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Sample records for sugarcane cdnas encoding

  1. Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Tetsuji; Ota, Toshio; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Wakamatsu, Ai; Kimura, Kouichi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Hatano, Naoto; Kawai, Yuri; Ishii, Shizuko; Saito, Kaoru; Kojima, Shin-ichi; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Ono, Tetsuyoshi; Okano, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Aotsuka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Naokazu; Hattori, Atsushi; Okumura, Koji; Nagai, Keiichi; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an in silico method of selection of human full-length cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. Fullness rates were increased to about 80% by combination of the oligo-capping method and ATGpr, software for prediction of translation start point and the coding potential. Then, using 5'-end single-pass sequences, cDNAs having the signal sequence were selected by PSORT ('signal sequence trap'). We also applied 'secretion or membrane protein-related keyword trap' based on the result of BLAST search against the SWISS-PROT database for the cDNAs which could not be selected by PSORT. Using the above procedures, 789 cDNAs were primarily selected and subjected to full-length sequencing, and 334 of these cDNAs were finally selected as novel. Most of the cDNAs (295 cDNAs: 88.3%) were predicted to encode secretion or membrane proteins. In particular, 165(80.5%) of the 205 cDNAs selected by PSORT were predicted to have signal sequences, while 70 (54.2%) of the 129 cDNAs selected by 'keyword trap' preserved the secretion or membrane protein-related keywords. Many important cDNAs were obtained, including transporters, receptors, and ligands, involved in significant cellular functions. Thus, an efficient method of selecting secretion or membrane protein-encoding cDNAs was developed by combining the above four procedures.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a cDNAs encoding androgenic gland hormone precursors from two Porcellionidae species, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus

    OpenAIRE

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual characteristics in Crustacea are induced by androgenic gland hormone (AGH), which is produced by the male-specific androgenic gland. Recently, AGH in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare was characterized and its cDNA cloned, the first example in which the structure of AGH was elucidated. We report here the molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding AGH precursors from two additional terrestrial isopods, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus. cDNA fragments encoding Porcellio scaber ...

  3. Cloning and molecular characterization of the cDNAs encoding the variable regions of an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehbandi, Dariush; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili

    2017-01-01

    CD20-based targeting of B-cells in hematologic malignancies and autoimmune disorders is associated with outstanding clinical outcomes. Isolation and characterization of VH and VL cDNAs encoding the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is necessary to produce next generation MAbs and their derivatives such as bispecific antibodies (bsAb) and single-chain variable fragments (scFv). This study was aimed at cloning and characterization of the VH and VL cDNAs from a hybridoma cell line producing an anti-CD20 MAb. VH and VL fragments were amplified, cloned and characterized. Furthermore, amino acid sequences of VH, VL and corresponding complementarity-determining regions (CDR) were determined and compared with those of four approved MAbs including Rituximab (RTX), Ibritumomab tiuxetan, Ofatumumab and GA101. The cloned VH and VL cDNAs were found to be functional and follow a consensus pattern. Amino acid sequences corresponding to the VH and VL fragments also indicated noticeable homologies to those of RTX and Ibritumomab. Furthermore, amino acid sequences of the relating CDRs had remarkable similarities to their counterparts in RTX and Ibritumomab. Successful recovery of VH and VL fragments encourages the development of novel CD20 targeting bsAbs, scFvs, antibody conjugates and T-cells armed with chimeric antigen receptors.

  4. cDNAs encoding [D-Ala2]deltorphin precursors from skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor also contain genetic information for three dermorphin-related opioid peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, K; Egger, R; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Kreil, G

    1990-01-01

    We present the structure of four precursors for [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II as deduced from cDNAs cloned from skin of the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. These contain the genetic information for one copy of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II and zero, one, or three copies of [D-Ala2]deltorphin I. In each case, the D-alanine of the end product is encoded by a normal GCG codon for L-alanine. In addition, the existence of three peptides related to dermorphin was predicted from the amino acid sequence of the pre...

  5. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

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    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  6. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

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    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  7. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding the complete sequence of decay-accelerating factor of human complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medof, M.E.; Lublin, D.M.; Holers, V.M.; Ayers, D.J.; Getty, R.R.; Leykam, J.F.; Atkinson, J.P.; Tykocinski, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF) were isolated from HeLa and differentiated HL-60 λgt cDNA libraries by screening with a codon preference oligonucleotide corresponding to DAF NH 2 -terminal amino acids 3-14. The composite cDNA sequence showed a 347-amino acid protein preceded by an NH 2 -terminal leader peptide sequence. The translated sequence beginning at the DAF NH 2 terminus encodes four contiguous ≅ 61-amino acid long repetitive units of internal homology. The repetitive regions contain four conserved cysteines, one proline, one glycine, one glycine/alanine, four leucines/isoleucines/valines, one serine, three tyrosines/phenylalanines, and on tryptophan and show striking homology to similar regions previously identified in factor B, C2, C4 binding protein, factor H, C1r, factor XIII, interleukin 2 receptor, and serum β 2 -glycoprotein I. The consensus repeats are attached to a 70-amino acid long segment rich in serine and threonine (potential O-glycosylation sites), which is in turn followed by a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids. RNA blot analysis of HeLa and HL-60 RNA revealed three DAF mRNA species of 3.1, 2.7, and 2.0 kilobases. The results indicate that portions of the DAF gene may have evolved from a DNA element common to the above proteins, that DAF cDNA predicts a COOH-terminal anchoring polypeptide, and that distinct species of DAF message are elaborated in cells

  8. Cloning of cDNAs encoding new peptides of the dermaseptin-family.

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    Wechselberger, C

    1998-10-14

    Dermaseptins are a group of basic (lysine-rich) peptides, 27-34 amino acids in length and involved in the defense of frog skin against microbial invasion. By using a degenerated oligonucleotide primer binding to the 5'-untranslated region of previously characterized cDNAs of these peptides, it was possible to identify new members of the dermaseptin family in the South American frogs Agalychnis annae and Pachymedusa dacnicolor. Amino acid alignment and secondary structure prediction reveals, that only five of the deduced peptides can be supposed to be also functional homologs to the known dermaseptins from Phyllomedusa bicolor and Phyllomedusa sauvagei. The remaining six peptides described in this paper have not been isolated and characterized yet.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

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    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  11. Molecular cloning of skin peptide precursor-encoding cDNAs from tibial gland secretion of the Giant Monkey Frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor (Hylidae, Anura).

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    König, Enrico; Clark, Valerie C; Shaw, Chris; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P

    2012-12-01

    The skins of phyllomedusine frogs have long been considered as being tremendously rich sources of bioactive peptides. Previous studies of both peptides and cloning of their precursor encoding cDNAs have relied upon methanolic skin extracts or the dissected skins of recently deceased specimens and have not considered the different glands in isolation. We therefore focused our attention on the tibial gland of the Giant Monkey Frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor and constructed a cDNA library from the skin secretion that was obtained via mechanical stimulation of this macrogland. Using shotgun cloning, four precursors encoding host-defense peptides were identified: two archetypal dermaseptins, a phyllokinin and a phylloseptin that is new for this species but has been recently described from the Waxy Monkey Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagii. Our study is the first to report defensive peptides specifically isolated from anuran tibial glands, confirming the hypothesis that these glands also contribute to chemical defense. Moreover, the discovery of novel compounds for this otherwise very well characterized species suggests that this largely neglected gland might possess a different cocktail of secretions from glands elsewhere in the same animal. We will also discuss some evolutionary implications of our findings with respect to the adaptive plasticity of secretory glands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

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    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  13. cDNAs encoding [D-Ala2]deltorphin precursors from skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor also contain genetic information for three dermorphin-related opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, K; Egger, R; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Kreil, G

    1990-06-01

    We present the structure of four precursors for [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II as deduced from cDNAs cloned from skin of the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. These contain the genetic information for one copy of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II and zero, one, or three copies of [D-Ala2]deltorphin I. In each case, the D-alanine of the end product is encoded by a normal GCG codon for L-alanine. In addition, the existence of three peptides related to dermorphin was predicted from the amino acid sequence of the precursors. These peptides were synthesized with a D-alanine in position 2 and their pharmacological properties were tested. Two of them, [Lys7]dermorphin-OH and [Trp4,Asn7]dermorphin-OH, were found to have roughly the same affinity and selectivity for mu-type opioid receptors as dermorphin.

  14. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

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    Andréia B. Poletto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  15. Characterization of cDNAs encoding human pyruvate dehydrogenase α subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Lap; Wexler, I.D.; Liu, Techung; Thekkumkara, T.J.; Patel, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone (1,423 base pairs) comprising the entire coding region of the precursor form of the α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E 1 α) has been isolated from a human liver cDNA library in phage λgt11. The first 29 amino acids deduced from the open reading frame correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. The remaining 361 amino acids, starting at the N terminus with phenylalanine, represent the mature mitochondrial E 1 α peptide. The cDNA has 43 base pairs in the 5' untranslated region and 210 base pairs in the 3' untranslated region, including a polyadenylylation signal and a short poly(A) tract. The nucleotide sequence of human liver E 1 α cDNA was confirmed by the nucleotide sequences of three overlapping fragments generated from human liver and fibroblast RNA by reverse transcription and DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. This consensus nucleotide sequence of human liver E 1 α cDNA resolves existing discrepancies among three previously reported human E 1 α cDNAs and provides the unambiguous reference sequence needed for the characterization of genetic mutations in pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient patients

  16. Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-12-05

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.

  17. Isolation of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cDNAs encoding isoforms of serine acetyltransferase and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase in a yeast two-hybrid system with Escherichia coli cysE and cysK genes as baits.

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    Liszewska, Frantz; Gaganidze, Dali; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    We applied the yeast two-hybrid system for screening of a cDNA library of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia for clones encoding plant proteins interacting with two proteins of Escherichia coli: serine acetyltransferase (SAT, the product of cysE gene) and O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase A, also termed cysteine synthase (OASTL-A, the product of cysK gene). Two plant cDNA clones were identified when using the cysE gene as a bait. These clones encode a probable cytosolic isoform of OASTL and an organellar isoform of SAT, respectively, as indicated by evolutionary trees. The second clone, encoding SAT, was identified independently also as a "prey" when using cysK as a bait. Our results reveal the possibility of applying the two-hybrid system for cloning of plant cDNAs encoding enzymes of the cysteine synthase complex in the two-hybrid system. Additionally, using genome walking sequences located upstream of the sat1 cDNA were identified. Subsequently, in silico analyses were performed aiming towards identification of the potential signal peptide and possible location of the deduced mature protein encoded by sat1.

  18. cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.

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    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Nishihara, Masashiro; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-02-20

    cDNAs encoding lycopene epsilon -cyclase, lycopene beta-cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase and zeaxanthin epoxidase were isolated from a Gentiana lutea petal cDNA library. The function of all cDNAs was analyzed by complementation in Escherichia coli. Transcript levels during different stages of flower development of G. lutea were determined and compared to the carotenoid composition. Expression of all genes increased by a factor of up to 2, with the exception of the lycopene epsilon -cyclase gene. The transcript amount of the latter was strongly decreased. These results indicate that during flower development, carotenoid formation is enhanced. Moreover, metabolites are shifted away from the biosynthetic branch to lutein and are channeled into beta-carotene and derivatives.

  19. Identification and characterization of the donkey CSN1S2 I and II cDNAs

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    Davide Nicodemo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The αs2 casein, encoded by the CSN1S2 gene, is one of the three Calcium sensitive caseins present in the milk of ruminants of zootechnical interest and in the milk of Equidae species (horse and donkey. In the present study, we cloned, sequenced and analysed two different donkey CSN1S2 cDNAs that we called CSN1S2 I and CSN1S2 II. The first, which spans over a fragment of 1016 nt, is constituted by 19 exons and encodes for a predicted protein (called αs2-I of 221 aminoacids; the second, of which we determined the entire sequence (16 exons, encodes for a predicted peptide (called αs2-II of 168 aminoacids. Alternative splicing and genetic markers are reported for both genes.

  20. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M.; Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the ∼1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5' regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family

  1. Characterization and comparison of fatty acyl Delta6 desaturase cDNAs from freshwater and marine teleost fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Seiliez, I; Hastings, N; Tocher, D R; Panserat, S; Dickson, C A; Bergot, P; Teale, A J

    2004-10-01

    Fish are the most important dietary source of the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that have particularly important roles in human nutrition reflecting their roles in critical physiological processes. The objective of the study described here was to clone, functionally characterize and compare expressed fatty acid desaturase genes involved in the production of EPA and DHA in freshwater and marine teleost fish species. Putative fatty acid desaturase cDNAs were isolated and cloned from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and turbot (Psetta maximus). The enzymic activities of the products of these cDNAs, together with those of cDNAs previously cloned from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), were determined by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The carp and turbot desaturase cDNAs included open reading frames (ORFs) of 1335 and 1338 base pairs, respectively, specifying proteins of 444 and 445 amino acids. The protein sequences possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases, including three histidine boxes, two transmembrane regions, and N-terminal cytochrome b(5) domains containing the haem-binding motif, HPGG. Functional expression showed all four fish cDNAs encode basically unifunctional Delta6 fatty acid desaturase enzymes responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of HUFA from 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6. All the fish desaturases were more active towards the n-3 substrate with 59.5%, 31.5%, 23.1% and 7.0% of 18:3n-3 being converted to 18:4n-3 in the case of turbot, trout, sea bream and carp, respectively. The enzymes also showed very low, probably physiologically insignificant, levels of Delta5 desaturase activity, but none of the products showed Delta4 desaturase activity. The cloning and characterization of desaturases from these fish is an important advance, as they are species in which

  2. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

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    Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  3. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus, a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  4. Three synonymous genes encode calmodulin in a reptile, the Japanese tortoise, Clemmys japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Shimoda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct calmodulin (CaM-encoding cDNAs were isolated from a reptile, the Japanese tortoise (Clemmys japonica, based on degenerative primer PCR. Because of synonymous codon usages, the deduced amino acid (aa sequences were exactly the same in all three genes and identical to the aa sequence of vertebrate CaM. The three cDNAs, referred to as CaM-A, -B, and -C, seemed to belong to the same type as CaMI, CaMII, and CaMIII, respectively, based on their sequence identity with those of the mammalian cDNAs and the glutamate codon biases. Northern blot analysis detected CaM-A and -B as bands corresponding to 1.8 kb, with the most abundant levels in the brain and testis, while CaM-C was detected most abundantly in the brain as bands of 1.4 and 2.0 kb. Our results indicate that, in the tortoise, CaM protein is encoded by at least three non-allelic genes, and that the ‘multigene-one protein' principle of CaM synthesis is applicable to all classes of vertebrates, from fishes to mammals.

  5. Identification of a mammalian nuclear factor and human cDNA-encoded proteins that recognize DNA containing apurinic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, J.; Okenquist, S.A.; LoSardo, J.E.; Hamilton, K.K.; Doetsch, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Damage to DNA can have lethal or mutagenic consequences for cells unless it is detected and repaired by cellular proteins. Repair depends on the ability of cellular factors to distinguish the damaged sites. Electrophoretic binding assays were used to identify a factor from the nuclei of mammalian cells that bound to DNA containing apurinic sites. A binding assay based on the use of β-galactosidase fusion proteins was subsequently used to isolate recombinant clones of human cDNAs that encoded apurinic DNA-binding proteins. Two distinct human cDNAs were identified that encoded proteins that bound apurinic DNA preferentially over undamaged, methylated, or UV-irradiated DNA. These approaches may offer a general method for the detection of proteins that recognize various types of DNA damage and for the cloning of genes encoding such proteins

  6. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  7. Dermatoxin and phylloxin from the waxy monkey frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagei: cloning of precursor cDNAs and structural characterization from lyophilized skin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-07-15

    Amphibian skin is a morphologically, biochemically and physiologically complex organ that performs the wide range of functions necessary for amphibian survival. Here we describe the primary structures of representatives of two novel classes of amphibian skin antimicrobials, dermatoxin and phylloxin, from the skin secretion of Phyllomedusa sauvagei, deduced from their respective precursor encoding cDNAs cloned from a lyophilized skin secretion library. A degenerate primer, designed to a highly conserved domain in the 5'-untranslated region of analogous peptide precursor cDNAs from Phyllomedusa bicolor, was employed in a 3'-RACE reaction. Peptides with molecular masses coincident with precursor-deduced mature toxin peptides were identified in LC/MS fractions of skin secretion and primary structures were confirmed by MS/MS fragmentation. This integrated experimental approach can thus rapidly expedite the primary structural characterization of amphibian skin peptides in a manner that circumvents specimen sacrifice whilst preserving robustness of scientific data.

  8. Sugarcane genes differentially expressed in response to Puccinia melanocephala infection: identification and transcript profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloriz, María I; Gil, Víctor; Rojas, Luis; Portal, Orelvis; Izquierdo, Yovanny; Jiménez, Elio; Höfte, Monica

    2012-05-01

    Brown rust caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala is a major disease of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). A sugarcane mutant, obtained by chemical mutagenesis of the susceptible variety B4362, showed a post-haustorial hypersensitive response (HR)-mediated resistance to the pathogen and was used to identify genes differentially expressed in response to P. melanocephala via suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Tester cDNA was derived from the brown rust-resistant mutant after inoculation with P. melanocephala, while driver cDNAs were obtained from the non-inoculated resistant mutant and the inoculated susceptible donor variety B4362. Database comparisons of the sequences of the SSH recombinant clones revealed that, of a subset of 89 non-redundant sequences, 88% had similarity to known functional genes, while 12% were of unknown function. Thirteen genes were selected for transcript profiling in the resistant mutant and the susceptible donor variety. Genes involved in glycolysis and C4 carbon fixation were up-regulated in both interactions probably due to disturbance of sugarcane carbon metabolism by the pathogen. Genes related with the nascent polypeptide associated complex, post-translational proteome modulation and autophagy were transcribed at higher levels in the compatible interaction. Up-regulation of a putative L-isoaspartyl O-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine gene in the compatible interaction may point to fungal manipulation of the cytoplasmatic methionine cycle. Genes coding for a putative no apical meristem protein, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, non-specific lipid transfer protein, and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis were up-regulated in the incompatible interaction at the onset of haustorium formation, and may contribute to the HR-mediated defense response in the rust-resistant mutant.

  9. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Flávia; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; Calixto, Edmundo P da R; Motta, Mariana R; Ballesteros, Helkin G F; Peixoto, Barbara; de Lima, Berenice N S; Vieira, Lucas M; Walter, Maria Emilia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Lifschitz, Sergio; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2017-12-20

    Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae . Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae , while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae . Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Among these miRNAs, miR408-a copper-microRNA-was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5'RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly.

  10. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grativol, Clícia; Motta, Mariana R.; Ballesteros, Helkin G. F.; Peixoto, Barbara; Vieira, Lucas M.; Walter, Maria Emilia; de Armas, Elvismary M.; Entenza, Júlio O. P.; Lifschitz, Sergio; Farinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae. Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae, while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae. Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Among these miRNAs, miR408—a copper-microRNA—was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly. PMID:29657296

  11. Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Sugarcane-Microbe Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Thiebaut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have highlighted the importance of non-coding RNA regulation in plant-microbe interaction. However, the roles of sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs in the regulation of disease responses have not been investigated. Firstly, we screened the sRNA transcriptome of sugarcane infected with Acidovorax avenae. Conserved and novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were aligned to differentially expressed sequences from the sugarcane transcriptome. Interestingly, many siRNAs aligned to a transcript encoding a copper-transporter gene whose expression was induced in the presence of A. avenae, while the siRNAs were repressed in the presence of A. avenae. Moreover, a long intergenic non-coding RNA was identified as a potential target or decoy of miR408. To extend the bioinformatics analysis, we carried out independent inoculations and the expression patterns of six miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. Among these miRNAs, miR408—a copper-microRNA—was downregulated. The cleavage of a putative miR408 target, a laccase, was confirmed by a modified 5′RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay. MiR408 was also downregulated in samples infected with other pathogens, but it was upregulated in the presence of a beneficial diazotrophic bacteria. Our results suggest that regulation by miR408 is important in sugarcane sensing whether microorganisms are either pathogenic or beneficial, triggering specific miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms accordingly.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of mRNA encoding the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, M C; Williams, M A; Sumpter, J P; Rand-Weaver, M; Hoole, D; Arme, C

    1997-12-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7,Leu8]-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (salmon-type GnRH; sGnRH:GeneBank accession no. u60667) and the [His5,Trp7,Tyr8]-GnRH (chicken-II-type GnRH; cGnRH-II: GeneBank accession no. u60668) precursor in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) were isolated and sequenced following reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs consisted of 439 and 628 bp, and included open reading frames of 282 and 255 bp respectively. The structures of the encoded peptides were the same as GnRHs previously identified in other vertebrates. The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs, including the non-coding regions, had 88.6 and 79.9% identity respectively, to those identified in goldfish (Carassius auratus). However, significant similarity was not observed between the non-coding regions of the GnRH cDNAs of Cyprinidae and other fish. The presumed third exon, encoding partial sGnRH associated peptide (GAP) of roach, demonstrated significant nucleotide and amino acid similarity with the appropriate regions in the goldfish, but not with other species, and this may indicate functional differences of GAP between different families of fish. cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs from roach had relatively high nucleotide similarity across this GnRH variant. Cladistic analysis classified the sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs into three and two groups respectively. However, the divergence between nucleotide sequences within the sGnRH variant was greater than those encoding the cGnRH-II precursors. Consistent with the consensus developed from previous studies, Northern blot analysis demonstrated that expression of sGnRH and cGnRH-II was restricted to the olfactory bulbs and midbrain of roach respectively. This work forms the basis for further study on the mechanisms by which the tapeworm, Ligula intestinalis, interacts with the pituitary-gonadal axis of its fish host.

  13. Sugarcane-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sílvio

    2017-03-17

    Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials. By means of conversion processes (chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical), sugarcane biomass can be transformed into high-value bioproducts to replace petrochemicals, as a bioeconomy model.

  14. Determination of flavonoids in cultivated sugarcane leaves, bagasse, juice and in transgenic sugarcane by liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Renata; Lanças, Fernando M; Yariwake, Janete H

    2006-01-20

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with photo-diode array (DAD) detection was developed to separate and quantify flavonoids in sugarcane leaves and bagasse (= the crushed sugarcane refuse from juice extraction), and in sugarcane juice. Sugarcane flavonoids consist of a complex mixture of aglycones and glycosides (including flavonolignan glycosides), and the HPLC-UV method herein proposed is suitable for their quantification as total flavonoids. This method was applied to analyze samples of cultivated sugarcane, commercial juice and transgenic sugarcane leaves. Sugarcane leaves proved a promising source of flavonoids: an average of 1.10 mg of total flavonoids/g plant material was found in fresh leaves. Moreover, the flavonoid content of sugarcane juice (0.6 mg/mL) is comparable to other food sources of flavonoids previously reported. Transgenic sugarcane leaves ("Bowman-Birk" and "Kunitz") were compared with non-modified ("control") plant samples using the proposed HPLC-UV method, which indicated that the content of total flavonoids in transgenic plants is different from that in non-modified sugarcane.

  15. Screening for sugarcane brown rust in first clonal stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. & P. Sydow) was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize b...

  16. Cloning of two individual cDNAS encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase from Gentiana lutea, their tissue-specific expression and physiological effect in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Kauder, Friedrich; Römer, Susanne; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) cDNAs have been cloned from a petal library of Gentiana lutea. Both cDNAs carry a putative transit sequence for chloroplast import and differ mainly in their length and the 5'-flanking regions. GlNCED1 was evolutionary closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana NCED6 whereas GlNCED2 showed highest homology to tomato NCED1 and A. thaliana NCED3. The amounts of GlNCED2 transcript were below Northern detection in G. lutea. In contrast, GlNCED1 was specifically expressed at higher levels in developing flowers when petals start appearing. By genetic engineering of tobacco with coding regions of either gene under a constitutive promoter, their function was further analyzed. Although mRNA of both genes was detectable in the corresponding transgenic plants, a physiological effect was only found for GlNCED1 but not for GlNCED2. In germination experiments of GlNCED1 transgenic lines, delayed radicle formation and cotyledon appearance were observed. However, the transformants exhibited no improved tolerance against desiccation stress. In contrast to other plants with over-expressed NCEDs, prolonged delay of seed germination is the only abscisic-acid-related phenotypic effect in the GlNCED1 transgenic lines.

  17. Identification and Functional Characterization of Sugarcane Invertase Inhibitor (ShINH1: A Potential Candidate for Reducing Pre- and Post-harvest Loss of Sucrose in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresha G. Shivalingamurthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane, invertase enzymes play a key role in sucrose accumulation and are also involved in futile reactions where sucrose is continuously degraded during the pre- and post-harvest period, thereby reducing sugar yield and recovery. Invertase inhibitor (INVINH proteins play a key role in post-translation regulation of plant invertases through which sucrose hydrolysis is controlled. INVINH proteins are small (18 kDa members of the pectin methylesterase inhibitor superfamily and they are moderately conserved across plants. In the present study, we identified two INVINH genes from sugarcane, ShINH1 and ShINH2. In silico characterization of the encoded proteins revealed 43% sequence identity at the amino acid level, confirming the non-allelic nature of the proteins. The presence of putative signal peptide and subcellular targeting sequences revealed that ShINH1 and ShINH2 likely have apoplasmic and vacuolar localization, respectively. Experimental visualization of ShINH1–GFP revealed that ShINHI is indeed exported to the apoplast. Differential tissue-specific and developmental expression of ShINH1 between leaf, stalk, flower and root suggest that it plays a role in controlling source-sink metabolic regulation during sucrose accumulation in sugarcane. ShINH1 is expressed at relatively high levels in leaves and stalk compared to flowers and roots, and expression decreases significantly toward internodal maturity during stalk development. ShINH1 is expressed at variable levels in flowers with no specific association to floral maturity. Production of recombinant ShINH1 enabled experimental validation of protein function under in vitro conditions. Recombinant ShINH1 potently inhibited acid invertase (IC50 22.5 nM, making it a candidate for controlling pre- and post-harvest deterioration of sucrose in sugarcane. Our results indicate that ShINH1 and ShINH2 are likely to play a regulatory role in sucrose accumulation and contribute to the improvement

  18. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  19. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  20. Prospecting sugarcane resistance to Sugarcane yellow leaf virus by genome-wide association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debibakas, S; Rocher, S; Garsmeur, O; Toubi, L; Roques, D; D'Hont, A; Hoarau, J-Y; Daugrois, J H

    2014-08-01

    Using GWAS approaches, we detected independent resistant markers in sugarcane towards a vectored virus disease. Based on comparative genomics, several candidate genes potentially involved in virus/aphid/plant interactions were pinpointed. Yellow leaf of sugarcane is an emerging viral disease whose causal agent is a Polerovirus, the Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) transmitted by aphids. To identify quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to yellow leaf which are of direct relevance for breeding, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a sugarcane cultivar panel (n = 189) representative of current breeding germplasm. This panel was fingerprinted with 3,949 polymorphic markers (DArT and AFLP). The panel was phenotyped for SCYLV infection in leaves and stalks in two trials for two crop cycles, under natural disease pressure prevalent in Guadeloupe. Mixed linear models including co-factors representing population structure fixed effects and pairwise kinship random effects provided an efficient control of the risk of inflated type-I error at a genome-wide level. Six independent markers were significantly detected in association with SCYLV resistance phenotype. These markers explained individually between 9 and 14 % of the disease variation of the cultivar panel. Their frequency in the panel was relatively low (8-20 %). Among them, two markers were detected repeatedly across the GWAS exercises based on the different disease resistance parameters. These two markers could be blasted on Sorghum bicolor genome and candidate genes potentially involved in plant-aphid or plant-virus interactions were localized in the vicinity of sorghum homologs of sugarcane markers. Our results illustrate the potential of GWAS approaches to prospect among sugarcane germplasm for accessions likely bearing resistance alleles of significant effect useful in breeding programs.

  1. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...

  2. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  3. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  5. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.; Marcelo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO 2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  6. Characterization and Expression of Genes Encoding Three Small Heat Shock Proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino a...

  7. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing, E-mail: yyq287346@163.com; Xu, Jingsheng, E-mail: xujingsheng@126.com

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  8. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  9. Kenaf and cowpea as sugarcane cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Typically, a Louisiana sugarcane field is replanted every four years due to declining yields, and,...

  10. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  11. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  12. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  13. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  14. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from

  15. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Koehlinger, John; Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0

  16. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniram Pereira da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.

