDs penetrate the dermis of untreated skin (which we quantify for the first time), (b) the QDs fully permeate US/SLS-treated skin, (c) the two cationic QDs studied exhibit different extents of skin penetration and dermal clearance, and (d) the QD skin penetration is heterogeneous. We discuss routes of nanoparticle skin penetration and the application of the methods described herein to address conflicting literature reports on nanoparticle skin penetration. We conclude that US/SLS treatment significantly enhances QD transdermal penetration by 500-1300%. Our findings suggest that an optimum surface charge exists for nanoparticle skin penetration, and motivate the application of nanoparticle carriers to US/SLS-treated skin for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid-enhanced MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma; Correlation between histologic grade and detectability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamba, Masayuki; Suto, Yuji; Kodama, Fumiko; Kato, Terumi; Ohta, Yoshio; Horie, Yasushi; Hamazoe, Ryuichi; Kawasaki, Hironaka (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    We applied chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) as an MR contrast agent to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The MR and pathologic findings of 25 HCCs in 21 patients were analyzed. MR imaging was performed with a superconducting system operating at 1.5 T. Proton density-weighted (PDW), T[sub 2]-weighted (T[sub 2]W) and T[sub 1]-weighted (T[sub 1]W) images were obtained before and after an intravenous injection of 23.6 [mu]mol Fe/kg of CSIC. In moderately to poorly differentiated and moderately differentiated HCCs (n=15), all the lesions except a 5-mm satellite nodule were detectable with unenhanced T[sub 2]W images as well as CSIC-enhanced PDW, T[sub 2]W and T[sub 1]W images. In well to moderately differentiated HCCs (n=6), two to four lesions were detectable with unenhanced images. All the lesions except a 3-mm satellite nodule were detectable with CSIC-enhanced PDW, T[sub 2]W and T[sub 1]W images. In well differentiated HCCs (n=4), one or two lesions were detectable with unenhanced images. All the lesions were detectable with CSIC-enhanced T[sub 1]W images, while only two lesions were detectable with CSIC-enhanced PDW or T[sub 2]W images. CSIC administration improves detection rates, and is especially useful in detecting small foci of well to moderately or well differentiated HCC. (author).

  7. Hormonal modulation of novelty processing in women: Enhanced under working memory load with high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-to-dehydroepiandrosterone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-10

    Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. DHEA and DHEAS were measured in saliva before each task. We found that a higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio was related to enhanced auditory novelty-P3 amplitudes during performance of the working memory task, indicating an increased processing of the distracter, while on the other hand there was no difference in the processing of the visual target. These results suggest that the balance between DHEAS and DHEA levels modulates involuntary attention during the performance of a task with cognitive load without interfering with the processing of the task-relevant visual stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of experimental choroidal neovascularization by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: fluorescein angiogram parallels heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Regatieri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative method to evaluate laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a rat model using Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2 (HRA2 imaging. The expression of two heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG related to inflammation and angiogenesis was also investigated. CNV lesions were induced with argon laser in 21 heterozygous Zucker rats and after three weeks a fluorescein angiogram and autofluorescence exams were performed using HRA2. The area and greatest linear dimension were measured by two observers not aware of the protocol. Bland-Altman plots showed agreement between the observers, suggesting that the technique was reproducible. After fluorescein angiogram, HSPG (perlecan and syndecan-4 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in the expression of perlecan and syndecan-4 (P < 0.0001 in retinas bearing CNV lesions compared to control retinas. The expression of these two HSPG increased with increasing CNV area. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the rat retina damaged with laser shots presented increased expression of perlecan and syndecan-4. Moreover, we observed that the overexpression occurred in the outer layer of the retina, which is related to choroidal damage. It was possible to develop a standardized quantitative method to evaluate CNV in a rat model using HRA2. In addition, we presented data indicating that the expression of HSPG parallels the area of CNV lesion. The understanding of these events offers opportunities for studies of new therapeutic interventions targeting these HSPG.

  9. 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan-assisted BMP-2 immobilization of PCL scaffolds for enhanced osteoinduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lingyan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Department of Prosthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yu, Yuanman [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Werkmeister, Jerome A [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McLean, Keith M, E-mail: Keith.McLean@csiro.au [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Liu, Changsheng, E-mail: liucs@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan (26SCS) modified electrospun fibrous PCL scaffold for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery to improve osteoinduction. The PCL scaffold was modified by an aminolysis reaction using ethylenediamine (ED) and 26SCS was immobilized via electrostatic interactions (PCL-N-S). Scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. In vitro BMP-2 adsorption and release kinetics indicated that modified PCL-N-S scaffolds showed higher levels of binding of BMP-2 (about 30–100 times), moderative burst release (about one third), and prolonged releasing time compared to the unmodified PCL scaffold. The bioactivity of released BMP-2 determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay was maintained and improved 8– 12 times with increasing concentration of immobilized 26SCS on the scaffolds. In vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) attached more readily to the PCL-N-S scaffolds with increased spreading. In conclusion, 26SCS modified PCL scaffolds can be a potent system for the sustained and bioactive delivery of BMP-2. - Graphical abstract: Limited self-regenerating capacity of human body makes the reconstruction of critical size bone defect a significant challenge. Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is an important differentiation factor inducing bone regeneration, it's short half-life in vivo and potent side effect at high dosage still show lots of concerns in the clinical use. Herein, modification of electrospun PCL scaffolds was presented through immobilizing of sulfated chitosan (26SCS). The modified scaffolds effectively improve the binding capacity of BMP-2 and exhibited an enhanced bioactivity and sustained release in vitro. Thus, the use of 26SCS modified PCL scaffolds combined with BMP-2 could be a useful scaffold for tissue

  10. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Escalante

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a clinically important manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomings, and is induced by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. Hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs hydrolyze some basement membrane (BM and associated extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Nevertheless, only hemorrhagic SVMPs are able to disrupt microvessels; the mechanisms behind this functional difference remain largely unknown. We compared the proteolytic activity of the hemorrhagic P-I SVMP BaP1, from the venom of Bothrops asper, and the non-hemorrhagic P-I SVMP leucurolysin-a (leuc-a, from the venom of Bothrops leucurus, on several substrates in vitro and in vivo, focusing on BM proteins. When incubated with Matrigel, a soluble extract of BM, both enzymes hydrolyzed laminin, nidogen and perlecan, albeit BaP1 did it at a faster rate. Type IV collagen was readily digested by BaP1 while leuc-a only induced a slight hydrolysis. Degradation of BM proteins in vivo was studied in mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle tissue homogenates showed a similar degradation of laminin chains by both enzymes, whereas nidogen was cleaved to a higher extent by BaP1, and perlecan and type IV collagen were readily digested by BaP1 but not by leuc-a. Immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue samples showed a decrease in the immunostaining of type IV collagen after injection of BaP1, but not by leuc-a. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS of exudates collected from injected muscle revealed higher amounts of perlecan, and types VI and XV collagens, in exudates from BaP1-injected tissue. The differences in the hemorrhagic activity of these SVMPs could be explained by their variable ability to degrade key BM and associated ECM substrates in vivo, particularly perlecan and several non-fibrillar collagens, which play a mechanical stabilizing role in microvessel structure. These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of

  11. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Basement membranes contain several proteoglycans, and those bearing heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans such as perlecan and agrin usually predominate. Most mammalian basement membranes also contain chondroitin sulfate, and a core protein, bamacan, has been partially characterized. We have now....... The protein sequence has low overall homology, apart from very small NH2- and COOH-terminal motifs. At the junctions between the distal globular domains and the coiled-coil regions lie glycosylation sites, with up to three N-linked oligosaccharides and probably three chondroitin chains. Three other Ser...

  12. Surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate enhances skin vaccination: molecular characterization via a novel technique using ultrafiltration capillaries and mass spectrometric proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Chao-Cheng; Kawai, Mikako; Barnes, Stephen; Elmets, Craig A

    2006-03-01

    The skin is a highly accessible organ and thus provides an attractive immune environment for cost-effective, simple, and needle-free delivery of vaccines and immunomodulators. In this study, we pretreated mouse skin with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), for a short period of time (10 min) followed by epicutaneous vaccination with hen egg lysozyme antigen. We demonstrated for the first time that pretreatment of skin with surfactant SLS significantly enhances the production of antibody to hen egg lysozyme. Short term pretreatment with SLS disorganized the stratum corneum, extracted partial lamellar lipids, induced the maturation of Langerhans cells, and did not result in epidermis thickening. To reveal the mechanism underlying these changes, particularly at the molecular level, we used a novel proteomic technique using ultrafiltration capillaries and mass spectrometry to identify in vivo proteins/peptides secreted in the SLS-pretreated skin. Two secretory proteins, named as calcium-binding protein S100A9 and thymosin beta4, were identified by this novel technique. These two proteins thus may provide new insight into the enhancing effect of surfactants on skin vaccination.

  13. Chronic ethanol feeding promotes azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing mucosal inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Mir, Hina; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major risk factors for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism involved in this effect of alcohol is unknown. We evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in mouse colon. Inflammation in colonic mucosa was assessed at a precancerous stage by evaluating mucosal infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, and analysis of cytokine and chemokine gene expression. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly increased the number and size of polyps in colon of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopic and immunoblot analyses showed a significant elevation of phospho-Smad, VEGF and HIF1α in the colonic mucosa. RT-PCR analysis at a precancerous stage indicated that ethanol significantly increases the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα, and the chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10 in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopy showed that ethanol feeding induces a dramatic elevation of myeloperoxidase, Gr1 and CD68-positive cells in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Ethanol feeding enhanced AOM/DSS-induced suppression of tight junction protein expression and elevated cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 in the colonic epithelium. This study demonstrates that chronic ethanol feeding promotes colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing inflammation and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines

  14. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  15. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Qi, Li; Jia, Mingjun; Wang, Hongyu

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) soft template (ST). Their physicochemical properties have been characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and nitrogen sorption measurements. Their electrocatalytic performances have been examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The obtained NiCo2O4 materials exhibit a typical nanoscale crystalline hexagonal morphology with specific surface area (SSA) and mesopore volume of 88.63 m2 g-1 and 0.298 cm3 g-1. Impressively, the SDS-assisted NiCo2O4 electrode shows a catalytic current density of 125 mA cm-2 and 72% retention for consecutive 1000 s at 0.6 V in 1 M KOH and 0.5 M CH3OH electrolytes towards methanol (CH3OH) electrooxidation, which is better than the one without SDS assistance. The pronounced electrocatalytic activity is largely ascribed to their higher surface intensities of Co and Ni species and superior mesoporous nanostructures, which provide the richer electroactive sites and faster electrochemical kinetics, leading to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

  16. Determination of antihypertensive drug moexipril hydrochloride based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate at carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali K

    2010-04-15

    Herein, an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of moexipril hydrochloride based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The oxidation process has been carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer. Moexipril hydrochloride exhibits a well-defined irreversible oxidation peak over the entire pH range (2-11). The peak current varied linearly over the range from 4.0 x 10(-7) to 5.2 x 10(-6) mol L(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were 6.87 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) and 2.29 x 10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The recovery was found in the range from 99.65% to 100.76%. The relative standard deviation was found in the range from 0.429% to 0.845%. The proposed method possesses high sensitivity, accuracy and rapid response. Finally, this method was successfully used to determine moexipril hydrochloride in tablets. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of biosurfactant from Bacillus licheniformis for microbial enhanced oil recovery and inhibition the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. El-Sheshtawy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis has been isolated from oil reservoir; the ability of this bacterium to produce a biosurfactant was detected. Surface properties of the produced biosurfactant were confirmed by determining the emulsification power as well as surface and interfacial tension. The crude biosurfactant has been extracted from supernatant culture growth, and the yield of crude biosurfactant was about 1 g/l. Also, chemical structure of the produced biosurfactant was confirmed using FTIR analysis. Results revealed that, the emulsification power has been increased up to 96% and the surface tension decreased from 72 of distilled water to 36 mN/m after 72 h of incubation. The potential application of this bacterial species in microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR was investigated. The percent of oil recovery was 16.6% upon application in a sand pack column designed to stimulate an oil recovery. It also showed antimicrobial activity against the growth of different strains of SRB (sulfate reducing bacteria. Results revealed that a complete inhibition of SRB growth using 1.0% crude biosurfactant is achieved after 3 h.

  18. Overexpression of the Maize Sulfite Oxidase Increases Sulfate and GSH Levels and Enhances Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Xia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfite oxidase (SO plays a pivotal role in sulfite metabolism. In our previous study, sulfite-oxidizing function of the SO from Zea mays (ZmSO was characterized. To date, the knowledge of ZmSO’s involvement in abiotic stress response is scarce. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ZmSO in drought stress. The transcript levels of ZmSO were relatively high in leaves and immature embryos of maize plants, and were up-regulated markedly by PEG-induced water stress. Overexpression of ZmSO improved drought tolerance in tobacco. ZmSO-overexpressing transgenic plants showed higher sulfate and glutathione (GSH levels but lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA contents under drought stress, indicating that ZmSO confers drought tolerance by enhancing GSH-dependent antioxidant system that scavenged ROS and reduced membrane injury. In addition, the transgenic plants exhibited more increased stomatal response than the wild-type (WT to water deficit. Interestingly, application of exogenous GSH effectively alleviated growth inhibition in both WT and transgenic plants under drought conditions. qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of several sulfur metabolism-related genes was significantly elevated in the ZmSO-overexpressing lines. Taken together, these results imply that ZmSO confers enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants possibly through affecting stomatal regulation, GSH-dependent antioxidant system, and sulfur metabolism-related gene expression. ZmSO could be exploited for developing drought-tolerant maize varieties in molecular breeding.

  19. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyz...

  20. Enhancement of biodegradation and osseointegration of poly(ε-caprolactone)/calcium phosphate ceramic composite screws for osteofixation using calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Hsu, Li-Ho; Tsai, Yuh-Feng; Sumi, Shoichiro; Yang, Kai-Chiang

    2016-04-04

    Internal fixation devices, which can stabilize and realign fractured bone, are widely used in fracture management. In this paper, a biodegradable composite fixator, composed of poly(ε-caprolactone), calcium phosphate ceramic and calcium sulfate (PCL/CPC/CS), is developed. The composition of CS, which has a high dissolution rate, was expected to create a porous structure to improve osteofixation to the composite fixator. PCL, PCL/CPC, and PCL/CPC/CS samples were prepared and their physical properties were characterized in vitro. In vivo performance of the composite screws was verified in the distal femurs of rabbits. Results showed that the PCL/CPC/CS composite had a higher compressive strength (28.55 ± 3.32 MPa) in comparison with that of PCL (20.64 ± 1.81 MPa) (p < 0.05). A larger amount of apatite was formed on PCL/CPC/CS than on PCL/CPC, while no apatite was found on PCL after simulated body fluid immersion. In addition, PCL/CPC/CS composites also had a faster in vitro degradation rate (13.05 ± 3.42% in weight loss) relative to PCL (1.79 ± 0.23%) and PCL/CPC (4.32 ± 2.18%) (p < 0.001). In animal studies, PCL/CPC/CS screws showed a greater volume loss than that of PCL or PCL/CPC at 24 weeks post-implantation. Under micro-computerized tomography observation, animals with PCL/CPC/CS implants had better osseointegration in terms of the structural parameters of the distal metaphysis, including trabecular number, trabecular spacing, and connectivity density, than the PCL screw. This study reveals that the addition of CS accelerates the biodegradation and enhanced apatite formation of the PCL/CPC composite screw. This osteoconductive PCL/CPC/CS is a good candidate material for internal fixation devices.

  1. Perlecan and Dystroglycan act at the basal side of the Drosophila follicular epithelium to maintain epithelial organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Martina; Khalil, Ashraf A; Poulton, John

    2006-01-01

    and the cytoskeleton. Disruption of this linkage in skeletal muscle leads to various types of muscular dystrophies. In epithelial cells, reduced expression of Dg is associated with increased invasiveness of cancer cells. We have previously shown that Dg is required for epithelial cell polarity in Drosophila......, but the mechanisms of this polarizing activity and upstream/downstream components are largely unknown. Using the Drosophila follicle-cell epithelium (FCE) as a model system, we show that the ECM molecule Perlecan (Pcan) is required for maintenance of epithelial-cell polarity. Follicle cells that lack Pcan develop...... polarity defects similar to those of Dg mutant cells. Furthermore, Dg depends on Pcan but not on Laminin A for its localization in the basal-cell membrane, and the two proteins bind in vitro. Interestingly, the Dg form that interacts with Pcan in the FCE lacks the mucin-like domain, which is thought...

  2. Agglomerated novel spray-dried lactose-leucine tailored as a carrier to enhance the aerosolization performance of salbutamol sulfate from DPI formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos; Kaialy, Waseem; Chen, Qiao; Commandeur, Daniel; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2017-12-19

    Spray-drying allows to modify the physicochemical/mechanical properties of particles along with their morphology. In the present study, L -leucine with varying concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% w/v) were incorporated into lactose monohydrate solution for spray-drying to enhance the aerosolization performance of dry powder inhalers containing spray-dried lactose-leucine and salbutamol sulfate. The prepared spray-dried lactose-leucine carriers were analyzed using laser diffraction (particle size), differential scanning calorimetry (thermal behavior), scanning electron microscopy (morphology), powder X-ray diffraction (crystallinity), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (interaction at molecular level), and in vitro aerosolization performance (deposition). The results showed that the efficacy of salbutamol sulfate's aerosolization performance was, in part, due to the introduction of L -leucine in the carrier, prior to being spray-dried, accounting for an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of salbutamol sulfate from spray-dried lactose-leucine (0.5% leucine) in comparison to all other carriers. It was shown that all of the spray-dried carriers were spherical in their morphology with some agglomerates and contained a mixture of amorphous, α-lactose, and β-lactose. It was also interesting to note that spray-dried lactose-leucine particles were agglomerated during the spray-drying process to make coarse particles (volume mean diameter of 79 to 87 μm) suitable as a carrier in DPI formulations.

  3. Enhanced Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Sequestration in Sediments Underlying the Core of the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, S. Q.; Mazumdar, A.; Peketi, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carvalho, M.; Da Silva, R.; Roy, R.; Mapder, T.; Roy, C.; Banik, S. K.; Ghosh, W.

    2017-12-01

    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea in the northern Indian Ocean is one of the three major global sites of open ocean denitrification. The functionally anoxic water column between 150 to 1200 mbsl plays host to unique biogeochemical processes and organism interactions. Little is known, however, about the consequence of the low dissolved oxygen on the underlying sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Here we present, for the first time, a comprehensive investigation of sediment biogeochemistry of the Arabian Sea OMZ by coupling pore fluid analyses with microbial diversity data in eight sediment cores collected across a transect off the west coast of India in the Eastern Arabian Sea. We observed that in sediments underlying the core of the OMZ, high organic carbon sequestration coincides with a high diversity of all bacteria (the majority of which are complex organic matter hydrolyzers) and sulfate reducing bacteria (simple organic compound utilizers). Depth-integrated sulfate reduction rate also intensifies in this territory. These biogeochemical features, together with the detected shallowing of the sulfate-methane interface and buildup of pore-water sulfide, are all reflective of heightened carbon-sulfur cycling in the sediments underlying the OMZ core. Our data suggests that the sediment biogeochemistry of the OMZ is sensitive to minute changes in bottom water dissolved oxygen, and is dictated by the potential abundance and bioavailability of complex to simple carbon compounds which can stimulate a cascade of geomicrobial activities pertaining to the carbon-sulfur cycle. Our findings hold implications in benthic ecology and sediment diagenesis.

  4. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  5. Enhancing the fertility of an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using lime in combination with bio-organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhana, A.; Shamshuddin, J.; Fauziah, C.I.; Panhwar, Q.A.

    2017-01-01

    The acid sulfate soils contain pyrite (FeS/sub 2/) which is due to oxidation results in the production of high amount of acidity, aluminum and iron significantly affecting rice growth. A glasshouse study was arranged to determine the effect of ground magnesium limestone (GML) in combination with bio-organic fertilizer (JITUTM) application on the chemical properties of soils and rice yield. Three rice seedlings were transplanted in pots which were previously amended with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t/ha GML with or without bio-organic fertilizer. The common rice varieties (MR 219 and MR 253) were cultivated for two seasons in the same pots. The critical Fe2+ and Al3+ activities for MR 219 were 14.45 and 4.23 mu M, while for MR 253 were 7.45 and 5.53 mu M, respectively. However, without applying the amendments, rice grown on the soils was affected severely by the high acidity (Fe2+ and Al3+ toxicity). The soil pH increased to 5 and the higher grain yield of MR 219 (99.77 and 121.38 g/pot) and MR253 (98.63 and 112.60 g/pot) was in first and second season with the application of 2 t GML application combined with 0.25 t JITUTM/ha respectively. In addition, 1000 grain weight, number of panicle, number of spikelets panicle-1 and the percentage of filled spikelet, were also higher than without the soil amendments. Hence, the infertility of acid sulfate soils for sustainable rice cultivation in Malaysia can be improved by applying 2 t GML/ha combined with 0.25 t JITUTM/ha for two seasons in long run. (author)

  6. Transport pathways and enhancement mechanisms within localized and non-localized transport regions in skin treated with low-frequency sonophoresis and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E; Figueroa, Pedro L; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (r(pore)) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 to 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than r(pore) of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, r(pore) within LTRs increase significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 to 276 Å and to ∞ (>300 Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60, 40, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, whereas the increased r(pore) values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 – 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 Å, to 276 Å, and to ∞ (>300Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. PMID:20740667

  8. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate by conjugation with α-linolenic acid and the transport mechanism of the conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuliang; Li, Pingli; Cheng, Yanna; Zhang, Xinke; Sheng, Juzheng; Wang, Decai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Chuanqing; Cao, Rui; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-04-25

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the effect of amphiphilic polysaccharides-based self-assembling micelles on enhancing the oral absorption of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate (LMCS) in vitro and in vivo, and identify the transepithelial transport mechanism of LMCS micelles across the intestinal barrier. α-Linolenic acid-low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate polymers(α-LNA-LMCS) were successfully synthesized, and characterized by FTIR, (1)HNMR, TGA/DSC, TEM, laser light scattering and zeta potential. The significant oral absorption enhancement and elimination half-life (t₁/₂) extension of LNA-LMCS2 in rats were evidenced by intragastric administration in comparison with CS and LMCS. Caco-2 transport studies demonstrated that the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of LNA-LMCS2 was significantly higher than that of CS and LMCS (p<0.001), and no significant effects on the overall integrity of the monolayer were observed during the transport process. In addition, α-LNA-LMCS micelles accumulated around the cell membrane and intercellular space observed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Furthermore, evident alterations in the F-actin cytoskeleton were detected by CLSM observation following the treatment of the cell monolayers with α-LNA-LMCS micelles, which further certified the capacity of α-LNA-LMCS micelles to open the intercellular tight junctions rather than disrupt the overall integrity of the monolayer. Therefore, LNA-LMCS2 with low cytotoxicity and high bioavailability might be a promising substitute for CS in clinical use, such as treating osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, etc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced biological stabilization of heavy metals in sediment using immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads with inner cohesive nutrient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin, E-mail: hgxlixin@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Dai, Lihua; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhou, Chen [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University (United States); Xu, Weihua; Wu, Youe; Tang, Xinquan; Liu, Wei; Lan, Shiming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Nutrient beads of immobilized SRB were more effective in transforming heavy metals into the more stable bound phases. • Inner cohesive nutrient effectively promoted the stabilization process of heavy metals. • The excellent removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 76.3%, 95.6%, 100% and 91.2%, respectively. • Easy to recycle and avoid secondary pollution. - Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted for treating heavy metals contaminated sediments sampled from Xiangjiang River, which combined polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) into beads. The sodium lactate was served as the inner cohesive nutrient. Coupling the activity of the SRB with PVA, along with the porous structure and huge specific surface area, provided a convenient channel for the transmission of matter and protected the cells against the toxicity of metals. This paper systematically investigated the stability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd and its mechanisms. The results revealed the performance of leaching toxicity was lower and the removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 76.3%, 95.6%, 100% and 91.2%, respectively. Recycling experiments showed the beads could be reused 5 times with superbly efficiency. These results were also confirmed by continuous extraction at the optimal conditions. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis indicated the heavy metals could be transformed into stable crystal texture. The stabilization of heavy metals was attributed to the carbonyl and acyl amino groups. Results presented that immobilized bacteria with inner nutrient were potentially and practically applied to multi-heavy-metal-contamination sediment.