  17. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  18. Feleucins: Novel Bombinin Precursor-Encoded Nonapeptide Amides from the Skin Secretion of Bombina variegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide (AMP to be identified was named bombinin, reflecting its origin from the skin of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata. Bombinins and their related peptides, the bombinin Hs, were subsequently reported from other bombinid toads. Molecular cloning of bombinin-encoding cDNAs from skin found that bombinins and bombinin Hs were coencoded on the same precursor proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning of two novel cDNAs from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library of B. variegata whose open-reading frames each encode a novel bombinin (GIGGALLNVGKVALKGLAKGLAEHFANamide and a C-terminally located single copy of a novel nonapeptide (FLGLLGGLLamide or FLGLIGSLLamide. These novel nonapeptides were named feleucin-BV1 and feleucin-BV2, respectively. The novel bombinin exhibited 89% identity to homologues from the toads, B. microdeladigitora and B. maxima. The feleucins exhibited no identity with any amphibian AMP archived in databases. Synthetic feleucins exhibited a weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus (128–256 mg/L but feleucin-BV1 exhibited a synergistic action with the novel bombinin. The present report clearly demonstrates that the skin secretions of bombinid toads continue to represent a source of peptides of novel structure that could provide templates for the design of therapeutics.

  19. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que

  20. Effect of sugarcane waste in the control of interrill erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Cardoso Valim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane uses different cropping systems that result in varying quantities of crop waste, this may influence soil erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the loss of soil and water, the infiltration rate, and soil surface roughness in an area cultivated with sugarcane (Saccharum spp.. Six treatments with different levels of plant waste were evaluated: sugarcane without plant waste; sugarcane with 4.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 8.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 12.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 16.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; and burned sugarcane. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, totalling 24 experimental plots. As soil depth increased, there is reduction in macroporosity, total soil porosity, organic carbon content, mean geometric diameter and weighted mean diameter of the soil aggregates, whereas the bulk density of the soil displays the opposite trend. The presence of sugarcane waste on the soil surface increases the time required for the initiation of surface runoff. Sugarcane waste does not alter soil surface roughness, and at the minimum amount of waste administered (4 Mg ha-1 reduces losses of soil and water and increases the infiltration rate. The lack of soil surface coverage after harvesting the sugarcane contributes to soil and water loss, and reduces the rate of stable infiltration of water into the soil.

  1. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO 2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production, being thus a renewable fuel. These positive impacts are particularly noticeable in the air quality improvement of metropolitan areas but also in rural areas where mechanized harvesting of green cane is being introduced, eliminating the burning of sugarcane. Negative impacts such as future large-scale ethanol production from sugarcane might lead to the destruction or damage of high-biodiversity areas, deforestation, degradation or damaging of soils through the use of chemicals and soil decarbonization, water resources contamination or depletion, competition between food and fuel production decreasing food security and a worsening of labor conditions on the fields. These questions are discussed here, with the purpose of clarifying the sustainability aspects of ethanol production from sugarcane mainly in Sao Paulo State, where more than 60% of Brazil's sugarcane plantations are located and are responsible for 62% of ethanol production. (author)

  2. In silico differential display of defense-related expressed sequence tags from sugarcane tissues infected with diazotrophic endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambais Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of 277 sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST-contigs encoding putative defense-related (DR proteins were evaluated using the Sugarcane EST database. The DR proteins evaluated included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chalcone synthases, chalcone isomerases, isoflavone reductases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, proline-rich glycoproteins, peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutases, WRKY-like transcription factors and proteins involved in cell death control. Putative sugarcane WRKY proteins were compared and their phylogenetic relationships determined. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to identify DR ESTs with similar expression profiles in representative cDNA libraries. To identify DR ESTs differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues infected with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus or Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, 179 putative DR EST-contigs expressed in non-infected tissues (leaves and roots and/or infected tissues were selected and arrayed by similarity of their expression profiles. Changes in the expression levels of 124 putative DR EST-contigs, expressed in non-infected tissues, were evaluated in infected tissues. Approximately 42% of these EST-contigs showed no expression in infected tissues, whereas 15% and 3% showed more than 2-fold suppression in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. Approximately 14 and 8% of the DR EST-contigs evaluated showed more than 2-fold induction in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. The differential expression of clusters of DR genes may be important in the establishment of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and diazotrophic endophytes. It is suggested that the hierarchical clustering approach can be used on a genome-wide scale to identify genes likely involved in controlling plant-microorganism interactions.

  3. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  4. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  5. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  6. Concentration on Callus Induction in Sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protocols for in vitro micro propagation of sugarcane through callus culture from foliage leaves (Bugun et al., ... protocol for specific genotypes. Sucrose is the most important type of sugar produced from sugarcane. ... laboratories via plant tissue culture technique. (Lorenzo and Ganzalez, 1998). This allows for an extended ...

  7. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  8. Three cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs from Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis: Cloning and transcriptional analysis in different maturation stages, temperatures, and putative reproductive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Rin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ah Ran; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects. Tik-MEP clustered together with insect MEPs, which appear to have evolved before the apoB-like and arthropod Vg-like clades. Interestingly, no genes orthologous to those found in the apoB clade were identified in Maxillopoda, suggesting that functions of large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) in reproduction and lipid metabolism may be different from those in insect and decapod crustaceans. As suggested by phylogenetic analyses, the two Tik-Vgs belonging to the arthropod Vg-like clade appear to play major roles in oocyte maturation, while Vgs belonging to the apoB clade function primarily in the reproduction of decapod crustaceans. Transcriptional analysis of Tik-Vg expression revealed a 24-fold increase in mature and ovigerous females compared with immature female, whereas expression of Tik-MEP remained low through all reproductive stages. Acute temperature changes did not affect the transcription of Tik-Vg genes, whereas Tik-MEP appeared to be affected by temperature change. Among the three hormones thought to be involved in molting and reproduction in arthropods, only farnesoic acid (FA) induced transcription of the two Tik-Vg genes. Regardless of developmental stage and hormone treatment, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2 exhibited a strong positive correlation in expression, suggesting that expression of these

  9. Sequence of cDNAs for mammalian H2A. Z, an evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal histone H2A isoprotein species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C L; Bonner, W M

    1988-02-11

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin.

  10. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane mosaic disease caused by sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane worldwide. Field survey was conducted to assess the presence of the viruses involve in ...

  11. Disease resistance in sugarcane – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of “Omics” namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  12. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and tops) from commercial sugarcane varieties for the production of 2G ethanol. In addition, the feasibility of using a mixture of these residues from a selected variety was also investigated. The materials were pretreated with dilute acid and hydrolyzed with a commercial enzymatic preparation, after which the hydrolysates were fermented using an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification was higher for the tops, followed by straw and bagasse. Interestingly, the fermentability of the hydrolysates showed a different profile, with straw achieving the highest ethanol yields, followed by tops and bagasse. Using a mixture of the different sugarcane parts (bagasse-straw-tops, 1:1:1, in a dry-weight basis), it was possible to achieve a 55% higher enzymatic conversion and a 25% higher ethanol yield, compared to use of the bagasse alone. For the four commercial sugarcane varieties evaluated using the same experimental set of conditions, it was found that the variety of sugarcane was not a significant factor in the 2G ethanol production process. Assessment of use of the whole lignocellulosic sugarcane biomass clearly showed that 2G ethanol production could be significantly improved by the combined use of bagasse, straw, and tops, when compared to the use of bagasse alone. The lower susceptibility to saccharification of sugarcane bagasse, as well as the lower fermentability of its hydrolysates, can be compensated by using it in combination with straw

  13. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016 have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  14. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  15. Expression of cDNAs in human Natural Killer cell lines by retroviral transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, S M Shahjahan; Campbell, Kerry S

    2010-01-01

    Human NK-like cell lines are difficult to transfect using standard mammalian expression vectors and conventional transfection protocols, but they are susceptible to retroviral transduction as a means to introduce cDNAs. Our laboratory has exploited this technique to study a number of receptors in human NK cell lines. The method utilizes a bicistronic retroviral vector that co-expresses either drug resistance or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in parallel with the gene of interest. After a single infection with recombinant retrovirus, transduced NK cells can be sorted for expression of EGFP or the transduced cell surface marker. Alternatively, cells expressing the transduced cDNAs can be selected for by treatment with neomycin, puromycin, or hygromycin. Using this method, the sorted/selected cells uniformly express the gene of interest and the expression is stable for many weeks of culture.

  16. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  17. Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane glycoprotein involved in normal and neoplastic cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quackenbush, E.; Clabby, M.; Gottesdiener, K.M.; Barbosa, J.; Jones, N.H.; Strominger, J.L.; Speck, S.; Leiden, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the heavy chain of the heterodimeric human membrane glycoprotein 4F2 have been isolated by immunoscreening of a λgt11 expression library. The identity of these clones has been confirmed by hybridization to RNA and DNA prepared from mouse L-cell transfectants, which were produced by whole cell gene transfer and selected for cell-surface expression of the human 4F2 heavy chain. DNA sequence analysis suggest that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs encode an approximately 526-amino acid type II membrane glycoprotein, which is composed of a large C-terminal extracellular domain, a single potential transmembrane region, and a 50-81 amino acid N-terminal intracytoplasmic domain. Southern blotting experiments have shown that the 4F2 heavy-chain cDNAs are derived from a single-copy gene that has been highly conserved during mammalian evolution

  18. Identification of three genotypes of sugarcane yellow leaf virus causing yellow leaf disease from India and their molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

    2008-12-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) that causes yellow leaf disease (YLD) in sugarcane (recently reported in India) belongs to Polerovirus. Detailed studies were conducted to characterize the virus based on partial open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 and complete ORFs 3 and 4 sequences in their genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on 48 sugarcane leaf samples to detect the virus using a specific set of primers. Of the 48 samples, 36 samples (field samples with and without foliar symptoms) including 10 meristem culture derived plants were found to be positive to SCYLV infection. Additionally, an aphid colony collected from symptomatic sugarcane in the field was also found to be SCYLV positive. The amplicons from 22 samples were cloned, sequenced and acronymed as SCYLV-CB isolates. The nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence comparison showed a significant variation between SCYLV-CB and the database sequences at nt (3.7-5.1%) and aa (3.2-5.3%) sequence level in the CP coding region. However, the database sequences comprising isolates of three reported genotypes, viz., BRA, PER and REU, were observed with least nt and aa sequence dissimilarities (0.0-1.6%). The phylogenetic analyses of the overlapping ORFs (ORF 3 and ORF 4) of SCYLV encoding CP and MP determined in this study and additional sequences of 26 other isolates including an Indian isolate (SCYLV-IND) available from GenBank were distributed in four phylogenetic clusters. The SCYLV-CB isolates from this study lineated in two clusters (C1 and C2) and all the other isolates from the worldwide locations into another two clusters (C3 and C4). The sequence variation of the isolates in this study with the database isolates, even in the least variable region of the SCYLV genome, showed that the population existing in India is significantly different from rest of the world. Further, comparison of partial sequences encoding for ORFs 1 and 2 revealed that YLD in sugarcane in

  19. The aptitude of the soils for the production of sugarcane. Part 2: Comparison of two methods at ‘Ciudad Caracas’ sugarcane mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Arzola Pina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to compare two methods for determining the aptitude of soils for growing Sugarcane in Cuba. The information was provided by three sugarcane farms owned by Ciudad Caracas sugarcane mill in the municipality of Santa Isabel de Las Lajas in Cienfuegos. The information of the soils from each farm was taken from the 1:25 000 scale cadastral maps designed by Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG. Rainfall data was collected from the nearby stations rain gauges. And the sugarcane yield was reported by each farm. The aptitude of the soils was determined by two methods (AGRO 24 de 1993 y Arzola de 1999 using the information available. Results showed that both methods are appropriate for selecting soils with higher productive potential, and are a useful tool for making right decisions for optimizing the land use at each sugarcane farm.

  20. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with bown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant ...

  1. Controlling sugarcane diseases in Florida: a challenge in constant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are limiting factors for the sugarcane crop in almost any sugarcane growing location. More than 40 diseases have been recorded in Florida, with brown rust, orange rust and yellow leaf currently impacting on sugarcane production. Ideally, these diseases should be controlled using resistant c...

  2. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the existing usage of fossil fuels, thereby minimizing negative environmental impacts. Due to mechanical harvesting of sugarcane, the amount of pointer and straw has increased in sugarcane fields, becoming inputs of great energy potential.

  3. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... The use of vegetable biomass as substrate for ethanol production could reduce the ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ..... Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods,.

  4. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  5. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-23

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  6. Sugarcane boiler ash as an amendment for soilless growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  7. Vegetable seedling production with sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 380,000 ac and 12.8 million tons of harvested sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar (brown sugar), and an estimated 3 million tons of the fibrous plant residue called bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after remov...

  8. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  9. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  10. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  11. Molecular cloning of cDNAs which are highly overexpressed in mitoxantrone-resistant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyake, K; Mickley, L; Litman, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    mitoxantrone-resistant S1-M1-80 human colon carcinoma cells was screened by differential hybridization. Two cDNAs of different lengths were isolated and designated MXR1 and MXR2. Sequencing revealed a high degree of homology for the cDNAs with Expressed Sequence Tag sequences previously identified as belonging...... to an ATP binding cassette transporter. Homology to the Drosophila white gene and its homologues was found for the predicted amino acid sequence. Using either cDNA as a probe in a Northern analysis demonstrated high levels of expression in the S1-M1-80 cells and in the human breast cancer subline, MCF-7 Ad......Vp3000. Levels were lower in earlier steps of selection, and in partial revertants. The gene is amplified 10-12-fold in the MCF-7 AdVp3000 cells, but not in the S1-M1-80 cells These studies are consistent with the identification of a new ATP binding cassette transporter, which is overexpressed...

  12. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Cerqueira; Maehara, Larissa; Machado, Cristina Maria Monteiro; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Background In the sugarcane industry, large amounts of lignocellulosic residues are generated, which includes bagasse, straw, and tops. The use of the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation (2G) ethanol can be a potential alternative to contribute to the economic viability of this process. Here, we conducted a systematic comparative study of the use of the lignocellulosic residues from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (bagasse, straw, and to...

  13. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  14. Differential expression of two flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase cDNAs involved in biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments and 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Hat; Chu, Ivan K; Yip, Wing Kin; Lo, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Three unique sorghum flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) cDNAs (SbF3'H1, SbF3'H2 and SbF3'H3) were discovered through bioinformatics analysis. Their encoded proteins showed >60% identity to the Arabidopsis TT7 (F3'H) protein. Overexpression of SbF3'H1 or SbF3'H2 restored the ability of tt7 mutants to produce 3'-hydroxylated flavonoids, establishing their roles as functional F3'H enzymes. In sorghum mesocotyls, SbF3'H1 expression was involved in light-specific anthocyanin accumulation while SbF3'H2 expression was involved in pathogen-specific 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis. No SbF3'H3 expression was detected in all tissues examined. The sorghum mesocotyls represent a good system for investigation of differential regulation of F3'H genes/alleles responding to different external stimuli.

  15. Agrobiodiversity endangered by sugarcane farming in Mumias and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Victoria basin of Kenya and Uganda. In Kenya sugarcane is commercially grown in Western and Nyanza provinces, primarily by small scale farmers followed by large-scale farmers and company/factory nucleus estates (Gok,. 2002). While setting up infrastructure for sugarcane farming and processing, minimal input is ...

  16. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  17. 611 A QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATE OF WEEDS OF SUGARCANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A survey was conducted in the sugarcane fields of Unilorin Sugar Research Institute, Ilorin in the southern. Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons with an objective to identify the current status of prevalent weeds in rainfed and irrigated sugarcane fields. A.

  18. Registration of ‘CP 09-1822’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘CP 09-1822’ (Reg. No. __; PI 686942 sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was released in June 2016 for commercial cultivation on sand (mineral) soils in Florida. This cultivar was developed through a collaborative sugarcane cultivar development program of the USDA-ARS, the University of F...

  19. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  20. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Gopal, Anand R.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  1. Registration of ‘CP 09-1430’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘CP 09-1430’ (Reg. No. ; PI 686940 sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed and released (6 Jun. 2016) through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station , Canal Point, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. for use on ...

  2. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  3. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg......, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products...... fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial processing; and improving...

  4. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  5. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  6. A plasmid toolkit for cloning chimeric cDNAs encoding customized fusion proteins into any Gateway destination expression vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Valuable clone collections encoding the complete ORFeomes for some model organisms have been constructed following the completion of their genome sequencing projects. These libraries are based on Gateway cloning technology, which facilitates the study of protein function by simplifying the subcloning of open reading frames (ORF) into any suitable destination vector. The expression of proteins of interest as fusions with functional modules is a frequent approach in their initial functional characterization. A limited number of Gateway destination expression vectors allow the construction of fusion proteins from ORFeome-derived sequences, but they are restricted to the possibilities offered by their inbuilt functional modules and their pre-defined model organism-specificity. Thus, the availability of cloning systems that overcome these limitations would be highly advantageous. Results We present a versatile cloning toolkit for constructing fully-customizable three-part fusion proteins based on the MultiSite Gateway cloning system. The fusion protein components are encoded in the three plasmids integral to the kit. These can recombine with any purposely-engineered destination vector that uses a heterologous promoter external to the Gateway cassette, leading to the in-frame cloning of an ORF of interest flanked by two functional modules. In contrast to previous systems, a third part becomes available for peptide-encoding as it no longer needs to contain a promoter, resulting in an increased number of possible fusion combinations. We have constructed the kit’s component plasmids and demonstrate its functionality by providing proof-of-principle data on the expression of prototype fluorescent fusions in transiently-transfected cells. Conclusions We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome

  7. Design and fabrication of an exprerimental model of a seeding unit with widthwise sugarcane scions seeding for use in sugarcane planter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Akbarnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugarcane, a plant which sugar is extracted from, is planted in vast areas with hot and humid climate. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing order, are India, China, Thailand, Pakistan and Mexico. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically three to four meters high and about 5 cm in diameter. The total area under sugarcane plantation in Iran (Khozestan Province is about 80,000 hectares with an average yield of 100 tons per hectare. To increase the yield per unit of land and reduce production costs and move toward sustainable agriculture, mechanization of agricultural operations seems inevitable. Planters are the most important of farm machinery among the mechanization equipment. Sugarcane cultivation is done both by hand and machine. Hand planting operations is laborious and painstaking work and work efficiency is so low and culture costs are so high. In Iran farms, the sugarcane plantation process is carried out manually by the farmers. Considering the climatic conditions, the agricultural soil composition and constitution, and the different plantation pattern used in Iran, the imported planting machines are not suitable for the farming conditions in the country. Moreover, the domestically produced machines, which are mostly based on the imported versions, do not provide adequate performance. Therefore, fabrication of a machine, capable of continuously lifting the sugarcane scions from a container and sending them to a dropper pipe, uniformly and in conformance with the climatic conditions of the sugarcane farms in the country, is of great importance. Materials and Methods In this research, initially, a field study was carried out to identify the problems and shortcomings of imported and copied planting machines in sugarcane farms, such as jamming of the scions conveying mechanism and the

  8. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H.P. Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi

  9. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  10. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  11. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  12. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício R Cherubin

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI. The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators. Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity; however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC, abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity. Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration and proportional weighting to reflect

  13. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Cluster and sub cluster formation further verified the presence of variability in the red rot resistant somaclones with respect to the parent. Key words: Sugarcane, callogenesis, organogenesis, somaclone, polymorphism, cluster. INTRODUCTION. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) is a major source.

  14. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  15. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Santos, U.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  16. Study of protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polachini, G.M.; Tajara, E.H.; Santos, U.P.; Zeri, A.C.M.; Paes Leme, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) is a successful Brazilian renewable fuel initiative aiming to reduce the country's oil dependence. Producing ethanol from sugar cane, the program has shown positive results although accompanied by potential damage. The environmental impact mainly derives from the particulate matter emissions due to sugarcane burning, which is potentially harmful to human health. The physical activity of sugarcane workers is repetitive and exhaustive and is carried out in presence of dust, smoke and soot. The efforts by the sugarcane workers during the labor process result in increased risks of nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and also in premature death. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of occupational stress on protein and metabolic profile of sugarcane workers. Forty serum samples were analyzed by 1-DE and LC MS/MS proteomic shotgun strategy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A set of proteins was found to be altered in workers after crops when compared with controls. The analysis of NMR spectra by Chenomx also showed differences in the expression of metabolites. For example, lactate displayed higher levels in control subjects than in sugarcane workers, and vice versa for the acetate. The concentrations of the two metabolites were lower after the crop, except in the case of acetate, which remained uniform in the control subjects before and after the crop. The present findings can have important application for rational designs of preventive measures and early disease detection in sugarcane workers. (author)

  17. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash is a byproduct of sugar factories found after burning sugarcane ... making materials especially cement, resulting in an increase in price. ... advantages can also be exploited by using bagasse ash as a partial cement ... Normal consistency, Setting time, Compressive strength, Water penetration depth.

  18. [Effects of reduced nitrogen application and soybean intercropping on nitrogen balance of sugarcane field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Wen-ting; Li, Zhi-xian; Guan, Ao-mei

    2015-03-01

    A four-year (2010-2013) field experiment was carried out to explore the effects of three planting patterns (sugarcane, soybean monoculture and sugarcane-soybean 1:2 intercropping) with two nitrogen input levels (300 and 525 kg . hm-2) on soybean nitrogen fixation, sugarcane and soybean nitrogen accumulation, and ammonia volatilization and nitrogen leaching in sugarcane field. The results showed that the soybean nitrogen fixation efficiency (NFE) of sugarcane-soybean inter-cropping was lower than that of soybean monoculture. There was no significant difference in NFE among the treatments with the two nitrogen application rates. The nitrogen application rate and inter-cropping did not remarkably affect nitrogen accumulation of sugarcane and soybean. The ammonia volatilization of the reduced nitrogen input treatment was significantly lower than that of the conventional nitrogen input treatment. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in nitrogen leaching at different nitrogen input levels and among different planting patterns. The sugarcane field nitrogen balance analysis indicated that the nitrogen application rate dominated the nitrogen budget of sugarcane field. During the four-year experiment, all treatments leaved a nitrogen surplus (from 73.10 to 400.03 kg . hm-2) , except a nitrogen deficit of 66.22 kg . hm-2 in 2011 in the treatment of sugarcane monoculture with the reduced nitrogen application. The excessive nitrogen surplus might increase the risk of nitrogen pollution in the field. In conclusion, sugarcane-soybean intercropping with reduced nitrogen application is feasible to practice in consideration of enriching the soil fertility, reducing nitrogen pollution and saving production cost in sugarcane field.

  19. Lack of Detection of Bt Sugarcane Cry1Ab and NptII DNA and Proteins in Sugarcane Processing Products Including Raw Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer and the main sugar exporter in the world. The industrial processes applied by Brazilian mills are very efficient in producing highly purified sugar and ethanol. Literature presents evidence of lack of DNA/protein in these products, regardless of the nature of sugarcane used as raw material. Recently CTNBio, the Brazilian biosafety authority, has approved the first biotechnology-derived sugarcane variety for cultivation, event CTC175-A, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein to control the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis. The event also expresses neomycin-phosphotransferase type II (NptII protein used as selectable marker during the transformation process. Because of the high purity of sugar and ethanol produced from genetically modified sugarcane, these end-products should potentially be classified as “pure substances, chemically defined,” by Brazilian Biosafety Law No. 11.105. If this classification is to be adopted, these substances are not considered as “GMO derivatives” and fall out of the scope of Law No. 11.105. In order to assess sugar composition and quality, we evaluate Cry1Ab and NptII expression in several sugarcane tissues and in several fractions from laboratory-scale processing of event CTC175-A for the presence of these heterologous proteins as well as for the presence of traces of recombinant DNA. The results of these studies show that CTC175-A presents high expression of Cry1Ab in leaves and barely detectable expression of heterologous proteins in stalks. We also evaluated the presence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein and DNA in the fractions of the industrial processing of conventional Brazilian sugarcane cultivars. Results from both laboratory and industrial processing were concordant, demonstrating that DNA and protein are not detected in the clarified juice and downstream processed fractions, including ethanol and raw sugar, indicating that protein

  20. Properties of Sugarcane Fiber on the Strength of the Normal and Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Khalid Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of natural fiber in construction are widely used in building materials engineering. However, using sugarcane fiber waste material as a natural in construction is very precious, because it can increase crack control and ductility, brittle concrete. Furthermore, the usage of sugarcane in construction can reduce of environmental pollution.In this study, a mixture of sugarcane fiber to be used in normal grade concrete and lightweight concrete to determine whether there is an increase in the compressive and tensile strength of the concrete. The objective of this study was to determine the compressive and tensile strength between control concrete and concrete mix with sugarcane fiber. In addition, the optimal volume of sugarcane fiber in the concrete mixture where the percentage of sugarcane fiber used was 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. Compessive strength was tested on days 7 and 28 after curing test is carried out. Meanwhile, the tensile test, has been carried out to measure the tensile strength of sugarcane fiber relations in concrete mixes only at 28 day curing. Result of the testing showed that the optimum value containing admixtures of sugarcane is 0.5%. This percentage get the value of compressive strength is nearest with concrete control and the value of tensile strength is higher than concrete control and also the timing of concrete to cracked getting slower. Therefore, the use of sugarcane fiber suitable for addition that do not exceed 0.5% of the concrete mixture.

  1. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  2. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  3. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  4. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  5. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  6. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  7. The political organization of sugarcane production in Western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman - Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    The strike of CNC sugarcane producers and the immediate response by the refinery administration are a good example of the ongoing political negotiations between the main actors involved in the organization of sugarcane production in the Valley of Autlán-El Grullo. I introduced in Chapter I

  8. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, André L.C., E-mail: andrefranco@usp.br [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cherubin, Maurício R. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Pavinato, Paulo S.; Cerri, Carlos E.P. [Department of Soil Science, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Six, Johan [Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Davies, Christian A. [Shell Technology Centre Houston, 3333 Highway 6 South, Houston, TX 77082 (United States); Cerri, Carlos C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. These findings added to decreases in {sup 15}N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased {sup 15}N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO{sub 2} balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to

  9. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, André L.C.; Cherubin, Maurício R.; Pavinato, Paulo S.; Cerri, Carlos E.P.; Six, Johan; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha −1 yr −1 . These findings added to decreases in 15 N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha −1 yr −1 totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased 15 N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO 2 balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to sugarcane expansion is provided.

  10. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome.

  11. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  12. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene.

  13. Persistence of Selected Pesticides used in Sugarcane Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to monitor pesticide levels in soils and runoff water following treatment of a sugarcane field in the Northern Lake Victoria watershed. Soil and water samples were collected over a period of 304 days after planting of the sugarcane and analysed for pesticide residues. In soils, glyphosate levels ...

  14. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane ... race (“Bahausa”) and the least infected was the white land race (“fararkwama”). ... stripes symptoms on leaf blade and white stripe on stem in infected sugarcane and are ...

  15. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  17. Application of radiation processing to produce biotic elicitor for sugarcane in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien; Tran, Tich Canh; Truong, Thi Hanh; Vo, Thi Kim Lang; Dang, Van Phu; Cao, Anh Duong

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane is the main raw material for production of sugar and ethanol. In Vietnam, it was reported in 1998 that the area for sugarcane growth was about 257,000ha. Up to now, the biotic elicitor, oligosaccharide has not been used for sugarcane yet. This study has been carried out to investigate the elicitation and the growth promotion effect of irradiated chitosan (oligochitosan) for sugarcane. The field test results indicated that alpha chitosan (shrimp shell) and beta chitosan (squid pen) samples with the content of water soluble oligomer of about 70% were the most effective. The disease ratio of sugarcane tree-trunk treated with irradiated chitosan before harvesting time decreased to 30-40% compared to non-treated one (100%). In addition, the productivity of sugarcane increased to about 20%. The combination of metal ion (Zn ++ , Cu ++ ) with oligochitosan did not show the synergic elicitation effect. The results revealed that biotic elicitor made from chitosan by radiation degradation method is very promising for field application not only for protection of disease infection but also for growth promotion of plants. It is believed that this biotic elicitor could be largely used for safe and sustainable development of agriculture. (author)

  18. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  19. POOR FERTILITY, SHORT LONGEVITY AND LOW ABUNDANCE IN THE SOIL SEED BANK LIMIT VOLUNTEER SUGARCANE FROM SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann S Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a two year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half life between 1.5 and 2.1 months. This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  20. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  1. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  2. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, André L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Pavinato, Paulo S; Cerri, Carlos E P; Six, Johan; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central-Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1). These findings added to decreases in (15)N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1) totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased (15)N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO₂ balance of sugarcane ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Logan

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended for readers in the production agriculture industry who deal with grain sorghum throughout the growing season. This publication will discuss the impacts of the sugarcane aphid in various crops and the ways to manage and identify them as they continue to advance north.

  4. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  5. Potential of diazotrophic bacteria associated with sugarcane for energycane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosses between sugarcane and wild species of Saccharum and other closely related genera are made to introgress new genes from the wild species into sugarcane. Characteristics of the progeny from these crosses may include increased biomass and the ability to be grown in a broader geographical range ...

  6. The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in São Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales

  7. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  8. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Leite, Deborah Catharine A.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz C.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes

  9. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA metabolism enzymes during the fruit development and dehydration stress of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shengjie; Li, Ping; Chen, Pei; Li, Qian; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Liao, Yalan; Leng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) in pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' during fruit ripening and under dehydration stress, two cDNAs (PpNCED1 and PpNCED2) which encode 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) (a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis), two cDNAs (PpCYP707A1 and PpCYP707A2) which encode 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA), one cDNA (PpACS3) which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and one cDNA (PpACO1) which encodes ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis were cloned from 'Gold Nijisseiki' fruit. In the pulp, peel and seed, expressions of PpNCED1 and PpNCED2 rose in two stages which corresponded with the increase of ABA levels. The expression of PpCYP707A1 dramatically declined after 60-90 days after full bloom (DAFB) in contrast to the changes of ABA levels during this period, while PpCYP707A2 stayed low during the whole development of fruit. Application of exogenous ABA at 100 DAFB increased the soluble sugar content and the ethylene release but significantly decreased the titratable acid and chlorophyll contents in fruits. When fruits harvested at 100 DAFB were stored in the laboratory (25 °C, 50% relative humidity), the ABA content and the expressions of PpNCED1/2 and PpCYP707A1 in the pulp, peel and seed increased significantly, while ethylene reached its highest value after the maximum peak of ABA accompanied with the expressions of PpACS3 and PpACO1. In sum the endogenous ABA may play an important role in the fruit ripening and dehydration of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' and the ABA level was regulated mainly by the dynamics of PpNCED1, PpNCED2 and PpCYP707A1 at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sugarcane exergy calculation; Calculo de la exergia de la cana de azucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P, Maria I.; Nebra P, Silvia A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: mariai@fem.unicamp.br.; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Martinez R, Arnaldo [Universidade de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Refrigeracion Luis Fernando Brossard Perez]. E-mail: arnaldo@fim.ceefe.uo.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a sugarcane exergy calculation, carried out considering the material as constituted by dry fiber and juice, being the last one that includes all the sucrose and water present in sugarcane. The variation intervals of sugarcane chemical composition and consequently the chemical composition of fibre and juice were obtained from a bibliography research. the finals results show that, the fibre exergy, as was considered totally dry and without sucrose, is a function of it chemical composition only. The quotient between the exergy and low calorific value has a middle value of 1,14 and the middle value of it exergy was 2329 kJ/kg of cane. Based on the environmental reference proposed by Szargut for the sugarcane juice exergy determination, it was obtained that the mixture component of the juice exergy has no piratical influence in the total exergy juice value, being the value of the reactive exergy component the determining of a middle value of sugarcane juice exergy of 2814,25 kJ/kg of juice and 2380Kj/Kg of cane. The sugarcane exergy value obtained for 8-18% of fiber, 75-82% of water and 14.5-22% of sucrose was 4709Kj/kg of cane. (author)

  11. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  12. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  13. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  14. RB975242 and RB975201 - Late maturation sugarcane varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation in the CentralSouth region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.

  15. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified

  16. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

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    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  17. Protocol optimization for in vitro mass propagation of two sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... The present study was initiated to optimize in vitro protocol for mass propagation of two commercial sugarcane clones (Co 449 and Co .... mass propagation of sugarcane genotypes grown in. Ethiopia, and due to this the .... transferred cultures showed multiple shooting with an average of 9.10 ± 0.10 shoots ...

  18. Regional based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water use of rain-fed sugar-cane has come under the spotlight in South Africa, largely as a result of changes in legislation and a focus on streamflow reduction activities. In this study a robust relationship between sugar-cane yield and evapotranspiration derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with ...

  19. Regional-based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with regional cane production records in South Africa. These were used to provide regional estimates of water use of commercial rain-fed and irrigated sugar-cane as affected by environmental limitations. The mean water use of sugar-cane at an industry scale was 598 ...

  20. Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURILO R. DE ARRUDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás. Within the studied period, sugarcane cropping expansion was related to large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher profitability compared with soybean and beef cattle-raising. For smallholders, particularly dairy farmers, the need to comply with the set-aside rules under Brazilian Forest Code (Código Florestal Brasileiro made a shift to sugarcane less attractive, as it would have forced them to reduce farm cultivable area, with loss of incomes. From 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% had used to be pastures, 31% had previously been pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% had been cropped exclusively with soybean or maize.

  1. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  2. Chronic consumption of distilled sugarcane spirit induces anxiolytic-like effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Maria Clecia P; Nunes, Fabíola C; Salvadori, Mirian G S Stiebbe; Carvalho, Cleyton Charles D; Morais, Liana Clebia S L; Braga, Valdir A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a major public health problem throughout the world. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effects and the possible ever injury induced by the chronic consumption of ethanol or sugarcane spirit in mice. Adult mice were exposed to a two-bottle free-choice paradigm for 6 weeks. The mice in Group A (n = 16) had access to sugarcane spirit + distilled water, the mice in Group B (n = 15) had access to ethanol + distilled water, and the mice in Group C (control, n = 14) had access to distilled water + distilled water. The ethanol content in the beverages offered to Groups A and B was 2% for the first week, 5% for the second week and 10% for the remaining four weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the mice were evaluated using the elevated-plus maze and the hole-board test to assess their anxiety-related behaviors. We also determined the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. In the elevated-plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased in the mice exposed to chronic ethanol (32 ± 8 vs. 7 ± 2 s, n = 9) or sugarcane spirit (36 ± 9 vs. 7 ± 2 s, n = 9) compared to the controls. In the hole-board test, the mice exposed to ethanol or sugarcane spirit displayed increases in their head-dipping frequency (16 ± 1 for the control group, 27 ± 2 for the ethanol group, and 31 ± 3 for the sugarcane-spirit group; n = 9 for each group). In addition, the mice exposed to sugarcane spirit displayed an increase in the aspartate aminotransferase / alanine aminotransferase ratio compared to the ethanol group (1.29 ± 0.17 for the control group and 2.67 ± 0.17 for the sugarcane spirit group; n = 8 for each group). The chronic consumption of sugarcane-spirit produces liver injury and anxiolytic-like effects and the possible liver injury in mice.

  3. Chronic consumption of distilled sugarcane spirit induces anxiolytic-like effects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clecia P. Sena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major public health problem throughout the world. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effects and the possible ever injury induced by the chronic consumption of ethanol or sugarcane spirit in mice. METHOD: Adult mice were exposed to a two-bottle free-choice paradigm for 6 weeks. The mice in Group A (n = 16 had access to sugarcane spirit + distilled water, the mice in Group B (n = 15 had access to ethanol + distilled water, and the mice in Group C (control, n = 14 had access to distilled water + distilled water. The ethanol content in the beverages offered to Groups A and B was 2% for the first week, 5% for the second week and 10% for the remaining four weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the mice were evaluated using the elevated-plus maze and the hole-board test to assess their anxiety-related behaviors. We also determined the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. RESULTS: In the elevated-plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased in the mice exposed to chronic ethanol (32 + 8 vs. 7 + 2 s, n = 9 or sugarcane spirit (36 + 9 vs. 7 + 2 s, n = 9 compared to the controls. In the hole-board test, the mice exposed to ethanol or sugarcane spirit displayed increases in their head-dipping frequency (16 + 1 for the control group, 27 + 2 for the ethanol group, and 31 + 3 for the sugarcane-spirit group; n = 9 for each group. In addition, the mice exposed to sugarcane spirit displayed an increase in the aspartate aminotransferase / alanine aminotransferase ratio compared to the ethanol group (1.29 + 0.17 for the control group and 2.67 + 0.17 for the sugarcane spirit group; n = 8 for each group. CONCLUSION: The chronic consumption of sugarcane-spirit produces liver injury and anxiolytic-like effects and the possible liver injury in mice.

  4. Detection of Genetically Modified Sugarcane by Using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Xie, H.; Zha, B.; Ding, W.; Luo, J.; Hu, C.

    2018-03-01

    A methodology is proposed to identify genetically modified sugarcane from non-genetically modified sugarcane by using terahertz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine-discriminant analysis (SVM-DA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The classification rate of the above mentioned methods is compared, and different types of preprocessing are considered. According to the experimental results, the best option is PLS-DA, with an identification rate of 98%. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques are a powerful tool to identify genetically modified and non-genetically modified sugarcane.

  5. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  6. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  8. Characterization and immunological identification of cDNA clones encoding two human DNA topoisomerase II isozymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.D.Y.; Drake, F.H.; Tan, K.B.; Per, S.R.; Crooke, S.T.; Mirabelli, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Several DNA topoisomerase II partial cDNA clones obtained from a human Raji-HN2 cDNA library were sequenced and two classes of nucleotide sequences were found. One member of the first class, SP1, was identical to an internal fragment of human HeLa cell Topo II cDNA described earlier. A member of the second class, SP11, shared extensive nucleotide (75%) and predicted peptide (92%) sequence similarities with the first two-thirds of HeLa Topo II. Each class of cDNAs hybridized to unique, nonoverlapping restriction enzyme fragments of genomic DNA from several human cell lines. Synthetic 24-mer oligonucleotide probes specific for each cDNA class hybridized to 6.5-kilobase mRNAs; furthermore, hybridization of probe specific for one class was not blocked by probe specific for the other. Antibodies raised against a synthetic SP1-encoded dodecapeptide specifically recognized the 170-kDa form of Topo II, while antibodies raised against the corresponding SP11-encoded dodecapeptide, or a second unique SP11-encoded tridecapeptide, selectively recognized the 180-kDa form of Topo II. These data provide genetic and immunochemical evidence for two Topo II isozymes

  9. Effect of orange rust on sugarcane breeding program at canal Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, appeared in the Western Hemisphere ten years ago. Orange rust substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. Majority of the commercial cultivars were susceptible at the time of o...

  10. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres

  11. Analysis of the stress-inducible transcription factor SsNAC23 in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fava Ditt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stresses such as cold and drought can impair plant yield and induce a highly complex array of responses. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and is considered a cold-sensitive plant. We previously showed that cold stress induces the expression of several genes in in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Here we characterize one of those genes, SsNAC23, a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcription factors, which are induced by low temperature and other stresses in several plant species. The expression of SsNAC23 was induced in sugarcane plants exposed to low temperatures (4ºC. With the aim of further understanding the regulatory network in response to stress, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify sugarcane proteins that interact with SsNAC23. Using SsNAC23 as bait, we screened a cDNA expression library of sugarcane plants submitted to 4ºC for 48 h. Several interacting partners were identified, including stress-related proteins, increasing our knowledge on how sugarcane plants respond to cold stress. One of these interacting partners, a thioredoxin h1, offers insights into the regulation of SsNAC23 activity.

  12. The impact of some physiomorphic characters of sugarcane genotypes on their resistance against sugarcane pyrilla, pyrilla perpusilla wlk. (lophopidae: homoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, A.; Hassan, M.; Suhail, A.; Sahi, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in the Research Area, Directorate of Sugarcane, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to study he physio-morphic characters of sugarcane resistance to the sucking pest Pyrilla perpusilla. Twenty genotypes of sugarcane were tested for their resistance susceptibility against P. perpusilla, as a preliminary screening experiment, during 2006. Based on the population-density count, 3 genotypes, viz., HSF- 240, CPF-243 and S-2002-US-114 showing resistance responses, 3 genotypes viz. CPHS-35, S-2003-US-394 and S-2003-US-623 showing susceptible trends and 3 genotypes viz. S-2003-US-809, S-2002-US-140 and S- 2002-US-104 exerting intermediate trends against the pest under test were selected for the final screening trials during 2007.The genotype S-2003-US-623, was found to be comparatively susceptible; whereas, HSF-240, showed resistance responses. The leaf-width and cane length showed a positive and significant correlation whereas the leaf-spine density had a significant negative effect with pest-population. The Leaf-length and Cane-Diameter did not show a significant correlation with the pest population. (author)

  13. Converting developing and mature sugarcane carbohydrates into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolz, Carlos; De Leon, Roberto [Biochemical Engineering Center, Research Institute, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (Guatemala)

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were performed employing cane particles obtained from sugarcane at different growth stages until maturation measuring the amount of ethanol produced and the carbohydrate consumption in order to estimate the sugarcane growth stage where both parameters were optimized. Two non-flowering commercial cane varieties NA56 and PR752002 were cultivated and samples taken at different time intervals. Two Saccharomyces cerevisae strains were also compared in the trials. Sucrose was poorly consumed in young cane, which was an unexpected result. Fructose on the other hand was the hexose that remained in the medium at the end of the fermentations specially when using mature sugarcane. There was an increasing trend in ethanol production as a function of days after planting (DAP) as expected; however, a plateau was reached after 225 DAP and the maximum value obtained was between 300 and 325 DAP. When these figures were compared with the corresponding DAP used for sugar production, only 25 days less were needed in the field for maximum ethanol production. On the other hand, it was clear from the data that cane harvesting for ethanol production should not be done after the recommended DAP for commercial sugar production. If this is done, the excess fructose present will not be completely utilized by yeast. Finally, it was observed that the yeast with more affinity for sugarcane fibers showed better ethanol yields in all samples tested. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Biotechnological interventions in sugarcane improvement: strategies, methods and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprasanna, P.

    2010-01-01

    Work has been conducted towards employing in vitro culture system combined with radiation induced mutagenesis in the improvement of sugarcane. Several radiation induced mutants with agronomically desirable traits were isolated and evaluated under field conditions, besides studying abiotic stress responses using biochemical, physiological and molecular tools. This article describes the developments in the in vitro culture systems and related biotechnologies that are evolving as novel strategies in the recent years for use in sugarcane improvement

  15. Phosphorus fertilization in sugarcane cultivation under different soil managements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, Paulo R. de; Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Furlani, Carlos E. A.; Prado, Renato de M.; Maldonado Júnior, Walter; Zerbato, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil preparation along with its chemical adjustment is the most important step in sugarcane plantation, especially because it provides proper conditions for plant development. The objective of the present research was to evaluate sugarcane response to the application of different phosphorus doses and their location, associated with both minimum soil tillage and conventional soil tillage. The experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot randomized block design, where the main plots ...

  16. Sugarcane field residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on vegetable seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) var. ‘HoCP 96-540’ field residue and sugarcane baga...

  17. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga

    2018-01-15

    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  19. Growth, cane yield and sugar content of six genotypes of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and yield of six sugarcane genotypes were studied in field plots between 1999 and 2001, at Umudike, in the humid forest zone of southeastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised five improved sugarcane genotypes (NCS 001, NCS 003, NCS 004, NCS 005 and C062175) and one local variety (Umudike Local) ...

  20. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  1. Assessment of Sugarcane Germplasm ( Saccharum spp. complex Against Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum Falcatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went is the most important disease of sugarcane in India inflicting substantial loss to both cane industry and cane growers. To keep in view the importance of red rot disease of sugarcane, 117 accession of sugarcane germplasm including different Saccharum species and Indian and foreign commercial hybrids were tested against red rot with Cf 07, Cf 08 & Cf 09 (national pathotypes by plug method of inoculation. Out of 117, 6 were found resistant and 12 were moderately resistant against red rot and rest were moderately susceptible/susceptible/highly susceptible. Theses resistance and moderately resistant accession can be further utilize to produce resistance varieties against the most devastating pathogen of sugarcane.

  2. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone P., E-mail: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A. [Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Watson, Helen K. [School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KZN (South Africa); Lynd, Lee Rybeck [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth, NH (United States); Elmissiry, Mosad [New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Johannesburg, GT (South Africa); Cortez, Luís A. B. [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-12-26

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  3. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A.; Watson, Helen K.; Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Elmissiry, Mosad; Cortez, Luís A. B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  4. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-08-29

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel.

  5. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  6. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  7. Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L

    2013-10-01

    Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane.

  8. Informative genomic microsatellite markers for efficient genotyping applications in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Swarup K; Kalia, Sanjay K; Kaul, Sunita; Dalal, Vivek; Hemaprabha, G; Selvi, Athiappan; Pandit, Awadhesh; Singh, Archana; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; Srivastava, Prem Shankar; Singh, Nagendra K; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2009-01-01

    Genomic microsatellite markers are capable of revealing high degree of polymorphism. Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), having a complex polyploid genome requires more number of such informative markers for various applications in genetics and breeding. With the objective of generating a large set of microsatellite markers designated as Sugarcane Enriched Genomic MicroSatellite (SEGMS), 6,318 clones from genomic libraries of two hybrid sugarcane cultivars enriched with 18 different microsatellite repeat-motifs were sequenced to generate 4.16 Mb high-quality sequences. Microsatellites were identified in 1,261 of the 5,742 non-redundant clones that accounted for 22% enrichment of the libraries. Retro-transposon association was observed for 23.1% of the identified microsatellites. The utility of the microsatellite containing genomic sequences were demonstrated by higher primer designing potential (90%) and PCR amplification efficiency (87.4%). A total of 1,315 markers including 567 class I microsatellite markers were designed and placed in the public domain for unrestricted use. The level of polymorphism detected by these markers among sugarcane species, genera, and varieties was 88.6%, while cross-transferability rate was 93.2% within Saccharum complex and 25% to cereals. Cloning and sequencing of size variant amplicons revealed that the variation in the number of repeat-units was the main source of SEGMS fragment length polymorphism. High level of polymorphism and wide range of genetic diversity (0.16-0.82 with an average of 0.44) assayed with the SEGMS markers suggested their usefulness in various genotyping applications in sugarcane.

  9. Brazilian organic sugarcane spirits: Physicochemical and chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been a growing demand for products from organic agriculture for the food market. Brazil leads the production of sugarcane spirits and produces about 1.6 billion liters/year. New technologies have been sought throughout the supply chain to improve production, and organic raw material has been used in the production of sugar cane for the production of beverages. This study aimed to define the physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of eleven organic sugarcane spirits samples from various Brazilian states. The secondary components and contaminants were identified and quantified through physicochemical analyses, HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. A significant percentage of the organic sugarcane spirits samples contained concentrations of components that were above the limits required by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provisioning (MAPA, specifically the esters (18.20%, copper and dry extract (9.10%. This contamination is caused by bad conditions employed during the production process, which are not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices determined and legislated by Brazilian law.

  10. Sugarcane Initial Growth with Vinasse Application in Latosol under Gradual Aluminum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Viglio, Larissa; Leal Varanda, Leticia; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Casagrande, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    One of the strategies for overcoming the high acidity of soils and the consequent toxicity of aluminum (Al) is based on the use of varieties adapted to these conditions. In Brazil, the application of vinasse is routine practice in the cultivation of sugarcane due to its fertilizing effect, mainly because of high potassium content. However, the vinasse may also attenuate the toxic effects of Al in the soil by forming complexes with low molecular weight organic acids providing greater depth of the root of sugarcane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of vinasse on the initial growth of three cultivars of sugarcane (RB855453, RB966928 and RB867515), as well as its influence on root depth in a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Typic Hapludox) with gradient of saturation by Al. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in totally randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications. Seedlings of sugarcane were transplanted to PVC columns 0.8 m high, built by stacking four rings (0.2 m high), filled with soil samples, which offered an increasing gradient of saturation by Al (m%) at depth (0-0.2 m (m% = 0,7); 0.2-0.4 m (m% = 7,9); 0.4-0.6 m (m %= 40.8); 0.6-0.8 m (m%= 62.6)). The collection of the experiment was conducted 120 days after planting, with the determination of the stalk diameter (DC), plant height (ALT), leaf nutrient content, dry matter of the aerial part (MSPA) and dry matter of the root system (MSSR). Cultivars of sugarcane and the application of vinasse had effect on DC and the MSSR. Cultivar RB867515 showed higher DC than in other cultivars, with 20.8 mm. The increase of MSSR by sugarcane cultivars varied due to depth. There were no effects of sugarcane cultivars and vinasse application in MSPA. The vinasse application resulted in plants with higher ALT. With the exception of the foliar content of Fe, the N, Ca, Mg, S and Mn content were below those considered appropriate for sugarcane. Unlike other cultivars, the application

  11. Trimming and clustering sugarcane ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. Telles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The original clustering procedure adopted in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag project (SUCEST had many problems, for instance too many clusters, the presence of ribosomal sequences, etc. We therefore redesigned the clustering procedure entirely, including a much more careful initial trimming of the reads. In this paper the new trimming and clustering strategies are described in detail and we give the new official figures for the project, 237,954 expressed sequence tags and 43,141 clusters.O método de clustering adotado no Projeto SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project tinha vários problemas (muitos clusters, presença de seqüências de ribossomo etc. Nós assumimos a tarefa de reprojetar todo o processo de clustering, propondo uma "limpeza" inicial mais cuidadosa das seqüências. Neste artigo as estratégias de limpeza das seqüências e de clustering são descritas em detalhe, incluindo os números oficiais do projeto (237,954 ESTs e 43,141 clusters.

  12. Remote Sensing Time Series to Evaluate Direct Land Use Change of Recent Expanded Sugarcane Crop in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Pupin Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels to mitigate global carbon emissions is highly dependent on direct and indirect land use changes (LUC. The direct LUC (dLUC can be accurately evaluated using remote sensing images. In this work we evaluated the dLUC of about 4 million hectares of sugarcane expanded from 2005 to 2010 in the South-central region of Brazil. This region has a favorable climate for rain-fed sugarcane, a great potential for agriculture expansion without deforestation, and is currently responsible for almost 90% of Brazilian’s sugarcane production. An available thematic map of sugarcane along with MODIS and Landast images, acquired from 2000 to 2009, were used to evaluate the land use prior to the conversion to sugarcane. A systematic sampling procedure was adopted and the land use identification prior to sugarcane, for each sample, was performed using a web tool developed to visualize both the MODIS time series and the multitemporal Landsat images. Considering 2000 as reference year, it was observed that sugarcane expanded: 69.7% on pasture land; 25.0% on annual crops; 0.6% on forest; while 3.4% was sugarcane land under crop rotation. The results clearly show that the dLUC of recent sugarcane expansion has occurred on more than 99% of either pasture or agriculture land.

  13. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  14. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  15. CHANGES OF SUCROSE CONTENT AND INVERTASE ACTIVITY DURING SUGARCANE STEM STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Agus Siswoyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Invertases (beta-D-fructofuranosidase, E.C. 3.2.1.26 are the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in sugarcane plants. They are highly correlated with sucrose and reducing sugar contents during plant growth. The sugarcane plants have two kinds of invertases, namely neutral invertase (NI and acid invertase (AI. They have different function in sucrose accumulation. The research aimed to study the role of AI and NI in accumulation of reducing sugar during storage of sugarcane stems. Plant materials of 18-month-old field grown sugarcane of the commercial variety R-579 (wet-land and M 442-51 (dry-land were used. Three internodes were sampled to represent immature (internode 1-8/F1, maturing (internode 9-16/F2, and mature (internode 17-24/F3 stem tissues. All tissues were stored for 0-9 days at room temperature (28-32oC and each day, the samplewas extracted to determine invertase activity, total soluble protein, and sugar contents. This observation was valid for invertase activity expressed on a protein basis. At the initiateharvested (0-3 days, NI had a higher specific activity than AI in the sucrose-accumulating region of the sugarcane stems. Negative significant correlation was found between NI specific activity and sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.41, P < 0.05. AI showed a higher specific activity after 4 days harvested and had negative correlation with sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.40, P < 0.05. These results showed that NI could be more  responsible in sucrose hydrolisis than AI at early storage of sugarcane stems.

  16. Genotype-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers for the sugarcane germplasm in the Karst region of Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the first report on SSR-based molecular evaluation of genetic variability among sugarcane genotypes from the Karst region of China that provides useful information for local sugarcane improvement. Eighteen sugarcane genotypes including 13 active cultivars and five elite QT-series clones bred l...

  17. Effects of phosphate limestone on structure and quality under sugarcane vertisoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cairo Cairo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in sugarcane areas of cuban vertisols of the north coast of the province of Villa Clara municipality of Sagua la Grande, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of phosphate limestone and their combinations with fertilizers and organic manure on the structure and quality of vertisols under sugarcane cultivation. An experiment with phosphate limestone levels and combinations with organic manure (compost, filter cake and fertilizers (NPK was carried out on a wasstrip-block design. A soil analysis was performedat the depth of 0-20 and 20 -40 cm 36 months after the application of treatments. Organic matter, stable aggregates, factor structure, permeability, T value, exchangeable cations, index soil quality and productivity of sugarcane were evaluated. Phosphate limestone and there combinations with organic manures manifested significant effects on soil structure both in the surface layer and subsurface with residual impact over time to 36 months. The results show the close relationship between phosphate limestone and there combinations with organic manures on soil quality index additive, yield of sugarcane and economic impact.

  18. A mixed model QTL analysis for sugarcane multiple-harvest-location trial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastina, M.M.; Malosetti, M.; Gazaffi, R.; Mollinari, M.; Margarido, G.R.A.; Oliveira, K.M.; Pinto, L.R.; Souza, A.P.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Garcia, A.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane-breeding programs take at least 12 years to develop new commercial cultivars. Molecular markers offer a possibility to study the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in sugarcane, and they may be used in marker-assisted selection to speed up artificial selection. Although the

  19. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane straw left on the soil surface in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Cerri, C. E.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the largest exporter of ethanol from sugarcane in the world, burning the dry leaves and tops in order to facilitate the harvest and transportation of the stalks is still a common practice. Burning plant residues causes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, besides the release of charcoal particles into the atmosphere. Due to a combination of pressure from changes in the public opinion and economical reasons, in Brazil sugarcane harvest is changing from a burned into an unburned system. Since manual harvest of sugarcane without burning is not economically feasible, mechanical harvesters have been developed that can take the stalk and leave the residues on the field, forming a mulch, in a system called green cane management. It is expected that 80% of the cane harvested in the main producing regions in Brazil will be harvested without burning by 2014. The conversion from burning sugarcane to green management of sugarcane will have impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the plant soil system. The green cane management results in the deposition of large amounts of plant litter on the soil surface after harvest, ranging from 10 to 20 tons per hectare, which impact the whole production process of sugarcane, influencing yields, fertilizer management and application, soil erosion, soil organic matter dynamics as well as greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4). From a GHG perspective, the conservation of sugarcane residues prevents emissions from the burning process, may promote carbon sequestration in soils and releases nitrogen during the decomposition process replacing the need for, and GHG emissions from, fossil fuel based nitrogen fertilizer sources. Measurements of soil C and N stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the burned and unburned sugarcane systems and in the sugarcane expansion areas are still scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to quantify the nitrous oxide

  1. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  2. Determining yield loss caused by brown rust in production fields of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust, appear on Louisiana sugarcane in the spring. Disease expression is usually limited to 2 to 3 months until temperatures exceed those favorable for spore production. The affected sugarcane is harvested 4 to 6 months after rust sympt...

  3. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  4. Building organic matter of long-term sugarcane soils in a temperate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineral soils with a history of sugarcane monoculture cropping contain less soil organic matter (-35%), and plant macro- and micronutrients, including N (-20%), K (-26%), S (-7%), Ca (-8%), B (-33%), Zn (-88%), Mn (-29%), and Cu (-26%), than adjacent non-cultivated soils. Harvesting sugarcane ‘green...

  5. Status of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus and its impact in different progenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow leaf disease caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) a Polerovirus is an important disease for sugarcane industries worldwide. High yield losses up to 50% were reported in susceptible varieties. Most of the commercial cultivars in Florida are infected with SCYLV; therefore, there is a ...