  10. Influence of Gamma Radiation on the Treatment of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in the Injection Water Used for the Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, M.R.; Ramzi, M.; Farag, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The counts of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water samples collected from the well head (formation water) and outlet of petroleum treatment plant (Produced water) in a petroleum field in middle delta- Egypt were determined. The data showed a low count of (SRB) in the collected formation water sample and there was an obvious increase in the bacterial counts which appeared in the produced water, that may reveal that the presence of appropriate conditions for the growth of (SRB) in the closed system in treatment plant. Two scale inhibitors were tested through jar test, the scale inhibitor I had maximum efficiency at 20 ppm, two SRB biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides A was slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to B in presence of 20 ppm scale inhibitor. These biocides were test for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides to eliminate the negative impacts of the chemicals used and the radiation applied. The results demonstrated that, the lethal doses of biocides were (300 ppm) of biocides A or (400 ppm) of biocides B at 1 kGy irradiation dose. The treated produced water was evaluated in respect of enhanced oil recovery, the data showed increase of the recovery capacity by the irradiation and chemical treatment. This technology could be used for the water that are injected into reservoirs, and suitable for oil field and pipeline operators, and presented a viable bacteria control method

  11. Combination of calcium sulfate and simvastatin-controlled release microspheres enhances bone repair in critical-sized rat calvarial bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu YC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Chih Fu,1–4 Yan-Hsiung Wang,1,5 Chung-Hwan Chen,1,3,4 Chih-Kuang Wang,1,6 Gwo-Jaw Wang,1,3,4 Mei-Ling Ho1,3,7,8 1Orthopaedic Research Center, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, 3Department of Orthopaedics, 4Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, 5School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, 6Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, 7Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanAbstract: Most allogenic bone graft substitutes have only osteoconductive properties. Developing new strategies to improve the osteoinductive activity of bone graft substitutes is both critical and practical for clinical application. Previously, we developed novel simvastatin-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (SIM/PLGA that slowly release simvastatin and enhance fracture healing. In this study, we combined SIM/PLGA with a rapidly absorbable calcium sulfate (CS bone substitute and studied the effect on bone healing in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in a rat model. The cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of this combination was tested in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase leakage and a cell attachment assay, respectively. Combination treatment with SIM/PLGA and the CS bone substitute had no cytotoxic effect on bone marrow stem cells. Compared with the control, cell adhesion was substantially enhanced following combination treatment with SIM/PLGA and the CS bone substitute. In vivo, implantation of the combination bone substitute promoted healing of critical-sized calvarial bone defects in rats; furthermore, production of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and neovascularization were enhanced in the area of the defect. In summary, the combination of SIM/PLGA and a CS bone substitute has osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, indicating that it could be used for regeneration

  12. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of magnesium sulfate and its nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production by mixotrophic cultivation of algae using biodiesel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; 2 Solutions Inc., 2300, rue Jean-Perrin, Québec, Québec G2C 1T9 (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (CO2 Solutions Inc., 2300, rue Jean-Perrin, Québec, Québec G2C 1T9 (Canada))" >Verma, Mausam; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    CG (Crude glycerol) is one of the major wastes of biodiesel production process. It can be used as a substrate for lipid production by algae and the produced lipid can be recycled as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to avoid substrate inhibition, lipid production media are prepared by diluting the CG with distilled water. However, CG contains only a small amount of Mg (57.41 ± 18 ppm) and its concentration is further decreased to around 0.57 ppm during the dilution process. Apart from having a number of roles in algal physiology, Mg is the central atom of chlorophyll. Therefore, MgSO 4 was evaluated as a Mg source to supplement the CG based media used for lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris. By supplementing the process with 1 g/L of MgSO 4 , nearly 185.29 ± 4.53% improvement in lipid production has been achieved. Further, application of MgSO 4 nanoparticles was found to improve the lipid production by 118.23 ± 5.67%. Interestingly, unlike MgSO 4 , its nanoparticles were found to enhance the lipid production at the expense of only a small amount of glycerol. Thus, application of MgSO 4 nanoparticles could be a potential strategy for enhanced lipid yield. - Highlights: • MgSO 4 supplementation can improve the biomass production by 125.58 ± 7.2%. • 185.29 ± 4.53% increase in lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris. • Enhanced lipid production in spite of negligible glycerol consumption. • MgSO 4 nanoparticle induced enhanced photosynthesis by micro algae

  14. Enhancing the electrochemical performance of commercial TiO2 by eliminating sulfate radicals and coating carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wu, Yan; Han, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Bai, Xue; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning; Cao, Yu-Mei; Bai, Yu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Commercial TiO 2 (c-TiO 2 ) exhibits poor electrochemical performance. •The performance of c-TiO 2 is improved by coating carbon at temperatures above 750 °C. •The removal of SO 4 2− and formation of carbon coating are responsible for the enhanced performance. -- Abstract: Despite the low price of commercial TiO 2 (c-TiO 2 ), the poor electrochemical performance restricts its practical application in Li-ion batteries, so clarifying the reasons and taking appropriate measures to improve the performance are of great significance. Herein, c-TiO 2 was coated with carbon at 600 and 750 °C using glucose as the carbon source. The product obtained at 750 °C exhibits markedly enhanced reversible capacities and outstanding rate performance compared to that obtained at 600 °C. In terms of the comparative experiments and detailed characterizations by several techniques, the SO 4 2− remained in the c-TiO 2 is the dominant impurity affecting the electrochemical performance mostly. The thorough decomposition of SO 4 2− at 750 °C and the formation of carbon coating give rise to the enhanced electronic and ionic conductivities of the c-TiO 2 , and thus are responsible for the significant improvement in the electrochemical performance. The easy fabrication and the low cost of the raw materials enable the carbon-coated c-TiO 2 to industrially apply in the LIBs.

  15. Voltammetric determination of sudan ii in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Chen, M.; Chao, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Herein, a novel electrochemical method was de veloped for the determination of Sudan II based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GME) and the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In a pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution, Sudan II exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks at the GME in the presence of 5.0x10/sup -5/ mol L/sup 1/ SDS. The oxidation peak current of Sudan II was linearly proportional to its concentration in a range from 4.0x10/sup -8/ to 4.0x10/sup -6/ mol L/sup 1/, with a linear regression equation of ipa (A) = 3.35 c + 5.96 x 10/sup -6/, r = 0.9988 and a detection limit of 8.0x10/sup -9/ mol L/sup 1/. The recoveries from the standards fortified blank samples were in the range of 94.7% to 97.5% with RSD lower than 4.0%. The novel method has been successfully used to determine Sudan II in food products with satisfactory results. (author)

  16. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  17. PG545, a heparan sulfate mimetic, reduces heparanase expression in vivo, blocks spontaneous metastases and enhances overall survival in the 4T1 breast carcinoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Hammond

    Full Text Available PG545 is a clinically relevant heparan sulfate (HS mimetic which, in addition to possessing anti-angiogenic properties, also acts as a heparanase inhibitor which may differentiate its mechanism(s of action from approved angiogenesis inhibitors. The degradation of HS by heparanase has been strongly implicated in cell dissemination and the metastatic process. Thus, the anti-metastatic activity of PG545 has been linked to the enzymatic function of heparanase - the only endoglycosidase known to cleave HS, an important component of the extracellular matrix (ECM which represents a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention for certain metastatic cancer indications. Recent concerns raised about the paucity of overall survival as an endpoint in mouse models of clinically relevant metastasis led us to examine the effect of PG545 on the progression of both primary tumor growth and the spontaneously metastasizing disease in the 4T1 syngeneic breast carcinoma model in a non-surgical and surgical (mastectomy setting. PG545 significantly inhibited primary tumor growth but importantly also inhibited lung metastasis in treated mice, an effect not observed with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Importantly, PG545 significantly enhanced overall survival compared to vehicle control and the sorafenib group, suggesting PG545's inhibitory effect on heparanase is indeed a critical attribute to induce anti-metastatic activity. In addition to blocking a common angiogenic signalling pathway in tumor cells, the expression of heparanase in the primary tumor and lung was also significantly reduced by PG545 treatment. These results support the ongoing development of PG545 and highlight the potential utility in metastatic disease settings.

  18. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhanc...

  19. Sulfate Formation Enhanced by a Cocktail of High NOx, SO2, Particulate Matter, and Droplet pH during Haze-Fog Events in Megacities in China: An Observation-Based Modeling Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Yuan, Zibing; Griffith, Stephen M; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2016-07-19

    In recent years in a few Chinese megacities, fog events lasting one to a few days have been frequently associated with high levels of aerosol loading characterized by high sulfate (as high as 30 μg m(-3)), therefore termed as haze-fog events. The concomitant pollution characteristics include high gas-phase mixing ratios of SO2 (up to 71 ppbv) and NO2 (up to 69 ppbv), high aqueous phase pH (5-6), and smaller fog droplets (as low as 2 μm), resulting from intense emissions from fossil fuel combustion and construction activities supplying abundant Ca(2+). In this work, we use an observation-based model for secondary inorganic aerosols (OBM-SIA) to simulate sulfate formation pathways under conditions of haze-fog events encountered in Chinese megacities. The OBM analysis has identified, at a typical haze-fogwater pH of 5.6, the most important pathway to be oxidation of S(IV) by dissolved NO2, followed by the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on the aerosol surface. The aqueous phase oxidation of S(IV) by H2O2 is a very minor formation pathway as a result of the high NOx conditions suppressing H2O2 formation. The model results indicate that the unique cocktail of high fogwater pH, high concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM, and small fog droplets are capable of greatly enhancing sulfate formation. Such haze-fog conditions could lead to rapid sulfate production at night and subsequently high PM2.5 in the morning when the fog evaporates. Sulfate formation is simulated to be highly sensitive to fogwater pH, PM, and precursor gases NO2 and SO2. Such insights on major contributing factors imply that reduction of road dust and NOx emissions could lessen PM2.5 loadings in Chinese megacities during fog events.

  20. Site-specific identification of heparan and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans in hybrid proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noborn, Fredrik; Gomez Toledo, Alejandro; Green, Anders; Nasir, Waqas; Sihlbom, Carina; Nilsson, Jonas; Larson, Göran

    2016-10-03

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are complex polysaccharides that regulate important biological pathways in virtually all metazoan organisms. The polysaccharides often display opposite effects on cell functions with HS and CS structural motifs presenting unique binding sites for specific ligands. Still, the mechanisms by which glycan biosynthesis generates complex HS and CS polysaccharides required for the regulation of mammalian physiology remain elusive. Here we present a glycoproteomic approach that identifies and differentiates between HS and CS attachment sites and provides identity to the core proteins. Glycopeptides were prepared from perlecan, a complex proteoglycan known to be substituted with both HS and CS chains, further digested with heparinase or chondroitinase ABC to reduce the HS and CS chain lengths respectively, and thereafter analyzed by nLC-MS/MS. This protocol enabled the identification of three consensus HS sites and one hybrid site, carrying either a HS or a CS chain. Inspection of the amino acid sequence at the hybrid attachment locus indicates that certain peptide motifs may encode for the chain type selection process. This analytical approach will become useful when addressing fundamental questions in basic biology specifically in elucidating the functional roles of site-specific glycosylations of proteoglycans.

  1. Essential alterations of heparan sulfate during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells to Sox1-enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing neural progenitor cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, C.E.; Crawford, B.E.; Stavridis, M.; Dam, G.B. ten; Wat, A.L.; Rushton, G.; Ward, C.M.; Wilson, V.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Esko, J.D.; Smith, A.; Gallagher, J.T.; Merry, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can be cultured in conditions that either maintain pluripotency or allow differentiation to the three embryonic germ layers. Heparan sulfate (HS), a highly polymorphic glycosaminoglycan, is a critical cell surface coreceptor in embryogenesis, and in this paper we describe

  2. Bioassessment of heavy metal toxicity and enhancement of heavy metal removal by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the presence of zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kang, Yong; Feng, Ying

    2017-12-01

    A simple and valid toxicity evaluation of Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ and Cr 6+ on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heavy metal removal were investigated using the SRB system and SRB+Fe 0 system. The heavy metal toxicity coefficient (β) and the heavy metal concentration resulting in 50% inhibition of sulfate reduction (I) from a modeling process were proposed to evaluate the heavy metal toxicity and nonlinear regression was applied to search for evaluation indices β and I. The heavy metal toxicity order was Cr 6+  > Mn 2+  > Zn 2+ . Compared with the SRB system, the SRB+Fe 0 system exhibited a better capability for sulfate reduction and heavy metal removal. The heavy metal removal was above 99% in the SRB+Fe 0 system, except for Mn 2+ . The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that the precipitates were removed primarily as sulfide for Zn 2+ and hydroxide for Mn 2+ and Cr 6+ .The method of evaluating the heavy metal toxicity on SRB was of great significance to understand the fundamentals of the heavy metal toxicity and inhibition effects on the microorganism and regulate the process of microbial sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhances the controlled release properties of the chondroitin sulfate gels. While introduction of chondroitin sulfate into a scaffold inhibits primary cortical outgrowth, the combination of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide and nerve growth factor promotes primary cortical neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels.

  4. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  5. Enhanced removal of detergent and recovery of enzymatic activity following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: UUse of casein in gel wash buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, B.R.; Green, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The inclusion of 1% casein or bovine serum albumin in buffer used to reactivate enzymes subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis resulted in accelerated removal of SDS and restoration of nuclease and beta-galactosidase enzyme activities. Nuclease and beta-galactosidase activities which are absent from gels after longer wash procedures are detectable with this technique. Enzyme activity in gels prepared with SDS which contained inhibitory contaminants was partially restored by the casein wash procedure. The threshold of detection of two-dimensionally separated deoxyribonuclease I using the casein wash procedure was 1 picogram

  6. Exploiting Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Human Neurogenesis—Controlling Lineage Specification and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unspecialized, self-renewing stem cells have extraordinary application to regenerative medicine due to their multilineage differentiation potential. Stem cell therapies through replenishing damaged or lost cells in the injured area is an attractive treatment of brain trauma and neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Several stem cell types have neurogenic potential including neural stem cells (NSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Currently, effective use of these cells is limited by our lack of understanding and ability to direct lineage commitment and differentiation of neural lineages. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs are ubiquitous proteins within the stem cell microenvironment or niche and are found localized on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM, where they interact with numerous signaling molecules. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains carried by HSPGs are heterogeneous carbohydrates comprised of repeating disaccharides with specific sulfation patterns that govern ligand interactions to numerous factors including the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnts. As such, HSPGs are plausible targets for guiding and controlling neural stem cell lineage fate. In this review, we provide an overview of HSPG family members syndecans and glypicans, and perlecan and their role in neurogenesis. We summarize the structural changes and subsequent functional implications of heparan sulfate as cells undergo neural lineage differentiation as well as outline the role of HSPG core protein expression throughout mammalian neural development and their function as cell receptors and co-receptors. Finally, we highlight suitable biomimetic approaches for exploiting the role of HSPGs in mammalian neurogenesis to control and tailor cell differentiation into specific lineages. An improved ability to control stem cell specific neural

  7. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  8. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  9. Computational study of the effect of glyoxal-sulfate clustering on the Henry's Law coefficient of glyoxal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtén, Theo; Elm, Jonas; Prisle, Nønne L.

    2015-01-01

    . Although the glyoxal molecule interacts only weakly with sulfate, its hydrated forms (C2O3H4 and C2O4H6) form strong complexes with sulfate, displacing water molecules from the solvation shell and increasing the uptake of glyoxal into sulfate-containing aqueous solutions, including sulfate...... coefficient enhancement and found it to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results. This indicates that the complexation of glyoxal hydrates with sulfate can explain the observed uptake enhancement....

  10. Perlecan Domain V induces VEGf secretion in brain endothelial cells through integrin α5β1 and ERK-dependent signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas N Clarke

    Full Text Available Perlecan Domain V (DV promotes brain angiogenesis by inducing VEGF release from brain endothelial cells (BECs following stroke. In this study, we define the specific mechanism of DV interaction with the α(5β(1 integrin, identify the downstream signal transduction pathway, and further investigate the functional significance of resultant VEGF release. Interestingly, we found that the LG3 portion of DV, which has been suggested to possess most of DV's angio-modulatory activity outside of the brain, binds poorly to α(5β(1 and induces less BEC proliferation compared to full length DV. Additionally, we implicate DV's DGR sequence as an important element for the interaction of DV with α(5β(1. Furthermore, we investigated the importance of AKT and ERK signaling in DV-induced VEGF expression and secretion. We show that DV increases the phosphorylation of ERK, which leads to subsequent activation and stabilization of eIF4E and HIF-1α. Inhibition of ERK activity by U0126 suppressed DV-induced expression and secretion of VEGR in BECs. While DV was capable of phosphorylating AKT we show that AKT phosphorylation does not play a role in DV's induction of VEGF expression or secretion using two separate inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt IV. Lastly, we demonstrate that VEGF activity is critical for DV increases in BEC proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in a BEC-neuronal co-culture system. Collectively, our findings expand our understanding of DV's mechanism of action on BECs, and further support its potential as a novel stroke therapy.

  11. Perlecan Domain V Induces VEGf Secretion in Brain Endothelial Cells through Integrin α5β1 and ERK-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Douglas N.; Al Ahmad, Abraham; Lee, Boyeon; Parham, Christi; Auckland, Lisa; Fertala, Andrezj; Kahle, Michael; Shaw, Courtney S.; Roberts, Jill; Bix, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Perlecan Domain V (DV) promotes brain angiogenesis by inducing VEGF release from brain endothelial cells (BECs) following stroke. In this study, we define the specific mechanism of DV interaction with the α5β1 integrin, identify the downstream signal transduction pathway, and further investigate the functional significance of resultant VEGF release. Interestingly, we found that the LG3 portion of DV, which has been suggested to possess most of DV’s angio-modulatory activity outside of the brain, binds poorly to α5β1 and induces less BEC proliferation compared to full length DV. Additionally, we implicate DV’s DGR sequence as an important element for the interaction of DV with α5β1. Furthermore, we investigated the importance of AKT and ERK signaling in DV-induced VEGF expression and secretion. We show that DV increases the phosphorylation of ERK, which leads to subsequent activation and stabilization of eIF4E and HIF-1α. Inhibition of ERK activity by U0126 suppressed DV-induced expression and secretion of VEGR in BECs. While DV was capable of phosphorylating AKT we show that AKT phosphorylation does not play a role in DV’s induction of VEGF expression or secretion using two separate inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt IV. Lastly, we demonstrate that VEGF activity is critical for DV increases in BEC proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in a BEC-neuronal co-culture system. Collectively, our findings expand our understanding of DV’s mechanism of action on BECs, and further support its potential as a novel stroke therapy. PMID:23028886

  12. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Saponins derived from medicinal plants have raised considerable interest for their preventive roles in various diseases. Here, we investigated the impacts of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GpS) on gut microbiome, mucosal environment, and the preventive effect on tumor growth. Six-week old ApcMin/+ mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either with vehicle or GpS daily for the duration of 8 weeks. The fecal microbiome was analyzed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Study showed that GpS treatment significantly reduced the number of intestinal polyps in a preventive mode. More importantly, GpS feeding strikingly reduced the sulfate-reducing bacteria lineage, which are known to produce hydrogen sulfide and contribute to damage the intestinal epithelium or even promote cancer progression. Meanwhile, GpS also boosted the beneficial microbes. In the gut barrier of the ApcMin/+ mice, GpS treatment increased Paneth and goblet cells, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated N-cadherin. In addition, GpS decreased the pro-oncogenic β-catenin, p-Src and the p-STAT3. Furthermore, GpS might also improve the inflamed gut epithelium of the ApcMin/+ mice by upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, while downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-β, IL-1β and IL-18. Intriguingly, GpS markedly stimulated M2 and suppressed M1 macrophage markers, indicating that GpS altered mucosal cytokine profile in favor of the M1 to M2 macrophages switching, facilitating intestinal tissue repair. In conclusion, GpS might reverse the host's inflammatory phenotype by increasing beneficial bacteria, decreasing sulfate-reducing bacteria, and alleviating intestinal inflammatory gut environment, which might contribute to its cancer preventive effects. PMID:27121311

  13. Vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres amalgamated with thermosensitive gel offered sustained release and enhanced cytotoxicity in THP-1, human leukemia cells: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vivek; Kush, Preeti; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2016-04-01

    Vincristine sulfate (VCS) is a drug of choice for the treatment of childhood and adult acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as well as solid tumors including sarcomas. However, poor biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic traits of VCS like short serum half-life (12 min), high dosing frequency (1.4 mg/m(2) per week for 4 weeks) and extensive protein binding (75%) limit the clinical potential of VCS in cancer therapy. In present investigation, injectable vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres (VCS-Dextran-MSs) were prepared and amalgamated with chitosan-β-glycerophosphate gel (VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel) to surmount the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic limitations of VCS that consequently induced synergistic sustained release pattern of the drug. Particle size and zeta-potential of VCS-Dextran-MSs were measured to be 6.8 ± 2.4 μm and -18.3 ± 0.11 mV along with the encapsulation efficiency of about 60.4 ± 4.5%. Furthermore, VCS-Dextran-MSs and VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel exhibited slow release pattern and 94.7% and 95.8% of the drug was released in 72 h and 720 h, respectively. Results from cell viability assay and pharmacokinetic as well as histopathological analysis in mice indicated that VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel offers superior therapeutic potential and higher AUClast than VCS-Dextran-MSs and drug solution. In conclusion, VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel warrants further preclinical tumor growth study to scale up the technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulfate and sulfide sulfur isotopes (δ34S and δ33S) measured by solution and laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: An enhanced approach using external correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael; Ridley, William I.; Emsbo, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Isotope ratio measurements using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) commonly use standard-sample bracketing with a single isotope standard for mass bias correction for elements with narrow-range isotope systems measured by MC-ICP-MS, e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, and Hg. However, sulfur (S) isotopic composition (δ34S) in nature can range from at least − 40 to + 40‰, potentially exceeding the ability of standard-sample bracketing using a single sulfur isotope standard to accurately correct for mass bias. Isotopic fractionation via solution and laser ablation introduction was determined during sulfate sulfur (Ssulfate) isotope measurements. An external isotope calibration curve was constructed using in-house and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Ssulfate isotope reference materials (RM) in an attempt to correct for the difference. The ability of external isotope correction for Ssulfate isotope measurements was evaluated by analyzing NIST and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Ssulfate isotope reference materials as unknowns. Differences in δ34Ssulfate between standard-sample bracketing and standard-sample bracketing with external isotope correction for sulfate samples ranged from 0.72‰ to 2.35‰ over a δ34S range of 1.40‰ to 21.17‰. No isotopic differences were observed when analyzing Ssulfide reference materials over a δ34Ssulfide range of − 32.1‰ to 17.3‰ and a δ33S range of − 16.5‰ to 8.9‰ via laser ablation (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. Here, we identify a possible plasma induced fractionation for Ssulfate and describe a new method using external isotope calibration corrections using solution and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  15. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  16. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  17. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal hormones, including adrenal insufficiency and Addison disease The pituitary gland not producing normal amounts of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) ...

  18. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  19. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  20. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Vega, Iván; García, Olivia; Crespo, Ainara; Castañón, Sonia; Menéndez, Primitiva; Astudillo, Aurora; Quirós, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The expression of a specific set of genes controls the different structures of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which are involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge of HSPG alterations in breast cancer. Twenty-three infiltrating ductal adenocarcinomas (IDCs), both metastatic and non-metastatic were studied. A transcriptomic approach to the structure of heparan sulfate (HS) chains was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and editing, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate chains, we extended the study to include the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Histochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissular expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. No significant change in transcription was detected in approximately 70% of analyzed genes. However, 13 demonstrated changes in both tumor types (40% showing more intense deregulation in the metastatic), while 5 genes showed changes only in non-metastatic tumors. Changes were related to 3 core proteins: overexpression of syndecan-1 and underexpression of glypican-3 and perlecan. HS synthesis was affected by lower levels of some 3-O-sulfotransferase transcripts, the expression of NDST4 and, only in non metastatic tumors, higher levels of extracellular sulfatases. Furthermore, the expression of chondroitin sulfate also was considerably affected, involving both the synthesis of the saccharidic chains and sulfations at all locations. However, the pro-metastatic enzyme heparanase did not exhibit significant changes in mRNA expression, although in metastatic tumors it appeared related to increased levels of the most stable form of mRNA. Finally, the expression of heparanase 2, which displays anti-metastatic features

  1. Porous sulfated metal oxide SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an anode material for Li-ion batteries with enhanced electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen; Lv, Qianqian; Huang, Xiaoxiong; Tan, Yueyue; Tang, Bohejin, E-mail: tangbohejin@sues.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Engineering Science, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-01-15

    Sulfated metal oxide SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared by a novel facile sol–gel method combined with a subsequent heating treatment process. The as-synthesized products were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and FE-SEM. Compared with the unsulfated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the agglomeration of particles has been alleviated after the incorporation of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Interestingly, the primary particle size of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (about 5 nm) is similar to its normal counterparts even after the calcination treatment. More importantly, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a porous architecture, which is an intriguing feature for electrode materials. When used as anode materials in Li-ion batteries, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered a higher reversible discharge capacity (992 mAh g{sup −1}), with smaller charge transfer resistance, excellent rate performance, and better cycling stability than normal Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We believed that the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and porous architecture should be responsible for the enhanced electrochemical performance, which could provide more continuous and accessible conductive paths for Li{sup +} and electrons.

  2. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.G.H.; Furlanetto, R.P.; Russo, E.M.K.; Noguti, K.O.; Chacra, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author) [pt

  4. Ferric Sulfate and Proline Enhance Heavy-Metal Tolerance of Halophilic/Halotolerant Soil Microorganisms and Their Bioremediation Potential for Spilled-Oil Under Multiple Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, Dina M.; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the heavy-metal resistance and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms in a hypersaline soil. For this, hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms were counted on a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source in the presence of increasing concentrations of ZnSO4, HgCl2, CdSO4, PbNO3, CuSO4, and Na2HAsO4. The colony-forming units counted decreased in number from about 150 g-1 on the heavy-metal-free medium to zero units on media with 40–100 mg l-1 of HgCl2, CdSO4, PbNO3, or Na2HAsO4. On media with CuSO4 or ZnSO4 on the other hand, numbers increased first reaching maxima on media with 50 mg l-1 CuSO4 and 90 mg l-1 ZnSO4. Higher concentrations reduced the numbers, which however, still remained considerable. Pure microbial isolates in cultures tolerated 200–1600 mg l-1 of HgCl2, CdSO4, PbNO3, CuSO4, and Na2HAsO4 in the absence of crude oil. In the presence of oil vapor, the isolates tolerated much lower concentrations of the heavy metals, only 10–80 mg l-1. The addition of 10 Fe2(SO4)3 and 200 mg l-1 proline (by up to two- to threefold) enhanced the tolerance of several isolates to heavy metals, and consequently their potential for oil biodegradation in their presence. The results are useful in designing bioremediation technologies for oil spilled in hypersaline areas. PMID:29563904

  5. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  6. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  7. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    discuss how, in partial catabolic processes, new roles for HSPGs emerge that affect cell behavior. Examples from tumor studies are emphasized, since HSPGs may be altered in composition and distribution and may also represent targets for the development of new therapeutics....... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  8. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  9. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C5H12N3O+·SO42−, comprises two cations and one sulfate ion. In both cations, the C, N and O atoms of the morpholine rings are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined occupancies of 0.849 (3:0.151 (3 for cation I and 0.684 (4:0.316 (4 for cation II. The C—N bond lengths in both central C3N units of the carboxamidinium ions range between 1.253 (12 and 1.362 (5 Å, indicating a degree of double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in both CN3 planes. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and the sulfate ion. Scheme tiny font, charges and delocalized bonds almost invisible

  10. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. ► Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. ► The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. ► The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  11. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  12. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  13. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  15. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  16. Experimental Design: Application to the Development of a Treatment to Inhibit the Deposition of Barium Sulfate Liable to Be Formed in Enhanced Oil Recovery by Waterflooding Planification d'expériences : application à la mise au point d'un traitement inhibiteur du depôt de sulfate de baryum susceptible de se former en récupération assistée du pétrole par injection d'eau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For technical and economic reasons, waterflooding is the most widely-used method in enhanced oil recovery [1]. In many situations, unfortunately, the formation water is incompatible with the injection water. The deposits and corrosion induced by the various reactions of this incompatibility cause irreversible damage, which is especially dangerous for the reservoir rock and the downhole and surface production facilities. This study is concerned exclusively with barium sulfate deposits liable to occur in surface production facilities by the mixing of injection water loaded with sulfate (1300 mg. 1 to the power of (-1 with a formation water with a high barium concentration (1200 mg. 1 to the power of (-1 [2]. Pour des raisons techniques et économiques, l'injection d'eau dans les réservoirs est la méthode la plus employée dans la récupération du pétrole. Malheureusement, dans bien des cas, l'eau en place dans le gisement est incompatible avec l'eau injectée. Les dépôts et les corrosions causés par les diverses réactions physico-chimiques de cette incompatibilité provoquent des dégradations irréversibles particulièrement dangereuses pour les installations de production de fond comme de surface et quelquefois pour la roche réservoir elle-même. Dans le cadre des travaux de recherche relatifs à l'inhibition des dépôts de sulfate sur le champ algérien de Tin Fouyé Tabankort, cette étude a eu pour objectif de sélectionner et d'adapter aux conditions spécifiques de la production un traitement de prévention des dépôts par injection d'un agent inhibiteur. Elle concerne exclusivement les dépôts de sulfate de baryum pouvant apparaître dans les installations de production par mélange d'eau d'injection très chargée en ion sulfate (1300 mg. 1 puissance(-1 avec une eau de gisement très concentrée en élément baryum (1200 mg. 1 puissance(-1. Une méthode expérimentale au laboratoire, faisant appel à des mesures de type

  17. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  18. Anti-tumor Study of Chondroitin Sulfate-Methotrexate Nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyu; Zhao, Weibo; Chen, Haixiao; Qin, An; Zhu, Peizhi

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly nanogels (NGs) were formed by bioconjugating methotrexate (MTX) with chondroitin sulfate (CS). MTX-CS NGs can greatly enhance the solubility and improve the delivery efficacy of MTX due to the CD44 binding property of CS. Vivo experiments revealed that MTX-CS NGs showed less toxicity than MTX. MTX-CS NGs can improve the anti-tumor effect while reducing the side effects of MTX. Due to their CD44 binding property, chondroitin sulfate-drug conjugates could be a promising and efficient platform for improving the solubility of sparingly soluble drug molecules as well as targeted delivery to cancer cells and tumor tissues.

  19. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAco...

  20. Application of Biostimulation for Remediation of Sulfate-Contaminated Groundwater at a Mining Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreon, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing concern regarding sulfate contamination of groundwater. One innovative in-situ remediation option under investigation is biostimulation through addition of electron-donor amendments to enhance sulfate reduction. Two pilot-scale ethanol-injection tests were conducted at a former uranium mining site that is contaminated with sulfate and nitrate (with a lack of heavy metals), and for which there appears to be minimal natural attenuation of sulfate. The first test was a push-pull test that had a limited zone of influence, while the second test was a single-well injection test in which additional downgradient wells were monitored. For both tests, sulfate concentrations began to decline within a few weeks of injection, after nitrate concentrations were significantly reduced. Concomitantly, aqueous concentrations of manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide increased from background. Monitoring over many months revealed that the declines in sulfate concentration conformed to exponential decay, with first-order decay rates of approximately 0.01 /d. Analysis of sulfur stable isotope data indicated that the decrease in sulfate concentrations was microbially mediated. The results also indicated that sulfides formed during sulfate reduction may have undergone partial re-oxidation. This study illustrates the feasibility of using ethanol injection for remediation of sulfate-contaminated groundwater. However, re-oxidation of sulfides (both metal sulfide precipitates and hydrogen sulfide gas) is a potential issue of significance that would need to be addressed.

  1. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  2. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  4. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  5. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  7. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    OpenAIRE

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  11. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  17. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  18. Impacts of Four SO2 Oxidation Pathways on Wintertime Sulfate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, G.; Fahey, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kang, D.; Mathur, R.; Xing, J.; Wei, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality models tend to under-estimate winter-time sulfate concentrations compared to observed data. Such under-estimations are particularly acute in China where very high concentrations of sulfate have been measured. Sulfate is produced by oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas-phase by hydroxyl radical and in aqueous-phase by hydrogen peroxide, ozone, etc. and most air quality models employ such typical reactions. Several additional SO2 oxidation pathways have recently been proposed. Heterogeneous reaction on dust has been suggested to be an important sink for SO2. Oxidation of SO2 on fine particles in presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) at high relative humidity has been implicated for sulfate formation in Chinese haze and London fog. Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water has also been suggested to produce winter-time sulfate in China. Specifically, high aerosol water can trap SO2 which can be subsequently oxidized by NO2 to form sulfate. Aqueous-phase (in-cloud) oxidation of SO2 by NO2 can also produce sulfate. Here, we use the hemispheric Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the potential impacts of these SO2 oxidation pathways on sulfate formation. We use anthropogenic emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research and biogenic emissions from Global Emissions InitiAtive. We performed simulations without and with these SO2 oxidation pathways for October-December of 2014 using meteorological fields obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The standard CMAQ model contains one gas-phase chemical reaction and five aqueous-phase chemical reactions for SO2 oxidation. We implement four additional SO2 oxidation pathways into the CMAQ model. Our preliminary results suggest that the dust chemistry enhances mean sulfate over parts of China and Middle-East, the in-cloud SO2 oxidation by NO2 enhances sulfate over parts of western Europe, oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and NH3 on

  19. Catalytic synthesis and antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chen, Tong; Hu, Yan; Li, Kexin; Yan, Liushui

    2014-03-01

    Sulfated derivatives of polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCPS) with different degree of sulfation (DS) were synthesized by chlorosulfonic acid method with ionic liquids as solvent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in MCPS compared with the C-2 position. Compared with the native polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCP), MCPS exhibited more excellent antioxidant activities in vitro, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance antioxidant activities of MCP. Furthermore, high DS and moderate molecular weight could improve the antioxidant activities of polysaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  1. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  2. X-ray diffraction study of lithium hydrazinium sulfate and lithium ammonium sulfate crystals under a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, M.T.; Becker, R.A.; Klapper, H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on proton-conducting polar lithium hydrazinium sulfate and ferroelectric lithium ammonium sulfate. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with in situ electric field along the polar b axis of lithium hydrazinium sulfate (direction of proton conductivity) show a strong enhancement of the 0k0 diffraction intensity. The corresponding 0k0 X-ray topographs reveal extinction contrast consisting of striations parallel to the polar axis. They disappear when the electric field is switched off. The effect is very strong in 0k0 but invisible in h0l reflections. It is present only if the electric field is parallel to the polar axis b. This unusual X-ray topographic contrast is correlated with the proton conduction. It is supposed that, under electric field, an inhomogeneous charge distribution develops, distorting the crystal lattice. Similar experiments on lithium ammonium sulfate also show contrast variations, but of quite different behaviour than before. In this case they result from changes of the ferroelectric domain configuration under electric field. (orig.)

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-O-endosulfatase from a marine bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuang; Han, Wenjun; Cai, Xingya; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2015-03-20

    Sulfatases are potentially useful tools for structure-function studies of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To date, various GAG exosulfatases have been identified in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, endosulfatases that act on GAGs have rarely been reported. Recently, a novel HA and CS lyase (HCLase) was identified for the first time from a marine bacterium (Han, W., Wang, W., Zhao, M., Sugahara, K., and Li, F. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 27886-27898). In this study, a putative sulfatase gene, closely linked to the hclase gene in the genome, was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. The recombinant protein showed a specific N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfatase activity that removes 4-O-sulfate from both disaccharides and polysaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting that this sulfatase represents a novel endosulfatase. The novel endosulfatase exhibited maximal reaction rate in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 30 °C and effectively removed 17-65% of 4-O-sulfates from various CS and DS and thus significantly inhibited the interactions of CS and DS with a positively supercharged fluorescent protein. Moreover, this endosulfatase significantly promoted the digestion of CS by HCLase, suggesting that it enhances the digestion of CS/DS by the bacterium. Therefore, this endosulfatase is a potential tool for use in CS/DS-related studies and applications. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  5. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  6. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-01-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds. (paper)

  7. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A.-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds.

  8. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  9. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases

  10. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  11. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  12. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  13. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  14. Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul; Wei, Zongsu; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient loss from soil, especially phosphorous (P) from farmlands to natural water bodies via surface runoff or infiltration, have caused significant eutrophication problems. This is because dissolved orthophosphates are usually the limiting nutrient for algal blooms. Currently, available techniques to control eutrophication are surprisingly scarce. Calcium sulfate or gypsum is a common soil amendment and has a strong complexation to orthophosphates. The results showed that calcium sulfate reduced the amount of water extractable P (WEP) through soil incubation tests, suggesting less P loss from farmlands. A greater decrease in WEP occurred with a greater dosage of calcium sulfate. Compared to conventional coarse calcium sulfate, nano calcium sulfate further reduced WEP by providing a much greater specific surface area, higher solubility, better contact with the fertilizer and the soil particles, and superior dispersibility. The enhancement of the nano calcium sulfate for WEP reduction is more apparent for a pellet- than a powdered- fertilizer. At the dosage of Ca/P weight ratio of 2.8, the WEP decreased by 31±5% with the nano calcium sulfate compared to 20±5% decrease with the coarse calcium sulfate when the pellet fertilizer was used. Computation of the chemical equilibrium speciation shows that calcium hydroxyapatite has the lowest solubility. However, other mineral phases such as hydroxydicalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate might form preceding to calcium hydroxyapatite. Since calcium sulfate is the major product of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, this study demonstrates a potential beneficial reuse and reduction of the solid FGD waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  16. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  17. Adsorption of water, sulfates and chloride on arsenopyrite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliana C. M.; dos Santos, Egon C.; de Oliveira, Aline; Heine, Thomas; De Abreu, Heitor A.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2018-03-01

    Arsenopyrite is one of the sulfide minerals responsible for acid rock drainage (ARD) and is one of the most hazardous in regions affected by mining activities. This phenomenon involves complex reaction mechanism. Although it is intensely investigated, there is a lack of consensus concerning the reaction mechanisms and more information is still necessary. In this work, the adsorption of water, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid on arsenopyrite (001) surface was investigated by means of Density Functional calculations and the results compared to other sulfides aiming to understand the mineral/water interface. The interaction of the chemical species with the (001) FeAsS surface is the first step to understand the intricate oxidation mechanism of arsenopyrite. Molecular water adsorption on (001) FeAsS is more favored than the adsorption of sulfate favoring the dissolution of sulfates and enhancing its oxidation. The estimated adsorption energies of water, sulfates and chloride on other sulfide minerals are compared with the estimated values for arsenopyrite and the chemical reactivity differences discussed in detail.

  18. Sulfate reduction and carbon removal during kraft char burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J.; Sricharoenchaikul, V [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grace, T.M. [T.M. Grace Company, Appleton, WI (United States); Kymalainen, M. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    An improved mathematical model of char burning during black liquor combustion was described. Enhancements include a proper treatment of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Gasification of char carbon by reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} proved to be the most important means of carbon release under typical recovery furnace conditions. Sulfate reduction was shown to be responsible for only a minor part of the carbon release. Simulations showed that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning behavior is independent of oxygen concentration up to the point of carbon depletion. After carbon depletion, sulfide reoxidation occurs at a rate determined by oxygen mass transfer. Process variables that had the biggest effect on char burning behavior were initial black liquor drop diameter and temperature; also there was a direct link between char burnout times and the amount of sulfate reduction. At a given temperature, any variable that shortened the char burnout time resulted in proportionately less reduction. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  20. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 35 S]sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but [ 3 H]glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation

  1. Reactivating the extracellular matrix synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to improve the human skin aspect and its mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajra H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanane Chajra,1 Daniel Auriol,1 Francine Joly,2 Aurélie Pagnon,3 Magda Rodrigues,4 Sophie Allart,4 Gérard Redziniak,5 Fabrice Lefevre1 1Libragen, Induchem (Givaudan Active Beauty, Toulouse, 2Sephra Pharma, Puteaux, 3Novotec, Bron, 4Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse-Purpan, Toulouse, 5Cosmetic Inventions, Antony, France Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a defined cosmetic composition is able to induce an increase in the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs and/or proteoglycans and finally to demonstrate that the composition, through its combined action of enzyme production and synthesis of macromolecules, modulates organization and skin surface aspect with a benefit in antiaging applications. Materials and methods: Gene expression was studied by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from a 45-year-old donor skin dermis. De novo synthesis of sGAGs and proteoglycans was determined using Blyscan™ assay and/or immunohistochemical techniques. These studies were performed on normal human dermal fibroblasts (41- and 62-year-old donors and on human skin explants. Dermis organization was studied either ex vivo on skin explants using bi-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy or directly in vivo on human volunteers by ultrasound technique. Skin surface modification was investigated in vivo using silicone replicas coupled with macrophotography, and the mechanical properties of the skin were studied using Cutometer. Results: It was first shown that mRNA expression of several genes involved in the synthesis pathway of sGAG was stimulated. An increase in the de novo synthesis of sGAGs was shown at the cellular level despite the age of cells, and this phenomenon was clearly related to the previously observed stimulation of mRNA expression of genes. An increase in the expression of the corresponding core protein of decorin, perlecan

  2. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

  3. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)

  4. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and reutilization of beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in fetal kidney branching morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.; Brown, D.M.; Moran, A.; Oegema, T.R. Jr.; Platt, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis by explanted fetal mouse kidneys were previously shown to be inhibited by p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside (beta-D-xyloside) while glomerular development and heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis were unaffected. The metabolic fate of fetal kidney explant proteoglycans was investigated to determine whether or not recovery of proteoglycan synthesis and morphogenesis occur after exposure to beta-D-xyloside. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis resumed within 4 hr of removal of beta-D-xyloside and was enhanced once beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were released from the tissue. Radioactivity incorporated into beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 GAGs during labeling in the presence of beta-D-xyloside was reutilized in the synthesis of chondroitin- 35 SO 4 proteoglycan during a 24-hr chase in nonradioactive medium without beta-D-xyloside. Further, highly purified beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 GAGs were taken up by kidneys more avidly than was free [ 35 S]sulfate. These 35 S-GAGs were degraded and reutilized in the synthesis of chondroitin- 35 SO 4 proteoglycan. Ureteric bud branching resumed 48 hr after beta-D-xyloside was removed from the incubation medium. These findings support the idea that both chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and proteoglycan processing may be involved in branching morphogenesis

  5. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  6. Lymphocyte mobilization by dextran sulfate in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Debban, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs manifesting 239 Pu-induced lymphopenia responded to the lymphocyte-mobilizing agent, dextran sulfate, to a degree similar to that observed in control dogs. No life-threatening increase in prothrombin times or hemorrhagic tendencies were observed

  7. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  8. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  9. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  10. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Platelet lysate and chondroitin sulfate loaded contact lenses to heal corneal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Delfino, Alessio; Riva, Federica; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Marrubini, Giorgio; Musitelli, Giorgio; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2016-07-25

    Hemoderivative tear substitutes contain various ephiteliotrophic factors, such as growth factors (GF), involved in ocular surface homeostasis without immunogenic properties. The aim of the present work was the loading of platelet lysate into contact lenses to improve the precorneal permanence of platelet lysate growth factors on the ocular surface to enhance the treatment of corneal lesions. To this purpose, chondroitin sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, which is normally present in the extracellular matrix, was associated with platelet lysate. In fact, chondroitin sulfate is capable of electrostatic interaction with positively charged growth factors, in particular, with bFGF, IGF, VEGF, PDGF and TGF-β, resulting in their stabilization and reduced degradation in solution. In the present work, various types of commercially available contact lenses have been loaded with chondroitin sulfate or chondroitin sulfate in association with platelet lysate to achieve a release of growth factors directly onto the corneal surface lesions. One type of contact lenses (PureVision(®)) showed in vitro good proliferation properties towards corneal cells and were able to enhance cut closure in cornea constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  13. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-11-15

    NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.

  14. Effect of heparan sulfate and gold nanoparticles on muscle development during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It was hypothesized that heparan sulfate (HS) as an essential compound for myogenesis and nanoparticles of gold (nano-Au) ashighly reactive compounds can affect muscle development as a consequence of molecular regulation of muscle cell formation, and that these effects may be enhanced by...

  15. Acetate, lactate, propionate, and isobutyrate as electron donors for iron and sulfate reduction in Arctic marine sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Vandieken, Verona; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as e--donors for anaerobic terminal oxidation of organic carbon through iron and sulfate reduction was studied in Arctic fjord sediment. Dissolved inorganic carbon, Fe2+, VFA concentrations, and sulfate reduction were monitored in slurries from...... by alternative e--donors. The accumulation of VFA in the selenate-inhibited 0-2 cm slurry did not enhance iron reduction, indicating that iron reducers were not limited by VFA availability....

  16. Effects of a synthetic bioactive peptide on neurite growth and nerve growth factor release in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Beier, Brooke L.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has revealed robust dorsal root ganglia neurite growth in hydrogels of chondroitin sulfate. In the current work, it was determined whether addition of a synthetic bioactive peptide could augment neurite growth in these matrices via enhanced binding and sequestering of growth factors. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that addition of peptide slowed nerve growth factor diffusivity in chondroitin sulfate gels, but not in control gels of hyaluronic acid. F...

  17. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  18. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  20. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  1. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  2. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  3. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sela-Adler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  4. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  6. Accelerated methanogenesis from aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons under iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Cichocka, Danuta; Herrmann, Steffi; Gründger, Friederike; Feisthauer, Stefan; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Springael, Dirk; Krüger, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The impact of four electron acceptors on hydrocarbon-induced methanogenesis was studied. Methanogenesis from residual hydrocarbons may enhance the exploitation of oil reservoirs and may improve bioremediation. The conditions to drive the rate-limiting first hydrocarbon-oxidizing steps for the conversion of hydrocarbons into methanogenic substrates are crucial. Thus, the electron acceptors ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, nitrate or sulfate were added to sediment microcosms acquired from two brackish water locations. Hexadecane, ethylbenzene or 1-(13)C-naphthalene were used as model hydrocarbons. Methane was released most rapidly from incubations amended with ferrihydrite and hexadecane. Ferrihydrite enhanced only hexadecane-dependent methanogenesis. The rates of methanogenesis were negatively affected by sulfate and nitrate at concentrations of more than 5 and 1 mM, respectively. Metal-reducing Geobacteraceae and potential sulfate reducers as well as Methanosarcina were present in situ and in vitro. Ferrihydrite addition triggered the growth of Methanosarcina-related methanogens. Additionally, methane was removed concomitantly by anaerobic methanotrophy. ANME-1 and -2 methyl coenzyme M reductase genes were detected, indicating anaerobic methanotrophy as an accompanying process [Correction added 16 December after online publication: 'methyl coenzyme A' changed to 'methyl coenzyme M' in this sentence]. The experiments presented here demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing methanogenic alkane degradation by ferrihydrite or sulfate addition in different geological settings. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrolysis and Sulfation Pattern Effects on Release of Bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 from Heparin-Based Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Liane E; Miller, Tobias; McDevitt, Todd C; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2015-10-28

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin are promising materials for growth factor delivery due to their ability to efficiently bind positively charged growth factors including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) through their negatively charged sulfate groups. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine BMP-2 release from heparin-based microparticles (MPs) after first, incorporating a hydrolytically degradable crosslinker and varying heparin content within MPs to alter MP degradation and second, altering the sulfation pattern of heparin within MPs to vary BMP-2 binding and release. Using varied MP formulations, it was found that the time course of MP degradation for 1 wt% heparin MPs was ~4 days slower than 10 wt% heparin MPs, indicating that MP degradation was dependent on heparin content. After incubating 100 ng BMP-2 with 0.1 mg MPs, most MP formulations loaded BMP-2 with ~50% efficiency and significantly more BMP-2 release (60% of loaded BMP-2) was observed from more sulfated heparin MPs (MPs with ~100% and 80% of native sulfation). Similarly, BMP-2 bioactivity in more sulfated heparin MP groups was at least four-fold higher than soluble BMP-2 and less sulfated heparin MP groups, as determined by an established C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Ultimately, the two most sulfated 10 wt% heparin MP formulations were able to efficiently load and release BMP-2 while enhancing BMP-2 bioactivity, making them promising candidates for future growth factor delivery applications.

  8. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  9. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  10. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  11. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  12. The influence of temperature on limestone sulfation and attrition under fluidized bed combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnaro, Fabio [Dipartimento di Chimica - Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica - Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Scala, Fabrizio [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The influence of temperature on attrition of two limestones during desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Differences in the microstructure of the two limestones were reflected by a different thickness of the sulfate shell formed upon sulfation and by a different value of the ultimate calcium conversion degree. Particle attrition and fragmentation were fairly small under moderately bubbling fluidization conditions for both limestones. An increase of temperature from 850 C to 900 C led to an increase of the attrition rate, most likely because of a particle weakening effect caused by a faster CO{sub 2} evolution during calcination. This weakening effect, however, was not sufficiently strong to enhance particle fragmentation in the bed. The progress of sulfation, associated to the build-up of a hard sulfate shell around the particles, led in any case to a decrease of the extent of attrition. Sulfation at 900 C was less effective than at 850 C, and this was shown to be related to the porosimetric features of the different samples. (author)

  13. Inhibition of sulfate reduction in paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, R

    1958-12-13

    The hydrogen sulfide formed in waterlogged soils is a serious problem in rice cultivation. It inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients and may even cause root-rot. Results can best be obtained by preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide. It is formed mainly by reduction of sulfate for which the cellulose-butyric acid fermentation provides the hydrogen source. Addition of ammonium or potassium nitrate prevents the formation of H/sub 2/S. The hydrogen produced by butyric acid fermentation is used to reduce nitrate and consequently cannot be utilized by the sulfate-reducing bacteria as a source of energy. 6 references.

  14. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  17. Increase in Nutrients, Mercury, and Methylmercury as a Consequence of Elevated Sulfate Reduction to Sulfide in Experimental Wetland Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Swain, E. B.; Johnson, N. W.; Engstrom, D. R.; Pastor, J.; Dewey, B.; Monson, P.; Brenner, J.; Dykhuizen Shore, M.; Peters, E. B.

    2017-11-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) in both freshwater and marine ecosystems is a pathway for the decomposition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) after oxygen has been consumed. In experimental freshwater wetland mesocosms, sulfate additions allowed MSR to mineralize OM that would not otherwise have been decomposed. The mineralization of OM by MSR increased surface water concentrations of ecologically important constituents of OM: dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, total mercury, and methylmercury. Increases in surface water concentrations, except for methylmercury, were in proportion to cumulative sulfate reduction, which was estimated by sulfate loss from the surface water into the sediments. Stoichiometric analysis shows that the increases were less than would be predicted from ratios with carbon in sediment, indicating that there are processes that limit P, N, and Hg mobilization to, or retention in, surface water. The highest sulfate treatment produced high levels of sulfide that retarded the methylation of mercury but simultaneously mobilized sedimentary inorganic mercury into surface water. As a result, the proportion of mercury in the surface water as methylmercury peaked at intermediate pore water sulfide concentrations. The mesocosms have a relatively high ratio of wall and sediment surfaces to the volume of overlying water, perhaps enhancing the removal of nutrients and mercury to periphyton. The presence of wild rice decreased sediment sulfide concentrations by 30%, which was most likely a result of oxygen release from the wild rice roots. An additional consequence of the enhanced MSR was that sulfate additions produced phytotoxic levels of sulfide in sediment pore water.