  6. Reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen in surface runoff water from sugarcane production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J; Bartley, R; Armour, J D; Brodie, J E; Thorburn, P J

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) lost from farms, especially as the highly bioavailable dissolved inorganic form, may be damaging Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). As sugarcane is the dominant cropping system in GBR catchments, its N management practises are coming under increasing scrutiny. This study measured dissolved inorganic N lost in surface runoff water and sugarcane productivity over 3 years. The experiment compared the conventional fertiliser N application rate to sugarcane (average 180kg N/ha/year) and a rate based on replacing N exported in the previous crop (average 94kg N/ha/year). Dissolved inorganic N losses in surface water were 72%, 48% and 66% lower in the three monitored years in the reduced N fertiliser treatment. There was no significant difference in sugarcane yield between the two fertiliser N treatments, nor any treatment difference in soil mineral N - both of these results are indicators of the sustainability of the lower fertiliser N applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AMMI analysis to evaluate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. is one of the most important crops in Brazil. The high demand for sugarcane-derived products has stimulated the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in recent years, exploring different environments. The adaptability and the phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were evaluated based on the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI method. We evaluated 15 genotypes (13 clones and two checks: RB867515 and RB72454 in nine environments. The average of two cuttings for the variable tons of pol per hectare (TPH measure was used to discriminate genotypes. Besides the check RB867515 (20.44 t ha-1, the genotype RB987935 showed a high average TPH (20.71 t ha-1, general adaptability and phenotypic stability, and should be suitable for cultivation in the target region. The AMMI method allowed for easy visual identification of superior genotypes for each set of environments.

  8. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboards for Civil Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Battistelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the worldwide market of particleboard production, the use of alternative raw materials is increasing, due to high demand and lack of traditional raw material, despite efforts of reforestation. In Brazil, the main agricultural commodity is sugarcane due to the copious production of sugar and ethanol. In the state of São Paulo alone approximately 140 million tons of sugarcane bagasse are produced every year, from which around 70% is burned for energy production, not adding value to the residue and generating pollution to the environment; and the other 30% is sold for composting. The objective of this work is to add value to the sugarcane bagasse by using it as a raw material for particleboard production to be employed as flooring in the area of civil construction. To achieve this, the present research characterized the physical and mechanical characteristics of the particleboards with the following alternative raw materials: sugarcane bagasse and leaves of bamboo. Particleboards were produced to reach high density (0.8g/cm3 using the resin (bi-component polyurethane castor oil. Tests for abrasion, roughness and resistance to denting and wear (Janka hardness verified that the addition of leaves of bamboo in the mixtures, contrary to what was expected, did not confer a greater degree of resistance to the particleboards. Lastly, the results showed that sugarcane bagasse is a viable raw material alternative for the production of particleboards, intended to be used as products and flooring.

  9. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  10. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g -1 . The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  11. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D C Schaker

    Full Text Available Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression.

  12. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguti, Lucas M.; Peters, Leila P.; Creste, Silvana; Aitken, Karen S.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Kitajima, João P.; Vieira, Maria L. C.; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq) shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression. PMID:27583836

  13. Toxic heavy metal contamination assessment and speciation in sugarcane soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Chaobing; Yin, Juan; Tang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    The increasing heavy metal pollution in the sugarcane soils along the Great Huanjiang River was caused by leakage and spills of Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) tailing dams during a flood event. Copper (Cu), Zn, Pb, Cadmium (Cd), and Arsenic (As) concentrations of soil samples collected from 16 different sites along the Great Huanjiang River coast typical pollution area were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and As in the sugarcane soils were 151.57 mg/kg, 0.33 mg/kg, 155.52 mg/kg, 14.19 mg/kg, and 18.74 mg/kg, respectively. Results from the analysis of heavy metal speciation distribution showed that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd existed in weak acid, reducible, and oxidizable fractions, and the sum of these fractions accounted for significant proportions in sugarcane soils. However, the residual fraction of As with high proportion of reducible fraction indicated that this trace element still poses some environmental risk in the sugarcane soils because of its high content. Assessments of pollution levels revealed that the highest environmental risk was arouse by Pb. In addition, moderate to strong Cd and Zn pollution were found, while As has zero to medium level of pollution and Cu has zero level.

  14. Relationship between sugarcane rust severity and soil properties in louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Richard, Edward P

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT The extent of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation was related to variation in soil properties in five commercial fields of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv. LCP 85-384) in southern Louisiana. Sugarcane fields were grid-soil sampled at several intensities and rust ratings were collected at each point over 6 to 7 weeks. Soil properties exhibited significant variability (coefficients of variation = 9 to 70.1%) and were spatially correlated in 39 of 40 cases with a range of spatial correlation varying from 39 to 201 m. Rust ratings were spatially correlated in 32 of 33 cases, with a range varying from 29 to 241 m. Rust ratings were correlated with several soil properties, most notably soil phosphorus (r = 0.40 to 0.81) and soil sulfur (r = 0.36 to 0.68). Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination that ranged from 0.22 to 0.73, and discriminant analysis further improved the overall predictive ability of rust models. Finally, contour plots of soil properties and rust levels clearly suggested a link between these two parameters. These combined data suggest that sugarcane growers that apply fertilizer in excess of plant requirements will increase the incidence and severity of rust infestations in their fields.

  15. microRNAs Associated with Drought Response in the Bioenergy Crop Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Romel Duarte; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Dias, Lara Isys; Endres, Laurício; Menossi, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Drought stress is a major abiotic stress factor that significantly reduces sugarcane yields. However the gene network that mediates plant responses to water stress remains largely unknown in several crop species. Although several microRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation during water stress have been described in other species, the role of the sugarcane microRNAs during drought stress has not been studied. The objective of this work was to identify sugarcane miRNAs that are differentially expressed under drought stress and to correlate this expression with the behavior of two sugarcane cultivars with different drought tolerances. The sugarcane cultivars RB867515 (higher drought tolerance) and RB855536 (lower drought tolerance) were cultivated in a greenhouse for three months and then subjected to drought for 2, 4, 6 or 8 days. By deep sequencing of small RNAs, we were able to identify 18 miRNA families. Among all of the miRNAs thus identified, seven were differentially expressed during drought. Six of these miRNAs were differentially expressed at two days of stress, and five miRNAs were differentially expressed at four days. The expression levels of five miRNAs (ssp-miR164, ssp-miR394, ssp-miR397, ssp-miR399-seq 1 and miR528) were validated by RT-qPCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR). Six precursors and the targets of the differentially expressed miRNA were predicted using an in silico approach and validated by RT-qPCR; many of these targets may play important roles in drought tolerance. These findings constitute a significant increase in the number of identified miRNAs in sugarcane and contribute to the elucidation of the complex regulatory network that is activated by drought stress. PMID:23071617

  16. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  17. Butanol-acetone fermentation of sugar-cane juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, E V

    1958-01-01

    Sixteen new varieties of Clostridium acetobutylicum of varying activity were isolated from different sources. The most active one was obtained from sugar-cane roots. The effects of 86 additives were studied. The following formulation gave a 32% yield (with respect to sucrose) of solvent mixture (73% BuOH, 19 to 23% acetone, and 3 to 4% EtOH) sugar-cane juice (I) (20/sup 0/ Brix) 250 ml, ground Vicia sativa 1 g, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 2.5 g, CaCO/sub 3/ 4 g, H/sub 2/O 1000 ml; the pH of this solution was 5.6 to 6.0. Unclarified, it was inverted by invertase; the other components were added and the mixture was sterilized (20 minutes, 15 pounds).

  18. Role of mutation breeding in sugarcane improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shama Rao, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    Bud setts of a popular sugarcane var. Co-419 irradiated with Co 60 gamma rays produced wide genetic variations. It was easy to rapidly multiply and maintain the mutants appearing in the MV1 generation by repeated vegetative propagations. Two promising mutants (TS-1 and TS-8) found stable over 8 vegetative generations show increased cane girth and weight, enhanced sucrose content and possible early maturity, as compared to var. Co-419. Large scale field trials under different agroclimatic conditions for yield and mill tests are in progress in collaboration with some of the leading sugar factories in the country. Simultaneously, they are also being tested for disease resistance and agronomic performance at several Government Sugarcane Research Stations. Results obtained so far are presented. (author)

  19. An overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María La O

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multiple pathogens affect sugarcane, among them Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust. This disease was first reported in Cuba in 1979 when it was responsible for a severe attack on the main sugarcane variety B4362. The aims of the present study were to give an overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba and show the current disease situation in the country. A retrospective analysis regard to sugarcane cultivar composition resistant to brown rust in Cuba was carried out. In addition 154 genotypes, including the most used progenitors in the breeding program and commercial varieties were evaluated under natural infection conditions. The identity of P. melanocephala was verified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by sequencing the ITS1 region. After the introduction of P. melanocephala into Cuba, the susceptible variety, B4362, was replaced by Ja60-5 which remained resistant until 1998. Since 2002, a varietal policy supported by a governmental resolution establishing that any single cultivar cannot occupy more than 20 % of the production area for each production company, local area and province, has been applied. Out of the genotypes evaluated, 49 showed resistance to the disease and 35 intermediate behavior, while 39 were susceptible and 31, highly susceptible. P. melanocephala was detected by PCR in all symptomatic samples and its identify confirmed by sequencing the ITS1 region. The adopted measurement together with permanent phytosanitary monitoring and commercial release of resistant or intermediate cultivars succeeded in avoiding any new epidemic. Inoculum pressure was reduced, even on susceptible and highly susceptible varieties since, by resolution, they cannot occupy more than 10 % of the planted area.

  20. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  1. Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  2. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), yeast extract and coconut water .... transformed (control) plantlets using CTAB method (Doyle and .... Embryogenic Sugarcane Callus by Image Analysis.

  3. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  4. Plant resistance in sorghums to the sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated ten sorghum lines that were near or in commercial release with the intent of identifying phenotypic expression of host-plant resistance to the sugarcane aphid. Two of the ten entries OL2042 and SP7715 expressed a high degree of resistance to the sugarcane aphid with damage ratings <3.0...

  5. Exogenous nitric oxide improves sugarcane growth and photosynthesis under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Neidiquele M; Frungillo, Lucas; Marcos, Fernanda C C; Pelegrino, Milena T; Miranda, Marcela T; Seabra, Amedea B; Salgado, Ione; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2016-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated redox signaling plays a role in alleviating the negative impact of water stress in sugarcane plants by improving root growth and photosynthesis. Drought is an environmental limitation affecting sugarcane growth and yield. The redox-active molecule nitric oxide (NO) is known to modulate plant responses to stressful conditions. NO may react with glutathione (GSH) to form S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is considered the main reservoir of NO in cells. Here, we investigate the role of NO in alleviating the effects of water deficit on growth and photosynthesis of sugarcane plants. Well-hydrated plants were compared to plants under drought and sprayed with mock (water) or GSNO at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 μM. Leaf GSNO sprayed plants showed significant improvement of relative water content and leaf and root dry matter under drought compared to mock-sprayed plants. Additionally, plants sprayed with GSNO (≥ 100 μM) showed higher leaf gas exchange and photochemical activity as compared to mock-sprayed plants under water deficit and after rehydration. Surprisingly, a raise in the total S-nitrosothiols content was observed in leaves sprayed with GSH or GSNO, suggesting a long-term role of NO-mediated responses to water deficit. Experiments with leaf discs fumigated with NO gas also suggested a role of NO in drought tolerance of sugarcane plants. Overall, our data indicate that the NO-mediated redox signaling plays a role in alleviating the negative effects of water stress in sugarcane plants by protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and improving shoot and root growth.

  6. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  7. Sugarcane trash management assessed by the interaction of yield with soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sugarcane plays an important global role, particularly with a view to alternative energy sources. Thus, in a sugarcane field of the mill Vale do Paraná S/A Álcool e Açúcar, Rubineia, São Paulo State, managed under two green cane harvest systems (cane trash left on and cane trash removed from the soil, Pearson and spatial correlations between the sugarcane yield (variety RB855035 in the third cut and soil physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the property best correlated with stalk yield and the best harvest method. For this purpose, two geostatistical grids (121 sampling points on 1.30 ha were installed on a eutrophic Red Argisol (homogeneous slope of 0.065 m m-1, in 2011, to determine the properties: stalk yield and sugarcane plant population, and soil resistance to penetration, gravimetric moisture, bulk density, and carbon stock, in the layers 0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The data were analyzed by descriptive, linear correlation and geostatistical analysis. In both treatments, the property stand density was best correlated with sugarcane yield (r = 0.725 in the trash mulching treatment - TM and r = 0.769 in the trash removal treatment - TR. However, in relation to the soil properties, bulk density (0-0.20 m was best correlated (r = 0.305 in TM, r = 0.211 in TR. Similarly, from the spatial point of view, stand density was the property that best explained the sugarcane yield. However, in the TM treatment the density (0.20-0.40 m was the only soil property spatially correlated with stalk yield. The carbon stock in the soil of the TM was 11.5 % higher than in the TR treatment. Results of the TM treatment were best, also with regard to soil management and conservation.

  8. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  9. Identifying Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) and Developing Diagnostic Markers Linked to Orange Rust Resistance in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiping; Islam, Md S; Sood, Sushma; Maya, Stephanie; Hanson, Erik A; Comstock, Jack; Wang, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, contributing up to 80% of table sugar used in the world and has become a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Sugarcane production has been threatened by many diseases, and fungicide applications for disease control have been opted out for sustainable agriculture. Orange rust is one of the major diseases impacting sugarcane production worldwide. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and developing diagnostic markers are valuable for breeding programs to expedite release of superior sugarcane cultivars for disease control. In this study, an F 1 segregating population derived from a cross between two hybrid sugarcane clones, CP95-1039 and CP88-1762, was evaluated for orange rust resistance in replicated trails. Three QTLs controlling orange rust resistance in sugarcane (qORR109, qORR4 and qORR102) were identified for the first time ever, which can explain 58, 12 and 8% of the phenotypic variation, separately. We also characterized 1,574 sugarcane putative resistance ( R ) genes. These sugarcane putative R genes and simple sequence repeats in the QTL intervals were further used to develop diagnostic markers for marker-assisted selection of orange rust resistance. A PCR-based Resistance gene-derived maker, G1 was developed, which showed significant association with orange rust resistance. The putative QTLs and marker developed in this study can be effectively utilized in sugarcane breeding programs to facilitate the selection process, thus contributing to the sustainable agriculture for orange rust disease control.

  10. Feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus clavatus improves xylan hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyoni M. de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feruloyl esterase is a subclass of carboxylic acid esterases with the capacity to release ferulic acid and other cinnamic acids from plant cell walls and synthetic substrates. Feruloyl esterases act synergistically with xylanases removing ferulic acid residues esterified to arabinoxylans. Feruloyl esterase type D from Aspergillus clavatus (AcFAE was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and applied with a commercial xylanase consortium (Novozymes for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. Feruloyl esterase plus xylanase increased 5.13-fold the releasing of ferulic acid from sugarcane bagasse. Removal of only 7.7% of ferulic acid content by AcFAE increased 97.3% the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis by xylanase. These data support the use of AcFAE as an interesting adjuvant enzyme to improve lignocellulose digestion and biotechnological tool for biorefineries.

  11. Sugarcane productivity correlated with physical-chemical attributes to create soil management zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of sugar cane in Brazil is unquestionable because it is the raw material for the production of ethanol and sugar. The accurate spatial intervention in the management of the crop, resulting zones of soil management, increases productivity as well as its agricultural yields. The spatial and Person's correlations between sugarcane attributes and physico-chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2009, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°28'10'' S lat.; 50°49'20'' W long., in order to obtain the one that best correlates with agricultural productivity. Thus, the geostatistical grid with 120 sampling points was installed to soil and data collection in a plot of 14.6 ha with second crop sugarcane. Due to their substantial and excellent linear and spatial correlations with the productivity of the sugarcane, the population of plants and the organic matter content of the soil, by evidencing substantial correlations, linear and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, were indicators of management zones strongly attached to such productivity.

  12. A TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Quantification of Sporisorium scitamineum in Sugarcane

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    Yachun Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporisorium scitamineum is a fungal smut pathogen epidemic in sugarcane producing areas. Early detection and proper identification of the smut are an essential requirement in its management practice. In this study, we developed a TaqMan real-time PCR assay using specific primers (bEQ-F/bEQ-R and a TaqMan probe (bEQ-P which were designed based on the bE (b East mating type gene (Genbank Accession no. U61290.1. This method was more sensitive (a detection limit of 10 ag pbE DNA and 0.8 ng sugarcane genomic DNA than that of conventional PCR (10 fg and 100 ng, resp.. Reliability was demonstrated through the positive detection of samples collected from artificially inoculated sugarcane plantlets (FN40. This assay was capable of detecting the smut pathogen at the initial stage (12 h of infection and suitable for inspection of sugarcane pathogen-free seed cane and seedlings. Furthermore, quantification of pathogen was verified in pathogen-challenged buds in different sugarcane genotypes, which suggested its feasibility for evaluation of smut resistance in different sugarcane genotypes. Taken together, this novel assay can be used as a diagnostic tool for sensitive, accurate, fast, and quantitative detection of the smut pathogen especially for asymptomatic seed cane or plants and evaluation of smut resistance of sugarcane genotypes.

  13. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  14. Sustainability assessment of sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using eco-efficiency indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Pongpat, Patcharaporn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane biorefinery in Thailand is evaluated using the eco-efficiency concept. • Green cane along with cane trash use for electricity yields highest eco-efficiency. • Proposed biorefinery system increases eco-efficiency by 20–70%. - Abstract: The study aims to evaluate the sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using the combined environmental and economic sustainability indicator, so called “Eco-efficiency”. Four sugarcane biorefinery scenarios in Thailand are evaluated. The total output values (US$) and the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (kg CO_2eq) are selected as the indicators for characterizing economic and environmental performance, respectively. The results show that the biorefinery system of mechanized farming along with cane trash utilization for power generation yields the highest eco-efficiency. The benefits come from the increased value added of the biorefinery together with the decreased GHG emissions of the biorefinery system. As compared to the base case scenario, the new systems proposed result in the eco-efficiency improvement by around 20–70%. The biorefinery concept induces reduction of GHG emissions attributed to molasses ethanol. Green cane production and harvesting results in further lowering of the GHG emissions. Integration of sugarcane biomass utilization across the entire sugarcane complex would enhance the sustainability of the sugarcane production system.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs specifying a novel class of phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Eriksen, Tina A.; Poulsen, Tim S.

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs specifying four active phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase isozymes were isolated from an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library. In contrast to other phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthases the activity of two of the A. thaliana isozymes are independent of Pi. Amino acid sequence comparison and ph...

  16. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  17. Sugarcane leaf area estimate obtained from the corrected Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI

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    Rodrigo Moura Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large farmland areas and the knowledge on the interaction between solar radiation and vegetation canopies have increased the use of data from orbital remote sensors in sugarcane monitoring. However, the constituents of the atmosphere affect the reflectance values obtained by imaging sensors. This study aimed at improving a sugarcane Leaf Area Index (LAI estimation model, concerning the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI subjected to atmospheric correction. The model generated by the NDVI with atmospheric correction showed the best results (R2 = 0.84; d = 0.95; MAE = 0.44; RMSE = 0.55, in relation to the other models compared. LAI estimation with this model, during the sugarcane plant cycle, reached a maximum of 4.8 at the vegetative growth phase and 2.3 at the end of the maturation phase. Thus, the use of atmospheric correction to estimate the sugarcane LAI is recommended, since this procedure increases the correlations between the LAI estimated by image and by plant parameters.

  18. Multivariate genetic divergence among sugarcane clones by multivariate analysis associated with mixed models

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    Valéria Rosa Lopes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work had the aim to evaluate the genetic divergence in sugarcane clones using the methodology of graphic dispersion by principal components analysis associated to linear mixed models, indentifying the more divergent and productive genotypes with more precision, for a subsequent combination. 138 sugarcane clones of the RB97 series of the Sugarcane Breeding Program of the Universidade Federal do Parana, more two standard cultivars were evaluated in three environments, with two replications. The two first components explained 96% of the total variation, sufficiently for explaining the divergence found. The variable that contributed the most to de divergence was kilogram of brix per plot (BKP followed by brix, mass of 10 stalks and number of stalks per plot. The more divergent sugarcane clones were RB975008, RB975112, RB975019, RB975153 and RB975067 and the more productive clones were RB975269, RB977533, RB975102, RB975317 and RB975038.

  19. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

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    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  20. Loss of soil (macro)fauna due to the expansion of Brazilian sugarcane acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, André L C; Bartz, Marie L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Baretta, Dilmar; Cerri, Carlos E P; Feigl, Brigitte J; Wall, Diana H; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-09-01

    Land use changes (LUC) from pasture to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop are expected to add 6.4Mha of new sugarcane land by 2021 in the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. We assessed the effects of these LUC on the abundance and community structure of animals that inhabit soils belowground through a field survey using chronosequences of land uses comprising native vegetation, pasture, and sugarcane along a 1000-km-long transect across these two major tropical biomes in Brazil. Macrofauna community composition differed among land uses. While most groups were associated with samples taken in native vegetation, high abundance of termites and earthworms appeared associated with pasture soils. Linear mixed effects analysis showed that LUC affected total abundance (X(2)(1)=6.79, p=0.03) and taxa richness (X(2)(1)=6.08, p=0.04) of soil macrofauna. Abundance increased from 411±70individualsm(-2) in native vegetation to 1111±202individualsm(-2) in pasture, but decreased sharply to 106±24individualsm(-2) in sugarcane soils. Diversity decreased 24% from native vegetation to pasture, and 39% from pasture to sugarcane. Thus, a reduction of ~90% in soil macrofauna abundance, besides a loss of ~40% in the diversity of macrofauna groups, can be expected when sugarcane crops replace pasture in Brazilian tropical soils. In general, higher abundances of major macrofauna groups (ants, coleopterans, earthworms, and termites) were associated with higher acidity and low contents of macronutrients and organic matter in soil. This study draws attention for a significant biodiversity loss belowground due to tropical LUC in sugarcane expansion areas. Given that many groups of soil macrofauna are recognized as key mediators of ecosystem processes such as soil aggregation, nutrients cycling and soil carbon storage, our results warrant further efforts to understand the impacts of altering belowground biodiversity and composition on soil functioning and agriculture performance

  1. Efficacy of Alkali-treated Sugarcane Fiber for Improving Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsions with Different Fat Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, Yong-Jae; Brad Kim, Yuan H.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion with different fat levels. Crude sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF) was treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2)) to obtain alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber (ASF). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber (CSF and ASF) were incorporated at 2% levels in pork meat emulsions prepared with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Alkaline-treatment markedly increased acid detergent fiber content (p=0.002), but significantly decreased protein, fat, ash and other carbohydrate contents. ASF exhibited significantly higher water-binding capacity, but lower oil-binding and emulsifying capacities than CSF. Meat emulsions formulated with 10% fat and 2% sugarcane bagasse fiber had equivalent cooking loss and textural properties to control meat emulsion (20% fat without sugarcane bagasse fiber). The two types of sugarcane bagasse fiber had similar impacts on proximate composition, cooking yield and texture of meat emulsion at the same fat level, respectively (p>0.05). Our results confirm that sugarcane bagasse fiber could be a functional food ingredient for improving physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion, at 2% addition level. Further, the altered functional properties of alkaline-treated sugarcane bagasse fiber had no impacts on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsions, regardless of fat level at 5%, 10% and 20%. PMID:29805281

  2. Residual recovery and yield performance of nitrogen fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe low effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer (N is a substantial concern that threatens global sugarcane production. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to assess the residual effect of N-fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting over four crop seasons in relation to sugarcane crop yield. Toward this end three field experiments were established in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during February of 2005 and July of 2009, in a randomized block design with four treatments: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 of N applied as urea during sugarcane planting. Within each plot, a microplot was established to which 15N-labeled urea was applied. The application of N at planting increased plant cane yield in two of the three sites and sucrose content at the other, whereas the only residual effect was higher sucrose content in one of the following ratoons. The combined effect was an increase in sugar yield for three of the 11 crop seasons evaluated. Over the crop cycle of a plant cane and three ratoon crops, only 35 % of the applied N was recovered, split 75, 13, 7 and 5 % in the plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, respectively. These findings document the low efficiency of N recovery by sugarcane, which increases the risk that excessive N fertilization will reduce profitability and have an adverse effect on the environment.

  3. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  4. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  5. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  6. Assessment of three cuban sites for testing resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaquelin Puchades

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane mosaic disease is amongst the world’s most important diseases affecting sugarcane worldwide. The objective was to assess the environmental conditions of the sites where the test for SCMV resistance is done. Multi-environment trial Data were analyzed using a Principal Components Analysis Eighteen sugarcane genotypes s were evaluated from the main testing sites in Cuba (Jovellanos, Florida, Mayarí . The information of the climatic conditions was recorded at local weather stations. The assessment of the sites was done by analyzing the main components. Results showed that the testing sites were different from one another, and proved that the environment strongly influences on the mosaic symptom manifestation. PCA was an excellent procedure to assess the testing sites .for SCMV resistance.

  7. Ametryn Leaching in Soils from the Sugarcane Region in Northeastern Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, K.S.; FREITAS, F.C.L.; BRAGA, D.F.; DOMBROSKI, J.L.D.; SANTOS, A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ametryn is one of the most widely used herbicides in the sugarcane culture. Little is known about the interactions between this herbicide and the attributes of soils in the sugarcane region of northeastern Brazil. This knowledge, before recommending herbicide, will minimize the negative effects on the environment, particularly on water resources, and will ensure weed control efficacy. In this work, ametryn leaching potential was estimated through bioassays and chromatography, in five...

  8. Glutathione reductase in leaves of cowpea: cloning of two cDNAs, expression and enzymatic activity under progressive drought stress, desiccation and abscisic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contour-Ansel, Dominique; Torres-Franklin, Maria Lucia; Cruz DE Carvalho, Maria Helena; D'Arcy-Lameta, Agnès; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2006-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are frequently produced when plants are exposed to abiotic stresses. Among the detoxication systems, two enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GR) play key roles. GR has also a central role in keeping the reduced glutathione pool during stress thus allowing the adjustments on the cellular redox reactions. The aim of this work was to study the variations in cytosolic and dual-targeted GR gene expression in the leaves of cowpea plants submitted to progressive drought, rapid desiccation and application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars, one drought-resistant ('EPACE-1'), the other drought-sensitive ('1183') were submitted to progressive drought stress by withholding irrigation. Cut-off leaves were air-dried or treated with exogenous ABA. Two GR cDNAs, one cytosolic, the other dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria were isolated by PCR and cloned in plasmid vectors. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to study the variations in GR gene expression. Two new cDNAs encoding a putative dual-targeted and a cytosolic GR were cloned and sequenced from leaves of V. unguiculata. Drought stress induced an up-regulation of the expression of the cytosolic GR gene directly related to the intensity of the stress in both cultivars. The expression of dual-targeted GR was up-regulated by the drought treatment in the susceptible cultivar only. Under a fast desiccation, the '1183' cultivar responded later than the 'EPACE-1', although in 'EPACE-1' it was the cytosolic isoform which responded and in '1183' the dual-targeted one. Exogenous ABA enhanced significantly the activity and expression levels of GR in both cultivars after treatment for 24 h. These results demonstrate a noticeable activation in both cultivars of the antioxidant metabolism under a progressive water stress, which involves both GR genes in the case of the susceptible cultivar. Under a fast desiccation, the susceptible cultivar

  9. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or hydrous ethanol to produce from raw sugarcane can be modelled as an investment decision in a portfolio decision problem whenever a combination of these products is considered. As to the future price of these commodities, raw sugarcane is considered to be capital that should be invested. Thus, this paper puts forward a decision model which uses concepts from Decision Analysis and Bayesian Risk Analysis that may well assist the process of managing assets in the Brazilian sugarcane industry by considering the financial aspect when compiling a portfolio for planning production.

  10. Cloning of a cDNA encoding the rat high molecular weight neurofilament peptide (NF-H): Developmental and tissue expression in the rat, and mapping of its human homologue to chromosomes 1 and 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberburg, I.; Spinner, N.; Snyder, S.