  18. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  19. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Nowack, Peer J.; Tilmes, Simone; Robock, Alan

    2017-10-01

    A range of solar radiation management (SRM) techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air pollution. In conclusion

  20. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of solar radiation management (SRM techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  2. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  3. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  5. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  6. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with specif...

  7. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  8. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with sp...

  9. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  10. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-β-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-β-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-[1- 3 H]galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides. (Auth.)

  11. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  12. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the effect of C. freundii in removing sulfate was best when the temperature was 32°C, pH was 7.0, COD/SO42- was 5.0 and the initial SO42- concentration was 1500 mg/L. Also, the SRB was inoculated onto an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) to remove sulfate in actual tannery wastewater.

  13. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  14. Surface modification and characterization of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanowhiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Chuanhui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li Xianguo, E-mail: chuanhuigao@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Feng Lijuan; Lu Shaoyan; Liu Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2010-03-01

    In order to enhance the compatibility with plastic polymers, magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) nanowhiskers were modified through grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the surface of the nanowhiskers by emulsion polymerization. The influences of the reaction time, MMA monomer content, adding speed of monomer and the reaction temperature on the grafting ratio were investigated. Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were used to characterize the effect of surface modification. The results showed that the MHSH nanowhiskers were uniformly coated by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and a well-defined core-shell hybrid structure of MHSH/PMMA was obtained. The surface contact angle of the hybrid whiskers increased to 87.32 deg. from 12.71 deg. and the whiskers surface was changed from hydrophilic to lipophilic.

  15. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Desai, Prashant [Viral Oncology Program, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  16. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  17. Characterization of sulfate-reducing granular sludge in the SANI(®) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chui, Hokwong; Mackey, Hamish R; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guanghao

    2013-12-01

    Hong Kong practices seawater toilet flushing covering 80% of the population. A sulfur cycle-based biological nitrogen removal process, the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process, had been developed to close the loop between the hybrid water supply and saline sewage treatment. To enhance this novel process, granulation of a Sulfate-Reducing Up-flow Sludge Bed (SRUSB) reactor has recently been conducted for organic removal and provision of electron donors (sulfide) for subsequent autotrophic denitrification, with a view to minimizing footprint and maximizing operation resilience. This further study was focused on the biological and physicochemical characteristics of the granular sulfate-reducing sludge. A lab-scale SRUSB reactor seeded with anaerobic digester sludge was operated with synthetic saline sewage for 368 days. At 1 h nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 6.4 kg COD/m(3)-d organic loading rate, the SRUSB reactor achieved 90% COD and 75% sulfate removal efficiencies. Granular sludge was observed within 30 days, and became stable after 4 months of operation with diameters of 400-500 μm, SVI5 of 30 ml/g, and extracellular polymeric substances of 23 mg carbohydrate/g VSS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that the granules were enriched with abundant sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as compared with the seeding sludge. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene in the sulfate-reducing granules on day 90 indicated that the microbial community consisted of a diverse SRB genera, namely Desulfobulbus (18.1%), Desulfobacter (13.6%), Desulfomicrobium (5.6%), Desulfosarcina (0.73%) and Desulfovibrio (0.6%), accounting for 38.6% of total operational taxonomic units at genera level, with no methanogens detected. The microbial population and physicochemical properties of the granules well explained the excellent performance of the granular SRUSB reactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  18. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  19. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  20. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  1. Synergetic treatment of uranium-bearing waste water with sulfate reducing bacteria and zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quanyu; Tan Kaixuan; Zeng Sheng; Liu Dong

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of uranium-bearing wastewater from uranium mine and using microorganism to treat wastewater were paid much attention to environmental researchers. Based on column experiments, we investigated the potential using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) to synergetic treat contamination in wastewater such as sulfate, uranium, etc. SRB+ZVI can effectively remove contamination U(VI) and SO 4 2- in wastewater. The removal rate is 99.4% and 86.2% for U(VI) and SO 4 2- , respectively. The pH of wastewater can be basified to neutral. U(VI) and SO 4 2- as electron acceptor of sulfate reducing bacteria are removed by biological reduction. The corrosion of ZVI is benefit to enhance the pH of wastewater, forms anaerobic reducing environment, strengthens survival and metabolism reaction of SRB, and plays a synergetic enhancement. (authors)

  2. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  3. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  4. A dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering method for the determination of chondroitin sulfate with nile blue sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiping; Hu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang

    2011-12-01

    A dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS) method was developed to detect chondroitin sulfate (CS) with nile blue sulfate (NBS). At pH 3.0-4.0 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer medium, CS interacted with NBS to form an ion-association complex. As a result, the new spectra of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), second order scattering (SOS) and frequence doubling scattering (FDS) appeared and their intensities were enhanced greatly. Their maximum wavelengths were located at 303 nm (RRS), 362 nm (RRS), 588 nm (SOS) and 350 nm (FDS), respectively. The scattering intensities of the three methods were proportional to the concentration of CS in certain ranges. The methods had high sensitivity and the detection limits were between 1.5 and 7.1 ng mL -1. The DWO-RRS method had the highest sensitivity with the detection limit being 1.5 ng mL -1. The characteristics of the spectra and optimal reaction conditions of RRS method were investigated. The effects of coexistent substances on the determination of CS were evaluated. Owing to the high sensitivity, RRS method had been applied to the determination of CS in eye drops with satisfactory results. The recovery range was between 99.4% and 104.6% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was between 0.4% and 0.8%. In addition, the reasons for RRS enhancement were discussed and the shape of ion-association complex was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  5. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  6. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  7. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  8. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  9. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  10. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  12. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  13. Purification and sequence characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate from fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Mo, Xiaoli; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent. Structures of CS and DS oligosaccharides with different size and sulfate groups were compared between fishes and other animals, and results showed that some minor differences of special structures could be identified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-liquid chromatography-fourier transform-mass/mass spectrometry (HILIC-LC-FT-MS/MS). For example, data showed that salmon and skipjack CS had a higher percentage content of high-level sulfated oligosaccharides than that porcine CS. In addition, structural information of different origins of CS and DS was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and results showed that CS and DS samples could be differentiated according to their molecular conformation and oligosaccharide fragments information. Understanding CS and DS structure derived from different origins may lead to the production of CS or DS with unique disaccharides or oligosaccharides sequence composition and biological functions.

  14. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  16. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...... levels of CS than control larvae, whereas morpholino-mediated suppression of csgalnact1/csgalnact2 resulted in increased HS biosynthesis. Thus, the balance of the Extl3 and Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins influences the HS/CS ratio. A characterization of the pharyngeal cartilage element morphologies...

  19. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  20. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically

  1. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  2. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid

  3. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  4. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  5. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  6. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.; Santini, F.; Hurd, R.E.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible RIA has been developed to measure T 4 sulfate (T 4 S) in ethanol extracts of serum. rT 3 sulfate (rT 3 S) cross-reacted 7.1%, and T 3 S cross-reacted 0.59% in the RIA; T 4 , T 3 , rT 3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine cross-reacted 0.004% or less. The recovery of nonradioactive T 4 S added to serum averaged 95%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 18 pmol/L. The coefficient of variation averaged 6.9% within an assay and 12% between assays. T 4 S was bound by T 4 -binding globulin and albumin in serum. The free fraction of T 4 S in four normal sera averaged 0.06% compared to a value of 0.03% for T 4 (P 4 S was (mean ± SE) 19 ± 1.2 pmol/L in normal subjects, 33 ± 10 in hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 42 ± 15 in hypothyroid patients, 34 ± 6.9 in patients with systematic nonthyroidal illnesses, 21 ± 4.3 in pregnant women at 15-40 weeks gestation, and 245 ± 26 in cord blood sera of newborns; the value in the newborn was significantly different from normal (P 4 S. The T 4 S content of the thyroid gland was less than 1/4000th that of T 4 . We conclude that (1) T 4 S is a normal component of human serum, and its levels are markedly increased in newborn serum and amniotic fluid; and (2) the sulfation pathway plays an important role in the metabolism of T 4 in man. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. HSV-1 interaction to 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in mouse-derived DRG explant and profiles of inflammatory markers during virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharthiya, Harsh; Seng, Chanmoly; Van Kuppevelt, T H; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Fornaro, Michele

    2017-06-01

    The molecular mechanism of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and the associated inflammatory response in the nervous system remain poorly understood. Using mouse-derived ex vivo dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant model and single cell neurons (SCNs), in this study, we provided a visual evidence for the expression of heparan sulfate (HS) and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) followed by their interactions with HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD) during cell entry. Upon heparanase treatment of DRG-derived SCN, a significant inhibition of HSV-1 entry was observed suggesting the involvement of HS role during viral entry. Finally, a cytokine array profile generated during HSV-1 infection in DRG explant indicated an enhanced expression of chemokines (LIX, TIMP-2, and M-CSF)-known regulators of HS. Taken together, these results highlight the significance of HS during HSV-1 entry in DRG explant. Further investigation is needed to understand which isoforms of 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST)-generated HS contributed during HSV-1 infection and associated cell damage.

  9. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  10. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  11. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  14. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  15. Mencegah Pembentukan Kalsium Sulfat pada Desalinasi Air Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resin penukar-anion, Relite MG 1/P, dapat digunakan untuk memisahkan sulfat dalam air laut guna mencegah pembentukan kerak kalsium sulfat pada heat exchanger. Resin tersebut menunjukkan selektivitas sulfat yang tinggi dalam air laut sintetis. Resin yang telah dipakai dapat diregenerasi menggunakan air asin yang dipekatkan dengan asam hingga mencapai pH 4. Untuk waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi yang sama, faktor konsentrasi desalinasi (misalnya 2 hingga 4 menaikkan konsentrasi klorida dalam air asin yang diblowdown. Dengan faktor konsentrasi yang tetap, kenaikan laju alir (pengurangan waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi memperendah efisiensi regenerasi dan menaikkan pemisahan sulfat. Akibat kelarutan kalsium sulfat yang bersifat terbalik tersebut, temperatur air asin yang tinggi memerlukan pemisahan sulfat yang lebih banyak, yang dapat dicapai dengan mengurangi laju alir air laut. Pengurangan laju alir tersebut membutuhkan peralatan yang lebih besar dan resin yang lebih banyak, sehingga biaya modal bertambah. Untuk pabrik desalinasi dengan kapasitas produksi 1 juta gallon per hari dan faktor konsentrasi sebesar 2, biaya pemisahan sulfat meliputi biaya resin dan biaya peralatan. Biaya tersebut bervariasi dari $0.246 hingga $0.356/kgalon (per ribu galon air yang diproduksi karena temperatur maksimum air asin berubah dari 140°C menjadi 180°C. Keywords: desalinasi air laut, ion exchange, kalsium sulfat, kerak; mechanical vapor compression (MVC, pemisahan sulfat, resin penukar-anion basa lemah

  16. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  17. Influence of co-substrate on textile wastewater treatment and microbial community changes in the anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, PO BOX 5825, Doha (Qatar); Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Textile wastewater treatment performance was investigated with different co-substrates. • Dye biodegradation and biotransformation enhanced with lactate as co-substrate. • Sulfate removal significantly decreased under limited co-substrate concentration. • Changes in microbial community structure were studied using bar-coded pyrosequencing. • Lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria. - Abstract: This study investigated the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich synthetic textile wastewater in three sulfidogenic sequential batch reactors (SBRs). The experimental protocol was designed to examine the effect of three different co-substrates (lactate, glucose, and ethanol) and their concentrations on wastewater treatment performance. Sulfate reduction and dye degradation were improved when lactate and ethanol were used as electron donors, as compared with glucose. Moreover, under co-substrate limited concentrations, color, sulfate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were declined. By reducing co-substrate COD gradually from 3000 to 500 mg/L, color removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.23% to 78.46%, 63.37%, and 69.10%, whereas, sulfate removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.42%, 82.35%, and 87.0%, to 30.27%, 21.50%, and 10.13%, for lactate, glucose, and ethanol fed reactors, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and total aromatic amine analysis revealed lactate to be a potential co-substrate for further biodegradation of intermediate metabolites formed after dye degradation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that microbial community structure was significantly affected by the co-substrate. The reactor with lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), followed by ethanol, whereas the glucose-fed reactor showed the lowest relative abundance of SRB.

  18. Influence of co-substrate on textile wastewater treatment and microbial community changes in the anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A.; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Textile wastewater treatment performance was investigated with different co-substrates. • Dye biodegradation and biotransformation enhanced with lactate as co-substrate. • Sulfate removal significantly decreased under limited co-substrate concentration. • Changes in microbial community structure were studied using bar-coded pyrosequencing. • Lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria. - Abstract: This study investigated the anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich synthetic textile wastewater in three sulfidogenic sequential batch reactors (SBRs). The experimental protocol was designed to examine the effect of three different co-substrates (lactate, glucose, and ethanol) and their concentrations on wastewater treatment performance. Sulfate reduction and dye degradation were improved when lactate and ethanol were used as electron donors, as compared with glucose. Moreover, under co-substrate limited concentrations, color, sulfate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were declined. By reducing co-substrate COD gradually from 3000 to 500 mg/L, color removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.23% to 78.46%, 63.37%, and 69.10%, whereas, sulfate removal efficiencies were decreased from 98.42%, 82.35%, and 87.0%, to 30.27%, 21.50%, and 10.13%, for lactate, glucose, and ethanol fed reactors, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and total aromatic amine analysis revealed lactate to be a potential co-substrate for further biodegradation of intermediate metabolites formed after dye degradation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that microbial community structure was significantly affected by the co-substrate. The reactor with lactate as co-substrate showed the highest relative abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs), followed by ethanol, whereas the glucose-fed reactor showed the lowest relative abundance of SRB.

  19. Acute Exacerbations of COPD Are Associated With Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in BAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Klagas, Ioannis; Roth, Michael; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. We investigated whether AECOPDs are associated with differential expression of glycosaminoglycans in BAL in a cohort of 97 patients with COPD. Patients with COPD with either stable disease (n = 53) or AECOPD (n = 44) and undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were matched for demographics and lung function parameters. Levels of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in BAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly increased in BAL of patients during exacerbations. Levels of heparan sulfate were higher in the BAL of patients with microbial infections. Chondroitin sulfate was negatively correlated with FEV1 % predicted but not with diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % predicted, indicating that chondroitin sulfate is associated with airway remodeling, leading to obstruction rather than to emphysema. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly correlated with MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-12 in BAL, indicating that they were cleaved from their respective proteoglycans by MMPs and subsequently washed out in BAL. During AECOPD, there is increased expression of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in BAL. These molecules are significantly correlated with MMPs in BAL, indicating that they may be associated with airway remodeling and may lead to lung function decline during exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate Upon Fucosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of alternating N-acetyl galactosamine and glucuronic acid units within disaccharide building blocks. CS is a key functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues. Owing to its numerous biological roles, CS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical market as nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis. Tissues like shark cartilage and bovine trachea are common sources of CS. Nonetheless, a new CS type has been introduced and investigated in the last few decades in what regards its medical potentials. It is named fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS). This less common CS type is isolated exclusively from the body wall of sea cucumbers. The presence of fucosyl branching units in the holothurian FucCS gives to this unique GAG, therapeutic properties in various pathophysiological systems which are inexistent in the common CS explored in the market. Examples of these systems are coagulation, thrombosis, hemodialysis, atherosclerosis, cellular growth, angiogenesis, fibrosis, tumor growth, inflammation, viral and protozoan infections, hyperglycemia, diabetes-related pathological events and tissue damage. This report aims at describing the medical benefits gained upon fucosylation of CS. Clinical prospects of these medical benefits are also discussed herein.

  1. Optimizing substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Updegraff, D.M.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction followed by sulfide precipitation effectively removes heavy metals from wastewaters. The substrate in the anaerobic zone in a constructed wetland can be designed to emphasize this removal process. This group of bacteria requires CH 2 O, P, N, and SO 4 =, reducing conditions, and pH range of 5-9 (pH=7 is optimum). The objective of this study was to find an inexpensive source of nutrients that would give the best initial production of sulfide and make a good wetland substrate. All tested materials contain sufficient P and N; mine drainage provides sulfate. Thus, tests focused on finding organic material that provides the proper nutrients and does not cause the culture to fall below pH of 5. Among chemical nutrients, sodium lactate combined with (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were the only compounds that produced sulfide after 11 days. Among complex nutrients, only cow manure produced sulfide after 26 days. Among complex carbohydrates, cracked corn and raw rice produced sulfide after 10 days. Most substrates failed to produce sulfide because anaerobic fermentation reduced the pH below 5. Presently, cracked corn is the best candidate for a substrate. Five grams of cow manure produced 0.14 millimole of sulfide whereas 0.1 g of cracked corn produced 0.22 millimole

  2. Growth and sedimentation of fine particles produced in aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Motoyoshi; Jonah, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    It is known that palladium and palladium-silver fine particles were formed from deaerated aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes in particle size and with amount of particles in the solution with time during and after irradiation were studied using dynamic light scattering technique and UV spectrophotometer. The particles formed from palladium sulfate solution are found to be water-filled bulky particles of diameter of 200 nm, which grow by mutual coagulation even after irradiation was terminated. Average density depends on concentration of palladium ion in the solution and dose, and the lowest density was about 2 g/cm 3 for particles of 200 nm obtained from 0.06 mM solution by 2.4 kGy irradiation. The average density of the particles obtained from palladium sulfate-silver sulfate solutions was smaller than those obtained for the corresponding palladium sulfate solutions. Supersonic agitation destroyed coagulated precipitates to form fine particles, but did not form clusters of a few atoms. (author)

  3. Dissolution and solubility behavior of fenofibrate in sodium lauryl sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Gladys E; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Amidon, Gordon L

    2005-10-01

    The solubility of fenofibrate in pH 6.8 McIlvaine buffers containing varying concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate was determined. The dissolution behavior of fenofibrate was also examined in the same solutions with rotating disk experiments. It was observed that the enhancement in intrinsic dissolution rate was approximately 500-fold and the enhancement in solubility was approximately 2000-fold in a pH 6.8 buffer containing 2% (w/v) sodium lauryl sulfate compared to that in buffer alone. The micellar solubilization equilibrium coefficient (k*) was estimated from the solubility data and found to be 30884+/-213 L/mol. The diffusivity for the free solute, 7.15x10(-6) cm2/s, was calculated using Schroeder's additive molal volume estimates and Hayduk-Laurie correlation. The diffusivity of the drug-loaded micelle, estimated from the experimental solubility and dissolution data and the calculated value for free solute diffusivity, was 0.86x10(-6) cm2/s. Thus, the much lower enhancement in dissolution of fenofibrate compared to its enhancement in solubility in surfactant solutions appears to be consistent with the contribution to the total transport due to enhanced micellar solubilization as well as a large decrease (approximately 8-fold) in the diffusivity of the drug-loaded micelle.

  4. Seasonal latitudinal and secular variations in temperature trend - evidence for influence of anthropogenic sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, D E; Schwartz, S E; Wagener, R; Benkovitz, C M [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institute of Oceanography

    1993-11-19

    Tropospheric aerosols increase the shortwave reflectivity of the Earth-atmosphere system both by scattering light directly, in the absence of clouds, and by enhancing cloud reflectivity. The radiative forcing of climate exerted by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, derived mainly from SO[sub 2] emitted from fossil fuel combustion, is opposite that due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and is estimated to be of comparable average magnitude in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. However, persuasive evidence of climate response to this forcing has thus far been lacking. Here we examine patterns of seasonal and latitudinal variations in temperature anomaly trend for evidence of such a response. Pronounced minima in the rate of temperature increase in summer months in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes are consistent with the latitudinal distribution of anthropogenic sulfate and changes in the rate of SO[sub 2] emissions over the industrial era.

  5. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

  6. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  7. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  8. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neville, Adam

    2004-01-01

    External sulfate attack is not completely understood. Part I identifies the issues involved, pointing out disagreements, and distinguishes between the mere occurrence of chemical reactions of sulfates with hydrated cement paste and the damage or deterioration of concrete; only the latter are taken to represent sulfate attack. Furthermore, sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place. The discussion of the two forms of sulfate attack leads to a recommendation for distinct nomenclature. Sulfate attack on concrete structures in service is not widespread, and the amount of laboratory-based research seems to be disproportionately large. The mechanisms of attack by different sulfates--sodium, calcium, and magnesium--are discussed, including the issue of topochemical and through-solution reactions. The specific aspects of the action of magnesium sulfate are discussed, and the differences between laboratory conditions and field exposure are pointed out. Part II discusses the progress of sulfate attack and its manifestations. This is followed by a discussion of making sulfate-resisting concrete. One of the measures is to use Type V cement, and this topic is extensively discussed. Likewise, the influence of w/c on sulfate resistance is considered. The two parameters are not independent of one another. Moreover, the cation in the sulfate salt has a strong bearing on the efficiency of the Type V cement. Recent interpretations of the Bureau of Reclamation tests, both long term and accelerated, are evaluated, and it appears that they need reworking. Part III reviews the standards and guides for the classification of the severity of exposure of structures to sulfates and points out the lack of calibration of the various classes of exposure. A particular problem is the classification of soils because much depends on the extraction ratio of sulfate in the soil: there is a

  9. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, I.J.; Santini, F.; Hurd, R.E.; Chua Teco, G.N. (Univ. of California Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible RIA has been developed to measure T[sub 4] sulfate (T[sub 4]S) in ethanol extracts of serum. rT[sub 3] sulfate (rT[sub 3]S) cross-reacted 7.1%, and T[sub 3]S cross-reacted 0.59% in the RIA; T[sub 4], T[sub 3], rT[sub 3] and 3,3[prime]-diiodothyronine cross-reacted 0.004% or less. The recovery of nonradioactive T[sub 4]S added to serum averaged 95%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 18 pmol/L. The coefficient of variation averaged 6.9% within an assay and 12% between assays. T[sub 4]S was bound by T[sub 4]-binding globulin and albumin in serum. The free fraction of T[sub 4]S in four normal sera averaged 0.06% compared to a value of 0.03% for T[sub 4] (P < 0.001). The serum concentration of T[sub 4]S was (mean [+-] SE) 19 [+-] 1.2 pmol/L in normal subjects, 33 [+-] 10 in hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 42 [+-] 15 in hypothyroid patients, 34 [+-] 6.9 in patients with systematic nonthyroidal illnesses, 21 [+-] 4.3 in pregnant women at 15-40 weeks gestation, and 245 [+-] 26 in cord blood sera of newborns; the value in the newborn was significantly different from normal (P < 0.001). Administration of sodium ipodate (Oragrafin; 3 g, orally) to hyperthyroid patients was associated with a transient increase in serum T[sub 4]S. The T[sub 4]S content of the thyroid gland was less than 1/4000th that of T[sub 4]. We conclude that (1) T[sub 4]S is a normal component of human serum, and its levels are markedly increased in newborn serum and amniotic fluid; and (2) the sulfation pathway plays an important role in the metabolism of T[sub 4] in man. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  11. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  12. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the current study, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in an animal model were investigated. The acquisition and extinction and reinstatement phases induced using morphine 40 and 10mg/kg. Magnesium sulfate 300 and 600 ...

  13. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  14. Sulfated zirconia modified SBA-15 catalysts for cellobiose hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degirmenci, V.; Uner, D.; Cinlar, B.; Shanks, B.H.; Yilmaz, A.; Santen, van R.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconia modified SBA-15 becomes a very active catalyst for the selective hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose after sulfation. Spectroscopic investigations indicate the presence of Brønsted acid sites with similar properties to those present in conventional sulfated zirconia. Indications are found

  15. Reductive and sorptive properties of sulfate green rust (GRSO4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin

    The Fe(II), Fe(III) hydroxide containing sulfate in its structure, called sulfate green rust (GRSO4), can effectively reduce and convert contaminants to less mobile and less toxic forms. However, the ability of GRSO4 to remove positively charged species from solution, via sorption, is very limited...

  16. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...

  17. Extraction and determination of chondroitin sulfate from fish processing byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) refers to a group of sulfated glycosaminoglycan containing a chain of alternating N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid sugars. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage and attached to proteins. CS is usually an over the counter dietary supplement...

  18. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; Geest, van der Harm G.; Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species.

  19. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  20. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  1. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  3. Dendritic Polyglycerol Sulfate for Therapy and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rades

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS has originally been investigated as an anticoagulant to potentially substitute for the natural glycosaminoglycan heparin. Compared to unfractionated heparin, dPGS possesses lower anticoagulant activity but a much higher anticomplementary effect. Since coagulation, complement activation, and inflammation are often present in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, dPGS polymers with both anticoagulant and anticomplementary activities represent promising candidates for the development of polymeric drugs of nanosized architecture. In this review, we describe the nanomedical applications of dPGS based on its anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the application of dPGS as a carrier molecule for diagnostic molecules and therapeutic drugs is reviewed, based on the ability to target tumors and localize in tumor cells. Finally, the application of dPGS for inhibition of virus infections is described.

  4. Moessbauer study of hydrated iron sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, S.I.; Danon, J.; Iannarella, L.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrated iron sulfates amarantite Fe(SO sub(4))(OH).3H sub(2)O, copiapite (Mg,Al)Fe sup(3+) sub(4)(SO sub(4)) sub(6)(OH) sub(2).20H sub(2)O and ungemachite K sub(3)Na sub(9)Fe(SO sub(4)) sub(6)(OH) sub(3).9H sub(2)O were studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in connection with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the dehydration on the hyperfine parameters at the Fe sites was investigated. For amarantite, the Moessbauer spectrum remained practically unchanged, while the Fe sup(3+) quadrupole splittings for copiapite and ungemachite increased. The Fe sup(2+) quadrupole splitting of ungemachite was also unchanged. We have found out the anisotropy of the recoiless absorption probability for the sup(57)Fe Moessbauer gamma ray in amarantite. The three minerals were found to be highly hygroscopic after the dehydration consequent of the DSC measurements. (author)

  5. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chondroitin / dermatan sulfate modification enzymes in zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Habicher

    Full Text Available Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS. Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS.

  7. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure of segments of intact RMA to [35S] MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either [3H]MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or [3H]minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with [35S]MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in [35S] MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by [35S]MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells

  8. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate is critical for syndecan-4-mediated podocyte cell-matrix interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Orr, A.W.; Green, J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; McCarthy, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that podocytes unable to assemble heparan sulfate on cell surface proteoglycan core proteins have compromised cell-matrix interactions. This report further explores the role of N-sulfation of intact heparan chains in podocyte-matrix interactions. For the purposes of this

  10. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  11. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific...

  12. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  13. Acidity-Reactivity Relationships in Catalytic Esterification over Ammonium Sulfate-Derived Sulfated Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I. M. Rabee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New insight was gained into the acidity-reactivity relationships of sulfated zirconia (SZ catalysts prepared via (NH42SO4 impregnation of Zr(OH4 for propanoic acid esterification with methanol. A family of systematically related SZs was characterized by bulk and surface analyses including XRD, XPS, TGA-MS, N2 porosimetry, temperature-programmed propylamine decomposition, and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine, as well as methylbutynol (MBOH as a reactive probe molecule. Increasing surface sulfation induces a transition from amphoteric character for the parent zirconia and low S loadings <1.7 wt %, evidenced by MBOH conversion to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone, methylbutyne and acetone, with higher S loadings resulting in strong Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs upon completion of the sulfate monolayer, which favored MBOH conversion to prenal. Catalytic activity for propanoic acid esterification directly correlated with acid strength determined from propylamine decomposition, coincident with the formation of Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs identified by MBOH reactive titration. Monodispersed bisulfate species are likely responsible for superacidity at intermediate sulfur loadings.

  14. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg +2 precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM 35 SO 4 -2 was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl - leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO 3 - or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of 35 SO 4 -2 was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH o i ) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH o > pH i ). 35 SO 4 -2 /Cl - exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K + diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K + /valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas

  15. Opiate-like excitatory effects of steroid sulfates and calcium-complexing agents given cerebroventricularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBella, F S; Havlicek, V; Pinsky, C

    1979-01-12

    Intracerebroventricular administration of 10--20 microgram of steroid-O-sulfates induced hypermotility, agitation, salivation, EEG abnormalities, stereotypies, wet dog shakes and seizures. Equivalent effects resulted from 30--200 microgram morphine sulfate (H2SO4 salt), 50 microgram EGTA or 300--400 microgram of sodium sulfate or phosphate, but not chloride, nitrate or acetate. Non-steroid sulfates, steroid glucuronides and steroid phosphates were inactive. Naloxone, previously found to antagonize the excitatory effects of androsterone sulfate, failed to antagonize those of cortisol sulfate, sodium sulfate or EGTA. These findings suggest a role for extracellular calcium ions and for sulfate derived from circulating steroids in central responses to opiates.

  16. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  17. Ferric sulfates on Mars: Surface Explorations and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Ling, Z.; Freeman, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent results from missions to Mars have reinforced the importance of sulfates for Mars science. They are the hosts of water, the sinks of acidity, and maybe the most active species in the past and current surface/near-surface processes on Mars. Fe-sulfate was found frequently by Spirit and Opportunity rovers: jarosite in Meridiani Planum outcrops and a less specific "ferric sulfate" in the salty soils excavated by Spirit at Gusev Crater. Pancam spectral analysis suggests a variety of ferric sulfates in these soils, i.e. ferricopiapite, jarosite, fibroferrite, and rhomboclase. A change in the Pancam spectral features occurred in Tyrone soils after ~ 190 sols of exposure to surface conditions. Dehydration of ferric sulfate is a possible cause. We synthesized eight ferric sulfates and conducted a series of hydration/dehydration experiments. Our goal was to establish the stability fields and phase transition pathways of these ferric sulfates. In our experiments, water activity, temperature, and starting structure are the variables. No redox state change was observed. Acidic, neutral, and basic salts were used. Ferric sulfate sample containers were placed into relative humidity buffer solutions that maintain static relative humidity levels at three temperatures. The five starting phases were ferricopiapite (Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2.20H2O), kornelite (Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O), rhomboclase (FeH(SO4)2.4H2O), pentahydrite (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O), and an amorphous phase (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O). A total of one hundred fifty experiments have been running for nearly ten months. Thousands of coupled Raman and gravimetric measurements were made at intermediate steps to monitor the phase transitions. The first order discovery from these experiments is the extremely large stability field of ferricopiapite. Ferricopiapite is the major ferric sulfate to precipitate from a Fe3+-S-rich aqueous solution at mid-low temperature, and it has the highest H2O/Fe ratio (~ 4.3). However, unlike the Mg-sulfate with highest

  18. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  19. Linking Microbial Ecology to Geochemistry in Sulfate Reducing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, D. M.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Almstrand, R.; Figueroa, L. A.; Sharp, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfate reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) can serve as passive treatment systems for mining influenced waters (MIW). An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry and efficacy of SRBRs can be achieved by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques in both field and column settings. To this end, a spatial and temporal sequence of eight pilot-scale columns were analyzed employing a multidisciplinary approach using ICP-AES, next-generation sequencing, and SEM-EDX to explore the effects of variable substrate on community structure and performance (measured by Zn removal). All pilot scale reactors contained 30% limestone by mass, 7 of the 8 had variable amounts of woodchips, sawdust, and alfalfa hay, and an 8th column where the only carbon source was walnut shells. High throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from liquid in pilot-scale columns reveals, similarly to an analogous field system in Arizona, a dominance of Proteobacteria. However, after the first pore volume, performance differences between substrate permutations emerged, where columns containing exclusively walnut shells or sawdust exhibited a more effective startup and metal removal than did columns containing exclusively woodchips or alfalfa hay. SEM-EDX analysis revealed the initial formation of gypsum (CaSO4) precipitates regardless of substrate. Zn was observed in the presence of Ca, S, and O in some column samples, suggesting there was co-precipitation of Zn and CaSO4. This is congruent with micro-XAS analysis of field data suggesting iron sulfides were co-precipitating with gypsum. A SEM-EDX analysis from a subsequent sampling event (8 months into operation) indicated that precipitation may be shifting to ZnS and ZnCO3. Biplots employing Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) describe how diversity scales with performance and substrate selection, and how community shifts may result in differential performance and precipitation in response to selective pressure of bioreactor material on

  20. Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joon; Ryu, Dong-Sung; Li, Dong Xun; Quan, Qi Zhe; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Young-Im; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug powder. The solid dispersion at the tacrolimus/CMC-Na/sodium lauryl sulfate/citric acid ratio of 3/24/3/0.2 significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution compared to powder. The scanning electron microscopy result suggested that carriers might be attached to the surface of drug in this solid dispersion. Unlike traditional solid dispersion systems, the crystal form of drug in this solid dispersion could not be converted to amorphous form, which was confirmed by the analysis of DSC and powder X-ray diffraction. Thus, the solid dispersion system with water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and CMC-Na should be a potential candidate for delivering a poorly water-soluble tacrolimus with enhanced solubility and no convertible crystalline.

  1. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glucosamine sulfate effect on the degenerated patellar cartilage: preliminary findings by pharmacokinetic magnetic resonance modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Dr Peset University Hospital, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Quiron Valencia, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel [Hospital Quiron Valencia, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Rodrigo, Jose Luis [Dr Peset University Hospital, Traumatology and Orthopedics Surgery Department, Valencia (Spain); Carot, Jose Miguel [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, EIO Department, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Normal and degenerated cartilages have different magnetic resonance (MR) capillary permeability (K{sup trans}) and interstitial interchangeable volume (v{sub e}). Our hypothesis was that glucosamine sulfate treatment modifies these neovascularity abnormalities in osteoarthritis. Sixteen patients with patella degeneration, randomly distributed into glucosamine or control groups, underwent two 1.5-Tesla dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging studies (treatment initiation and after 6 months). The pain visual analog scale (VAS) and American Knee Society (AKS) score were used. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used. Percentages of variations (postreatment-pretreatment/pretreatment) were compared (t-test for independent data). In the glucosamine group, pain and functional outcomes statistically improved (VAS: 7.3 {+-} 1.1 to 3.6 {+-} 1.3, p < 0.001; AKS: 18.6 {+-} 6.9 to 42.9 {+-} 2.7, p < 0.01). Glucosamine significantly increased K{sup trans} at 6 months (-54.4 {+-} 21.2% vs 126.7 {+-} 56.9%, p < 0.001, control vs glucosamine). In conclusion, glucosamine sulfate decreases pain while improving functional outcome in patients with cartilage degeneration. Glucosamine sulfate increases K{sup trans}, allowing its proposal as a surrogate imaging biomarker after 6 months of treatment. (orig.)

  3. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  4. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  5. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume

  6. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  7. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  8. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  9. The stereoselective sulfate conjugation of 4'-methoxyfenoterol stereoisomers by sulfotransferase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lalitha V; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Furimsky, Anna M; Tang, Liang; Catz, Paul; Green, Carol E; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Wainer, Irving W

    2012-10-01

    The presystemic sulfate conjugation of the stereoisomers of 4'-methoxyfenoterol, (R,R')-MF, (S,S')-MF, (R,S')-MF, and (S,R')-MF, was investigated using commercially available human intestinal S9 fractions, a mixture of sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The results indicate that the sulfation was stereospecific and that an S-configuration at the β-OH carbon of the MF molecule enhanced the maximal formation rates with (S,R')-MF  (S,S')-MF  (R,S')-MF ≈ (R,R')-MF, and competition studies demonstrated that (S,R')-MF is an effective inhibitor of (R,R')-MF sulfation (IC(50) = 60 μM). In addition, the results from a cDNA-expressed human SULT isoform screen indicated that SULT1A1, SULT1A3, and SULT1E1 can mediate the sulfation of all four MF stereoisomers. Previously published molecular models of SULT1A3 and SULT1A1 were used in docking simulations of the MF stereoisomers using Molegro Virtual Docker. The models of the MF-SULT1A3 and MF-SULT1A1 complexes indicate that each of the two chiral centers of MF molecule plays a role in the observed relative stabilities. The observed stereoselectivity is the result of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions and induced conformational changes within the substrate-enzyme complex. In conclusion, the results suggest that a formulation developed from a mixture of (R,R')-MF and (S,R')-MF may increase the oral bioavailability of (R,R')-MF. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structure and biological activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kusaykin, Mikhail I; Stonik, Valentin A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2016-05-01

    A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) was isolated from the body wall of Pacific sea cucumber Cucumaria japonicaby extraction in the presence of papain followed by Cetavlon precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. FCS was shown to contain D-GalNAc, D-GlcA, L-Fuc and sulfate in molar proportions of about 1:1:1:4.5. Structure of FCS was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis of the native polysaccharide and products of its desulfation and carboxyl reduction. The polysaccharide was shown to contain a typical chondroitin core → 3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1 → 4)-β-D-GlcA-(1 →. Sulfate groups in this core occupy O-4 and the majority of O-6 of GalNAc. Fucosyl branches are represented by 3,4- and 2,4-disulfated units in a ratio of 4:1 and are linked to O-3 of GlcA. In addition, ∼ 33% of GlcA are 3-O-sulfated, and hence, the presence of short fucooligosaccharide chains side by side with monofucosyl branches cannot be excluded. FCS was shown to inhibit platelets aggregation in vitro mediated by collagen and ristocetin, but not adenosine diphosphate, and demonstrated significant anticoagulant activity, which is connected with its ability to enhance inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa by antithrombin III, as well as to influence von Willebrand factor activity. The latest property significantly distinguished FCS from low-molecular-weight heparin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  12. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  13. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  14. Damage modelling in concrete subject to sulfate attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cefis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the mechanical effect of the sulfate attack on concrete. The durability analysis of concrete structures in contact to external sulfate solutions requires the definition of a proper diffusion-reaction model, for the computation of the varying sulfate concentration and of the consequent ettringite formation, coupled to a mechanical model for the prediction of swelling and material degradation. In this work, we make use of a two-ions formulation of the reactive-diffusion problem and we propose a bi-phase chemo-elastic damage model aimed to simulate the mechanical response of concrete and apt to be used in structural analyses.

  15. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  16. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  17. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  18. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji; Wei Min; Rao Guoying; Evans, D.G.; Duan Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  19. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  20. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  1. [Bio-electrochemical effect on hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction stimulated by electrical field in the presence of H2 under atmospheric pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Wei; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Shan-Shan; Li, Guang-He

    2009-07-15

    Microbial sulfate reduction rate is limited with H2 as electron donor. In order to improve hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction under normal atmospheric H2 pressure, a bio-electrochemical system with direct current was designed and performed in this study. Results indicates that sulfate reduction rate (SRR) increases with the augment of current intensity under lower current intensity (I electric or magnetic field stimulates the proliferation of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the activity of the enzymes. When I is higher than 1.50 mA, the activity of SRB is inhibited, resulting in lower reduction rate compared with that at lower current. If controlling the cathode potential lower than -0.69 V and H2 partial pressure 1.01 x 10(5) Pa, electro-catalytic sulfate reduction process takes place with H2 as reductant in this bio-electrochemical system. However, the overall reduction rate is still lower than that when I = 1.50 mA is applied, and additionally the energy consumption is much higher. Therefore, electric field of low intensity can enhance hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction in the presence of H2 under atmospheric pressure.

  2. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  3. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  4. Correction: Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity", by Kozlowski et al., BMC Biochemistry 2011, 12:29, we found that the legends to Figures 2 to 5 contain serious mistakes that compromise the comprehension of the work. This correction article contains the correct text of the legends to Figures 2 to 5.

  5. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate of polyphenoloxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.M.; Flurkey, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were examined. A sigmoidal increase in PPO activation was observed with increasing SDS concentrations. Half maximal activation occurred at .9 mM SDS well below the CMC of 3.5 mM. No apparent changes in the Km for catechol, pH optimum, of I 50 for tropolone were observed in the presence vs absence of SDS. Thermal inactivation and binding of 14 C dopa increased in the presence of SDS. Analytical ultracentrifugation and HPLC-SEC indicated that SDS did not change the apparent size of the PPO under nondenaturing conditions. Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy showed an increase in intrinsic trp/tyr fluorescence at approximately the same concentration in which SDS activation began. Further addition of SDS caused a large increase in intrinsic fluorescence. These results suggest the SDS causes an apparent conformational change induced by SDS binding which leads to enzyme activation

  6. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  7. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osago, Harumi; Shibata, Tomoko; Hara, Nobumasa; Kuwata, Suguru; Kono, Michihaya; Uchio, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2014-12-15

    We developed a method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using one-shot analysis with our MS/MS method, we demonstrated the simultaneous quantification of a total of 23 variously sulfated disaccharides of four GAG classes (8 chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, 1 hyaluronic acid, 12 heparan sulfates, and 2 keratan sulfates) with a sensitivity of less than 0.5 pmol within 20 min. We showed the differences in the composition of GAG classes and the sulfation patterns between porcine articular cartilage and yellow ligament. In addition to the internal disaccharides described above, some saccharides derived from the nonreducing terminal were detected simultaneously. The simultaneous quantification of both internal and nonreducing terminal saccharides could be useful to estimate the chain length of GAGs. This method would help to establish comprehensive "GAGomic" analysis of biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expanding the role of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Kovacs, Maria; Akhtar, Jihan; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by specific HS moieties or 3-O sulfated HS (3-OS HS), which are generated by all but one of the seven isoforms of 3-O sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Here we demonstrate that several common experimental cell lines express unique sets of 3-OST isoforms. While the isoforms 3-OST-3, -5 and -6 were most commonly expressed, isoforms 3-OST-2 and -4 were undetectable in the cell lines examined. Since most cell lines expressed multiple 3-OST isoforms, we addressed the significance of 3-OS HS in HSV-1 entry by down-regulating 2-O-sulfation, a prerequisite for 3-OS HS formation, by knocking down 2-OST expression by RNA interference (RNAi). 2-OST knockdown was verified by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analysis, while 3-OS HS knockdown was verified by immunofluorescence. Cells showed a significant decrease in viral entry, suggesting an important role for 3-OS HS. Implicating 3-OS HS further, cells knocked down for 2-OST expression also demonstrated decreased cell-cell fusion when cocultivated with effector cells transfected with HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our findings suggest that 3-OS HS may play an important role in HSV-1 entry into many different cell lines.

  9. Extraction of compositional and hydration information of sulfates from laser-induced plasma spectra recorded under Mars atmospheric conditions - Implications for ChemCam investigations on Curiosity rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobron, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.sobron@asc-csa.gc.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Wang, Alian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sobron, Francisco [Unidad Asociada UVa-CSIC a traves del Centro de Astrobiologia, Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo, Parcela 203, Boecillo (Valladolid), 47151 (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Given the volume of spectral data required for providing accurate compositional information and thereby insight in mineralogy and petrology from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements, fast data processing tools are a must. This is particularly true during the tactical operations of rover-based planetary exploration missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, which will carry a remote LIBS spectrometer in its science payload. We have developed: an automated fast pre-processing sequence of algorithms for converting a series of LIBS spectra (typically 125) recorded from a single target into a reliable SNR-enhanced spectrum; a dedicated routine to quantify its spectral features; and a set of calibration curves using standard hydrous and multi-cation sulfates. These calibration curves allow deriving the elemental compositions and the degrees of hydration of various hydrous sulfates, one of the two major types of secondary minerals found on Mars. Our quantitative tools are built upon calibration-curve modeling, through the correlation of the elemental concentrations and the peak areas of the atomic emission lines observed in the LIBS spectra of standard samples. At present, we can derive the elemental concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, S, O, and H in sulfates, as well as the hydration degrees of Ca- and Mg-sulfates, from LIBS spectra obtained in both Earth atmosphere and Mars atmospheric conditions in a Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACh). In addition, structural information can be potentially obtained for various Fe-sulfates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routines for LIBS spectral data fast automated processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of elements and determination of the elemental composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration curves for sulfate samples in Earth and Mars atmospheric conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe curves probably related to the crystalline

  10. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  11. Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detmers, Jan; Brüchert, Volker; Habicht, K S

    2001-01-01

    Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known...... sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.......0 to 42.0 per thousand. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation...

  12. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  13. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  14. Antenatal Magnesium Sulfate and Neurologic Outcome in Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review rates of neurologic outcomes reported in childhood for the preterm fetus exposed to antenatal magnesium sulfate. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), relevant

  15. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  16. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  17. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-01-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH 3 ). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear

  19. Relationship between microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'Ura, F.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the common processes to obtain energy for certain types of microorganisms.They use hydrogen gas or organic substrates as electron donor and sulfates as electron acceptor, and reduce sulfates to sulfides. Sulfate reducing microbes extend across domains Archea and Bacteria, and are believed to be one of the earliest forms of terrestrial life (Shen 2004). The origin of 34S-depleted (light) sulfide sulfur, especially δ34S vials, which contain 40ml of liquid culture media slightly modified from DSMZ #63 medium.Excess amount of Fe (II) is added to the DSMZ#63 medium to precipitate sulfide as iron sulfide. The vials were incubated at 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. 21 vials were used for one temperature and sulfide and sulfate was collected from each three glass vials at every 12 hours from 72 hours to 144 hours after start of incubation. The sulfide was precipitated as iron sulfide and the sulfate was precipitated as barite. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide were measured by standard method using Delta Plus mass-spectrometer. [Results and Discussion] The fractionation between sulfide and sulfate ranged from 2.7 to 11.0. The fractionation values varied among the different incubation temperature and growth phase of D. desulfuricans. The maximum fractionation values of three incubation temperatures were 9.9, 11.0, and 9.7, for 25 °C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. These results were different from standard model and Canfield et al. (2006). I could not find the clear correlation between ∂34S values and incubation temperatures in this experiment. The measured fractionation values during the incubation varied with incubation stage. The fractionation values clearly increased with incubation time at every temperature, and at 25°C ∂34S value was 3.6 at the 72h and it increased to 7.9 at 144 hours. This indicated the difference of sulfate reduction rate due to the growth phase of SRB. In the early logarithmic growth phase

  20. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, ?ke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse...

  1. Reduction of sulfate to sulfite by the tobacco leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Perez-Milan, H.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that whole tobacco leaf reduces [ 35 SI] sulfate to [ 35 SI] sulfite. The amount and the specific radioactivity of the labelled sulfite recovered indicate that daylight plays an essential part in this process, which is a rapid one. Its quantitative analysis is, however, rendered difficult by oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, which is catalysed by the tissues utilised. Reprint of a paper published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 32, 1959, p. 457-464 [fr

  2. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  3. Alkylation of isobutane by butenes on zirconium sulfate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenov, A.V.; Perelevskij, E.V.; Finevich, V.P.; Zajkovskij, V.I.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Duplyakiv, V.K.; Bal'zhinimaev, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of applied zirconium sulfate catalysts obtained by the method of impregnation is investigated. Results of comparative study of structural, acid-base and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconium dioxide applied on silica gel and aluminium oxide are represented. Intervals of values of synthesis basic parameters and characteristics of catalysts properties providing achievement of high activity and selectivity in isobutane alkylation by butenes in liquid phase are determined [ru

  4. Controlling Sulfate Attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    such as calcium aluminates and calcium hydroxide , can influence the degree of damage observed. In all cases, the deterioration observed appears to be...high levels of sulfate showed mineralogical evidence that calcium alumino-sulfate minerals such as ettringite were present in significant quantities...investigation, the Caltrans test was modified to adapt it to the available equipment. A description of the modified test procedure is given in Appendix B. A

  5. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1-SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  6. 75 FR 37790 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts; Antimicrobial Registration Review Final Work Plan and Proposed Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., and opens a 60-day public comment period on the proposed decision. Sodium lauryl sulfate (PC Code...% sodium lauryl sulfate and is registered by Kimberly-Clark Global Sales, LLC (EPA Reg. No. 9402-10). The... sulfate as an active ingredient were first registered in 1948 and sodium lauryl sulfate is widely used as...