    1989-01-01

    Neurofilaments (NFs) are the intermediate filaments specific to nervous tissue. Three peptides with apparent molecular masses of approximately 68 (NF-L), 145 (NF-M), and 200 (NF-H) kDa appear to be the major components of NF. The expression of these peptides is specific to nervous tissue and is developmentally regulated. Recently, complete cDNAs encoding NF-L and NF-M, and partial cDNAs encoding NF-H, have been described. To better understand the normal pathophysiology of NFs the authors chose to clone the cDNA encoding the rat NF-H peptide. Using monoclonal antibodies that recognized NF-H, they screened a rat brain λgt11 library and identified a clone that contained a 2,100-nucleotide cDNA insert representing the carboxyl-terminal portion of the NF-H protein. Levels of NF-H mRNA varied 20-fold among brain regions, with highest levels in pons/medulla, spinal cord, and cerebellum, and lowest levels in olfactory bulb and hypothalamus. Based on these results, the authors infer that half of the developmental increase and most of the interregional variation in the levels of the NF-H mRNA are mediated through message stabilization. Sequence information revealed that the carboxyl-terminal region of the NF-H peptide contained a unique serine-, proline-, alanine-, glutamic acid-, and lysine-rich repeat. Genomic blots revealed a single copy of the gene in the rat genome and two copies in the human genome. In situ hybridizations performed on human chromosomes mapped the NF-H gene to chromosomes 1 and 22

  11. Sugarcane yield estimation for climatic conditions in the state of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Moura Caetano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Models that estimate potential and depleted crop yield according to climatic variable enable the crop planning and production quantification for a specific region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare methods to sugarcane yield estimates grown in the climatic condition in the central part of Goiás, Brazil. So, Agroecological Zone Method (ZAE and the model proposed by Scarpari (S were correlated with real data of sugarcane yield from an experimental area, located in Santo Antônio de Goiás, state of Goiás, Brazil. Data yield refer to the crops of 2008/2009 (sugarcane plant, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 (ratoon sugarcane. Yield rates were calculated as a function of atmospheric water demand and water deficit in the area under study. Real and estimated yields were adjusted in function of productivity loss due to cutting stage of sugarcane, using an average reduction in productivity observed in the experimental area and the average reduction in the state of Goiás. The results indicated that the ZAE method, considering the water deficit, displayed good yield estimates for cane-plant (d > 0.90. Water deficit decreased the yield rates (r = -0.8636; α = 0.05 while the thermal sum increased that rate for all evaluated harvests (r > 0.68; α = 0.05.

  12. Carbon Footprint of Biofuel Sugarcane Produced in Mineral and Organic Soils in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis; Hanlon, Edward; Amponsah, Nana; Capece, John

    2013-02-06

    Ethanol produced from sugarcane is an existing and accessible form of renewable energy. In this study, we applied the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to estimate the Carbon Footprint (CFP) of biofuel sugarcane produced on mineral (sandy) and organic (muck) soils in Florida. CFP was estimated from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) during the biofuel sugarcane cultivation. The data for the energy (fossil fuels and electricity), equipment, and chemical fertilizers were taken from enterprise budgets prepared by the University of Florida based on surveys and interviews obtained from local growers during the cropping years 2007/2008 and 2009/2010 for mineral soils and 2008/2009 for organic soils. Emissions from biomass burning and organic land use were calculated based on the IPCC guidelines. The results show that the CFP for biofuel sugarcane production is 0.04 kg CO2e kg-1y-1 when produced in mineral soils and 0.46 kg CO2e kg-1y-1 when produced in organic soils. Most of the GHG emissions from production of biofuel sugarcane in mineral soils come from equipment (33%), fertilizers (28%), and biomass burning (27%); whereas GHG emissions from production in organic soils come predominantly from the soil (93%). This difference should be considered to adopt new practices for a more sustainable farming system if biofuel feedstocks are to be considered.

  13. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+-catechin and (--epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05 in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus.

  14. Brazilian sugarcane ethanol as an expandable green alternative to crude oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Deepak; de Souza, Amanda P.; Larsen, Søren; Lebauer, David S.; Miguez, Fernando E.; Sparovek, Gerd; Bollero, Germán; Buckeridge, Marcos S.; Long, Stephen P.

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions will require a transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources. Expansion of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol provides one near-term scalable solution to reduce CO2 emissions from the global transport sector. In contrast to corn ethanol, the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol system may offset 86% of CO2 emissions compared to oil use, and emissions resulting from land-use change to sugarcane are paid back in just 2-8 years. But, it has been uncertain how much further expansion is possible given increasing demand for food and animal feed, climate change impacts and protection of natural ecosystems. We show that Brazilian sugarcane ethanol can provide the equivalent of 3.63-12.77 Mb d-1 of crude oil by 2045 under projected climate change while protecting forests under conservation and accounting for future land demand for food and animal feed production. The corresponding range of CO2 offsets is 0.55-2.0 Gigatons yr-1. This would displace 3.8-13.7% of crude oil consumption and 1.5-5.6% of net CO2 emission globally relative to data for 2014.

  15. Pyraclostrobin wash-off from sugarcane leaves and aerobic dissipation in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, James M; Wayment, Darcey G; White, Paul M; Webber, Charles L

    2014-03-12

    To mitigate damage from the fungal sugarcane pathogen brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala), a Section 18 Emergency Use Label was put in place by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for the application of pyraclostrobin (trade name Headline SC, produced by BASF, Research Triangle Park, NC) on sugarcane in 2008. To assess the dynamics of this fungicide in Louisiana soil, samples (n = 24) from a non-treated field were spiked with pyraclostrobin (3.1 μg g(-1)) and analyzed in laboratory conditions over the course of 63 days using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) dispersive solid-phase extraction/high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (dSPE/HPLC-UV). Modeling was performed using Microsoft Excel to predict DTx values. Pyraclostrobin was found to follow biphasic kinetics with DT50 and DT90 values of 60 and 282 days, suggesting that it is moderately persistent to persistent in soils. Wash-off studies on sugarcane indicate that very little fungicide is in the wash-off after 48 h. If applied to sugarcane according to label recommendations, the fungicide should have minimal dissipation from rainfall events.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Sporisorium scitamineum and Biotrophic Interaction Transcriptome with Sugarcane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M Taniguti

    Full Text Available Sporisorium scitamineum is a biotrophic fungus responsible for the sugarcane smut, a worldwide spread disease. This study provides the complete sequence of individual chromosomes of S. scitamineum from telomere to telomere achieved by a combination of PacBio long reads and Illumina short reads sequence data, as well as a draft sequence of a second fungal strain. Comparative analysis to previous available sequences of another strain detected few polymorphisms among the three genomes. The novel complete sequence described herein allowed us to identify and annotate extended subtelomeric regions, repetitive elements and the mitochondrial DNA sequence. The genome comprises 19,979,571 bases, 6,677 genes encoding proteins, 111 tRNAs and 3 assembled copies of rDNA, out of our estimated number of copies as 130. Chromosomal reorganizations were detected when comparing to sequences of S. reilianum, the closest smut relative, potentially influenced by repeats of transposable elements. Repetitive elements may have also directed the linkage of the two mating-type loci. The fungal transcriptome profiling from in vitro and from interaction with sugarcane at two time points (early infection and whip emergence revealed that 13.5% of the genes were differentially expressed in planta and particular to each developmental stage. Among them are plant cell wall degrading enzymes, proteases, lipases, chitin modification and lignin degradation enzymes, sugar transporters and transcriptional factors. The fungus also modulates transcription of genes related to surviving against reactive oxygen species and other toxic metabolites produced by the plant. Previously described effectors in smut/plant interactions were detected but some new candidates are proposed. Ten genomic islands harboring some of the candidate genes unique to S. scitamineum were expressed only in planta. RNAseq data was also used to reassure gene predictions.

  17. A LCA (life cycle assessment) of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, Maria Luiza Grillo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Buchgeister, Jens; Almazan, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays one of the most important environmental issues is the exponential increase of the greenhouse effect by the polluting action of the industrial and transport sectors. The production of biofuels is considered a viable alternative for the pollution mitigation but also to promote rural development. The work presents an analysis of the environmental impacts of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse, taking into consideration the balance of the energy life cycle and its net environmental impacts, both are included in a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach. The evaluation is done as a case study of a 100,000 t/y methanol plant, using sugarcane bagasse as raw material. The methanol is produced through the BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. The results of the environmental impacts were compared to others LCA studies of biofuel and it was showed that there are significant differences of environmental performance among the existing biofuel production system, even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, technology of the biomass conversion. With relation to the result of output/input ratio, the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse showed to be a feasible alternative for the substitution of an amount of fossil methanol obtained from natural gas. -- Highlights: → High and favorable energy ratio value of methanol from bagasse. → Sugarcane production has a low participation on environmental impacts. → The gasification and methanol synthesis can be combined in a biorefinery. → Farming biomass could cause the environmental impact land competition. → The trash of sugarcane can be used successfully in methanol production.

  18. Prioritizing Crop Management to Increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Australian Sugarcane Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Palmer, Jeda; Meier, Elizabeth A; Verburg, Kirsten; Skocaj, Danielle M

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane production relies on the application of large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. However, application of N in excess of crop needs can lead to loss of N to the environment, which can negatively impact ecosystems. This is of particular concern in Australia where the majority of sugarcane is grown within catchments that drain directly into the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Multiple factors that impact crop yield and N inputs of sugarcane production systems can affect N use efficiency (NUE), yet the efficacy many of these factors have not been examined in detail. We undertook an extensive simulation analysis of NUE in Australian sugarcane production systems to investigate (1) the impacts of climate on factors determining NUE, (2) the range and drivers of NUE, and (3) regional variation in sugarcane N requirements. We found that the interactions between climate, soils, and management produced a wide range of simulated NUE, ranging from ∼0.3 Mg cane (kg N) -1 , where yields were low (i.e., 5 Mg cane (kg N) -1 in plant crops where yields were high and N inputs low. Of the management practices simulated (N fertilizer rate, timing, and splitting; fallow management; tillage intensity; and in-field traffic management), the only practice that significantly influenced NUE in ratoon crops was N fertilizer application rate. N rate also influenced NUE in plant crops together with the management of the preceding fallow. In addition, there is regional variation in N fertilizer requirement that could make N fertilizer recommendations more specific. While our results show that complex interrelationships exist between climate, crop growth, N fertilizer rates and N losses to the environment, they highlight the priority that should be placed on optimizing N application rate and fallow management to improve NUE in Australian sugarcane production systems. New initiatives in seasonal climate forecasting, decisions support systems and enhanced efficiency

  19. Prioritizing Crop Management to Increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Australian Sugarcane Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Thorburn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane production relies on the application of large amounts of nitrogen (N fertilizer. However, application of N in excess of crop needs can lead to loss of N to the environment, which can negatively impact ecosystems. This is of particular concern in Australia where the majority of sugarcane is grown within catchments that drain directly into the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Multiple factors that impact crop yield and N inputs of sugarcane production systems can affect N use efficiency (NUE, yet the efficacy many of these factors have not been examined in detail. We undertook an extensive simulation analysis of NUE in Australian sugarcane production systems to investigate (1 the impacts of climate on factors determining NUE, (2 the range and drivers of NUE, and (3 regional variation in sugarcane N requirements. We found that the interactions between climate, soils, and management produced a wide range of simulated NUE, ranging from ∼0.3 Mg cane (kg N-1, where yields were low (i.e., <50 Mg ha-1 and N inputs were high, to >5 Mg cane (kg N-1 in plant crops where yields were high and N inputs low. Of the management practices simulated (N fertilizer rate, timing, and splitting; fallow management; tillage intensity; and in-field traffic management, the only practice that significantly influenced NUE in ratoon crops was N fertilizer application rate. N rate also influenced NUE in plant crops together with the management of the preceding fallow. In addition, there is regional variation in N fertilizer requirement that could make N fertilizer recommendations more specific. While our results show that complex interrelationships exist between climate, crop growth, N fertilizer rates and N losses to the environment, they highlight the priority that should be placed on optimizing N application rate and fallow management to improve NUE in Australian sugarcane production systems. New initiatives in seasonal climate forecasting

  20. Burnt sugarcane harvesting - cardiovascular effects on a group of healthy workers, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Galvão Barbosa

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane. Harvest is predominantly manual, exposing workers to health risks: intense physical exertion, heat, pollutants from sugarcane burning.Panel study to evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on blood markers and on cardiovascular system.Twenty-eight healthy male workers, living in the countryside of Brazil were submitted to blood markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, sympathetic nerve activity evaluation and forearm blood flow measures (venous occlusion plethysmography during burnt sugarcane harvesting and four months later while they performed other activities in sugar cane culture.Mean participant age was 31 ± 6.3 years, and had worked for 9.8 ± 8.4 years on sugarcane work. Work during the harvest period was associated with higher serum levels of Creatine Kinase - 136.5 U/L (IQR: 108.5-216.0 vs. 104.5 U/L (IQR: 77.5-170.5, (p = 0.001; plasma Malondialdehyde-7.5 ± 1.4 µM/dl vs. 6.9 ± 1.0 µM/dl, (p = 0.058; Glutathione Peroxidase - 55.1 ± 11.8 Ug/Hb vs. 39.5 ± 9.5 Ug/Hb, (p<0.001; Glutathione Transferase- 3.4±1.3 Ug/Hb vs. 3.0 ± 1.3 Ug/Hb, (p = 0.001; and 24-hour systolic blood pressure - 120.1 ± 10.3 mmHg vs. 117.0 ± 10.0 mmHg, (p = 0.034. In cardiopulmonary exercise testing, rest-to-peak diastolic blood pressure increased by 11.12 mmHg and 5.13 mmHg in the harvest and non-harvest period, respectively. A 10 miliseconds reduction in rMSSD and a 10 burst/min increase in sympathetic nerve activity were associated to 2.2 and 1.8 mmHg rises in systolic arterial pressure, respectively.Work in burnt sugarcane harvesting was associated with changes in blood markers and higher blood pressure, which may be related to autonomic imbalance.

  1. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  2. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  3. Registration of 'CP 09-2392' Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP 09-2392’ (Reg. No.____; PI _____) sugarcane, a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp, was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in June 2016. ‘CP 09-2392’ was selected from a cro...

  4. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  5. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  6. Sugarcane biorefineries: Case studies applied to the Brazilian sugar–alcohol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renó, Maria Luiza Grillo; Olmo, Oscar Almazán del; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced system of co-generation improves the energy performance of biorefineries. • Sugarcane straw as additional source of fuel in the biorefinery resulted positive. • The farming and transport of sugarcane cause the main environmental impacts. - Abstract: The use of biomasses is becoming increasingly appealing alternative, to give an partial solution lack of energy, with an ecofriendly approach, having on sugarcane a solid fundament; that receives the new and valuable complement of the innovative concept of the biorefineries it is productive installations, that can be summarized as to reach the higher overall yield from the raw materials, with the lowest environmental impact, at minimum energy input and giving the maximum of the energy output. The biorefinery is the true valuable option of a wide diversification, with by-products like the single cell protein and biogas from the distillery vinasse, new oxidants like methanol, second generation biofuels, biobutanol, etc. In this context this paper presents a study of five different configurations of biorefineries. Each case study being a system based on an autonomous distillery or sugar mill with an annexed distillery and coproduction of methanol from bagasse. The paper includes the use of sugarcane harvest residues (mainly straw) and a BIG–GT plant (Biomass Integrated Gasification–Gas Turbine) as alternatives to fulfill the energy demands of the complex

  7. Cultivating C4 crops in a changing climate: sugarcane in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Emily; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Osborne, Tom; Van den Hoof, Catherine; Verhoef, Anne; Cuadra, Santiago Vianna

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades, it is expected that increasing fossil fuel prices will lead to a proliferation of energy crop cultivation initiatives. The environmental sustainability of these activities is thus a pressing issue—particularly when they take place in vulnerable regions, such as West Africa. In more general terms, the effect of increased CO 2 concentrations and higher temperatures on biomass production and evapotranspiration affects the evolution of the global hydrological and carbon cycles. Investigating these processes for a C4 crop, such as sugarcane, thus provides an opportunity both to extend our understanding of the impact of climate change, and to assess our capacity to model the underpinning processes. This paper applies a process-based crop model to sugarcane in Ghana (where cultivation is planned), and the São Paulo region of Brazil (which has a well-established sugarcane industry). We show that, in the Daka River region of Ghana, provided there is sufficient irrigation, it is possible to generate approximately 75% of the yield achieved in the São Paulo region. In the final part of the study, the production of sugarcane under an idealized temperature increase climate change scenario is explored. It is shown that doubling CO 2 mitigates the degree of water stress associated with a 4 °C increase in temperature. (letter)

  8. Frequency and distribution of the brown rust resistance gene Bru1 and implications for the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane posing an increasing threat to sugarcane industries worldwide. A major gene, Bru1, has been shown to contribute a significant proportion of brown rust resistance in multiple sugarcane industries. The recent...

  9. Probing genetic diversity to characterize red rot resistance in sugarcane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumtaz, A S; Dure-e-Nayab,; Iqbal, M J; Shinwari, Z.K., E-mail: asmumtaz@qau.edu.pk

    2011-10-15

    Genetic diversity was assessed in a set of twelve sugarcane genotypes using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of thirty-two oligo-primers were employed, sixteen of them revealed amplification at 149 loci, out of which 136 were polymorphic. The genotype SPSG-26 showed the highest number of polymorphic loci, followed by CSSG-668 and HSF-242. Pairwise genetic similarity ranged from 67.2% to 83.3%. The UPGMA cluster analysis resolved most of the accessions in two groups. The clustering pattern did not place all resistant varieties in one or related group which depict diverse resistance source in the present set of sugarcane varieties. Ten primers revealed genotype specific bands among which four primers (K07, H02, K10 and F01) produced multiple genotype specific bands that aid genotype identification especially those with red rot resistance. The present study not only provided information on the genetic diversity among the genotypes but also revealed the potential of RAPD-PCR markers for genotype identification and therefore could be utilized in marker assisted selection for red rot resistance in sugarcane. (author)

  10. Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Izabel; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Liu, Shichong; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Garcia, Benjamin A; Casas-Mollano, J Armando

    2015-01-01

    Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in

  11. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton B Santa Brigida

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa, which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7 from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  12. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Brigida, Ailton B; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  13. Influence of the catalyzer in the esterification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Tatiana F.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Suzuki, Paulo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount Abstract: In this work chemical modification of the sugarcane bagasse fibers by anhydride system using amount different of catalyze was studied. The chemical modification of the fibers was evaluated by techniques of X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Results showed that the amount of catalyze influenced in the chemical modification of the fibers. (author)

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  15. Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arruda, de M.R.; Giller, K.E.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to

  16. Genotyping Sugarcane for the Brown Rust Resistance Locus Bru1 Using Unlabeled Probe Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is a major disease of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida, Louisiana, and other sugarcane growing regions. The Bru1 locus has been used as a durable and effective source of resistance, and markers are available to select for the trait. The...

  17. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on sugarcane in Colombia, with description of a new species of Tillancoccus Ben-Dov (Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alejandro; Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Kondo, Takumasa

    2017-05-02

    Herein we describe a new species, Tillancoccus koreguajae Caballero & Ramos, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Colombia collected on sugarcane. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) is also recorded on sugarcane for the first time worldwide. An updated list of seven species of Coccomorpha on sugarcane in Colombia is provided, including information on its distribution, biology, and mutualistic ants for each species. Seven species of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) have been recorded previously on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae) in Colombia: Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus boninsis (Kuwana), D. brevipes (Cockerell), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell); Coccidae: Pulvinaria elongata Newstead; Diaspididae: Duplachionaspis divergens (Green) and Serenaspis minima (Maskell). However, the record of S. minima in Colombia is considered doubtful as there are no voucher specimens from Colombia and because the distribution of this species is currently limited to the Australasian region. Pseudococcus calceolariae is present in Colombia but its record on sugarcane is also doubtful. A taxonomic key for the identification of scale insects on sugarcane in Colombia is provided.

  18. Vinasse from Sugarcane Ethanol Production: Better Treatment or Better Utilization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Reis, Cristiano E.; Hu, Bo, E-mail: bhu@umn.edu [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is a well-established industry, with relatively simple operations and high yield. The ethanol primarily serves as a renewable fuel blending with gasoline and diesel to increase the energy security in Brazil. Several environmental concerns are emerged around the by-products from this industry. Vinasse, the liquid fraction generated from the rectification and distillation operations of ethanol, is a sulfur-rich, low pH, dark-colored, and odorous effluent, produced at volumes as high as 20-fold of ethanol. Traditional wastewater treatments, such as bioprocessing, advanced oxidative processes, anaerobic digestion (AD), and chemical-based processes, have been applied to vinasse management. Despite most of its utilization being in fertirrigation practices, vinasse may represent a key factor in enhancing profitability and environmental outcomes of a sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The application of some upgrade solutions to sugarcane-derived vinasse may represent additional sources of energy, production of animal feed components, and reduction in water consumption within a plant. The use of mature technologies, yet not widespread in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry, could help attenuate environmental concerns. Oxidation and chemical processes, AD, and microbial fermentation have been presented as alternative impactful alternatives to (i) reduce its organic and mineral load, converting it to a feedstock with fewer environmental applications when applied as fertilizer and (ii) to convert organic matter and nutrients to a nutritious biomass, simultaneously increasing water reclamation potential by plants. This mini-review article provides a critical and comprehensive summary of the alternatives developed or under development to vinasse management.

  19. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  20. AREAS OF ECONOMIC INFLUENCE OF SUGARCANE INDUSTRY IN MATO GROSSO, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Colman de Azevedo Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Macroeconomic data reveals the increase of sugarcane chain relevance to Mato Grosso economy, however does not exist studies that evaluate the scope of regional impacts. This research has as the main objective the identification of the territory extension of the sugarcane industry influence in Mato Grosso during 2010, characterizing relationships between industrial plants and the regions where they acting. Was used the gravitational model developed by Isard (1956 to estimate this interrelation commerce patterns of the chain in the state, to find the sugarcane regional centers, as well as, to set up their potential areas of influence. As results has the identification of the 13 cane regions, three cities in first level, seven in the second level and three sub-centers. The relations between this centers and the respective regions has different specifications and their complete understanding allows destination of private investments and public politics. Keywords: Gravitational Model. Cane Sugar Suply Chain. Mato Grosso.

  1. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  2. Characterization of typical aquatic humic substances in areas of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, A.M.; Constantino, I.C. [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Nuzzo, A.; Spaccini, R.; Piccolo, A. [Dipartimento Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, e dell' Ambiente, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Moreira, A.B. [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-06-15

    Aquatic humic substances (AHSs) differ from one environment to another depending on land use and occupation. In addition, the effects of planting sugarcane on AHSs are not well known. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize AHSs extracted from a river in a typical region of sugarcane cultivation during dry and rainy seasons. The main characteristics of the AHSs were obtained using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and off-line pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (off-line tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-GC–MS-thermochemolysis). The FTIR and NMR results were used to infer that no distinctions occurred between the sampling periods. The samples were composed of aromatic groups that were potentially associated with the presence of residual vegetable materials (lignin). The results of the off-line TMAH-GC–MS-thermochemolysis indicated that the structures of the AHSs had uniform compositions that were rich in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), polysaccharide derivatives, aliphatic biopolymers derived from plants, long hydrocarbon chains, branched alkyl groups and methylene carbons. Thus, the results showed that the AHSs obtained from the sugarcane cultivation area during the crop period mainly consisted of resistant aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are derivatives of lignin and FAMEs in compounds rich in humic acid. Therefore, we concluded that sugarcane cultivation produces changes in AHSs because greater amounts of lignin derivatives were observed during the dry season, corresponding to sugarcane cultivation. - Highlights: • AHSs differ from one environment to another depending on land use and occupation. • AHSs extracted from a river in a typical region of sugarcane cultivation. • AHSs from the sugarcane area are influenced by the soil use and occupation. • AHSs contain lignin derivatives, fatty acid methyl esters and others. • Lignin was observed with

  3. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  4. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SUGARCANE-ASSOCIATED DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA CAPABLE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Lira-Cadete, Luana; Barbosa de Farias, Andreza Raquel; de Souza Ramos, Andresa Priscila; da Costa, Diogo Paes; Freire, Fernando Jose; Kuklinsky-Sobral, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane is a culture of great importance for the Brazilian agriculture. Every year this culture consumes great amounts of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. However, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria can reduce the use of the chemical fertilizers, contributing to the economy and the environment conservation. So, the goal of this study was to select sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to evaluate the genetic diversity of these b...

  5. Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon; Sebastien Bonnet; Poonpipope Kasemsap; Savitri Garivait

    2013-01-01

    The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to ...

  6. Use of radiation and in vitro techniques for development of salt tolerant mutants in sugarcane and potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif-Ur-Rasheed, M.; Asad, S.; Zafar, Y.; Waheed, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sugarcane and potato are propagated vegetatively and are important crops in Pakistan. Protocols were established to initiate callus and regenerate plants in sugarcane and to multiply potato in- vitro from nodal segments. Cultures of potato and sugarcane were irradiated with 5, 20, 40, and 60 Gy. Increase in radiation dose above 20 Gy reduced regeneration capacity of sugarcane callus. Doses higher than 20 Gy were lethal to micropropagated plants of potato. Culture of irradiated sugarcane callus on media containing salt was tried, but no regeneration was obtained. Variants for tolerance to salinity were selected, and evaluated under saline field conditions at four locations. The study showed that the selected variants of both sugarcane and potato were sensitive to high levels of salinity. Variants tested within the same salinity treatment did not differ significantly from each other in the traits investigated. Only boron uptake in the variants was much higher on saline soil than on the normal soil. Polymorphism was detected among the variants by DNA fingerprinting using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. RAPD analysis showed that most of the variants reverted back to normal type. It is concluded that a large number of variants need be screened to obtain the desired mutants. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Loss Resources during Sugarcane Production Process and Provide Solutions to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zakidizaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction No use of advanced mechanization and weakness in post harvesting technology are the main reasons of agricultural losses. Some of these wastes (agricultural losses are related to crop growing conditions in field and the remaining to processing of sugar in mill. The most useful priority setting methods for agricultural projects are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. So, this study presents an introduction of application manner of the AHP as a mostly common method of setting agricultural projects priorities. The purpose of this work is studying the sugarcane loss during production process using AHP in Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods The resources of sugarcane waste have been defined based on expert’s opinions. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this research. The study was applied to a panel of qualified informants made up of thirty-two experts. Those interviewed were distributed in Sugarcane Development and By-products Company in 2015-2016. Then, with using the analytical hierarchy process, a questionnaire was designed for defining the weight and importance of parameters effecting on sugarcane waste. For this method of evaluation, three main criteria considered, were yield criteria, cost criteria and income criteria. Criteria and prioritizing of them was done by questionnaire and interview with sophisticated experts. This technique determined and ranked the importance of sugarcane waste resources based on attributing relative weights to factors with respect to comments provided in the questionnaires. Analytical Hierarchy Process was done by using of software (Expert choice and the inconsistency rate on expert judgments was investigated. Results and Discussion How to use agricultural implements and machinery during planting and harvesting of sugarcane, can increase or decrease the volume of waste. In planting period, the losses mainly consists of loss of setts during cutting them by machine

  8. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  9. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khonkaen 40002, Thailand. ... The genetic transformation was achieved ..... image processing. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 3(5): 297-301. Nasir NM, Qureshi RH, Aslam M (2000). Effect of salinity on emergence of sugarcane lines. Pak.

  10. Exposure- and flux-based assessment of ozone risk to sugarcane plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic oxidative air pollutant, with significant detrimental effects on crops. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop with no O3 risk assessment performed so far. This study aimed to assess O3 risk to sugarcane plants by using exposure-based indices (AOT40 and W126) based on O3 concentrations in the air, and the flux-based index (PODy, where y is a threshold of uptake) that considers leaf O3 uptake and the influence of environmental conditions on stomatal conductance (gsto). Two sugarcane genotypes (IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000) were subjected to a 90-day Free-Air Controlled Experiment (FACE) exposure at three levels of O3 concentrations: ambient (Amb); Amb x1.2; and Amb x1.4. Total above-ground biomass (AGB), stalk biomass (SB) and leaf biomass (LB) were evaluated and the potential biomass production in a clean air was estimated by assuming a theoretical clean atmosphere at 10 ppb as 24 h O3 average. The Jarvis-type multiplicative algorithm was used to parametrize gsto including environmental factors i.e. air temperature, light intensity, air vapor pressure deficit, and minimum night-time temperature. Ozone exposure caused a negative impact on AGB, SB and LB. The O3 sensitivity of sugarcane may be related to its high gsto (∼535 mmol H2O m-2 s-1). As sugarcane is adapted to hot climate conditions, gsto was restricted when the current minimum air temperature (Tmin) was below ∼14 °C and the minimum night-time air temperature of the previous day (Tnmin) was below ∼7.5 °C. The flux-based index (PODy) performed better than the exposure-based indices in estimating O3 effect on biomass losses. We recommend a y threshold of 2 nmol m-2 s-1 to incorporate O3 effects on both AGB and SB and 1 nmol m-2 s-1 on LB. In order not to exceed 4% reduction in the growth of these two sugarcane genotypes, we recommend the following critical levels: 1.09 and 1.04 mmol m-2 POD2 for AGB, 0.91 and 0.96 mmol m-2 POD2 for SB, and 3.00 and 2.36 mmol m-2 POD1 for

  11. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  12. Assessment of chemical and sensory quality of sugarcane alcoholic fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende Oliveira, Érica; Caliari, Márcio; Soares Soares Júnior, Manoel; Ribeiro Oliveira, Aryane; Cristina Marques Duarte, Renata; Valério de Barros Vilas Boas, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the technological feasibility, chemical quality and sensory acceptance of alcoholic fermented beverage obtained from sugarcane juice. A completely randomized design was applied. Sugar and alcohol content, phenolic (HPLC-MS) and volatile (GS-MS) compounds, pH, density, dry matter and acidity of the fermented beverage of sugarcane were quantified, as well as the acceptance of the product was carried out. The complete fermentation of sugarcane lasted 7 days, and it was obtained an alcohol content of 8.0% v/v. Titrable acidity of the beverage was of 67.31 meq L -1 , pH 4.03, soluble solids of 5 °Brix, reducing sugar of 0.07 g glucose 100 g -1 , density of 0.991 g cm -3 , reduced dry matter of 14.15 g L -1 , sulfates lower than 0.7 g K 2 SO 4  L -1 . Various phenolic compounds, among which, gallic acid (10.97%), catechin (1.73%), chlorogenic acid (3.52%), caffeic acid (1.49%), vanillic acid (0.28%), p -coumaric acid (0.24%), ferulic acid (6.63%), m -coumaric acid (0.36%), and o -coumaric acid (0.04%). Amongst aromatic compounds, were found mainly esters with fruity aromas (ethyl ester hexanoic acid and ethyl ester octanoic acid). The sugarcane juice can be commercialized as an alternative wine, as it presented adequate features to an alcoholic fermented beverage and was sensory accepted by consumers.