  7. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  8. Human platelet as an independent unit for sulfate conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, B.Y.; Sit, K.H.; Wong, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The human platelets possess a full complement of enzymes capable of synthesizing N-acetyldopamine (NADA) 35 sulfate from ATP, Mg ++ and sodium 35 sulfate. The pH optimum for this three-step overall sulfate conjugation (comprising of the ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase and phenolsulfotransferase reactions) is 8.6 and the reactions proceeded progressively for several hours. Both ATP and Mg ++ ions, above their respective optimal concentrations of 5 and 7 mM, inhibited the sulfate conjugation of NADA. The apparent Km values for NADA as determined by the phenolsulfotransferase (PST) and overall reactions were similar in magnitude being 2.6 and 4.8 μM, respectively, while that for sodium 35 sulfate was 202 μM. A comparison of these two activities in 62 platelet preparations of normal subjects showed that the rate of the PST reaction was generally higher than the overall reaction even though the PST assay was carried out at suboptimal concentration of PAPS. There was a positive correlation (r=0.82) between the two sets of data, suggesting that the PST reaction probably has some control over the rate of overall sulfate conjugation

  9. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  10. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  11. Growth performance and root transcriptome remodeling of Arabidopsis in response to Mars-like levels of magnesium sulfate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Visscher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Martian regolith (unconsolidated surface material is a potential medium for plant growth in bioregenerative life support systems during manned missions on Mars. However, hydrated magnesium sulfate mineral levels in the regolith of Mars can reach as high as 10 wt%, and would be expected to be highly inhibitory to plant growth. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Disabling ion transporters AtMRS2-10 and AtSULTR1;2, which are plasma membrane localized in peripheral root cells, is not an effective way to confer tolerance to magnesium sulfate soils. Arabidopsis mrs2-10 and sel1-10 knockout lines do not mitigate the growth inhibiting impacts of high MgSO(4.7H(2O concentrations observed with wildtype plants. A global approach was used to identify novel genes with potential to enhance tolerance to high MgSO(4.7H(2O (magnesium sulfate stress. The early Arabidopsis root transcriptome response to elevated concentrations of magnesium sulfate was characterized in Col-0, and also between Col-0 and the mutant line cax1-1, which was confirmed to be relatively tolerant of high levels of MgSO(4.7H(2O in soil solution. Differentially expressed genes in Col-0 treated for 45 min. encode enzymes primarily involved in hormone metabolism, transcription factors, calcium-binding proteins, kinases, cell wall related proteins and membrane-based transporters. Over 200 genes encoding transporters were differentially expressed in Col-0 up to 180 min. of exposure, and one of the first down-regulated genes was CAX1. The importance of this early response in wildtype Arabidopsis is exemplified in the fact that only four transcripts were differentially expressed between Col-0 and cax1-1 at 180 min. after initiation of treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide a solid basis for the understanding of the metabolic response of plants to elevated magnesium sulfate soils; it is the first transcriptome analysis of plants in this environment. The results foster

  12. Permeabilization and recovery of the stratum corneum in vivo: the synergy of photomechanical waves and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; McAuliffe, D J; Kollias, N; Flotte, T J; Doukas, A G

    2001-01-01

    Photomechanical waves render the stratum corneum permeable and allow macromolecules to diffuse into the epidermis and dermis. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined action of photomechanical waves and sodium lauryl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, for transdermal delivery. A single photomechanical wave was applied to the skin of rats in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate. The sodium lauryl sulfate solution was removed and aqueous solutions of rhodamine-B dextran (40 kDa molecular weight) were applied to the skin at time points 2, 30, and 60 minutes post-exposure. The presence of rhodamine-B dextran in the skin was measured by fluorescence emission spectroscopy in vivo and fluorescence microscopy of frozen biopsies. The use of sodium lauryl sulfate delayed the recovery of the stratum corneum barrier and extended the time available for the diffusion of dextran through it. The combination of photomechanical waves and surfactants can enhance transdermal drug delivery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Residual Strength of an AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianyong; Liu, Yaohui; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jiaan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria is studied. In the experiments, the chemical composition of corrosion film was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, a series of instruments, such as scanning electronic microscope, pH-meter and an AG-10TA materials test machine, were applied to test and record the morphology of the corrosion product, fracture texture and mechanical properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The experiments show that the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in the corrosion process of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. Pitting corrosion was enhanced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Corrosion pits are important defects that could lead to a significant stress concentration in the tensile process. As a result, sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy by accelerating pitting corrosion. PMID:28788236

  14. Profile of irritant patch testing with detergents: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and alkyl polyglucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, H; Happle, R

    2003-01-01

    The cutaneous reaction to detergents follows distinct kinetic rules: the duration of application and the irritant concentration are of major importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in kinetics of skin reaction between the standard irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and 2 modern detergents: sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) and alkyl polyglucoside (APG). We performed patch testing with SLS and SLES (or APG) at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) and with different exposure times (6, 12 and 24 h). Evaluation was conducted by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LD) 24 h, 7 and 10 days after patch removal. We found a pronounced reaction to SLS, and a far milder one to SLES. Even at the highest concentration the skin reaction to APG was hard to detect. During the regeneration period (day 3-10) SLS showed even at day 10 an increased TEWL at all concentrations tested. The irritation due to SLES was convincingly detectable only up to day 7, whereas the APG-tested skin areas showed no significant reaction even at day 3. These results demonstrate the improvement in reduction of skin irritation achieved by development of novel detergents.

  15. Development and validation of an alternative titration method for the determination of sulfate ion in indinavir sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Carvalho e Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid precipitation titration method was developed and validated to determine sulfate ion content in indinavir sulfate raw material. 0.1 mol L-1 lead nitrate volumetric solution was used as titrant employing potentiometric endpoint determination using a lead-specific electrode. The United States Pharmacopoeia Forum indicates a potentiometric method for sulfate ion quantitation using 0.1 mol L-1 lead perchlorate as titrant. Both methods were validated concerning linearity, precision and accuracy, yielding good results. The sulfate ion content found by the two validated methods was compared by the statistical t-student test, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the methods.

  16. Sulfate resistance of nanosilica contained Portland cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batilov, Iani B.

    Soils, sea water and ground water high in sulfates are commonly encountered hostile environments that can attack the structure of concrete via chemical and physical mechanisms which can lead to costly repairs or replacement. Sulfate attack is a slow acting deteriorative phenomenon that can result in cracking, spalling, expansion, increased permeability, paste-to-aggregate bond loss, paste softening, strength loss, and ultimately, progressive failure of concrete. In the presented research study, Portland cement (PC) mortars containing 1.5% to 6.0% nanosilica (nS) cement replacement by weight were tested for sulfate resistance through full submersion in sodium sulfate to simulate external sulfate attack. Mortars with comparable levels of cement replacement were also prepared with microsilica (mS). Three cement types were chosen to explore nS' effectiveness to reduce sulfate expansion, when paired with cements of varying tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and Blaine fineness, and compare it to that of mS. Mortars were also made with combined cement replacement of equal parts nS and mS to identify if they were mutually compatible and beneficial towards sulfate resistance. Besides sulfate attack expansion of mortar bars, the testing program included investigations into transport and microstructure properties via water absorption, sulfate ion permeability, porosimetry, SEM with EDS, laser diffraction, compressive strength, and heat of hydration. Expansion measurements indicated that mS replacement mortars outperformed both powder form nS, and nS/mS combined replacement mixtures. A negative effect of the dry nS powder replacement attributed to agglomeration of its nanoparticles during mixing negated the expected superior filler, paste densification, and pozzolanic activity of the nanomaterial. Agglomerated nS was identified as the root cause behind poor performance of nS in comparison to mS for all cement types, and the control when paired with a low C3A sulfate resistant

  17. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  18. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  19. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  20. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca, E-mail: odilefrancesca.restaino@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Finamore, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.finamore@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Diana, Paola, E-mail: paola.diana@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Marseglia, Mariacarmela, E-mail: marimars84@hotmail.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Vitiello, Mario, E-mail: mariovitiello.ita@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Casillo, Angela, E-mail: angela.casillo@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Bedini, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.bedini@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Parrilli, Michelangelo, E-mail: michelangelo.parrilli@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); and others

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  1. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ΔO-D-D, ΔA-D-D, ΔC-D-D, ΔE-A-D, ΔD-D-C, ΔE-D-D and ΔA-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ΔC-A-D, ΔC-D-C and ΔA-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol Δ stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ΔA-D-A, ΔA-D-D and ΔA-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.

  2. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  3. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI PEREDUKSI SULFAT PADA AREA PERTAMBANGAN BATU BARA MUARA ENIM, SUMATERA SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Muchamad Yusron; Bibiana W Lay; Anas M Fauzi; Dwi Andreas Santosa

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria utilize sulfate as their terminal electron acceptor and reduce it to sulphide. Acid mine drainage, by-products of mining activities, is an acidic sulfate-rich wastewater suitable habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria collected from Muara Enim coal mining, South Sumatra was carried out at Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (ICBB), Bogor, and Laborato...

  4. Determination of sulfate in thorium salts using gravimetric technique with previous thorium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M. da; Pires, M.A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A simple analytical method to analyze sulfates in thorium salt, is presented. The method is based on the thorium separation as hydroxide. The gravimetric technique is used to analyze the sulfate in the filtered as barium sulfate. Using this method, the sulfate separation from thorium has been reach 99,9% yield, and 0,1% precision. This method is applied to thorium salts specifically thorium sulfate, carbonate and nitrate. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Vanadyl sulfate, taurine, and combined vanadyl sulfate and taurine treatments in diabetic rats: effects on the oxidative and antioxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Sibel; Sarandol, Emre; Ayvalik, Sedef Ziyanok; Serdar, Zehra; Dirican, Melahat

    2007-04-01

    Vanadyl sulfate (VS) and taurine are two promising agents in the treatment of diabetes related to their antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic effects. Data about the effects of VS on the oxidant-antioxidant system is limited and controversial. However, taurine is a well-documented antioxidant agent and our aim was to investigate the effects of VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination on the oxidative-antioxidative systems in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) diabetic rats. Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered. VS (0.75 mg/mL) and taurine (1%) were added to drinking water for 5 weeks. Rats were divided as control (C), diabetes (D), diabetes+VS (D+VS), diabetes+taurine (D+T), diabetes+VS and taurine (D+VST). Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined using commercial kits. VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination treatments reduced the enhanced blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, tissue MDA and plasma MDA (except in the D+VS group) levels and increased the reduced serum insulin level, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, GSH-Px activity and SOD activity (except in the D+VS group). The findings of the present study suggest that VS and taurine exert beneficial effects on the blood glucose and lipid levels in STZ-NA diabetic rats. However, VS might exert prooxidative or antioxidative effects in various components of the body and taurine and VS combination might be an alternative for sole VS administration.

  6. Analysis of Saprolegnia parasitica Transcriptome following Treatment with Copper Sulfate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hu

    Full Text Available Massive infection caused by oomycete fungus Saprolegnia parasitica is detrimental to freshwater fish. Recently, we showed that copper sulfate demonstrated good efficacy for controlling S. parasitica infection in grass carp. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of S. parasitica growth by copper sulfate by analyzing the transcriptome of copper sulfate-treated S. parasitica. To examine the mechanism of copper sulfate inhibiting S. parasitica, we utilized RNA-seq technology to compare differential gene expression in S. parasitica treated with or without copper sulfate.The total mapped rates of the reads with the reference genome were 90.50% in the control group and 73.50% in the experimental group. In the control group, annotated splice junctions, partial novel splice junctions and complete novel splice junctions were about 83%, 3% and 14%, respectively. In the treatment group, the corresponding values were about 75%, 6% and 19%. Following copper sulfate treatment, a total 310 genes were markedly upregulated and 556 genes were markedly downregulated in S. parasitica. Material metabolism related GO terms including cofactor binding (33 genes, 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase complex (4 genes, carboxylic acid metabolic process (40 genes were the most significantly enriched. KEGG pathway analysis also determined that the metabolism-related biological pathways were significantly enriched, including the metabolic pathways (98 genes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathways (42 genes, fatty acid metabolism (13 genes, phenylalanine metabolism (7 genes, starch and sucrose metabolism pathway (12 genes. The qRT-PCR results were largely consistent with the RNA-Seq results.Our results indicate that copper sulfate inhibits S. parasitica growth by affecting multiple biological functions, including protein synthesis, energy biogenesis, and metabolism.

  7. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2009-01-01

    Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brossica olerracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived

  8. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4− has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ⋅ − upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19  ×  10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27  ×  1012 molecule cm−3 s, only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we

  9. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  10. A Sensitive Gold Nanoplasmonic SERS Quantitative Analysis Method for Sulfate in Serum Using Fullerene as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongning Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene exhibited strong catalysis of the redox reaction between HAuCl4 and trisodium citrate to form gold nanoplasmon with a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS effect at 1615 cm−1 in the presence of Vitoria blue B molecule probes. When fullerene increased, the SERS peak enhanced linearly due to formation of more AuNPs as substrate. Upon addition of Ba2+, Ba2+ ions adsorb on the fullerene surface to inhibit the catalysis of fullerene that caused the SERS peak decreasing. Analyte SO42− combined with Ba2+ to form stable BaSO4 precipitate to release free fullerene that the catalysis recovered, and the SERS intensity increased linearly. Thus, a new SERS quantitative analysis method was established for the detection of sulfate in serum samples, with a linear range of 0.03–3.4 μM.

  11. Esterification of fatty acids using sulfated zirconia and composites activated carbon/sulfated zirconia catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Sarah S.; Santos, Valeria C. dos; Destro, Priscila; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar

    2011-01-01

    In this work sulfated zirconia (SZr) and activated carbon/SZr composites produced by impregnation method with or without heating treatment step (CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-I SC) and by the method of synthesis of SZr on the carbon (CABC/SZr-S) was used as catalysts in the esterification reactions of fatty acids. The SZr presented very active, conversions higher than 90% were obtained after 2 h of reaction. The activity of the composite CABC/SZr-I20%SC was up to 92%, however, this was directly related to time and temperature reactions. CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-S were less active in esterification reactions, what could be attributed to its low acidity. (author)

  12. Microbial reduction of structural iron in interstratified illite-smectite minerals by a sulfate-reducing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Dong, H; Bishop, M E; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Xie, S; Wang, S; Huang, L; Eberl, D D

    2012-03-01

    Clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks and could coexist with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in anoxic environments, however, the interactions of clay minerals and SRB are not well understood. The objective of this study was to understand the reduction rate and capacity of structural Fe(III) in dioctahedral clay minerals by a mesophilic SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the potential role in catalyzing smectite illitization. Bioreduction experiments were performed in batch systems, where four different clay minerals (nontronite NAu-2, mixed-layer illite-smectite RAr-1 and ISCz-1, and illite IMt-1) were exposed to D. vulgaris in a non-growth medium with and without anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and sulfate. Our results demonstrated that D. vulgaris was able to reduce structural Fe(III) in these clay minerals, and AQDS enhanced the reduction rate and extent. In the presence of AQDS, sulfate had little effect on Fe(III) bioreduction. In the absence of AQDS, sulfate increased the reduction rate and capacity, suggesting that sulfide produced during sulfate reduction reacted with the phyllosilicate Fe(III). The extent of bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals was positively correlated with the percentage of smectite and mineral surface area of these minerals. X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed formation of illite after bioreduction. These data collectively showed that D. vulgaris could promote smectite illitization through reduction of structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Chondroitin Sulfate-E Binds to Both Osteoactivin and Integrin αVβ3 and Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Miyauchi, Satoshi; Anada, Takahisa; Tawada, Akira; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Integrins and their ligands have been suggested to be associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The present study was designed to investigate whether chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E), which is one of the sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), is involved in osteoactivin (OA) activity, and osteoclast differentiation. The binding affinity of sulfated GAGs to integrin and its ligand was measured using biotin-labeled CS-E, and the osteoclast differentiation was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and a pit formation assay. CS-E as well as CS-B, synthetic chondroitin polysulfate, and heparin inhibited osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages. Pre-coating of OA to synthetic calcium phosphate-coated plates enhanced the osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264 cells, and addition of a neutralizing antibody to OA inhibited its differentiation. CS-E bound not only to OA, fibronectin, and vitronectin, but also to its receptor integrin αVβ3, and inhibited the direct binding of OA to integrin αVβ3. Furthermore, CS-E blocked the binding of OA to cells and inhibited OA-induced osteoclastic differentiation. On the other hand, heparinase treatment of RAW264 cells inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. Since binding of OA to the cells was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate or heparinase treatment of cells, heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) was also considered to be an OA receptor. Taken together, the present results suggest that CS-E is capable of inhibiting OA-induced osteoclast differentiation by blocking the interaction of OA to integrin αVβ3 and HSPG. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Behaviour of cementitious materials: sulfates and temperature actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    2002-09-01

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfo-aluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na 2 SO 4 ) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85±C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85±C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions. (author) [fr

  15. Russian experience with injectable chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate: a review of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of parenteral chondroprotectors is a feature of Russian medical practice. There are many drugs of this series in a Russian physician's arsenal, including chondroitin sulfate (CS,  glucosamine sulfate (GS, glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex, and  bioactive concentrate from small sea fish for intramuscular  injections. The paper analyzes Russian trials of the efficacy and  safety of two injectable formulations of CS and GS (ICS and IGS.  ICS was tested in 17 articles containing a total of 1639 patients with  osteoarthritis (OA, non-specific back pain (NBP, or shoulder  fractures and pain after stroke. Standard therapy (NSAIDs +  physiotherapy served as a control in the majority of the paper. In  these trials, the reductions in visual analog scale (VAS and WOMAC pain in OA treated with ICS averaged 58.2±22.3% and those were 26.1±14.7% in the control groups; the reductions in VAS NBP  reached an average of 87.1±16.8 and 62.2±21.7%, respectively.  ICS also showed a good effect in shoulder fractures and pain after a  stroke. The number of local adverse reactions after injections was  insignificant (4.4%; they did not threaten the health of patients and they caused ICS to be discontinued only in 3 cases. IGS was  investigated in two trials (n=154, which confirmed its efficacy (total pain relief >50% and relative safety. Thus, the data of Russian trials suggest that ICS and IGS have good therapeutic potential and favorable tolerance.

  16. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  17. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  18. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  19. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  20. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-01-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  1. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  2. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  3. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  4. Thermal stability and surface acidity of mesoporous silica doubly doped by incorporation of sulfate and zirconium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, P.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, J.A.; Armendariz, H.; Guzman, M.L.; Montoya, J.A.; Acosta, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    A sulfated Si-Zr-MCM-41 solid with highly ordered mesostructure was synthesized through a templated synthesis route where the CTAB surfactant was used as template. During the synthesis procedure, various amounts of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were added into the mixed solution of Zr and Si precursors to in situ sulfate the MCM-41 solids, aiming to enhance the acidity and thermal stability. The resultant materials showed a long-range ordered hexagonal arrangement with high surface area larger than 797 m 2 /g and an average pore size distributed at approximate 2.5-2.8 nm. The high-resolution TEM observations confirmed that the order of the mesostructure gained when the molar ratio of SO 4 2- /(ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ) increased from 0.1 to 0.3 but decreased as it reached 0.5, which is consistent with the results of 29 Si MAS-NMR and XRD analysis. Compared to Si-MCM-41, the (Q 2 + Q 3 )/Q 4 ratio derived from the NMR spectra of the Zr-doped sample was higher, indicating that zirconium atoms were incorporated into the silica framework. Unexpectedly, in situ sulfation does not enhance the surface Broensted acidity, most likely due to the sulfur retained within the bulk of the materials; however, it indeed improved the thermal stability of the solid and long-range order of the structure

  5. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  6. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42− collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m−3 with a mean of (141  ±  88 (1σ µg m−3, with SO42− representing 8–25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42− varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9  ±  0.3 ‰. Δ17O(SO42− increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5  ≥  75 µg m−3 of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III–V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet was estimated to contribute 41–54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48  ±  5 %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV ( =  SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3−  +  SO32− oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5–13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42−. Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21–22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42−, such as S(IV oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a

  7. Artificial electron acceptors decouple archaeal methane oxidation from sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Silvan; Yu, Hang; Chadwick, Grayson L; McGlynn, Shawn E; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-02-12

    The oxidation of methane with sulfate is an important microbial metabolism in the global carbon cycle. In marine methane seeps, this process is mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) that live in syntrophy with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The underlying interdependencies within this uncultured symbiotic partnership are poorly understood. We used a combination of rate measurements and single-cell stable isotope probing to demonstrate that ANME in deep-sea sediments can be catabolically and anabolically decoupled from their syntrophic SRB partners using soluble artificial oxidants. The ANME still sustain high rates of methane oxidation in the absence of sulfate as the terminal oxidant, lending support to the hypothesis that interspecies extracellular electron transfer is the syntrophic mechanism for the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  9. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  10. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  11. Uranyl Sulfate Nanotubules Templated by N-phenylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Siidra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure, and infrared spectroscopy properties of the new organically templated uranyl sulfate Na(phgH+7[(UO26(SO410](H2O3.5 (1, obtained at room temperature by evaporation from aqueous solution, are reported. Its structure contains unique uranyl sulfate [(UO26(SO410]8− nanotubules templated by protonated N-phenylglycine (C6H5NH2CH2COOH+. Their internal diameter is 1.4 nm. Each of the nanotubules is built from uranyl sulfate rings sharing common SO4 tetrahedra. The template plays an important role in the formation of the complex structure of 1. The aromatic rings are stacked parallel to each other due to the effect of π–π interaction with their side chains extending into the gaps between the nanotubules.

  12. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  13. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, E.A.; Oey, L.N.; Weber, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M 3 .d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.) [de

  14. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 is necessary for chain extension of chondroitin sulfate but not critical for skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2(-/-) mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2(-/-) chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ∼10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

  15. Synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan from methyl oleate with O-sulfate chitosan as edible film material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel; Sihaloho, O.; Saleh, C.; Magdaleni, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The research on the synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan through sulfonation reaction on chitosan with ammonium sulfate and followed by amidation reaction using methyl oleate has been done. In this study, chitosan was chemically modified into N-oleyl O-sulfatechitosan as an edible film making material. N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was synthesized by reaction between methyl oleate and O-sulfate chitosan. Wherein the depleted chitosan of O-sulfate chitosan into O-sulfate chitosan was obtained by reaction of sulfonation between ammonium sulfate and chitosan aldimine. While chitosan aldimine was obtained through reaction between chitosan with acetaldehyde. The structure of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was characterized by FT-IR analysis which showed vibration uptake of C-H sp3 group, S=O group, and carbonyl group C=O of the ester. The resulting of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan yielded a percentage of 93.52%. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) test results gave a value of 6.68. In the toxicity test results of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan obtained LC50 value of 3738.4732 ppm. In WVTR (Water Vapor Transmission Rate) test results for chitosan film was 407.625 gram/m2/24 hours and N-oleylO-sulfate chitosan film was 201.125 gram/m2/24 hours.

  16. Bacterial PerO Permeases Transport Sulfate and Related Oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Pfänder, Yvonne; Tintel, Marc; Masepohl, Bernd

    2017-07-15

    Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesizes the high-affinity ABC transporters CysTWA and ModABC to specifically import the chemically related oxyanions sulfate and molybdate, respectively. In addition, R. capsulatus has the low-affinity permease PerO acting as a general oxyanion transporter, whose elimination increases tolerance to molybdate and tungstate. Although PerO-like permeases are widespread in bacteria, their function has not been examined in any other species to date. Here, we present evidence that PerO permeases from the alphaproteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Dinoroseobacter shibae , Rhodobacter sphaeroides , and Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri functionally substitute for R. capsulatus PerO in sulfate uptake and sulfate-dependent growth, as shown by assimilation of radioactively labeled sulfate and heterologous complementation. Disruption of perO genes in A. tumefaciens , R. sphaeroides , and S. meliloti increased tolerance to tungstate and, in the case of R. sphaeroides , to molybdate, suggesting that heterometal oxyanions are common substrates of PerO permeases. This study supports the view that bacterial PerO permeases typically transport sulfate and related oxyanions and, hence, form a functionally conserved permease family. IMPORTANCE Despite the widespread distribution of PerO-like permeases in bacteria, our knowledge about PerO function until now was limited to one species, Rhodobacter capsulatus In this study, we showed that PerO proteins from diverse bacteria are functionally similar to the R. capsulatus prototype, suggesting that PerO permeases form a conserved family whose members transport sulfate and related oxyanions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Sulfate cooling effects on climate through in-cloud oxidation of anthropogenic SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Heintzenberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Anthropogenic SO 2 emissions may exert a significant cooling effect on climate in the Northern Hemisphere through backscattering of solar radiation by sulfate particles. Earlier estimates of the sulfate climate forcing were based on a limited number of sulfate-scattering correlation measurements from which a high sulfate-scattering efficiency was derived. Model results suggest that cloud processing of air is the underlying mechanism. aqueous phase oxidation of SO 2 into sulfate and the subsequent release of the dry aerosol by cloud evaporation render sulfate a much more efficient scatterer than through gas-phase SO 2 oxidation

  18. The effect of desulfation of chondroitin sulfate on interactions with positively charged growth factors and upregulation of cartilaginous markers in encapsulated MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeremy J; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2013-07-01

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are known to interact electrostatically with positively charged growth factors to modulate signaling. Therefore, regulating the degree of sulfation of GAGs may be a promising approach to tailor biomaterial carriers for controlled growth factor delivery and release. For this study, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was first desulfated to form chondroitin, and resulting crosslinked CS and chondroitin hydrogels were examined in vitro for release of positively charged model protein (histone) and for their effect on cartilaginous differentiation of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Desulfation significantly increased the release of histone from chondroitin hydrogels (30.6 ± 2.3 μg released over 8 days, compared to natively sulfated CS with 20.2 ± 0.8 μg), suggesting that sulfation alone plays a significant role in modulating protein interactions with GAG hydrogels. MSCs in chondroitin hydrogels significantly upregulated gene expression of collagen II and aggrecan by day 21 in chondrogenic medium (115 ± 100 and 23.1 ± 7.9 fold upregulation of collagen II and aggrecan, respectively), compared to CS hydrogels and PEG-based swelling controls, indicating that desulfation may actually enhance the response of MSCs to soluble chondrogenic cues, such as TGF-β1. Thus, desulfated chondroitin materials present a promising biomaterial tool to further investigate electrostatic GAG/growth factor interactions, especially for repair of cartilaginous tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  20. Removal of Sulfate from Waste Water by Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sadeq Salman

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon was Produced from coconut shell and was used for removing sulfate from industrial waste water in batch Processes. The influence of various parameter were studied such as pH (4.5 9.) , agitation time (0 120)min and adsorbent dose (2 10) gm.The Langmuir and frandlich adsorption capacity models were been investigated where showed there are fitting with langmmuir model with squre regression value ( 0.76). The percent of removal of sulfate (22% - 38%) at (PH=7) in the isotherm ...

  1. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...

  2. Recombinant heparan sulfate for use in tissue engineering applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitelock, J.; Ma, J.L.; Davies, N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important component of many extracellular matrices that interacts with mitogens and morphogens to guide and control tissue and organ development. These interactions are controlled by its structure, which varies when produced by different cell types and diffe......Background: Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important component of many extracellular matrices that interacts with mitogens and morphogens to guide and control tissue and organ development. These interactions are controlled by its structure, which varies when produced by different cell types...

  3. Facile analysis of contents and compositions of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chain in shark and ray tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoko; Horai, Sawako; Tamura, Jun-ichi

    2016-04-07

    The chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chain was extracted from specific tissues of several kinds of sharks and rays. The contents and sulfation patterns of the CS/DS hybrid chain were precisely analyzed by digestion with chondroitinases ABC and AC. All samples predominantly contained the A- and C-units. Furthermore, all samples characteristically contained the D-unit. Species-specific differences were observed in the contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain, which were the highest in Mako and Blue sharks and Sharpspine skates, but were lower in Hammerhead sharks. Marked differences were observed in the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit between sharks and rays. The contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain and the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit may be related to an oxidative stress-decreasing ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic significance of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates in ovarian cancer defined by the single chain antibody GD3A11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Sophieke C H A; van Tilborg, Angela A G; Vallen, Myrtille J E; Bulten, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ovarian cancer may provide a number of potential biomarkers. Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a class of sulfated polysaccharides, is abundantly present in the ECM of ovarian cancer. Structural alterations of CS chains (i.e. sulfation pattern) have been demonstrated to play a role in cancer development and progression. In this study we investigate the potential of highly sulfated CS as a biomarker in ovarian cancer using the single chain antibody GD3A11 selected by the phage display technology. The specificity of the antibody was determined by an indirect ELISA. GD3A11 epitope expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in healthy organs, benign and malignant ovarian tumors (N=359) and correlated to clinical parameters. The CHST15 gene, responsible for the biosynthesis of highly sulfated CS was evaluated for mutation and methylation status. The GD3A11 epitope was minimally expressed in normal organs. Intense expression was observed in the ECM of different ovarian cancer subtypes, in contrast to benign ovarian tumors. Expression was independent of tumor grade, FIGO stage, and the use chemotherapy. For the aggressive ovarian cancer phenotype, intense expression was identified as an independent predictor for poor prognosis. CHST15 gene analysis showed no mutations nor an altered methylation status. Specific highly sulfated CS motifs expressed in the tumoral ECM hold biomarker potential in ovarian cancer patients. These matrix motifs constitute a novel class of biomarkers with prognostic significance and may be instrumental for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic applications (e.g. targeted therapy) in management of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of chondroitin sulfate on osteogenetic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiders, Wolfgang; Rentsch, Claudia; Rehberg, Sebastian; Rein, Susanne; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has anti-inflammatory properties and increases the regeneration ability of injured bone. In different in vivo investigations on bone defects the addition of CS to calcium phosphate bone cement has lead to an enhanced bone remodeling and increased new bone formation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of CS on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In cell culture experiments hMSCs were incubated on calcium phosphate bone cements with and without CS and cultivated in a proliferation and an osteogenetic differentiation media. Alkaline phosphatase and the proliferation rate were determined on days 1, 7 and 14. Concerning the proliferation rates, no significant differences were detected. On days 1, 7 and 14 a significantly higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteogenesis, was detected around CS modified cements in both types of media. The addition of CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. To evaluate the influence of the osteoconductive potency of CS in twelve adult male Wistar rats, the interface reaction of cancellous bone to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite cement containing type I collagen (CDHA/Coll) without and with CS (CDHA/Coll/CS) was evaluated. Cylindrical implants were inserted press-fit into a defect of the tibial head. 28 days after the operation the direct bone contact and the percentage of newly formed bone were significantly higher on CDHA/Coll/CS-implants (p < 0.05). The addition of CS appears to enhance new bone formation on CDHA/Coll-composites in the early stages of bone healing. Possible mechanisms are discussed. - Highlights: ► The influence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on bone metabolism was evaluated. ► CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. ► In small animal investigation CS seems to enhance osteogenesis in bone healing.

  6. Effect of chondroitin sulfate on osteogenetic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneiders, Wolfgang, E-mail: schneidersw@gmx.de; Rentsch, Claudia; Rehberg, Sebastian; Rein, Susanne; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has anti-inflammatory properties and increases the regeneration ability of injured bone. In different in vivo investigations on bone defects the addition of CS to calcium phosphate bone cement has lead to an enhanced bone remodeling and increased new bone formation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of CS on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In cell culture experiments hMSCs were incubated on calcium phosphate bone cements with and without CS and cultivated in a proliferation and an osteogenetic differentiation media. Alkaline phosphatase and the proliferation rate were determined on days 1, 7 and 14. Concerning the proliferation rates, no significant differences were detected. On days 1, 7 and 14 a significantly higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteogenesis, was detected around CS modified cements in both types of media. The addition of CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. To evaluate the influence of the osteoconductive potency of CS in twelve adult male Wistar rats, the interface reaction of cancellous bone to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite cement containing type I collagen (CDHA/Coll) without and with CS (CDHA/Coll/CS) was evaluated. Cylindrical implants were inserted press-fit into a defect of the tibial head. 28 days after the operation the direct bone contact and the percentage of newly formed bone were significantly higher on CDHA/Coll/CS-implants (p < 0.05). The addition of CS appears to enhance new bone formation on CDHA/Coll-composites in the early stages of bone healing. Possible mechanisms are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on bone metabolism was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In small animal investigation CS seems to enhance osteogenesis in bone healing.

  7. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined elimination of organic C, sulfate and heavy metals. Final report; Kombinierte organische C-, Sulfat- und Schwermetalleliminierung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raebiger, N.

    2002-01-11

    A new biological process for purification of highly burdened industrial effluents was developed in which aerobic, oxygen-limiting reaction conditions ensure simultaneous elimination of organic C, sulfate and heavy metals in a single process step in a compact system. The design data are presented here for the purpose of practical implementation of the process. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung eines neuen biologischen Verfahrens zur Reinigung hochbelasteter Industrieabwaesser, bei dem durch die Einstellung aerober, sauerstofflimitierender Reaktionsbedingungen eine kombinierte organisch C-, Sulfat- und Schwermetalleliminierung gleichzeitig in einem Verfahrensschritt und kompakter Anlagentechnik realisiert wird. Hierbei werden die Auslegungsunterlagen fuer die praxisrelevante Umsetzung dieses Verfahrens zur Verfuegung gestellt. (orig.)

  9. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  10. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  11. Ultrasound augmented leaching of nickel sulfate in sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Zhang, Libo; Yin, Shaohua

    2018-01-01

    A new method of preparation high purity nickel sulfate assisted by ultrasonic was studied. The process mechanism was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS).The reaction mechanisms of oxidizing leaching and ultrasonic leaching were explored, respectively. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment peel off the oxide film on the surface of nickel. The leachate under strongly agitated, the yield rate of nickel sulfate was accelerate. And the reaction area was increased by the cavitation effect, the liquid-solid reaction was promoted, and the activation energy was reduced. The leaching rate of nickel reached 46.29% by conventional leaching, which takes about 5h. Under the same conditions, the ultrasonic leaching rate reached 40%, only half of the conventional leaching time. Concentration of leaching agent, reaction temperature, ultrasonic power, leaching time had significant effect on the enhancement of the leaching reaction with ultrasonic radiation. The leaching rate of 60.41% under the optimum experiment conditions as follows: sulfuric acid concentration 30%, hydrogen peroxide 10%, leaching temperature 333K, ultrasonic power 200W and leaching time 4h. The kinetic study of the system was investigated, and the reaction rates of conventional leaching and ultrasonic leaching were controlled by diffusion, and the apparent activation energies were 16.2kJ/mol and 11.83kJ/mol. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. In vitro fermentation behaviors of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Pearsonothuria graeffei by human gut microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Yang; Liao, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xing-Qian; Li, Shan; Hu, Ya-Qin; Liu, Dong-Hong; Linhardt, Robert J; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shi-Guo

    2017-09-01

    A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS-pg) with highly repeated structure from Pearsonothuria graeffei was subjected to a in vitro fermentation model to investigate its fermentability and effects on human gut microflora. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement found FCS-pg can be fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by gut microflora from partial human fecal samples. 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling and real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that FCS-pg mainly increased the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI, Bacteriodes prevotella group, Bifidobacterium genus, Clostridium cluster I and Clostridium cluster XIVab, whereas the numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased. These results indicated that FCS-pg was mainly fermented by Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium. It increased the content of probiotics bacteria in achieving health-enhancing effect, was slightly different than most sulfated polysaccharides from marine animals. The current study provides useful new information on the mechanism of absorption and functional activity on FCS-pg within the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  14. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S

    2011-12-29

    In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  15. An Injectable Enzymatically Crosslinked Carboxymethylated Pullulan/Chondroitin Sulfate Hydrogel for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yu, Songrui; Liu, Bing; Ni, Yunzhou; Yu, Chunyang; Su, Yue; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatically cross-linked injectable and biodegradable hydrogel system comprising carboxymethyl pullulan-tyramine (CMP-TA) and chondroitin sulfate-tyramine (CS-TA) conjugates was successfully developed under physiological conditions in the presence of both horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for cartilage tissue engineering (CTTE). The HRP crosslinking method makes this injectable system feasible, minimally invasive and easily translatable for regenerative medicine applications. The physicochemical properties of the mechanically stable hydrogel system can be modulated by varying the weight ratio and concentration of polymer as well as the concentrations of crosslinking reagents. Additionally, the cellular behaviour of porcine auricular chondrocytes encapsulated into CMP-TA/CS-TA hydrogels demonstrates that the hydrogel system has a good cyto-compatibility. Specifically, compared to the CMP-TA hydrogel, these CMP-TA/CS-TA composite hydrogels have enhanced cell proliferation and increased cartilaginous ECM deposition, which significantly facilitate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, histological analysis indicates that the hydrogel system exhibits acceptable tissue compatibility by using a mouse subcutaneous implantation model. Overall, the novel injectable pullulan/chondroitin sulfate composite hydrogels presented here are expected to be useful biomaterial scaffold for regenerating cartilage tissue.

  16. Study of dosimetric systems-ferrous sulfate-ferric sulfate, glass slides and dyed aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables which can effect the preparation of the ferrous sulfate used as dosimetric solution has been studied. Among these variables the purity of the water used for the preparation of the solution and the presence (or absence) of oxygen in the dosimetric solution were considered. The dose rate distribution according to the transverse and longitudinal sections of the Co 60 irradiator was studied experimentally, using the dosimetric solution, and theoretically, using a computer program (KIFE). The results obtained with the ferrous sulface dosimetric solution were used as reference for the study of the application of EM and MSG glass slide as a dosimetric system. For this purpose the effects of the weakening of the coloration induced in the glass by gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the relationship between the absorbed dose of radiation and the ratio between the variation in absorbation value and the thickness of the glass irradiated, were studied. A study was also made of the use of the dye indicators bromothymol-blue, methyl-orange, Congo-red, neutral-red and p-nitrophenol, in aqueous solution, for radiation dose measurements. The bleaching of each indicator solution, under gamma-radiation (Co 60 ) was studied in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres.(Author) [pt

  17. Copper sulfate acute ecotoxicity and environmental risk for tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate copper sulfate acute toxicity and to determine death percentage and environmental risk on guppy fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio, mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques, and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (guppy, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (zebrafish, 0.07, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mg L-1 (mato grosso and 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0 mg L-1 (pacu of copper sulfate, with triplicate control. The estimated 50% average lethal concentrations (LC50; 96 hours were 0.05 (guppy, 0.13 (zebrafish; 0.16 (mato grosso and 10.36 mg L-1 (pacu. Copper sulfate was extremely toxic for guppy, highly toxic for zebrafish and mato grosso and lightly toxic for pacu and presents environmental risk of high adverse effects on the guppy, zebrafish and mato grosso and moderate adverse effect to the pacu. Therefore, the guppy fish, zebrafish, and mato grosso are important alternatives for copper sulfate toxicity evaluation in waterbodies.

  18. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine Dalby; Schramm, Andreas; Purup, Stig

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Although a genetic contribution has been proven, dietary factors have also shown to play a role in the development of IBD. This study aims to investigate the effect of adding red meatto t...... the diet of piglets in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model....

  19. Eutrophication, microbial-sulfate reduction and mass extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    to the Earth system, notably, the biogeochemical sulfur and carbon cycle. This climate warming feedback produces large-scale eutrophication on the continental shelf, which, in turn, expands oxygen minimum zones by increased respiration, which can turn to a sulfidic state by increased microbial-sulfate...

  20. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Although...

  1. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  2. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  3. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars 'Cool Water' and 'Pretty Blinda', were treated with either ...

  4. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, Jappe H. de; Salminen, E.; Doddema, Hans J.; Janssen, Dick B.; Harder, Wim

    1998-01-01

    The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 µM, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon

  5. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Best, JH; Salminen, E; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W

    1997-01-01

    The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 mu M, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon

  6. Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2017-05-15

    Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates EF1 and EF2 were isolated from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix. Separation of the polysaccharides was performed using anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel by elution of 0.75M and 1.0M NaCl solutions. The structures of biopolymers were determined by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The backbone of EF1 was found to be composed of chondroitin sulfate A and E units in a ratio of about 1:1. The core of EF2 along with chondroitin sulfate A and E fragments contained unusual disaccharide repeating units →4)-β-d-GlcpA2S3S-(1→3)-β-d-GalpNAc6S-(1→. The main type of branches in both polysaccharides was α-l-Fucp3S4S unit attached to O-3 of GlcA residues. Another type of branches was found to be the disaccharide fragment α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-α-l-Fucp3S4S-(1→ linked to O-3 of GlcA. The presence of structurally different fucosylated chondroitin sulfates in one species of sea cucumber is rather unusual and has not been described previously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  8. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate .... C in mixed solvents of 50 mL ethanol and 30 mL water for different reaction times was characterized by .... Duan X, Huang Y, Cui Y, Wang J and Lieber C M 2001 Nature 409 66.

  9. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... edible vegetable oil using 1-butanol. Following sulfation, the reaction mixture is washed with water and...

  10. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more

  11. Role of sulfates on highway heave in Lake County, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Samples from borings in areas of heave on Route 2, Lake County, OH were analyzed for the amount, mineral form, : and distribution of sulfates. In addition, samples of non-stabilized (NSS) and cement-stabilized (CSS) soils from : three stations along ...

  12. Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Sanz, J.L.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities,

  13. Mercury and lead tolerance in hypersaline sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -sporulating, non-motile rods lacking in desulfoviridin and cytochromes. Examination of these isolates for heavy metal tolerance and response studies in terms of growth and sulfate-reducing activity (SRA) were carried out using HgCl sub(2) and Pb(NO sub(3)) sub(2...

  14. Brain ageing changes proteoglycan sulfation, rendering perineuronal nets more inhibitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2017-06-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.

  15. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine...

  16. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  17. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  18. Anaerobic BTEX biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Hu Zhifeng; Deng Dong

    2008-01-01

    Effective anaerobic BTEX biodegradation was obtained under nitrate and sulfate reducing conditions by the mixed bacterial consortium that were enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. Under the conditions of using nitrate or sulfate as reducing acceptor, the degradation rates of the six tested substrates decreased with toluene > ethylbenzene > m-xylene > o-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. The higher concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures and led to reduce the degradation rates of BTEX. Benzene and p-xylene were more toxic than toluene and ethylbenzene. Nitrate was a more favorable electron acceptor compared to sulfate. The measured ratios between the amount of nitrate consumed and the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene degraded were 9.47, 9.26, 11.14, 12.46, 13.36 and 13.02, respectively. The measured ratios between sulfate reduction and BTEX degradation were 3.51, 4.33, 4.89, 4.81, 4.86 and 4.76, respectively, which were nearly the same to theoretical ones, and the relative error between the measured and calculated ratios was less than 10%

  19. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calcium sulfate nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and sheets had been synthesized via a facile solution reaction of CaCl2 and H2SO4 in mixed solvents of ethanol/, -dimethylformamide and deionized water at 35°C. The results indicated that well-crystallized CaSO4 nanomaterials with different morphology were obtained ...

  20. Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper sulfate ingestion is a relatively popular method for committing suicide in Indian subcontinent. It causes a high mortality rate, and so a growing concern has been raised to identify the severe alarming signs suggestive of poor prognosis and to improve treatment approaches. Case report: A 22-year-old unmarried man working as a painter was found unconscious at his friend residence. The patient developed hypotension, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with hematemesis and melena, renal and hepatic failure, severe metabolic acidosis and intravascular hemolysis during admission at hospital. His signs were refractory to treatment with fluid replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, furosemide, methylene blue and 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate. He died six hours post-admission. In post-mortem examinations, there were multiple sub-pleural and sub-epicardial hemorrhages and the gastrointestinal mucosa was congested, hemorrhagic, and greenish blue in color. The liver, on histological examination, showed sub-massive hepatic necrosis. On toxicological analyses, copper sulfate was detected in preserved viscera and results for other heavy metals were negative. Conclusion: Hypotension, cyanosis, uremia and jaundice can be considered as signs of poor prognosis in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate ingestion is life-threatening due to its deleterious effects on the upper GI, kidneys, liver and blood. Having no time to waste, aggressive treatments should be immediately instituted and signs of poor prognosis should be kept in mind.

  1. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryn Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate (HS catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA, which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues.

  2. Microbial fuel cell based on electroactive sulfate-reducing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, Anatoliy; Bratkova, Svetlana; Loukanov, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation and management of electricity generation by variation of residence time. ► Design of microbial fuel cell based on electroactive biofilm on zeolite. ► Engineering solution for removing of the obtained elemental sulfur. - abstract: A two chambered laboratory scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed, based on natural sulfate-reducing bacterium consortium in electroactive biofilm on zeolite. The MFC utilizes potassium ferricyanide in the cathode chamber as an electron acceptor that derives electrons from the obtained in anode chamber H 2 S. The molecular oxygen is finally used as a terminal electron acceptor at cathode compartment. The generated power density was 0.68 W m −2 with current density of 3.2 A m −2 at 150 Ω electrode resistivity. The hydrogen sulfide itself is produced by microbial dissimilative sulfate reduction process by utilizing various organic substrates. Finally, elemental sulfur was identified as the predominant final oxidation product in the anode chamber. It was removed from MFC through medium circulation and gathering in an external tank. This report reveals dependence relationship between the progress of general electrochemical parameters and bacterial sulfate-reduction rate. The presented MFC design can be used for simultaneous sulfate purification of mining drainage wastewater and generation of renewable electricity

  3. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  4. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai; Yin Zhoulan; Guo Xueyi

    2011-01-01

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO 4 particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO 4 particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO 4 were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO 4 was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO 4 absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  5. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming, E-mail: csu.light@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yin Zhoulan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo Xueyi [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO{sub 4} were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO{sub 4} was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO{sub 4} absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  6. Alginate Sulfate-Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Öztürk, Ece; Arlov, Øystein; Gatenholm, Paul; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.

  7. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  8. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca"2"+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca"2"+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl_2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  9. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides from different types of mastocytes kept in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two different types of mice mastocitomas - solid and/or ascitic - are analysed in detail using a methodology based mainly in azarose gel microelectrophoresis and degradation by specific mucopolysaccharidases. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides are assayed in both types of tumors in cells cultivated in vitro. Radioactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  10. Evaluating performance-based test and specifications for sulfate resistance in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    This research project involved an experimental evaluation of the sulfate resistance of various concretes and mortars for the purpose of establishing performance-based specifications for the durability of concrete against sulfate attack. The research ...

  11. Calcium-based stabilizer induced heave in Oklahoma sulfate-bearing soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The addition of lime stabilizers can create problems in soils containing sulfates. In most cases, lime is mixed with expansive soils rendering them non-expansive; however, when a certain amount of sulfate is present naturally in expansive soils, the ...

  12. Potential for Sulfate Reduction in Mangrove Forest Soils: Comparison between Two Dominant Species of the Americas

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2016-01-01

    . To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida. The traits measured were sulfate reduction rates

  13. Nitrate and sulfate reducers-retrievable number of bacteria and their activities in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    Culturable heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and sulfate reducing bacteria (HB, NRB and SRB) were enumerated from 25, 50, 100 and 200 m depths at 15 stations and their potential activities viz. Nitrate reducing (NRA) and Sulfate reducing (SRA) were...

  14. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Liisa; Alveteg, Mattias; Warfvinge, Per

    2003-01-01

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l -1 ) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m 2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  15. Presence of sulfate does not inhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; McKenzie, Judith A.; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Angela; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.; Vasconcelos, Crisógono

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that sulfate inhibits dolomite formation evolved from geochemical studies of porewaters from deep-sea sedimentary sequences and has been tested with hydrothermal experiments. We examined the sulfate inhibition factor using aerobic culture experiments with Virgibacillus marismortui and

  16. Accelerated test for measuring sulfate resistance of hydraulic cements for Caltrans LLPRS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Many California soils are rich in sulfates, which can have deleterious effects on the cements used in rigid pavements. Field experience has demonstrated that sulfate attack usually manifests itself in the form of loss of adhesion and strength. In ord...

  17. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, O.C.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate and 3 H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M

  18. Modeling of Sulfate Double-Salt in Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghiani, B.; Lindner, J.S.; Weber, C.F.; Hunt, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) continues to adequately predict the solubility of most key chemical systems in the Hanford tank waste. For example, the ESP predictions were in fair agreement with the solubility experiments for the fluoride-phosphate system, although ESP probably underestimates the aqueous amounts. Due to the importance of this system in the formation of pipeline plugs, additional experiments have been made at elevated temperatures, and improvements to the ESP database will be made. ESP encountered problems with sulfate systems because the Public database for ESP does not include anhydrous sodium sulfate in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. This limitation leads to convergence problems and to spurious predictions of solubility near the transition point with sodium sulfate decahydrate when other salts such as sodium nitrate are present. However, ESP was able to make reasonable solubility predictions with a corrected database, demonstrating the need to validate and document the various databases that can be used by ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this omission does not appear to be a major problem. The solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In sharp contrast, the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included, but ESP still underestimates solubility in some cases. This problem can misrepresent the ionic strength of the solution, which is an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. Solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are planned to provide additional data at higher temperatures and in caustic solutions. These results will be used to improve the range and accuracy of ESP predictions. ESP will continue to provide important predictions for waste processing operations while being evaluated and improved. For example, ESP will be used to determine the amount of water for the saltcake dissolution efforts at Hanford. When ESP underestimates the

  19. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  20. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  1. Quantification and isotopic analysis of intracellular sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Paris, Guillaume; Adkins, Jess F.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction exhibits a normal isotope effect, leaving unreacted sulfate enriched in 34S and producing sulfide that is depleted in 34S. However, the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation is quite variable. The resulting changes in sulfur isotope abundance have been used to trace microbial sulfate reduction in modern and ancient ecosystems, but the intracellular mechanism(s) underlying the wide range of fractionations remains unclear. Here we report the concentrations and isotopic ratios of sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Intracellular sulfate and APS levels change depending on the growth phase, peaking at the end of exponential phase, while sulfite accumulates in the cell during stationary phase. During exponential growth, intracellular sulfate and APS are strongly enriched in 34S. The fractionation between internal and external sulfate is up to 49‰, while at the same time that between external sulfate and sulfide is just a few permil. We interpret this pattern to indicate that enzymatic fractionations remain large but the net fractionation between sulfate and sulfide is muted by the closed-system limitation of intracellular sulfate. This 'reservoir effect' diminishes upon cessation of exponential phase growth, allowing the expression of larger net sulfur isotope fractionations. Thus, the relative rates of sulfate exchange across the membrane versus intracellular sulfate reduction should govern the overall (net) fractionation that is expressed. A strong reservoir effect due to vigorous sulfate reduction might be responsible for the well-established inverse correlation between sulfur isotope fractionation and the cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction, while at the same time intraspecies differences in sulfate uptake and/or exchange rates could account for the significant scatter in this relationship. Our approach, together with ongoing investigations of the kinetic isotope

  2. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  3. Solid-solution partitioning and thionation of diphenylarsinic acid in a flooded soil under the impact of sulfate and iron reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Meng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tu, Chen [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Haibo [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Lijuan [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wei, Jing [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Yongming, E-mail: ymluo@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Christie, Peter [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a major organic arsenic (As) compound derived from abandoned chemical weapons. The solid-solution partitioning and transformation of DPAA in flooded soils are poorly understood but are of great concern. The identification of the mechanisms responsible for the mobilization and transformation of DPAA may help to develop effective remediation strategies. Here, soil and Fe mineral incubation experiments were carried out to elucidate the partitioning and transformation of DPAA in anoxic (without addition of sulfate or sodium lactate) and sulfide (with the addition of sulfate and sodium lactate) soil and to examine the impact of sulfate and Fe(III) reduction on these processes. Results show that DPAA was more effectively mobilized and thionated in sulfide soil than in anoxic soil. At the initial incubation stages (0–4 weeks), 6.7–74.5% of the total DPAA in sulfide soil was mobilized likely by sorption competition with sodium lactate. At later incubation stage (4–8 weeks), DPAA was almost completely released into the solution likely due to the near-complete Fe(III) reduction. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) results provide further direct evidence of elevated DPAA release coupled with Fe(III) reduction in sulfide environments. The total DPAA fraction decreased significantly to 24.5% after two weeks and reached 3.4% after eight weeks in sulfide soil, whereas no obvious elimination of DPAA occurred in anoxic soil at the initial two weeks and the total DPAA fraction decreased to 10.9% after eight weeks. This can be explained in part by the enhanced mobilization of DPAA and sulfate reduction in sulfide soil compared with anoxic soil. These results suggest that under flooded soil conditions, Fe(III) and sulfate reduction significantly promote DPAA mobilization and thionation, respectively, and we suggest that it is essential to consider both sulfate and Fe(III) reduction to further our understanding of the environmental fate of

  4. Oriented nucleation and growth of anhydrite during direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2008-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone (Iceland Spar) was studied at 973 K in a fixed-bed reactor. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of the sulfated limestone particles show that the sulfation process involves oriented nucleation and growth of the solid product, anhydrite. The reason...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9320 - Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9320 Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations. (a) Identification. A copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations is a device...