  13. Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of an Inter-Row Cultivator for Sugarcane Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Khaehanchanpong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to design and fabricate an inter-row cultivator for mounting on a medium-sized tractor (25.3 or 37.3 kW for sugarcane fields, and to assess the performance of the cultivator when harvesting is conducted either by hand or with a sugarcane harvester. Moreover, this study was also designed to assess the performance of the cultivator in mixing sugarcane residues in the field. The inter-row cultivator has a working width of 80 cm, a rotor shaft speed of 500 rpm, and a total weight of 518 kg. The cultivator comprises 18 European C-type blades attached to three disk holder flanges arranged in a spiral formation. Two notch-cutting discs were mounted on the front to cut and press the sugarcane leaves before they were chopped and mixed by the inter-row cultivator. The working performance test was conducted for different thicknesses of trash blankets while using the inter-row cultivator mounted on 25.3 kW- and 37.3 kW-size tractors. The effective field capacity for trash incorporation of the inter-row cultivator was 0.30 ha·h−1 when trash was left through harvesting by hand. On the other hand, effective field capacity was 0.31 ha·h−1 when a sugarcane harvester was used. Moreover, the field efficiency exceeded 90% in all tested fields, with greater soil inversion. The results also showed that the fuel consumption of both tractors was higher when harvesting by hand compared with harvesting using a harvester.

  14. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  15. Mining the enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurama, Eiko E; Fenille, Roseli C; Rosa, Vicente E; Rosa, Daniel D; Ulian, Eugenio C

    2002-07-01

    Summary Adopting the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of a sugarcane database derived from libraries induced and not induced by pathogens, we identified EST clusters homologous to genes corresponding to enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The predicted amino acids of these enzymes are superoxide dismutases (SODs), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalases. Three MnSOD mitochondrial precursors and 10 CuZnSOD were identified in sugarcane: the MnSOD mitochondrial precursor is 96% similar to the maize MnSOD mitochondrial precursor and, of the 10 CuZnSOD identified, seven were 98% identical to maize cytosolic CuZnSOD4 and one was 67% identical to putative peroxisomal CuZnSOD from Arabidopsis. Three homologues to class Phi GST were 87-88% identical to GST III from maize. Five GPX homologues were identified: three were homologous to cytosolic GPX from barley, one was 88% identical to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) from rice, and the last was 71% identical to GPX from A. thaliana. Three enzymes similar to maize catalase were identified in sugarcane: two were similar to catalase isozyme 3 and catalase chain 3 from maize, which are mitochondrial, and one was similar to catalase isozyme 1 from maize, whose location is peroxisomal subcellular. All enzymes were induced in all sugarcane libraries (flower, seed, root, callus, leaves) and also in the pathogen-induced libraries, except for CuZnSOD whose cDNA was detected in none of the libraries induced by pathogens (Acetobacter diazotroficans and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans). The expression of the enzymes SOD, GST, GPX, and catalases involved in the detoxification was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in cDNA from leaves of sugarcane under biotic stress conditions, inoculated with Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of sugarcane rust disease.

  16. Characterization of cDNAs encoding human leukosialin and localization of the leukosialin gene to chromosome 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallant, A.; Eskenazi, A.; Frelinger, J.G.; Mattei, M.G.; Fournier, R.E.K.; Carlsson, S.R.; Fukuda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding human leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein of human leukocytes. Leukosialin is very closely related or identical to the sialophorin molecule, which is involved in T-cell proliferation and whose expression is altered in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disease. Using a rabbit antiserum to leukosialin, a cDNA clone was isolated from a λgt11 cDNA library constructed from human peripheral blood cells. The λgt11 clone was used to isolate longer cDNA clones that correspond to the entire coding sequence of leukosialin. DNA sequence analysis reveals three domains in the predicted mature protein. The extracellular domain is enriched for Ser, Thr, and Pro and contains four contiguous 18-amino acid repeats. The transmembrane and intracellular domains of the human leukosialin molecule are highly homologous to the rat W3/13 molecule. RNA gel blot analysis reveals two polyadenylylated species of 2.3 and 8 kilobases. Southern blot analysis suggests that human leukosialin is a single-copy gene. Analysis of monochromosomal cell hybrids indicates that the leukosialin gene is not X chromosome linked and in situ hybridization shows leukosialin is located on chromosome 16. These findings demonstrate that the primary mutation in WAS is not a defect in the structural gene for leukosialin

  17. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  18. Genetic variability among the brown rust resistant and susceptible genotypes of sugarcane by RAPD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes i.e. rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite...

  19. Alleviation of Salinity Effects by Exogenous Applications of Salicylic Acid in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Chaharlang Badil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Abiotic stresses cause 71% reduction in crop yield around the world, from which 20% is related to salinity stress. The importance of sugarcane increases every day due to greater demand for sugar. Since sugarcane has mainly grown in arid and semi-arid regions, salinity is one of the main problems for this crop due to higher evaporation in these areas. Salicylic acid (SA is classified as a phyto – hormone and belongs to a group of phenol compounds. Salicylic acid can improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. This research aimed at studying the effect of SA on the alleviating of salinity stress in sugarcane. Materials and Methods The effects of salicylic acid on the growth and some physiological responses of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv. CP69-1062 were studied under salt stress. The experiment design was a factorial of two factors, based on a randomized completely design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Sugarcane Research and Training Institute of Khuzestan, Iran in 2012. Treatments evaluated in this study were three levels of salt stress, including (ECW

  20. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Juliana Paula Felipe; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Alves, Adryanne Marjorie Souza Vitor; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira; de Andrade, Ida Barbosa; Urbano, Stela Antas; Suassuna, Juraci Marcos Alves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Barros Melo, Tobias Tobit

    2018-04-01

    Fresh sugarcane has been a new roughage source for ruminant's in semiarid regions, a function of the decline of sugar and alcohol industry in recent years. However, there is little data published regarding lambs fed sugarcane associated with spineless cactus. This study evaluated the effect of sugarcane replacement with spineless cactus (0%, 33%, 66%, and 100%) in the diet of Santa Inês lambs on carcass characteristics. Thirty-six non-castrated Santa Ines lambs at four months of age and an initial body weight of 22±2.3 kg were assigned in a randomized block design and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. The effects of spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield, leg tissue composition, and carcass measurements were studied. The study revealed quadratic behavior in slaughter body weight, and hot and cold carcass weight, with maximum values of 38.60, 18.60, and 18.11 kg and replacement levels of 40.18%, 44.42%, and 43.14%, respectively. The cold carcass yield presented an increasing linear behavior. The compactness index of carcass and leg presented a quadratic effect, with estimated maximal values of 0.28 and 0.57 kg/cm and replacement levels of 43.37% and 45.5%, respectively. The weights of commercial cuts of leg, loin, shoulder, and breast showed quadratic behavior, with maximum values of 2.79, 0.852, 1.46, and 1.30 kg and replacement levels of 49.5, 45.32, 39.0, and 40.7, respectively. For tissue composition, quadratic behavior was verified for leg weight, subcutaneous fat, and total fat. The replacement of sugarcane by spineless cactus at level 44% is recommended for finishing lambs considering that this level improved most of the carcass characteristics, weights, and yields of commercial cuts and leg tissue composition.

  2. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  3. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter from native vegetation–pasture–sugarcane transitions in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dener Márcio da Silva, E-mail: denermsoliveira@gmail.com [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Colorado State University, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, 1231 East Drive, 80523-1499 Fort Collins, CO (United States); Schellekens, Judith; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    Replacing pastures (PA) with sugarcane (SG) has been deemed an agronomically feasible strategy for sugarcane expansion in Brazil. However, there are some uncertainties about the environmental impacts regarding this land use change (LUC), mainly related to soil organic matter (SOM), a key factor of environmental sustainability of Brazilian ethanol. LUC-related losses of SOM can overcome the C savings from biofuels. The molecular composition of SOM was evaluated to understand the C dynamics regarding LUC from PA to SG, using native vegetation (NV) as reference. Our study area was located in the south-central region of Brazil. Soil sampling was performed at three depths (0–0.1 m, 0.2–0.3 m and 0.9–1 m) in three representative sites with known LUC history and management practice since 1970. Pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) was chosen to study SOM chemistry. Content and isotopic composition of soil organic C and N were also determined. The LUC caused decreases on C and N contents and on δ{sup 13}C isotopic values. Depth was the major factor that influenced SOM composition, while the influence of LUC was mainly evident in surface soils and diminished rapidly with depth. The main difference in SOM composition undergoing the conversion PA-SG was a higher contribution from compounds associated to fresh litter inputs. The high contribution from fresh litter, having a relatively low mean residence time and increasing decomposition rates, is probably a major factor that drives C losses in areas undergoing sugarcane expansion. - Graphical abstract: We chose 3 sites in Brazil (1) and collected soil samples in areas undergoing LUC pasture–sugarcane (2) to evaluate SOM composition using Py–GC/MS (3). The LUC causes shifts on SOM signature (4), highlighting the increase of fresh litter compounds in sugarcane areas (5). - Highlights: • Effect of land use change (LUC) on SOM composition in Brazilian soils • Py-GC/MS of NaOH extractable SOM

  4. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Helen K.

    2011-01-01

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km 2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  5. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  6. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  7. Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael V; Machado, Eduardo C; Magalhães Filho, José R; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Martins, Márcio O; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (g s ), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the initial slope of A-C i curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in V cmax , k, g s and ATP production driven by electron transport (J atp ). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in V cmax , g s and J atp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic biodigestion of sugarcane vinasse under mesophilic conditions using manure as inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane vinasse is one of the most polluting residues produced by Brazilian ethanol industries, mainly because of its harmful effects on the environmental, such as high organic matter load and acidity. Anaerobic digestion is a highly efficient wastewater treatment method that could potentially be used to treat sugarcane vinasse. This study examined the anaerobic biodigestion of sugarcane vinasse in mesophilic conditions (30 - 45°C by varying the inoculum concentration (0.5 to 5.5% and pH (6 - 8. Changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, total solids content, and yield and composition of biogas after the biodigestion of the vinasse were assessed. The vinasse was efficiently digested under mesophilic anaerobic conditions over a 23-day Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT and a 5-day acidogenic phase with a consequent reduction of COD (54 - 83% and total solids (52 - 87%. Statistical analyses at a confidence level of 95% suggested that temperature, pH and inoculum concentration did not influence on the anaerobic biodigestion of the vinasse. The optimal operating parameters were found to be temperatures of 30 - 35°C, inoculum concentration of 0.5% and pH of 6 - 7. The results emphasize the promising use of the treated sugarcane vinasse as a biofertilizer for agriculture, indicating that the anaerobic digestion process is an excellent alternative for Brazilian ethanol industries.

  9. Utilisation of sugarcane trash and other cellulosic wastes for production of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, J D; Modak, H M; Ramaiah, N A; Jadhav, S J

    1988-01-01

    The nitric acid oxidation process was developed for the production of oxalic acid from sugarcane trash, groundnut shells, corn cobs and rice husks. Good yields of oxalic acid from the above raw materials were obtained under optimum conditions, with sugarcane trash as the preferable raw material. The absorption of waste nitrogen oxide gases in aqueous NaOH to get a valuable by-product, sodium nitrite, was also successful.

  10. A New Proposal Of Cellulosic Ethanol To Boost Sugarcane Biorefineries: Techno-economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Albarelli J.Q.; Ensinas A.V.; Silva M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial simulator Aspen Plus was used to simulate a biorefinery producing ethanol from sugarcane juice and second generation ethanol production using bagasse fine fraction composed of parenchyma cells (P-fraction). Liquid hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies were evaluated. The processes were thermal and water integrated and compared to a biorefinery producing ethanol from juice and sugarcane bagasse. The results indicated that after thermal and water integration, the ev...

  11. Antioxidant enzymes activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues in Sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Medeiros de Araujo Silva; Ulisses, Claudia; Lacerda E Medeiros, Maria Jaislanny; Cavalcante Granja, Manuela Maria; Willadino, Lilia; Camara, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to induce direct somatic embryogenesis from segments of immature leaves of the RB872552 variety of sugarcane and to correlate this morphogenic event with oxidative stress. Two previously described protocols were utilized for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane with different supplementations of the culture medium and different incubation conditions. For the conversion of embryos into plants was used ms medium without phytoregulators. Histological analyses and activity of antioxidant enzymes were also conducted for the embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues. The formation of somatic embryos was obtained in 81 % of the explants with the combination of regulators 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) when incubated under 16 h photoperiod. With regards to the antioxidant enzymes, there was increased activity of peroxidase and an increase in the soluble protein content in embryogenic tissues, whereas lower activities of polyphenol oxidase and catalase appeared in these tissues compared to nonembryogenic tissues. It could be inferred that oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sugarcane.

  12. Water stress indices for the sugarcane crop on different irrigated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo G. Brunini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a crop of vital importance to Brazil, in the production of sugar and ethanol, power generation and raw materials for various purposes. Strategic information such as topography and canopy temperature can provide management technologies accessible to farmers. The objective of this study was to determine water stress indices for sugarcane in irrigated areas, with different exposures and slopes. The daily water stress index of the plants and the water potential in the soil were evaluated and the production system was analyzed. The experiment was carried out in an “Experimental Watershed”, using six surfaces, two horizontal and the other ones with 20 and 40% North and South exposure slopes. Water stress level was determined by measuring the temperatures of the vegetation cover and the ambient air. Watering was carried out using a drip irrigation system. The results showed that water stress index of sugarcane varies according to exposure and slope of the terrain, while areas whose water stress index was above 5.0 oC had lower yield values.

  13. Pathogen toxin-indiced electrolyte leakage and phytoalexin accumulation as indices of red-rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went resistance in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mohanraj

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A phytotoxin produced by the sugarcane red-rot fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified. The phytotoxin caused increased electrolyte leakage in susceptible sugarcane varieties and higher levels of phytoalexins (3-deoxyanthocyanidins in resistant sugarcane varieties. This relationship between phytotoxin induced changes and disease reaction could possibly be used as an additional index to rapidly identify red-rot resistant varieties.

  14. Liming in the sugarcane burnt system and the green harvest practice affect soil bacterial community in northeastern São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Moraes, Silvana Pompeia; de Macedo, Helena Suleiman; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pereira, Rodrigo Matheus; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Mendes, Lucas William; de Figueiredo, Eduardo Barretto; La Scala, Newton; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-12-01

    Here we show that both liming the burnt sugarcane and the green harvest practice alter bacterial community structure, diversity and composition in sugarcane fields in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used to analyze changes in soil bacterial communities. The field experiment consisted of sugarcane-cultivated soils under different regimes: green sugarcane (GS), burnt sugarcane (BS), BS in soil amended with lime applied to increase soil pH (BSL), and native forest (NF) as control soil. The bacterial community structures revealed disparate patterns in sugarcane-cultivated soils and forest soil (R = 0.786, P = 0.002), and overlapping patterns were shown for the bacterial community structure among the different management regimes applied to sugarcane (R = 0.194, P = 0.002). The numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in the libraries were 117, 185, 173 and 166 for NF, BS, BSL and GS, respectively. Sugarcane-cultivated soils revealed higher bacterial diversity than NF soil, with BS soil accounting for a higher richness of unique OTUs (101 unique OTUs) than NF soil (23 unique OTUs). Cluster analysis based on OTUs revealed similar bacterial communities in NF and GS soils, while the bacterial community from BS soil was most distinct from the others. Acidobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla across the different soils with Acidobacteria Gp1 accounting for a higher abundance in NF and GS soils than burnt sugarcane-cultivated soils (BS and BSL). In turn, Acidobacteria Gp4 abundance was higher in BS soils than in other soils. These differential responses in soil bacterial community structure, diversity and composition can be associated with the agricultural management, mainly liming practices, and harvest methods in the sugarcane-cultivated soils, and they can be detected shortly after harvest.

  15. Florescimento em cana-de-açúcar Flowering in sugarcane

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    Rosilaine Araldi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O florescimento da cana-de-açúcar é um processo fisiológico complexo formado por vários estádios de desenvolvimento, e cada estádio tem a sua própria necessidade ambiental e fisiológica. Os fatores externos relacionados com o florescimento são: fotoperíodo, temperatura, umidade e radiação solar, além da fertilidade do solo. Por outro lado, os fatores internos envolvem fitocromo, hormônios, florígeno, ácidos nucleicos, dentre outros. A intensidade do processo de florescimento e as consequências na qualidade da cana-de-açúcar variam com a variedade e com o clima. A redução do volume de caldo é o principal fator no qual o florescimento interfere, resultante do aumento do teor de fibras. Como as demais Poaceae, a cana-de-açúcar floresce, frutifica e morre, garantindo a perpetuação da espécie. Dessa forma, o homem procura interferir na natureza tentando evitar o florescimento da cana-de-açúcar, seja por meio de melhoramento genético ou por meio de reguladores vegetais. Em áreas comerciais de produção de cana-de-açúcar, onde há condições ideais para o florescimento da cultura, é recomendado o uso de variedade com potencial menos florífero. E, quando não é possível esse manejo varietal, o uso de inibidores do florescimento é a melhor alternativa para evitar mais perdas no conteúdo de sacarose.The sugarcane flowering is a complex physiological process that consists of several stages of development, each stage has its physiological and environmental requisition. The external factors related to flowering are: photoperiod, temperature, humidity, solar radiation in addition to soil fertility. Already the internal factors involved are: phytochrome, hormones, florigene, nucleic acids, among others. The intensity of the flowering and the consequences on the quality of sugarcane vary with the variety and the climate. The reduction of the sugarcane juice is the main factor which affected by the flowering, resulting

  16. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  17. Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

    2006-07-01

    Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings.

  18. The sugarcane defense protein SUGARWIN2 causes cell death in Colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia P Franco

    Full Text Available Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins. Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens.

  19. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on Burkholderia tropica strain Ppe8, a sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacterium grown with different carbon sources or sugarcane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Renata Alves; Vidal, Marcia Soares; de Paula Soares, Cleiton; Polese, Valéria; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luís; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-11-01

    Among the members of the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica has the ability to fix nitrogen and promote sugarcane plant growth as well as act as a biological control agent. There is little information about how this bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates as well as those carbon sources found in the sugarcane juice that accumulates in stems during plant growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to evaluate changes in gene expression during bacterial growth on different carbon sources. Here we tested the expression of six reference genes, lpxC, gyrB, recA, rpoA, rpoB, and rpoD, when cells were grown with glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, aconitic acid, and sugarcane juice as carbon sources. The lpxC, gyrB, and recA were selected as the most stable reference genes based on geNorm and NormFinder software analyses. Validation of these three reference genes during strain Ppe8 growth on the same carbon sources showed that genes involved in glycogen biosynthesis (glgA, glgB, glgC) and trehalose biosynthesis (treY and treZ) were highly expressed when Ppe8 was grown in aconitic acid relative to other carbon sources, while otsA expression (trehalose biosynthesis) was reduced with all carbon sources. In addition, the expression level of the ORF_6066 (gluconolactonase) gene was reduced on sugarcane juice. The results confirmed the stability of the three selected reference genes (lpxC, gyrB, and recA) during the RT-qPCR and also their robustness by evaluating the relative expression of genes involved in glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis when strain Ppe8 was grown on different carbon sources and sugarcane juice.

  20. Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Pereira, A.R.; Camargo, M.B.P. de; Fahl, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Direct saponification preparation and analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Simin; Liu, Songbai; Luo, Zisheng; Tang, Kaichen

    2015-08-15

    A simple method based on direct saponification followed by RP-HPLC analysis was developed for quantification of free and conjugated sterols in sugarcane. Acid hydrolysis prior to alkaline saponification was used to determined acylated steryl glycoside and steryl glycoside in sugarcane. The applicability and generality of this method were improved with intensive investigation. Compared to traditional solvent extraction method, this method was more time saving and appropriate for characterization of sterol fractions in sugarcane. This method was successfully applied for determination of free and conjugated sterols in different sugarcane samples. The results exhibited that stigmasterol (varied from 883.3 ± 23.5 to 1823.9 ± 24.5 μg/g dry weigh) and β-sitosterol (varied from 117.6 ± 19.9 to 801.4 ± 33.5 μg/g dry weight) were major phytosterols in the sugarcane sample, and their glycosylated forms accounted for almost 87.0% of stigmasterol and 87.5% of β-sitosterol in sugarcane, respectively. In addition, among other parts of sugarcane, tips contained the greatest amount of phytosterols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddey, Robert M.; Urquiaga, Segundo; Alves, Bruno J.R.; Reis, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N 2 -fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N 2 -fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15 N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N 2 -fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N 2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N 2 -fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  3. Sweet attraction: sugarcane pollen-associated volatiles attract gravid Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R

    2018-02-21

    Anopheles arabiensis is a key vector for the transmission of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 10,000 years, humans have successfully cultivated grasses and altered the landscape, creating An. arabiensis favourable environments that contain excellent habitats for both larvae and adults. Sugarcane is the most expanding agricultural system in sub-Saharan Africa, and is linked to the increased threat of malaria in rural communities. The prolific production and wind dispersal of sugarcane pollen, together with standing pools of water, often provide, as a result of irrigation, a nutrient-rich environment for the offspring of gravid malaria mosquitoes. In the present study, sugarcane pollen-associated volatiles from two cultivars are shown to attract gravid An. arabiensis in a still air two-port olfactometer and stimulate egg laying in an oviposition bioassay. Through combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection, as well as combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analyses, we identified the bioactive volatiles and generated a synthetic blend that reproduced the full behavioural repertoire of gravid mosquitoes in the Y-tube assay. Two subtractive odour blends, when compared with the full blend, were significantly more attractive. These three and four-component subtractive blends share the compounds (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, nonanal and benzaldehyde, of which, (1R)-(+)-α-pinene and nonanal are found in the attractive odour blends from rice plants and maize pollen. In pairwise comparisons, the rice synthetic odour blend was more attractive to gravid mosquitoes than either of the pollen blends, whereas the pollen blends did not differ in attraction. The attraction of gravid females to sugarcane pollen volatiles demonstrated in this study, together with the previously found grass-associated volatiles, raise the potential of developing a bioactive chimeric blend to attract gravid malaria mosquitoes. This is discussed in relation to

  4. Extraction optimization by response surface methodology: Purification and characterization of phytosterol from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Zhong, Zhou; Jiang, Lei; Tang, Kaichen

    2014-06-01

    A green, simple, and effective method for the extraction of sugarcane lipids from sugarcane rind was investigated by response surface methodology. The optimum conditions of technological progress obtained through response surface methodology were as follows: liquid-to-solid ratio 7.94: 1 mL/g, extraction temperature 50°C and extraction time 5.98 h. The practical sugarcane lipids extraction yield was 6.55 ± 0.28%, which was in good consistence with the predicted extraction yield of 6.47%. The results showed that the sugarcane lipids extraction yield obtained in optimum conditions increased by 1.16∼7.28-fold compared to the yields obtained in single-factor experiments. After saponification and SPE steps, the nonsaponifiable fraction of sugarcane lipids was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. β-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol were the prevailing phytosterols in the sample, while fucosterol, gramisterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol, (3β,5α,24S)-, stigmasta-4,6,22-trien-3α-ol, and cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol acetate were also identified as minor steroids. Furthermore, the content of β-sitosterol and a mixture of campesterol and stigmasterol (quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography) was 44.18 mg/100 g dry weight and 43.20 mg stigmasterol/100 g dry weight, respectively. Our results indicate that sugarcane rind is a good source of phytosterol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Frontier, sugarcane and trafficking: slavery, disease and death in Capivari, São Paulo, 1821-1869].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos A M

    2015-01-01

    The deaths and diseases of slaves in the São Paulo State sugarcane municipality of Capivari are addressed, associating the causes attributed to these deaths to the social and economic context and characteristics of the local slave communities. The impact of malaria, relating it to the age brackets, the environment created by work on the sugarcane plantations and the evolution of the occupation of the area, initially by expanding frontiers, is emphasized. The relationship between illness and work processes, as well as the post-disembarkation mortality of Africans and the possibility of mortality crises among the sugarcane captives is explored. The results lead to a discussion of the impact of habitat and Atlantic displacement and the difficulty in acclimatizing.

  6. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  7. Inheritance of resistance to orange rust in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is an economically important disease in the Florida sugarcane industry. In this study, orange rust reactions of seedlings in progenies originating from 12 crosses between female and male parents with differing resistance to orange rust (three of each categor...

  8. Salt stress induces changes in the proteomic profile of micropropagated sugarcane shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ricardo S.; Heringer, Angelo S.; Rangel, Patricia L.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Grativol, Clícia; Veiga, Carlos F. M.; Souza-Filho, Gonçalo A.

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the most common stresses in agricultural regions worldwide. In particular, sugarcane is affected by salt stress conditions, and no sugarcane cultivar presently show high productivity accompanied by a tolerance to salt stress. Proteomic analysis allows elucidation of the important pathways involved in responses to various abiotic stresses at the biochemical and molecular levels. Thus, this study aimed to analyse the proteomic effects of salt stress in micropropagated shoots of two sugarcane cultivars (CB38-22 and RB855536) using a label-free proteomic approach. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006075. The RB855536 cultivar is more tolerant to salt stress than CB38-22. A quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis identified 1172 non-redundant proteins, and 1160 of these were observed in both cultivars in the presence or absence of NaCl. Compared with CB38-22, the RB855536 cultivar showed a greater abundance of proteins involved in non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms, ion transport, and photosynthesis. Some proteins, such as calcium-dependent protein kinase, photosystem I, phospholipase D, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were more abundant in the RB855536 cultivar under salt stress. Our results provide new insights into the response of sugarcane to salt stress, and the changes in the abundance of these proteins might be important for the acquisition of ionic and osmotic homeostasis during exposure to salt stress. PMID:28419154

  9. Assessing the Likelihood of Gene Flow From Sugarcane (Saccharum Hybrids to Wild Relatives in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy J. Snyman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-commercialization studies on environmental biosafety of genetically modified (GM crops are necessary to evaluate the potential for sexual hybridization with related plant species that occur in the release area. The aim of the study was a preliminary assessment of factors that may contribute to gene flow from sugarcane (Saccharum hybrids to indigenous relatives in the sugarcane production regions of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, South Africa. In the first instance, an assessment of Saccharum wild relatives was conducted based on existing phylogenies and literature surveys. The prevalence, spatial overlap, proximity, distribution potential, and flowering times of wild relatives in sugarcane production regions based on the above, and on herbaria records and field surveys were conducted for Imperata, Sorghum, Cleistachne, and Miscanthidium species. Eleven species were selected for spatial analyses based on their presence within the sugarcane cultivation region: four species in the Saccharinae and seven in the Sorghinae. Secondly, fragments of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of the 5.8s ribosomal gene and two chloroplast genes, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL, and maturase K (matK were sequenced or assembled from short read data to confirm relatedness between Saccharum hybrids and its wild relatives. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS cassette showed that the closest wild relative species to commercial sugarcane were Miscanthidium capense, Miscanthidium junceum, and Narenga porphyrocoma. Sorghum was found to be more distantly related to Saccharum than previously described. Based on the phylogeny described in our study, the only species to highlight in terms of evolutionary divergence times from Saccharum are those within the genus Miscanthidium, most especially M. capense, and M. junceum which are only 3 million years divergent from Saccharum. Field assessment of pollen viability of 13 commercial sugarcane

  10. Assessing the Likelihood of Gene Flow From Sugarcane (Saccharum Hybrids) to Wild Relatives in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Sandy J.; Komape, Dennis M.; Khanyi, Hlobisile; van den Berg, Johnnie; Cilliers, Dirk; Lloyd Evans, Dyfed; Barnard, Sandra; Siebert, Stefan J.

    2018-01-01

    Pre-commercialization studies on environmental biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops are necessary to evaluate the potential for sexual hybridization with related plant species that occur in the release area. The aim of the study was a preliminary assessment of factors that may contribute to gene flow from sugarcane (Saccharum hybrids) to indigenous relatives in the sugarcane production regions of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, South Africa. In the first instance, an assessment of Saccharum wild relatives was conducted based on existing phylogenies and literature surveys. The prevalence, spatial overlap, proximity, distribution potential, and flowering times of wild relatives in sugarcane production regions based on the above, and on herbaria records and field surveys were conducted for Imperata, Sorghum, Cleistachne, and Miscanthidium species. Eleven species were selected for spatial analyses based on their presence within the sugarcane cultivation region: four species in the Saccharinae and seven in the Sorghinae. Secondly, fragments of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the 5.8s ribosomal gene and two chloroplast genes, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL), and maturase K (matK) were sequenced or assembled from short read data to confirm relatedness between Saccharum hybrids and its wild relatives. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS cassette showed that the closest wild relative species to commercial sugarcane were Miscanthidium capense, Miscanthidium junceum, and Narenga porphyrocoma. Sorghum was found to be more distantly related to Saccharum than previously described. Based on the phylogeny described in our study, the only species to highlight in terms of evolutionary divergence times from Saccharum are those within the genus Miscanthidium, most especially M. capense, and M. junceum which are only 3 million years divergent from Saccharum. Field assessment of pollen viability of 13 commercial sugarcane cultivars using

  11. Sugarcane biochar as an amendment for greenhouse growing media for the production of cucurbit seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane farmers in 2016 harvested 11.7 million mt millable sugarcane from 163,000 ha, producing 1.47 million mg of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Even though Louisiana sugar mills use 80 to 90% of the bagasse for fuel production, another 350,000 to 700,000 mt of ba...

  12. Coding sequence of human rho cDNAs clone 6 and clone 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardin, P; Madaule, P; Tavitian, A

    1988-03-25

    The authors have isolated human cDNAs including the complete coding sequence for two rho proteins corresponding to the incomplete isolates previously described as clone 6 and clone 9. The deduced a.a. sequences, when compared to the a.a. sequence deduced from clone 12 cDNA, show that there are in human at least three highly homologous rho genes. They suggest that clone 12 be named rhoA, clone 6 : rhoB and clone 9 : rhoC. RhoA, B and C proteins display approx. 30% a.a. identity with ras proteins,. mainly clustered in four highly homologous internal regions corresponding to the GTP binding site; however at least one significant difference is found; the 3 rho proteins have an Alanine in position corresponding to ras Glycine 13, suggesting that rho and ras proteins might have slightly different biochemical properties.

  13. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  14. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  15. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  16. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission factors from N-fertilizer in sugarcane production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Feigl, B. J.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. E.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane production is rapidly expanding due to the increase of global demand for ethanol. Concurrently the necessary inputs to culture, especially N-fertilizer, are growing, since N is one of the key element to maintain sugarcane productivity. However, it is known that N-fertilizer is responsible for the largest share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) estimated that under favorable climatic conditions approximately 1% of the N-fertilizer applied can be emitted as N2O. Our goal was to estimate N2O emission factors from N-fertilizer used in the sugarcane ratoon for ethanol production. A field study was conducted at the Capuava Mill, located in southeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications in a factorial scheme (2 x 2): two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate), two application rates (80 and 120 kg ha-1), and a control treatment. N2O concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using a Shimadzu© GC-mini. N2O fluxes were calculated from linear regressions of concentration versus incubation time in the soil static chambers. The N2O emission factor of N-fertilizer was calculated according to the methodology described in the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC). Comparatively, ammonium nitrate emitted 45 to 75% less N2O than urea application. There was no significant difference in N2O emission between the two applied rates of urea. Also the N2O emission factor of ammonium nitrate (0.3×0.2%) was lower than that of urea (1.1×0.4%). Our results indicated that on average the N fertilization of sugarcane plantation has an emission factor of 0.7×0.5% suggesting that N-fertilizer management can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to improve the sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity among sugarcane cultivars using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity based on the characterization of genetic makeup, using molecular markers is of utmost importance for breeders in crop improvement programme. A total of 26 microsatellite primers were used to determine the genetic diversity among 40 sugarcane genotypes including their parents. The polymerase chain ...

  19. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  20. Qualitative parameters of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide (CaO. Upon ensiling, the treatments applied to the sugarcane were: 1% urea; 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO; and 1% CaO, in relation to a control silage, without additive. The chemical additives (urea and CaO were added at ensiling, in an amount calculated based on the fresh matter (as is. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments (silages and nine replicates was adopted. The material was conditioned in PVC mini-silos for five months. At the end of the storage period, silos were weighed again and samples were collected to quantify the losses caused by fermentation, dry matter recovery, pH, and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 of the silages and to evaluate the chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates. The silage with 1% CaO showed the highest recovery of dry matter, and in terms of carbohydrate fractionation, it showed the highest levels of soluble and potentially soluble carbohydrates. Addition of 1% CaO during ensiling reduces the fermentation losses of sugarcane silages.

  1. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  2. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Features Evaluation of Two Methods of Sugarcane Harvesting (with aim of Energy and Sugar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Andekaeizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugarcane is an important plant in the world that cultivate for the production of sugar and energy. For this purpose, evaluation of Sugarcane (SC and Energycane (EC methods is necessary. Energy is vital for economic and social development and the demand for it is rising. The international community look toward alternative to fossil fuels is the aim of using liquid fuel derived from agricultural resources. According to calculations, about 47% from renewable energy sources in Brazil comes from sugarcane so as, the country is known the second largest source of renewable energy. Sugarcane in Brazil provides about 17.5% of primary energy sources. Material such as bagasse and ethanol are derived from sugarcane that provide 4.2% and 11.2 % consumed energy, respectively . In developing countries, the use of this product increase in order to achieve self-sufficiency in the production of starch and sugar and thus independence in bioethanol production. Evaluation of energy consumption in manufacturing systems, show the measurement method of yield conversion to the amount of energy. Many of products of Sugarcane have ability to produce bioenergy. Many materials obtain from sugarcane such as, cellulosic ethanol, biofuels and other chemical materials. Hence, Energycane is introduced as a new method of sugarcane harvesting. But, one of the problems of this method is high cost and high energy consumption of harvester. So that the total cost of Energycane method is 38.4 percent of production total costs, whereas, this cost, in Sugarcane method is 5.32 percent of production total costs. In a study that was conducted by Matanker et al (2014 with title “Power requirements and field performance in harvesting EC and SC”, the power requirements of some components of sugarcane harvester and its field capacity, in Sugarcane and Energycane methods were examined. The consumed power by basecutter, elevator and chopper was measured in terms of Mega grams

  4. Sucrose and color profiles in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) juice analyzed by UFLC-ELSD and Synapt High-Definition Mass Spectrometry during radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta B.; de Aguiar, Claudio Lima; Galaverna, Renan; Baptista, Antonio S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Arthur, Valter

    2016-04-01

    This work evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation (E-beam) on sugarcane juice and compared the results with preliminary tests performed on sugarcane juice treated with gamma irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy doses and results were compared wile control samples without irradiation. The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of phenolic compounds in both treatments. We also observed increased contents of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) for the samples irradiated with gamma rays and E-beam measured by the DNS methods. However, there was no significant difference of sugars content measured by chromatographic analyses performed in the sugarcane juice treated with E-beam. Therefore reducing sugars content could be overestimated by the DNS method because salts in sugarcane juice. The treatments were able to reduce sugarcane juice ICUMSA color intensity in both treatments with irradiation. E-beam reduced sugarcane juice color by roughly 49% compared the control, while gamma irradiation reduced it by 30%.

  5. As-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse possessing exotic field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnia, Lucky; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Palnitkar, Umesh; Satyam, P. V.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Koratkar, Nikhil A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the application of sugarcane bagasse as an excellent field emitter. Field emission property of as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) before and after the plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been observed that electronic nature of p-SBg transformed from semiconducting to metallic after plasma treatment. Maximum current and turn-on field defined at 10 μA/cm2 was found to be 800 μA/cm2 and 2.2 V/μm for as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) and 25 μA/cm2 and 8.4 V/μm for H2-plasma treated p-SBg. These values are found to be better than the reported values for graphene and activated carbon. In this report, pyrolysis of bagasse has been carried in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (Th-CVD) system in inert argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the structure of both pre and post plasma-treated p-SBg bagasse's sample. HRTEM study reveals that carbonaceous structures such as 3D-nanographene oxide (3D-NGO), graphite nanodots (GNDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon onions are present in both pre-treated and plasma-treated p-SBg. Hence, we envision that the performed study will be a forwarding step to facilitate the application of p-SBg in display devices.

  6. Kinetics of thermophilic acidogenesis of typical Brazilian sugarcane vinasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mirian Harumi; Araújo Júnior, Moacir Messias; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the acidogenic phase during anaerobic digestion of sugarcane vinasse in differential reactors containing immobilized cells was investigated. The maximum substrate conversion rate (r_m_a_x), substrate saturation constant (K_s) and constant of inhibition by excess substrate (K_i_s) were determined using vinasse with and without pH adjustment. Simulation and scaling-up of a thermophilic-hydrogen production system were performed. The r_m_a_x values obtained at different pH were similar and near 0.9 mg-Total carbohydrates g-VS"−"1 h"−"1. The K_s obtained from the system without pH adjustment was 10,762.3 mg-Total carbohydrates L"−"1 (i.e., 2.5 times higher than the system with pH adjustment). No inhibition by excess substrate was achieved in the system without pH adjustment, indicating that sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without input costs. The simulation revealed that hydrogen production is a sensitive process that requires careful balancing of various operational parameters. The payback for the investment in system implementation is 4.4 years. - Highlights: • Sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without pH adjustment. • Excess substrate inhibition was observed when vinasse with pH adjusted was used. • A careful balancing of operational conditions is required to produce hydrogen. • The payback for the investment in system implementation is four years.

  7. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of sugarcane ethanol production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Carlos A.; Fuentes, Alfredo; Hennecke, Anna; Riegelhaupt, Enrique; Manzini, Fabio; Masera, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate GHG emissions and energy balances for the future expansion of sugarcane ethanol fuel production in Mexico with one current and four possible future modalities. We used the life cycle methodology that is recommended by the European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), which distinguished the following five system phases: direct Land Use Change (LUC); crop production; biomass transport to industry; industrial processing; and ethanol transport to admixture plants. Key variables affecting total GHG emissions and fossil energy used in ethanol production were LUC emissions, crop fertilization rates, the proportion of sugarcane areas that are burned to facilitate harvest, fossil fuels used in the industrial phase, and the method for allocation of emissions to co-products. The lower emissions and higher energy ratios that were observed in the present Brazilian case were mainly due to the lesser amount of fertilizers applied, also were due to the shorter distance of sugarcane transport, and to the smaller proportion of sugarcane areas that were burned to facilitate manual harvest. The resulting modality with the lowest emissions of equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2e ) was ethanol produced from direct juice and generating surplus electricity with 36.8 kgCO 2e /GJ ethanol . This was achieved using bagasse as the only fuel source to satisfy industrial phase needs for electricity and steam. Mexican emissions were higher than those calculated for Brazil (27.5 kgCO 2e /GJ ethanol ) among all modalities. The Mexican modality with the highest ratio of renewable/fossil energy was also ethanol from sugarcane juice generating surplus electricity with 4.8 GJ ethanol /GJ fossil .

  8. Transportation and Production Lot-size for Sugarcane under Uncertainty of Machine Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudtachat Kanchala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated transportation and production lot size problems is important effect to total cost of operation system for sugar factories. In this research, we formulate a mathematic model that combines these two problems as two stage stochastic programming model. In the first stage, we determine the lot size of transportation problem and allocate a fixed number of vehicles to transport sugarcane to the mill factory. Moreover, we consider an uncertainty of machine (mill capacities. After machine (mill capacities realized, in the second stage we determine the production lot size and make decision to hold units of sugarcane in front of mills based on discrete random variables of machine (mill capacities. We investigate the model using a small size problem. The results show that the optimal solutions try to choose closest fields and lower holding cost per unit (at fields to transport sugarcane to mill factory. We show the results of comparison of our model and the worst case model (full capacity. The results show that our model provides better efficiency than the results of the worst case model.

  9. Reproducible in vitro regeneration system for purifying sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This procedure may be considered as one of the best ever published report on regeneration from in vitro grown plants to purify clones without subjecting the plants to field conditions and harvesting the mature cane. This technique was used to purify transgenic sugarcane plants carrying Bacillus thuringiensis gene.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. River water quality in the northern sugarcane-producing regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... Sugarcane production in South Africa occurs exclusively in the eastern regions of ... transboundary rivers, making their management internation- ...... KOEGELENBERG FH (2004) Irrigation User's Manual – Chapter 5: Water.

  12. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  13. Economic-energy-environment analysis of prospective sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes de Carvalho, Ariovaldo; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Freire, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid IO-MOLP model is formulated for energy-economic-environmental analysis. • Scenarios for sugarcane cultivation and 1st- and 2nd-generation bioethanol production. • Higher energy use and GHG emissions due to chemicals in 2G processes. • Lower overall employment level in the 1G + 2G scenarios compared to the 1G scenario. • Policies and technological choices should consider direct and indirect effects of 2G. - Abstract: Bioethanol from sugarcane can be produced using first-generation (1G) or second-generation (2G) technologies. 2G technologies can increase the capacity of production per sugarcane mass input and are expected to have a key role in future reductions of environmental impacts of sugarcane bioethanol. A hybrid Input-Output (IO) framework is developed for Brazil coupling the System of National Accounts and the National Energy Balance, which is extended to assess Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Life-cycle based estimates for two sugarcane cultivation systems, two 1G and eight 2G bioethanol production scenarios, are coupled in the IO framework. A multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model is formulated based on this framework for energy-economic-environmental analysis of the Brazilian economic system and domestic bioethanol supply in prospective scenarios. Twenty-four solutions are computed: four “extreme” solutions resulting from the individual optimization of each objective function (GDP, employment level, total energy consumption and total GHG emissions - 1G scenario), ten compromise solutions minimizing the distance of the feasible region to the ideal solution (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios), and ten solutions maximizing the total bioethanol production (1G, 1G-optimized and prospective 1G + 2G scenarios). Higher diesel oil and lubricants consumption in the mechanical harvesting process has counterbalanced the positive effects of more efficient trucks leading to higher energy consumption and GHG

  14. Detection of Bar Transgenic Sugarcane with a Rapid and Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dinggang; Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Zhu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Lu, Wenying; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg(2+), 6:1 ratio of inner vs. outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was 10-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100%) by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97%) by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane.

  15. Detection of bar transgenic sugarcane with a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinggang eZhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg2+, 6:1 ratio of inner vs outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was ten-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100% by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97% by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane.

  16. Infestation of froghopper nymphs changes the amounts of total phenolics in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rafael José Navas da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased rate of sugarcane harvest without previous burn has provided a very favorable environment to the froghopper Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854, with high moisture and low temperature variation. Few works have studied the response of sugarcane to this pest, so little is known about resistant cultivars. Plant phenolics are widely studied compounds because of their known antiherbivore effect. This research aims to determine if the attack of M. fimbriolata nymphs stimulates the accumulation of total phenolics in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and arranged in completely randomized design, in a 3 X 2 X 4 factorial with three replications. Second instar nymphs of M. fimbriolata were infested at the following rates: control, 2-4 and 4-8 nymphs per pot (first-second infestations, respectively. Pots were covered with nylon net and monitored daily to isolate the effect of leaf sucking adults. Leaf and root samples were collected and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analyses. Infested plants showed higher levels of phenolics in both root and leaf tissues. In roots, the cultivar SP80-1816 accumulated more phenolic compounds in response to the infestation of M. fimbriolata. On the other hand, higher levels were found in leaves and roots of control plants of SP86-42, which might be an indication of a non-preference mechanism. The increase of total phenolics in sugarcane infested with root-sucking froghopper nymphs does not seem to be useful to detect the resistance to this pest.

  17. Green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots from sugarcane bagasse pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thambiraj, S. [Nano-Bio Materials and Sensors Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi Shankaran, D., E-mail: dravishankaran@hotmail.com [Nano-Bio Materials and Sensors Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamil Nadu (India); National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of CQDs from sugarcane bagasse carbon. - Highlights: • CQDs were synthesised from sugarcane bagasse waste with top down approaches. • Synthesis method is green, simple and efficient process. • CQDs possess high quantum yield, good stability and highly fluorescent in nature. • The morphological and topographical study of CQDs was done by HR-TEM and AFM and was observed that the average size is 4.1 ± 0.17 nm and surface thickness is 5 nm. - Abstract: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have great potential due to its advantageous characteristics of highly fluorescent nature and good stability. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple and efficient method for the green synthesis of fluorescent CQDs from sugarcane bagasse, a renewable and sustainable resource. The process involves the top down approach of chemical oxidation followed by exfoliation of sugarcane carbon. The synthesized CQDs was characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Spectrofluorophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The synthesized CQDs possess stable fluorescent properties, good bio-compatibility and high quantum yield. The CQDs are highly crystalline with longitudinal dimensions of 4.1 ± 0.17 nm with an average roughness of around 5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicates that the synthesized CQDs possess face centred cubic crystal structure. The results suggest that the proposed CQDs could be utilized for bio-sensor, bio-imaging and drug delivery applications.

  18. Silicate fertilization of tropical soils: silicon availability and recovery index of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sartori de Camargo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is considered a Si-accumulating plant, but in Brazil, where several soil types are used for cultivation, there is little information about silicon (Si fertilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the silicon availability, uptake and recovery index of Si from the applied silicate on tropical soils with and without silicate fertilization, in three crops. The experiments in pots (100 L were performed with specific Si rates (0, 185, 370 and 555 kg ha-1 Si, three soils (Quartzipsamment-Q, 6 % clay; Rhodic Hapludox-RH, 22 % clay; and Rhodic Acrudox-RA, 68 % clay, with four replications. The silicon source was Ca-Mg silicate. The same Ca and Mg quantities were applied to all pots, with lime and/or MgCl2, when necessary. Sugarcane was harvested in the plant cane and first- and second-ratoon crops. The silicon rates increased soil Si availability and Si uptake by sugarcane and had a strong residual effect. The contents of soluble Si were reduced by harvesting and increased with silicate application in the following decreasing order: Q>RH>RA. The silicate rates promoted an increase in soluble Si-acetic acid at harvest for all crops and in all soils, except RA. The amounts of Si-CaCl2 were not influenced by silicate in the ratoon crops. The plant Si uptake increased according to the Si rates and was highest in RA at all harvests. The recovery index of applied Si (RI of sugarcane increased over time, and was highest in RA.

  19. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Suhail Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%, catalytic activity (13%, cell growth (10% and transport related proteins (6%. A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane.

  20. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail

    2014-06-09

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both cane productivity and quality. In an effort to elucidate the genes underlying plant responses to waterlogging, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared from leaf tissue. cDNA clones were sequenced and annotated for their putative functions. Major groups of ESTs were related to stress (15%), catalytic activity (13%), cell growth (10%) and transport related proteins (6%). A few stress-related genes were identified, including senescence-associated protein, dehydration-responsive family protein, and heat shock cognate 70. kDa protein. A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel microRNAs (miRNAs) that can be regulated in sugarcane plants subjected to waterlogging stress. Taking advantage of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, seven candidate mature miRNAs were identified in sugarcane. The application of subtraction technology allowed the identification of differentially expressed sequences and novel miRNAs in sugarcane under waterlogging stress. The comparative global transcript profiling in sugarcane plants undertaken in this study suggests that proteins associated with stress response, signal transduction, metabolic activity and ion transport play important role in conferring waterlogging tolerance in sugarcane. © 2014 The Authors.

  1. Investigation of Water Holding Capacity of Sugarcane Mulch for Sand Dune Stabilization in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jamili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wind erosion is one of the most serious problems in southwest Iran. Fine-grained structure of sand dunes with not enough strong composition and their low moisture retention property make them susceptible to wind erosion. They lack organic matter and are considered inherently of low fertility (Ahmadi, 2002. Studies have shown that non-erodible materials which include bentonite clay (Diouf et al., 1990, ureamelamine formaldehyde and urea–formaldehyde with 0.25% sodium chloride (Lahalih and Ahmed, 1998, acids, enzymes, lignosulfonates, polymers, tree resins (Santoni et al., 2001, waterborne polymer emulsion (Al-Khanbashi and Abdalla, 2006, polyvinyl alcohol and a polyvinyl acetate emulsion (Newman et al., 2005; Han et al., 2007, ash and polyacrylamide (Yang and Zejun, 2012.have significant potential in reducing wind erosion The area under farming of sugarcane in Khuzestan, Iran, is more than 130,000, ha. Vinasse and Filter Kike are two organic ingredients of sugarcane residues which are generated as byproduct materials insugarcane processing. In recent years these residues have been released into the environment and cause it regarded as water pollutant. Over 800,000 m3 of Vinasse is annually stored in each agro-industry. Vinasse also is rich in K, Ca, and Mg with moderate amounts of P and N,and non toxic complexes or heavy metals. Filter Kike is another residue produced in huge amounts by the agro-industry that is composed of cellulosic substances, CaCO3, N, P, K, organic matter, and clay. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the effect of sugarcane mulch on water holding capacity in soil. This study is performed to evaluate the feasibility of using sugarcane residues inproduce of ecofriendly mulches for environmental use. In order of achieving these goals, Vinase, Filter Cake, and clay soil from near the sand dunes were used as sugarcane mulches. Further comparison between traditional oil mulches and

  2. Identification and Characterization of Pathogenic and Endophytic Fungal Species Associated with Pokkah Boeng Disease of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelyn Hilton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pokkah Boeng is a serious disease of sugarcane, which can lead to devastating yield losses in crop-producing regions, including southern China. However, there is still uncertainty about the causal agent of the disease. Our aim was to isolate and characterize the pathogen through morphological, physiological, and molecular analyses. We isolated sugarcane-colonizing fungi in Fujian, China. Isolated fungi were first assessed for their cell wall degrading enzyme capabilities, and five isolates were identified for further analysis. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed that these five strains are Fusarium, Alternaria, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Epicoccum. The Fusarium isolate was further identified as F. verticillioides after Calmodulin and EF-1α gene sequencing and microscopic morphology study. Pathogenicity assay confirmed that F. verticillioides was directly responsible for disease on sugarcane. Co-inoculation of F. verticillioides with other isolated fungi did not lead to a significant difference in disease severity, refuting the idea that other cellulolytic fungi can increase disease severity as an endophyte. This is the first report characterizing pathogenic F. verticillioides on sugarcane in southern China.

  3. Growth and metal uptake of energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in different metal mine tailings with soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhang, Yuebin; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Shaochun; Guo, Jiawen; Li, Rudan; Wu, Songlin; Chen, Baodong

    2014-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of growing energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in three different metal mine tailings (Cu, Sn and Pb/Zn tailings) amended with uncontaminated soil at different mixing ratios. The results indicated that sugarcane was highly tolerant to tailing environments. Amendments of 20% soil to Sn tailings and 30% soil to Cu tailings could increase the biomass of cane-stem for use as the raw material for bioethanol production. Heavy metals were mostly retained in roots, which indicated that sugarcane was useful for the stabilization of the tailings. Bagasse and juice, as the most valuable parts to produce bioethanol, only accounted for 0.6%-3% and 0.6%-7% of the total metal content. Our study supported the potential use of sugarcane for tailing phytostabilization and bioenergy production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. pesticide residues in water from tpc sugarcane plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. We report herein, the analysis of water samples collected from TPC Sugarcane Plantation and its environs in Kilimanjaro region, which is the earliest intensive user of pesticides in Tanzania. A total of 50 water samples collected from 18 sampling sites between 2000 and 2001 were analyzed for pesticide ...

  5. Repeatibility of agroindustrial characters in sugarcane in different harvest cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudsonkléio Da Costa Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In commercial cultivation of sugarcane, knowledge about the repetition of agroindustrial characters is essential to identify long-lived genotypes in production cycles, which when selected, will contribute to the significant increase in productivity. This work evaluated the agroindustrial performance of 16 sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane microregion Litoral Norte of Pernambuco in four harvest cycles and the regularity in the repetition of characters. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural area of São José sugar mill, Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The experiment was carried out following a randomized block design with four replications. The variables evaluated were: tons of POL per hectare (TPH, tons of cane per hectare (TCH, fiber (FIB, adjusted POL% (PCC, soluble solids content (BRIX, and total recoverable sugar (TRS. The variance analysis detected significant differences among the genotypes along the four harvest seasons, indicating genetic variability and possibility of success in the selection of superior genotypes. Estimates of repeatability coefficient point to regularity in the repetition of agro-industrial characteristics allowing to identify genotypes with the highest longevity. The genotypes SP79-1011, RB863129, RB92579, RB813804, RB982559 e RB982613 presented best agroindustrial performance, and two evaluations based on TPH and TCH characters are enough to select superior genotypes with 90% predictability of their actual values.

  6. Distribution and frequency of Bru1, a major brown rust resistance gene, in the sugarcane world collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane worldwide. Molecular markers for a major brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, were used to screen a total of 1,282 clones in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) to determine the distribution and...

  7. ORGANIC MATTER LABILE FRACTIONS AND CARBON STOCKS IN A TYPIC QUARTZIPSAMMENT CULTIVATED WITH SUGARCANE HARVESTED WITHOUT BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DE SOUZA OLIVEIRA FILHO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The permanence of sugarcane straw on the soil surface, in systems without the pre-harvest straw burning practice, directly affects the soil organic matter dynamics. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in total organic carbon (TOC, carbon in the light organic matter (CLOM and particulate organic carbon (POC, and their carbon stocks in a typic Quartzipsamment cultivated for nine years with sugarcane crops, which were conducted without the pre-harvest straw burning practice, in Paraipaba, State of Ceará, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths of 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m, in the sugarcane crop area and in an adjacent native forest area, in order to quantify the TOC, CLOM and POC, as well as the carbon stocks accumulated in the layer 0.0-0.30 m related to these fractions (TOCSt, CLOMSt and POCSt. TOC content changes after nine years of sugarcane crops, conducted without pre-harvest straw burning, were found only in the layers 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m. The CLOM varied only in the layer 0.025-0.05 m. The POC content changes were more noticeable than the changes in TOC and CMOL. The CLOM of the sugarcane crop area presented high similarity with TOC, which may affect their quantification in studies related to the soil organic matter dynamics. The sugarcane crop increased the TOCSt, POCSt and CLOMSt in the layer 0.0-0.30 m, compared with the adjacent native forest area.

  8. LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Sugarcane rust diseases, brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala, and orange rust caused by P. kuehnii, are agronomically important diseases in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of controlling these diseases. Natural infection has been the primary means of asses...

  9. Characterization and expression of genes encoding three small heat shock proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-12-12

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 21.4, 20.6 and 19.6 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three genes showed strong similarity to sHSPs identified in other lepidopteran insects. Sihsp21.4 contained an intron, but Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 lacked introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that Sihsp21.4 was most strongly expressed in S. inferens heads; Whereas expression of Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 was highest in eggs. The three S. inferens sHSP genes were up-regulated during low temperature stress. In summary, our results show that S. inferens sHSP genes have distinct regulatory roles in the physiology of S. inferens.

  10. Characterization and Expression of Genes Encoding Three Small Heat Shock Proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker, is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 21.4, 20.6 and 19.6 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three genes showed strong similarity to sHSPs identified in other lepidopteran insects. Sihsp21.4 contained an intron, but Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 lacked introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that Sihsp21.4 was most strongly expressed in S. inferens heads; Whereas expression of Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 was highest in eggs. The three S. inferens sHSP genes were up-regulated during low temperature stress. In summary, our results show that S. inferens sHSP genes have distinct regulatory roles in the physiology of S. inferens.