  6. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061... announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium... product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active ingredient. The product, Kleenex[reg] Brand...

  7. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Gastesi, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell

  8. Sulfate Reduction at pH 4.0 for Treatment of Process and Wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Vries, de E.; Yang, C.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lens, P.N.L.; Dopson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic industrial process and wastewaters often contain high sulfate and metal concentrations and their direct biological treatment is thus far not possible as biological processes at pH <5 have been neglected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria convert sulfate to sulfide that can subsequently be used to

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Desulfobacteraceae Member from a Sulfate-Reducing Bioreactor Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Almstrand, Robert; Pinto, Ameet J.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Sharp, Jonathan O.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulfur cycle and of considerable commercial interest. The draft genome sequence of a sulfate-reducing bacterium of the family Desulfobacteraceae, assembled from a sulfate-reducing bioreactor metagenome, indicates that heavy-metal? and acid-resistance traits of this organism may be of importance for its application in acid mine drainage mitigation.

  10. Twinned low-temperature structures of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate and tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate, [Zn(C2H8N2)3]SO4, (I), undergoes a reversible solid–solid phase transition during cooling, accompanied by a lowering of the symmetry from high-trigonal P31c to low-trigonal P3 and by merohedral twinning. The molecular symmetries of the cation and anion change

  11. Effects of enteral and intravenous fluid therapy, magnesium sulfate, and sodium sulfate on colonic contents and feces in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marco A F; White, Nathaniel A; Donaldson, Lydia; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L

    2004-05-01

    To assess changes in systemic hydration, concentrations of electrolytes in plasma, hydration of colonic contents and feces, and gastrointestinal transit in horses treated with IV fluid therapy or enteral administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), sodium sulfate (NaSO4), water, or a balanced electrolyte solution. 7 horses with fistulas in the right dorsal colon (RDC). In a crossover design, horses alternately received 1 of 6 treatments: no treatment (control); IV fluid therapy with lactated Ringer's solution; or enteral administration of MgSO4, Na2SO4, water, or a balanced electrolyte solution via nasogastric intubation. Physical examinations were performed and samples of blood, RDC contents, and feces were collected every 6 hours during the 48 hour-observation period. Horses were muzzled for the initial 24 hours but had access to water ad libitum. Horses had access to hay, salt, and water ad libitum for the last 24 hours. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution and Na2SO4 were the best treatments for promoting hydration of RDC contents, followed by water. Sodium sulfate was the best treatment for promoting fecal hydration, followed by MgSO4 and the balanced electrolyte solution. Sodium sulfate caused hypocalcemia and hypernatremia, and water caused hyponatremia. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution promoted hydration of RDC contents and may be useful in horses with large colon impactions. Enteral administration of either Na2SO4 or water may promote hydration of RDC contents but can cause severe electrolyte imbalances.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  13. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...

  14. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan, E-mail: xdy0156@sina.com; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity.

  15. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongyan; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity

  16. Standard practice for monitoring atmospheric SO2 using the sulfation plate technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a weighted average effective SO2 level for a 30-day interval through the use of the sulfation plate method, a technique for estimating the effective SO2 content of the atmosphere, and especially with regard to the atmospheric corrosion of stationary structures or panels. This practice is aimed at determining SO2 levels rather than sulfuric acid aerosol or acid precipitation. 1.2 The results of this practice correlate approximately with volumetric SO2 concentrations, although the presence of dew or condensed moisture tends to enhance the capture of SO2 into the plate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Tunable Degradation Rate and Favorable Bioactivity of Porous Calcium Sulfate Scaffolds by Introducing Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bone scaffolds should possess suitable physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities. In this study, porous calcium sulfate (CaSO4 scaffolds were fabricated successfully via selected laser sintering (SLS. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp, a bioactive material with a low degradation rate, was introduced into CaSO4 scaffolds to overcome the overquick absorption. The results demonstrated that nHAp could not only control the degradation rate of scaffolds by adjusting their content, but also improve the pH environment by alleviating the acidification progress during the degradation of CaSO4 scaffolds. Moreover, the improved scaffolds were covered completely with the apatite spherulites in simulated body fluid (SBF, showing their favorable bioactivity. In addition, the compression strength and fracture toughness were distinctly enhanced, which could be ascribed to large specific area of nHAp and the corresponding stress transfer.

  18. Hydrothermal Formation Of Hemi-hydrate Calcium Sulfate Whiskers In The Presence Of Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, K. B.; Li, C. M.; Li, H. P.; Ning, P.; Xiang, L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of addictives on the hydrothermal formation of hemi-hydrate calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O) whiskers were discussed in this paper, using CaCl 2 and Na 2 SO 4 as the reactants. The presence of NaCl, CaCl 2 or Na 2 SO 4 increased the concentrations of Ca 2+ and SO 4 2- , leading to the formation of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O whiskers with aspect ratio lower than 50. The one dimensional growth of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O whiskers was enhanced in water with no additives owing to the low super-saturation, leading to the formation of uniform whiskers with a length of 200-2000 μm and an aspect ratio higher than 100.

  19. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Trifuoggi, Marco; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: structure, protein interactions and cell signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Dreyfuss

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously found at the cell surface and extracellular matrix in all the animal species. This review will focus on the structural characteristics of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans related to protein interactions leading to cell signaling. The heparan sulfate chains due to their vast structural diversity are able to bind and interact with a wide variety of proteins, such as growth factors, chemokines, morphogens, extracellular matrix components, enzymes, among others. There is a specificity directing the interactions of heparan sulfates and target proteins, regarding both the fine structure of the polysaccharide chain as well precise protein motifs. Heparan sulfates play a role in cellular signaling either as receptor or co-receptor for different ligands, and the activation of downstream pathways is related to phosphorylation of different cytosolic proteins either directly or involving cytoskeleton interactions leading to gene regulation. The role of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cellular signaling and endocytic uptake pathways is also discussed.Proteoglicanos de heparam sulfato são encontrados tanto superfície celular quanto na matriz extracelular em todas as espécies animais. Esta revisão tem enfoque nas características estruturais dos proteoglicanos de heparam sulfato e nas interações destes proteoglicanos com proteínas que levam à sinalização celular. As cadeias de heparam sulfato, devido a sua variedade estrutural, são capazes de se ligar e interagir com ampla gama de proteínas, como fatores de crescimento, quimiocinas, morfógenos, componentes da matriz extracelular, enzimas, entreoutros. Existe uma especificidade estrutural que direciona as interações dos heparam sulfatos e proteínas alvo. Esta especificidade está relacionada com a estrutura da cadeia do polissacarídeo e os motivos conservados da cadeia polipeptídica das proteínas envolvidas nesta interação. Os heparam

  2. Antimicrobial gelatin-based elastomer nanocomposite membrane loaded with ciprofloxacin and polymyxin B sulfate in halloysite nanotubes for wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Niu, Yuzhao; Gong, Min; Ye, Jingjing; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Liqun

    2018-06-01

    Bacterial infection is a major problem world-wide, especially in wound treatment where it can severely prolong the healing process. In this study, a double drug co-delivery elastic antibacterial nanocomposite was developed by combining ciprofloxacin (CPX) and polymyxin B sulfate-loaded halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs-B) into a gelatin elastomer. CPX nanoparticles which act against both gram positive and gram-negative bacterium were dispersed directly in the matrix, and polymyxin B sulfate was loaded in HNTs and then distributed into the matrix. The effect of CPX and HNTs-B content on the physical properties, cytotoxicity, fibroblast adhesion and proliferation, in vitro drug release behavior and anti-bacterial properties were systematically investigated. The ciprofloxacin crystals and HNT-B were distributed in the matrix uniformly. The HNTs in the drug loading system not only enhanced the matrix' tensile strength but also slowed down the release rate of the high dissoluble polymyxin B sulfate. When the amount of HNT in the matrix increased, the thermal stability and tensile strength also increased but the polymyxin B sulfate release rate decreased because the HNTs prevented the drug release inside. All the nanocomposites exhibited antimicrobial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria with the dual combination of drugs released from the nanocomposites. Furthermore, this kind of gelatin-based nanocomposites possesses higher water-absorbing quality, low cytotoxicity, adaptable biodegradability and good elasticity which can satisfy the requirements for an ideal biomaterial for use in wound healing applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SO2 photoexcitation mechanism links mass-independent sulfur isotopic fractionation in cryospheric sulfate to climate impacting volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Schmidt, Johan A.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Yamada, Akinori; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Natural climate variation, such as that caused by volcanoes, is the basis for identifying anthropogenic climate change. However, knowledge of the history of volcanic activity is inadequate, particularly concerning the explosivity of specific events. Some material is deposited in ice cores, but the concentration of glacial sulfate does not distinguish between tropospheric and stratospheric eruptions. Stable sulfur isotope abundances contain additional information, and recent studies show a correlation between volcanic plumes that reach the stratosphere and mass-independent anomalies in sulfur isotopes in glacial sulfate. We describe a mechanism, photoexcitation of SO2, that links the two, yielding a useful metric of the explosivity of historic volcanic events. A plume model of S(IV) to S(VI) conversion was constructed including photochemistry, entrainment of background air, and sulfate deposition. Isotopologue-specific photoexcitation rates were calculated based on the UV absorption cross-sections of 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2, and 36SO2 from 250 to 320 nm. The model shows that UV photoexcitation is enhanced with altitude, whereas mass-dependent oxidation, such as SO2 + OH, is suppressed by in situ plume chemistry, allowing the production and preservation of a mass-independent sulfur isotope anomaly in the sulfate product. The model accounts for the amplitude, phases, and time development of Δ33S/δ34S and Δ36S/Δ33S found in glacial samples. We are able to identify the process controlling mass-independent sulfur isotope anomalies in the modern atmosphere. This mechanism is the basis of identifying the magnitude of historic volcanic events. PMID:23417298

  4. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS KAMBING KACANG DI KELURAHAN PENATIH DENPASAR TIMUR MELALUI DEMOPLOT PEMBERIAN KONSENTRAT YANG DISUPLEMENTASI AMONIUM SULFAT VS MINERAL MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PUTRA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In line with the regional government programs in sustaining the agricultural ? livestock farming system. An informative talk on enhancing performances and productivity of kacang goat was held at Penatih, Badung reegency on the 20th Dec. 2002. The aim of the community service is to fulfill the farmer?s knowledge and their technical skill in choosing and applying proportional feed stuff, especially using ammonium sulfate mineral as feed supplement on grass-legume based diet. This material which has the capasity to promote rumen microbial growth and their activity in digesting low quality diets. Composing and mixing concentrate diets has also been demonstrated and 4 dietary treatments were tested using 12 goats during a period of 15 days. Ration ( R A contained 97% rice bran + 3% am. Sulfate; RB was 97% rice brand + 3% mineral miz; RC was pollard + 3% am. Sulfate and RD was 97% pollard + 3% mineral mix. Body weight gain were monitored through out the trial period. The result indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of performance and productivity of kacang goats. Body weight gain being increased to 0,067 ? 0,300 kg/head/day for diet A, C, and D, which the highest mean values of 0,217 kg/head/day were obtained for diet D. This situation may due to the present of ammonium sulfate plus zinc (Zn mineral to the legumes basal diet, which can act as metabolic modulator . In general, most of the participants (90% have a very good responses and acceptance for the beneficial information given to them.

  5. Biogeochemical cycles at the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) and geochemical characteristics of the pore fluids offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ching-Yi; Frank Yang, Tsanyao; Burr, George S.; Chuang, Pei-Chuan; Chen, Hsuan-Wen; Walia, Monika; Chen, Nai-Chen; Huang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Saulwood; Wang, Yunshuen; Chung, San-Hsiung; Huang, Chin-Da; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we used pore water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), SO42-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ gradients at the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) to estimate biogeochemical fluxes for cored sediments collected offshore SW Taiwan. Net DIC flux changes (ΔDIC-Prod) were applied to determine the proportion of sulfate consumption by organic matter oxidation (heterotrophic sulfate reduction) and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), and to determine reliable CH4 fluxes at the SMTZ. Our results show that SO42- profiles are mainly controlled by AOM rather than heterotrophic sulfate reduction. Refinement of CH4 flux estimates enhance our understanding of methane abundance from deep carbon reservoirs to the SMTZ. Concentrations of chloride (Cl-), bromide (Br-) and iodide (I-) dissolved in pore water were used to identify potential sources that control fluid compositions and the behavior of dissolved ions. Constant Cl- concentrations throughout ∼30 m sediment suggest no influence of gas hydrates for the compositions within the core. Bromide (Br-) and Iodine (I-) concentrations increase with sediment depth. The I-/Br- ratio appears to reflect organic matter degradation. SO42- concentrations decrease with sediment depth at a constant rate, and sediment depth profiles of Br- and I- concentrations suggests diffusion as the main transport mechanism. Therefore diffusive flux calculations are reasonable. Coring sites with high CH4 fluxes are more common in the accretionary wedge, amongst thrust faults and fractures, than in the passive continental margin offshore southwestern Taiwan. AOM reactions are a major sink for CH4 passing upward through the SMTZ and prevent high methane fluxes in the water column and to the atmosphere.

  6. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the foliar absorption of phosphates at the pumpkin; Effets du sulfate de magnesium sur l'absorption foliaire de phosphates chez le potiron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, A

    1962-07-01

    The foliar absorption of phosphates labelled with {sup 32}P and applied with or without magnesium sulfate on the first leaf of pumpkin seedlings have been studied. The magnesium sulfate applied with the phosphate reduces plainly the absorption rate of {sup 32}P. (O.M.) [French] Nous avons etudie l'absorption foliaire de phosphates marques au {sup 32}P appliques, avec et sans sulfate de magnesium, sur la premiere feuille de jeunes plants de potirons. Le sulfate de magnesium applique avec le phosphate diminue nettement le taux d'absorption du {sup 32}P. (auteur)

  7. Sequencing of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides using a novel exolyase from a marine bacterium that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuang; Cai, Xiaojuan; Han, Naihan; Han, Wenjun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2017-11-09

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that play important roles in physiological and pathological processes. Owing to the structural complexity of GAGs, their sophisticated chemical structures and biological functions have not been extensively studied. Lyases that cleave GAGs are important tools for structural analysis. Although various GAG lyases have been identified, exolytic lyases with unique enzymatic property are urgently needed for GAG sequencing. In the present study, a putative exolytic GAG lyase from a marine bacterium was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. Since it showed exolytic lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), it was designated as HCDLase. This novel exolyase exhibited the highest activity in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0) at 30°C. Especially, it showed a specific activity that released 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB)-labeled disaccharides from the reducing end of 2-AB-labeled CS oligosaccharides, which suggest that HCDLase is not only a novel exolytic lyase that can split disaccharide residues from the reducing termini of sugar chains but also a useful tool for the sequencing of CS chains. Notably, HCDLase could not digest 2-AB-labeled oligosaccharides from HA, DS, or unsulfated chondroitin, which indicated that sulfates and bond types affect the catalytic activity of HCDLase. Finally, this enzyme combined with CSase ABC was successfully applied for the sequencing of several CS hexa- and octasaccharides with complex structures. The identification of HCDLase provides a useful tool for CS-related research and applications. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Tyrosine sulfation, a post-translational modification of microvillar enzymes in the small intestinal enterocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1987-01-01

    Protein sulfation in small intestinal epithelial cells was studied by labelling of organ cultured mucosal explants with [35S]-sulfate. Six bands in SDS-PAGE became selectively labelled; four, of 250, 200, 166 and 130 kd, were membrane-bound and two, of 75 and 60 kd, were soluble. The sulfated mem...... sulfated. Most if not all the sulfate was bound to tyrosine residues rather than to the carbohydrate of the microvillar enzymes, showing that this type of modification can occur on plasma membrane proteins as well as on secretory proteins....

  9. Simulation-based Analysis of the Differences in the Removal Rate of Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulfates by Electrokinetic Desalination Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    than chlorides and nitrates. A physicochemical model for electrochemically-induced reactive-transport processes is described and used for a theoretical analysis of the influence of the chemical interactions on the removal rate of the target ions. Simulations for the electro-desalination of a brick......Due to their abundance in the natural environment, chloride, nitrate and sulfate salts are considered the main responsible for the salt-induced decay processes in building materials and sculptures. Electro-desalination techniques, enhanced with carbonated clay buffer poultice placed between...

  10. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment.

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2010-05-06

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this paper, six methanogenic substrates are tested as candidate-IECs by assessing their effect on AOM and SR by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment. The presence of acetate, formate or hydrogen enhanced SR, but did not inhibit AOM, nor did these substrates trigger methanogenesis. Carbon monoxide also enhanced SR but slightly inhibited AOM. Methanol did not enhance SR nor did it inhibit AOM, and methanethiol inhibited both SR and AOM completely. Subsequently, it was calculated at which candidate-IEC concentrations no more Gibbs free energy can be conserved from their production from methane at the applied conditions. These concentrations were at least 1,000 times lower can the final candidate-IEC concentration in the bulk liquid. Therefore, the tested candidate-IECs could not have been produced from methane during the incubations. Hence, acetate, formate, methanol, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen can be excluded as sole IEC in AOM coupled to SR. Methanethiol did inhibit AOM and can therefore not be excluded as IEC by this study.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the sulfate deficiency response in the marine microalga Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Michal; Etherington, Graham J; Koprivova, Anna; Mugford, Sam T; Bell, Thomas G; Malin, Gill; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-08-01

    The response to sulfate deficiency of plants and freshwater green algae has been extensively analysed by system biology approaches. By contrast, seawater sulfate concentration is high and very little is known about the sulfur metabolism of marine organisms. Here, we used a combination of metabolite analysis and transcriptomics to analyse the response of the marine microalga Emiliania huxleyi as it acclimated to sulfate limitation. Lowering sulfate availability in artificial seawater from 25 to 5 mM resulted in significant reduction in growth and intracellular concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glutathione. Sulfate-limited E. huxleyi cells showed increased sulfate uptake but sulfate reduction to sulfite did not seem to be regulated. Sulfate limitation in E. huxleyi affected expression of 1718 genes. The vast majority of these genes were upregulated, including genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and genes involved in the general stress response. The acclimation response of E. huxleyi to sulfate deficiency shows several similarities to the well-described responses of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, but also has many unique features. This dataset shows that even though E. huxleyi is adapted to constitutively high sulfate concentration, it retains the ability to re-program its gene expression in response to reduced sulfate availability. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Control of sulfate concentration by miR395-targeted APS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur nutrition is crucial for plant growth and development, as well as crop yield and quality. Inorganic sulfate in the soil is the major sulfur source for plants. After uptake, sulfate is activated by ATP sulfurylase, and then gets assimilated into sulfur-containing metabolites. However, the mechanism of regulation of sulfate levels by ATP sulfurylase is unclear. Here, we investigated the control of sulfate levels by miR395-mediated regulation of APS1/3/4. Sulfate was over-accumulated in the shoots of miR395 over-expression plants in which the expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes was suppressed. Accordingly, reduced expression of miR395 caused a decline of sulfate concentration. In agreement with these results, over-expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes led to the reduction of sulfate levels. Differential expression of these three APS genes in response to sulfate starvation implied that they have different functions. Further investigation revealed that the regulation of sulfate levels mediated by miR395 depends on the repression of its APS targets. Unlike the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes, which encode plastid-localized ATP sulfurylases, the APS2 gene encodes a cytosolic version of ATP sulfurylase. Genetic analysis indicated that APS2 has no significant effect on sulfate levels. Our data suggest that miR395-targeted APS genes are key regulators of sulfate concentration in leaves.

  13. Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that faces the concrete industry in Iraq is the deterioration due to internal sulfate attack , since it reduces the compressive strength and increases the expansion of concrete. Consequently, the concrete structure may be damage .The effects of total and total effective sulfate contents on high strength concrete (HSC have been studied in the present study. The research studied the effect of sulfate content in cement , sand and gravel , as well as comparing the total sulfate content with the total effective SO3 content. Materials used were divided into two groups of SO3 in cement ,three groups of SO3 in sand ,and two groups of SO3 in gravel. The results show that considering the total effective sulfate content is better than the total content of sulfates since the effect of sulfate in each constituent of concrete, depends on it's granular size .The smaller the particle size of the material the more effective is the sulfate in it. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the Iraqi specification for total effective sulfate content, because it gives more flexibility to the use of sand and gravel with higher sulfate content. The results of compressive strength at 90-days show that the effect of total effective SO3 content of ( 2.647% , 2.992% , 3.424% that correspond to total sulfate of ( 3.778%, 3.294%, 4.528% decrease the compressive strength by (7.53%, 11.44%, 14.59% respectively.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of sulfate deprivation responses in two agarophytes Gracilaria changii and Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Kang; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2017-04-24

    Seaweeds survive in marine waters with high sulfate concentration compared to those living at freshwater habitats. The cell wall polymer of Gracilaria spp. which supplies more than 50% of the world agar is heavily sulfated. Since sulfation reduces the agar quality, it is interesting to investigate the effects of sulfate deprivation on the sulfate contents of seaweed and agar, as well as the metabolic pathways of these seaweeds. In this study, two agarophytes G. changii and G. salicornia were treated under sulfate deprivation for 5 days. The sulfate contents in the seaweed/agar were generally lower in sulfate-deprivated samples compared to those in the controls, but the differences were only statistically significant for seaweed sample of G. changii and agar sample of G. salicornia. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of sulfate-deprivated and untreated seaweed samples revealed 1,292 and 3,439 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; ≥1.5-fold) in sulfate-deprivated G. changii and G. salicornia, respectively, compared to their respective controls. Among the annotated DEGs were genes involved in putative agar biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. These findings shed light on the sulfate deprivation responses in agarophytes and help to identify candidate genes involved in agar biosynthesis.

  15. Production of Anti-triiodothyronine sulfate antibody for radioimmunoassay applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbanna, I.M.; Ragab, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Triiodothyronine sulfate (T3S) may be an obligatory intermediate metabolic of the metabolism of thyroid gland hormones invertebrates in peripheral during the process of deiodination of the inactive form of the thyroid gland hormones, thyroxine(T4), into the active form triiodothyronine (1,2). Construction of a reliable procedure for the estimation of T3S accurately in blood serum will be of great importance for medical, biochemical and physiological investigations. In this work we developed a robust method for the production of anti-triiodothyronine sulfate polyclonal antiserum with good specifications using a derivatized immuno gen and a modified immunization process and a sensitive radioimmunoassay system was designed and developed

  16. Electrogenic sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattey, M.A.; Gerencser, G.A.; Aheam, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were isolated from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas and purified by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. BLMV prepared in this fashion were osmotically reactive exhibiting linear dependence of vesicular 35 SO 4 -2 uptake to increasing external osmotic pressure with negligible non-specific isotope binding. Under short circuited conditions (valinomycin/K + ) BLMV responded to either a HCO 3 - gradient directed out or equilibrated HCO 3 - (10 mM) by displaying short term accumulation of sulfate above that of equilibrium. Uptake of divalent anion was unaffected by an inwardly directed transmembrane Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradient. 35 SO 4 -2 /HCO 3 - exchange in the presence of valinomycin was stimulated by transient inside positive K + diffusion potentials and inhibited by transient inside negative K + diffusion potentials. The role of electrogenic anion exchange by hepatopancreas BLMV in transcellular sulfate transport is discussed

  17. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A. Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-01-01

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO 3 solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO 4 - complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO 4 - ] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation

  18. 24-hour secretory pattern of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, R.S.; Rosenberg, B.J.; Fukushima, D.K.; Hellman, L.

    1975-01-01

    Dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA) and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay and protein binding techniques respectively in plasma from blood taken at 20-min intervals over 24-h periods in 3 normal men, 2 women with Stein-Leventhal syndrome, and a man with a benign adrenocortical adenoma. In all subjects but the latter, DHA and cortisol were episodic and synchronous throughout the entire day; in this patient, continuous secretion of cortisol by the tumor apparently abolished stimulation of the contralateral adrenal, and DHA production was negligible. Dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate analyses in plasma displayed a pattern which, probably because of its origin both by secretion and sulfation and its long half-life, showed less synchronicity with DHA and cortisol and less fluctuation than did the free hormones. (U.S.)

  19. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  20. Thermoluminescence of sulfated zircon exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, E.; Castano, V.M.; Mendoza A, E.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (Tl) signal induced by gamma radiation in zirconia and sulfated zirconia samples embedded in Ptfe pellets is reported and discussed. In this case, samples were obtained through sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide and H 2 SO 4 as precursors, and later were subjected to thermal treatment at 600 C to obtain, the tetragonal phase accordingly to X-ray diffraction analysis. Experimental results show that the thermoluminescent glow peak depends on both, the crystalline structure and sulfate concentration. Two maximum peaks were observed located at 147 C and 274 C arising from the electronic transitions. Tl response as a function of the absorbed dose shows a linear increase for a wide of range exposure as well as good stability in time. The high sensitivity, dose linearity and signal stability of this material open the potential possibility to be used for the dosimetry applications. (Author)