  11. Towards a sustainable sugarcane industry in India : baseline results on Solidaridad’s programme: Increasing water use efficiency in sugarcane growing in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, C.; Rijn, van F.; Ende, van der H.; Koster, T.

    2017-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducts a study to evaluate the socioeconomic impact on sugarcane farmers of the Solidaridad programme. A pipeline approach was used, which clusters the farmers in cohorts based on the year they receive support and training: 2016, 2017 and 2018. A baseline survey was

  12. Screening for Resistance to Brown Rust of Sugarcane: Use of Bru1 resistance gene prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust of sugarcane caused by, Puccinia melanocephala, is a serious problem in the US sugarcane industry. A major resistance gene, Bru1 was identified and methodology for detecting it was developed by French scientists at CIRAD. The majority of the research resulting in the discovery of Bru1 res...

  13. Sugarcane straw harvest effects on soil quality and plant growth: preliminary data synthesis of a multi-local project running in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2017-04-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer in the world, and consequently, it is one of major players in the bioenergy production sector. Despite that, growing demands for bioenergies have raised the interest of Brazilian sugarcane industry to harvest the sugarcane straw left on the field for cellulosic ethanol production and/or bioelectricity cogeneration. However, crop residues have a key role in the soil, affecting directly or indirectly multiple soil functions and related ecosystem services. Therefore, indiscriminate straw harvest could jeopardize soil quality, decreasing its capacity to sustain plant productivity over time. In order to evaluate the potential impacts of sugarcane straw harvest on soil quality and plant growth, we are conducting since 2014 a multi-local project across central-southern Brazil, the main core of sugarcane production in the world. A wide range of soil chemical, physical and biological parameters, as well as, plant biomass production has been quantified under increasing straw harvest intensities. Our preliminary findings have showed that short-term straw harvest management did not affect total organic C stocks; however, high straw harvest led to significant reduction in labile C forms (e.g., microbial biomass C and N), and abundance of microbial communities as well. Sugarcane straw harvest affects soil nutrient cycling, since significant amount of nutrients are removed annually by straw, especially in top (green) leaves. In addition, our data show that straw acts as a thermal insulator, decreasing soil temperature amplitude and keeping soil moisture for a longer time. Straw harvest management did not affect sugarcane yields in the first two crop seasons. Based on this first synthesis of the project, we conclude that short-term sugarcane straw harvest led to soil changes, especially in more sensitive and dynamic properties, which did not affect the plant yield. However, long-term impacts should be monitored towards a better

  14. Optimization of Protocols for In Vitro Regeneration of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakra Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane contributes 60–70% of annual sugar production in the world. Somaclonal variation has potential to enhance genetic variation present within a species. Present study was done to optimize an in vitro propagation protocol for sugarcane. The experiments included four varieties, 9 callus induction media, 27 regeneration media, and 9 root induction media under two-factor factorial CRD. Data were recorded on callus induction, embryogenic callus formation, shoot elongation (cm, root induction, and plant regeneration. Statistically significant differences existed between genotypes and treatments for callus induction (%, embryogenic callus formation (%, shoot elongation (cm, root induction, and plant regeneration (%. All parameters showed dependency on genotypes, culture media, and their interaction. Highest callus induction (95% embryogenic callus formation (95% was observed in callus induction media 5. Highest plantlet regeneration (98.9% capacity was observed in regeneration media 11 whereas maximum shoot elongation (12.13 cm and root induction (8.32 were observed in rooting media 4. G1 showed best response for all traits and vice versa for G4. Hence it was concluded that G1, callus induction media 5, regeneration media 11, and rooting media 4 are the best conditions for in vitro propagation of sugarcane.

  15. Improving yield and water use efficiency of sugarcane under drip irrigation in the Gharb region of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AABAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most limiting factors for agricultural development in Morocco is water scarcity linked to climate change. Since 2008, an important program promoting drip irrigation was undertaken by the state to achieve water saving and productivity. An experiment on sugarcane was conducted in the Gharb region under Mediterranean climate with a silty clay soil during two cropping seasons. The objectives were to assess the sugarcane water requirements, optimize WUE and test the crop response to variable irrigation water supplies under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using ‘’CP70-321’’ sugarcane cultivar in an experimental station using a randomized block design with four replications and five water regimes. The results showed a highly significant effect of the water regime on sugar and stems yields and also on height of stems. Water requirements for sugarcane were estimated at 7500 m³.ha-1, but 5000 m³.ha-1 equivalent to 67%ETc, was sufficient to optimize WUE (132 to 157 kg of stems ha-1.mm-1 and 22.2 to 24.2 kg of sugar ha-1.mm-1. This means that drip irrigation on sugarcane could potentially i save about 50% of the irrigation volume, comparatively to sprinkler irrigation, ii almost double the stem yields and iii increase the sugar yields from 8 to 23 tons/ha.

  16. Studies on the absorption, distribution of rare earth elements and its effect on absorption of phosphorus and potassium in sugarcane (Saccharum officnarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Yanhua; Liu Qiongying; Zheng Yuemei; Deng Zhouhuo; Xu Shengjie

    1991-01-01

    Study on the absorption, distribution and translocation of area earth elements (RE) and their effects on absorption of phosphorus and potassium ( 86 Rb as tracer) in sugarcane showed that the sugarcane could absorb soluble RE fast by its root or leaves. Within the 1-7 days after treatment, the absorption rate of 141 Ce in organs of the plant increased with the time. At the 7th day after treatment, the absorption rate of 141 Ce by sugarcane plant reached the maximum which was about 2-3 times of that at the 1st day and after that it gradually decreased. The utilization efficiency of 141 Ce by sugarcane plant was 0.836-3.24%. The absorption and distribution of RE in sugarcane plant varied with the treatment methods. It was shown that about 90% 141 Ce in nutrient solution was concentrated in the roots while only about 10% of them was transferred into the shoots. The distribution and accumulation of 141 Ce in suggarcene plant was in order of root>stem>leaf. If smeared on the leaf of sugarcane, the distribution and accumulation of 141 Ce in sugarcane plant was in order of leaf>stem>root. When treated with 300, 500 and 800 ppm R(NO 3 ) 3 ·4H 2 O, Ce, La, Sm, Pr, Nd and Y, the absorption and translocation rate of phosphorus and rubidium in sugarcane were increased

  17. Dissolved triazines in watersheds under sugarcane cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Rocio; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane is an important extensive crop in north western of Argentina. Chemical weed control have been increasing over the last years. The typical period of this practice takes place from October to December, at beginnig of rainy season. Atrazine and ametryn are the main herbicides used, they have moderate to high potential mobility in soils, which is a potential source of contamination for nearby streams. The aim of this study was to quantify both atrazine and ametryn contamination levels in two streams of the southeast of Tucuman (Argentina) under sugarcane production. This area has a subtropical climate, and a monsoon rainfall regime with an annual average of 700 mm. Five sampling points of Mista and Saladillo streams were monitored from September to April, during three growing season. In each growing season, four sampling moments were defined: M1) Before the herbicides application; M2) Beginning of the rainy season and during the chemical weed control period; M3) High accumulated rainfall; M4) End of the rainy season. Water samples were taken and stored in polypropylene bottles at -20°C until analysis. Samples were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (Waters® ACQUITY® UPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS/MS Quattro Premier XE Waters). Atrazine was quantified in all samples and the highest concentrations were found in M2 (0.03-3.07 μg L-1). For the others sampling moments, atrazine concentrations were ranged from 0.003 to 0.2 μg L-1. Ametryn was detected in the 90% of the samples. Ametryn concentrations in M2 varied from 0.004 to 0.32 μg L-1, and in the rest sampling moments were less than 0.11 μg L-1. Both herbicides were highly detected in the study area. Although atrazine is authorized for other crops in the area, ametryn is only authorized for sugarcane, the largest cultivation in the area.

  18. Analysis of SSR information in EST resources of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags ( ESTs) offer the opportunity to exploit single, low -copy, conserved sequence motifs for the development of simple sequence repeats ( SSRs). The total of 262 113 ESTs of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the database of NCBI were downloaded and analyzed, which resulted in...

  19. Reduction of Exudates (Browning) in Sugarcane Micro Propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of this variety, ascorbic acid and citric acid was added as constituent of the media using MS and stock at different concentrations. The browning was reduced drastically at the addition of 0.1g/litre ascorbic acid and 0.15g/litre citric acid. Keywords: reduction, exudates browning, micro propagation, sugarcane. Nig J. Biotech.

  20. Reduction of Exudates (Browning) in Sugarcane Micro Propagation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL USER

    necessity to meet the need for the diverse use of sugar which has presently been in high demand and currently ... required for industrial sugar production remains a major constraint to sugarcane-based production ..... The result of these is that the plant tissues become brown or black and growth of the plant cell is inhibited ...

  1. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  2. Effect of pasteurization temperature on stability of an acidified sugarcane juice beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kunitake

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh sugarcane juice is quite limited due to the high rates of microbiological and enzymatic reactions which take place after extraction. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization temperature on quality and stability of sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp, nine batches of sugarcane juice with 4g/100g passion fruit pulp were processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C for 30 s, in triplicate. The pasteurized beverage was aseptically packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and stored at 7 °C in the dark. The beverage was characterized by physicochemical tests. Activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were determined before and after processing. Coliforms and Salmonella tests were carried out to assure the beverage´s microbiological safety. Color parameters were measured in the processed juice throughout the storage period. Fifty panelists evaluated the beverage's appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall impression using seven-point hedonic scale tests. Sensory stability was estimated by considering score averages above four and percentages of acceptance above 60%. The pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity of end product ranged from 3.96 to 4.19, 19.7 to 20.1 ºBrix, and 0.163 to 0.175 g/100g citric acid, respectively. The three processing binomials were effective for PPO inactivation; however, complete POD inactivation was reached at 95 °C/30 s only. The estimated sensory shelf-lives for sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C/30 s were 30, 40 and 50 days, respectively. Thus, the increase of pasteurization temperature had a positive effect on product's stability.

  3. Energetic efficiency of the use of desiccant in sugarcane; Eficiencia energetica do uso de dessecante em cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Gilda B.C.; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano C.; Romanelli, Thiago L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz(ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: gildacardoso@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Economically, sugarcane is one of the most important crop in Brazil, showing a great perspective of expansion in the cultivated area. In the last few years the sugarcane mechanical harvested area has increased, causing a series of inconveniences for the system of harvest of the sugarcane, such as: the increase in the percentage of extraneous matter and losses of sugarcane and/or fractions in the field. Due the high value invested in the system of harvest of the sugarcane, the desiccant is one of the alternatives used to minimize such inconveniences in the pre harvest. In order to quantify the demand of energy of the system, the present work used a base of energy pointers as tool for the planning process and production of sugarcane in two systems, one with application of desiccant (T1) and the other without (T2). The energy flows of entrance (EE) and exit had been established, allowing the identification of the energy rocking (BE), that quantifies the liquid profit of energy for area. The results had shown that the application of the desiccant resulted in a bigger EE in system T1 (86601.44 MJ ha{sup -1} versus 83345.45 MJ ha{sup -1}). The BE of T2 presented superior in 0.14% in relation the T1 (2241318.57 MJ ha{sup -1} against 2238062.57 MJ ha{sup -1}), indicating that the desiccant presents greater energy consumption. (author)

  4. Bradyrhizobium sacchari sp. nov., a legume nodulating bacterium isolated from sugarcane roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Gustavo Feitosa; Zilli, Jerri Edson; de Araújo, Jean Luiz Simões; Parma, Marcia Maria; Melo, Itamar Soares; Radl, Viviane; Baldani, José Ivo; Rouws, Luc Felicianus Marie

    2017-11-01

    Members of the genus Bradyrhizobium are well-known as nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts of a wide variety of leguminous species, but they have also been found in different environments, notably as endophytes in non-legumes such as sugarcane. This study presents a detailed polyphasic characterization of four Bradyrhizobium strains (type strain BR 10280 T ), previously isolated from roots of sugarcane in Brazil. 16S rRNA sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer showed that these strains form a novel clade close to, but different from B. huanghuaihaiense strain CCBAU 23303 T . Average nucleotide identity (ANI) analyses confirmed that BR 10280 T represents a novel species. Phylogenetic analysis based on nodC gene sequences also placed the strains close to CCBAU 23303 T , but different from this latter strain, the sugarcane strains did not nodulate soybean, although they effectively nodulated Vigna unguiculata, Cajanus cajan and Macroptilium atropurpureum. Physiological traits are in agreement with the placement of the strains in the genus Bradyrhizobium as a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium sacchari sp. nov. is proposed.

  5. Carbon stock and humification index of organic matter affected by sugarcane straw and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Segnini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. straw on a soil surface increases the soil carbon (C stocks, but at lower rates than expected. This fact is probably associated with the soil management adopted during sugarcane replanting. This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the humification index of soil organic matter (SOM of adopting no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT for sugarcane replanting. A greater C content and stock was observed in the NT area, but only in the 0-5 cm soil layer (p < 0.05. Greater soil C stock (0-60 cm was found in soil under NT, when compared to CT and the baseline. While C stock of 116 Mg ha-1 was found in the baseline area, in areas under CT and NT systems the values ranged from 120 to 127 Mg ha-1. Carbon retention rates of 0.67 and 1.63 Mg C ha-1 year-1 were obtained in areas under CT and NT, respectively. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy showed that CT makes the soil surface (0-20 cm more homogeneous than the NT system due to the effect of soil disturbance, and that the SOM humification index (H LIF is larger in CT compared to NT conditions. In contrast, NT had a gradient of increasing H LIF, showing that the entry of labile organic material such as straw is also responsible for the accumulation of C in this system. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface and the adoption of NT during sugarcane planting are strategies that can increase soil C sequestration in the Brazilian sugarcane sector.

  6. Spread, genetic variation and methods for the detection of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of sugarcane orange rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane is susceptible to infection by two rust pathogens, Puccinia melanocephala and P. kuehnii, causing brown and orange rust, respectively. Orange rust of sugarcane was first reported in the Western hemisphere in Florida in July 2007. The pathogen was found to be distributed widely throughout t...

  7. NITROGEN MANAGEMENT IN SUGARCANE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON YIELD, PROFITABILITY AND LEACHING LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Seceña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of nitrogen (N in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a source of contamination for aquifers. The objective was to evaluate sugarcane yield, as well as profitability and amount of N leached resulting from the application of different split N doses. Three N doses (250, 200 and 150 kg ha-1 and three different application numbers (2, 3 and 4 were evaluated using a factorial design in randomized blocks. When the N dose was divided in three and four applications yields higher than 125 ton ha-1 were obtained. The greatest benefit-cost-ratio (1.8 resulted from using 150 kg ha-1 of N divided in three applications. The lowest N losses due to leaching were obtained using 150 kg ha-1 of N divided in three (16.8 kg ha-1 and four (15.4 kg ha-1 applications. Low N doses divided in three or four applications did not reduce sugarcane production; furthermore, it was more profitable and had a lower environmental impact by reducing N leaching.

  8. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renouf, M.A.; Wegener, M.K.; Nielsen, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops-US corn and UK sugar beet-to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency

  9. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A. [School of Geography, Planning and Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wegener, M.K. [School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Nielsen, L.K. [Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops - US corn and UK sugar beet - to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency. (author)

  10. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, A.R.; Walder, J.M.M.; Horii, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  11. Evaluation of sugarcane introgression lines for resistance to brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Wen-Feng, Li; Ying-Kun, Huang; Xin, Lu; Zhi-Ming, Luo; Jiong, Yin; Hong-Li, Shan; Rong-Yue, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala is one of the important fungal diseases affecting sugarcane yield around the world. Cultivar resistance is the most appropriate control method for this disease. In this study, 62 introgression lines chosen from the crossing Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Ludashi x Erianthus rockii Yunnan 95-19 were evaluated for brown rust resistance using artificial inoculation. More than 30% of the introgression lines were identified as resistant. ...

  12. Yield accumulation in irrigated sugarcane. II. Utilization of intercepted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Evensen, C.I.; Osgood, R.V.; Robertson, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Intercepted radiation is a major driving variable of crop production under high-input irrigated conditions. Quantitative information on the utilization of radiation in yield accumulation allows extrapolation beyond the current season and location, and when this information is incorporated into crop growth simulation models, the effect of crop age on the productivity of different cultivars can be examined under different climatic conditions. This paper examines the differential performance of high-yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) crops in terms of the amount of short-wave solar radiation intercepted (Si) and the efficiency of use of intercepted radiation (RUE) in biomass production. Biomass accumulation during the 12- to 24-mo crop cycle was examined for two experiments conducted in Hawaii, and three experiments conducted in tropical Australia from 1991 to 1993. The analysis showed that (i) RUE was much less for growth after 12 mo than in the first 12 mo; (ii) maximum RUE of sugarcane approaches 2.0 g MJ(-1); (iii) biomass accumulation beyond 12 mo was not related directly to radiation utilization; and (iv) cultivars differed in Si, but differences in RUE could not be unequivocally assessed due to the confounding effect of variable recovery of trash in biomass estimates. It is concluded that stalk death and consequent biomass loss are important factors contributing to yield variation in sugarcane crops growing for 12 to 24 mo, with a yield plateau occurring at variable crop ages during the second year of growth

  13. Effect of sugarcane burning or green harvest methods on the Brazilian Cerrado soil bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Santos, Adriana L; Piccolo, Marisa C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor L C; Peixoto, Raquel S; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most important biodiversity reservoirs in the world. The sugarcane cultivation is expanding in this biome and necessitates the study of how it may impact the soil properties of the Cerrado. There is a lack of information especially about the impacts of different sugarcane management on the native bacterial communities of Cerrado soil. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate and compare the soil bacterial community structure of the Cerrado vegetation with two sugarcane systems. We evaluated samples under native vegetation and the impact of the two most commonly used management strategies for sugarcane cultivation (burnt cane and green cane) on this diversity using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of the rrs gene (16S rRNA). Nineteen different phyla were identified, with Acidobacteria (≈35%), Proteobacteria (≈24%) and Actinobacteria (≈21%) being the most abundant. Many of the sequences were represented by few operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% of dissimilarity), which were found in all treatments. In contrast, there were very strong patterns of local selection, with many OTUs occurring only in one sample. Our results reveal a complex bacterial diversity, with a large fraction of microorganisms not yet described, reinforcing the importance of this biome. As possible sign of threat, the qPCR detected a reduction of the bacterial population in agricultural soils compared with native Cerrado soil communities. We conclude that sugarcane cultivation promoted significant structural changes in the soil bacterial community, with Firmicutes phylum and Acidobacteria classes being the groups most affected.

  14. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses

  15. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  16. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  17. Drought Tolerance Conferred to Sugarcane by Association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: A Transcriptomic View of Hormone Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B.; Mota Filho, José P.; de Carvalho, Thais G.; Rojas, Cristian A.; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to sugarcane cv. SP70

  18. Drought tolerance conferred to sugarcane by association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: a transcriptomic view of hormone pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vargas

    Full Text Available Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to

  19. Drought tolerance conferred to sugarcane by association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: a transcriptomic view of hormone pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B; Mota Filho, José P; de Carvalho, Thais G; Rojas, Cristian A; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to sugarcane cv. SP70

  20. Development, cross-species/genera transferability of novel EST-SSR markers and their utility in revealing population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Ram K.

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) with complex polyploid genome requires a large number of informative DNA markers for various applications in genetics and breeding. Despite the great advances in genomic technology, it is observed in several crop species, especially in sugarcane, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers are limited. Now-a-days EST-SSR markers are preferred to genomic SSR (gSSR) as they represent only the functional part of the genome, which can be easily associated with desired trait. The present study was taken up with a new set of 351 EST-SSRs developed from the 4085 non redundant EST sequences of two Indian sugarcane cultivars. Among these EST-SSRs, TNR containing motifs were predominant with a frequency of 51.6%. Thirty percent EST-SSRs showed homology with annotated protein. A high frequency of SSRs was found in the 5\\'UTR and in the ORF (about 27%) and a low frequency was observed in the 3\\'UTR (about 8%). Two hundred twenty-seven EST-SSRs were evaluated, in sugarcane, allied genera of sugarcane and cereals, and 134 of these have revealed polymorphism with a range of PIC value 0.12 to 0.99. The cross transferability rate ranged from 87.0% to 93.4% in Saccharum complex, 80.0% to 87.0% in allied genera, and 76.0% to 80.0% in cereals. Cloning and sequencing of EST-SSR size variant amplicons revealed that the variation in the number of repeat-units was the main source of EST-SSR fragment polymorphism. When 124 sugarcane accessions were analyzed for population structure using model-based approach, seven genetically distinct groups or admixtures thereof were observed in sugarcane. Results of principal coordinate analysis or UPGMA to evaluate genetic relationships delineated also the 124 accessions into seven groups. Thus, a high level of polymorphism adequate genetic diversity and population structure assayed with the EST-SSR markers not only suggested their utility in various applications in genetics and genomics in

  1. Constructing high-density genetic maps for polyploid sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and identifying quantitative trait loci controlling brown rust resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop for producing edible sugar and bioethanol. Brown rust had long been a major disease impacting sugarcane production world widely. Resistance resource and markers linked to the resistance are valuable tools for disease resistance improvement. An...

  2. Characterization of pathogenic races of the sugarcane smut fungus by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amire, O.A.; Schmitt, R.A.; Trione, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Representative samples of five major races of Ustilago scitaminea, the causal organism of the smut disease of sugarcane, were obtained from infected sugarcane fields in the Western hemisphere. The variations in concentration of 10 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) in the sporidial yeast-like cells of this fungal pathogen were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Comparative analysis of the elemental compositions in the different races of the fungus showed that the five pathogenic races of Ustilago scitaminea may be distinguished from each other on the basis of elemental compositions. (author)

  3. BIODEGRADATION OF SUGARCANE VINASSES BY THE WHITE-ROT FUNGI Pleurotus ostreatus IN A PACKED BED REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Tapie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane vinasses are considered a complex effluent because of its organic load, low pH, high temperature, and by the presence of recalcitrant substances such as melanoidins and phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus to carry out the biodegradation of sugarcane vinasses in a fixed-bed bioreactor. The experiments evidence the potential of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus to carry out the decolorization (83%, the removal of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD=87% and the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5=92%, the reduction of total suspended solids (83% and volatile suspended solids (72% of vinasses. The technical simplicity of the proposed alternative as well as process performance reveals the potential of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus for the treatment of sugarcane mill effluents.

  4. Sucrose and color profiles in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) juice analyzed by UFLC-ELSD and Synapt High-Definition Mass Spectrometry during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Lima de Aguiar, Claudio; Galaverna, Renan; Baptista, Antonio S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Arthur, Valter

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation (E-beam) on sugarcane juice and compared the results with preliminary tests performed on sugarcane juice treated with gamma irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy doses and results were compared wile control samples without irradiation. The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of phenolic compounds in both treatments. We also observed increased contents of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) for the samples irradiated with gamma rays and E-beam measured by the DNS methods. However, there was no significant difference of sugars content measured by chromatographic analyses performed in the sugarcane juice treated with E-beam. Therefore reducing sugars content could be overestimated by the DNS method because salts in sugarcane juice. The treatments were able to reduce sugarcane juice ICUMSA color intensity in both treatments with irradiation. E-beam reduced sugarcane juice color by roughly 49% compared the control, while gamma irradiation reduced it by 30%. - Highlights: • E-beam and γ-radiation were evaluated on color reduction of sugarcane juice. • Any severe degradation of sucrose content was perceived by E-beam or γ-radiation. • Little degradation of sucrose was associated to the increase on radiation doses. • Average color reduction was found to be 49% with E-beam and 30% with γ-radiation. • Synapt HDMS was able to confirm the presence of sucrose, glucose and fructose.

  5. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  6. Nutrient contents of Soyabeans: A Guide for sugarcane growers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents of Soyabeans: A Guide for sugarcane growers under fast track land reform programme [FTLRP] in Zimbabwe. ... The economic benefits of growing soyabeans accrue from the nutrients that remain in the leaves, petioles, stems and shells that are ploughed into the soil during land preparation. Keywords: soil ...

  7. A novel linkage map of sugarcane with evidence for clustering of retrotransposon-based markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palhares Alessandra C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of sugarcane as a sustainable crop has unlimited applications. The crop is one of the most economically viable for renewable energy production, and CO2 balance. Linkage maps are valuable tools for understanding genetic and genomic organization, particularly in sugarcane due to its complex polyploid genome of multispecific origins. The overall objective of our study was to construct a novel sugarcane linkage map, compiling AFLP and EST-SSR markers, and to generate data on the distribution of markers anchored to sequences of scIvana_1, a complete sugarcane transposable element, and member of the Copia superfamily. Results The mapping population parents (‘IAC66-6’ and ‘TUC71-7’ contributed equally to polymorphisms, independent of marker type, and generated markers that were distributed into nearly the same number of co-segregation groups (or CGs. Bi-parentally inherited alleles provided the integration of 19 CGs. The marker number per CG ranged from two to 39. The total map length was 4,843.19 cM, with a marker density of 8.87 cM. Markers were assembled into 92 CGs that ranged in length from 1.14 to 404.72 cM, with an estimated average length of 52.64 cM. The greatest distance between two adjacent markers was 48.25 cM. The scIvana_1-based markers (56 were positioned on 21 CGs, but were not regularly distributed. Interestingly, the distance between adjacent scIvana_1-based markers was less than 5 cM, and was observed on five CGs, suggesting a clustered organization. Conclusions Results indicated the use of a NBS-profiling technique was efficient to develop retrotransposon-based markers in sugarcane. The simultaneous maximum-likelihood estimates of linkage and linkage phase based strategies confirmed the suitability of its approach to estimate linkage, and construct the linkage map. Interestingly, using our genetic data it was possible to calculate the number of retrotransposon scIvana_1 (~60

  8. EFFICIENCY OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morgado González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are an alternative for promoting sugarcane (Saccharum spp. development. Growth promotion was evaluated in sugarcane vitroplants inoculated separately with twenty-four strains of seven different bacterial species. Total indole synthesis and phosphate solubilization activity were determined in each strain. The experimental unit was one 5 L pot filled with a sterile mixture of farm soil-agrolite and one plant. The experimental design was completely random. Inoculation consisted of 1.0 mL of bacterial suspension (1 × 107 CFU. Plant height, stem diameter, number of shoots, leaf area and dry matter of shoot and root were determined every two weeks. The Ochrobactrum anthropi strains N208 and IMP311 and Pseudomonas luteola IMPCA244 had the highest production of total indoles (116.69, 115.70 and 117.34 µg mL-1, respectively. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains CA158 and 79 exhibited the highest values of phosphate solubilization (222.43 and 216.38 µg mL-1, respectively. In general, plant height increased 27.75%, stem diameter 30.75%, number of tillers 38.5%, leaf area 49%, aerial dry matter 59.75% and root dry matter 59.5%. P. luteola, P. f luorescens, O. anthropi and S. maltophilia exhibited the highest values of the leaf area index, net assimilation, and relative and absolute growth rates. P. luteola IMPCA244, O. anthropi IMP311, Aeromonas salmonicida N264, Burkholderia cepacia N172, P. f luorescens N50 and S. maltophilia 79 promoted the highest values in different response variables throughout the study. Before using these strains as sugarcane biofertilizer, additional studies are required.

  9. Cloning and Functional Analysis of cDNAs with Open Reading Frames for 300 Previously Undefined Genes Expressed in CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Ye, Min; Wu, Xin-Yan; Ren, Shuang-Xi; Zhao, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jun; Fu, Gang; Shen, Yu; Fan, Hui-Yong; Lu, Gang; Zhong, Ming; Xu, Xiang-Ru; Han, Ze-Guang; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Tao, Jiong; Huang, Qiu-Hua; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Geng-Xi; Gu, Jian; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    2000-01-01

    Three hundred cDNAs containing putatively entire open reading frames (ORFs) for previously undefined genes were obtained from CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), based on EST cataloging, clone sequencing, in silico cloning, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sizes ranged from 360 to 3496 bp and their ORFs coded for peptides of 58–752 amino acids. Public database search indicated that 225 cDNAs exhibited sequence similarities to genes identified across a variety of species. Homology analysis led to the recognition of 50 basic structural motifs/domains among these cDNAs. Genomic exon–intron organization could be established in 243 genes by integration of cDNA data with genome sequence information. Interestingly, a new gene named as HSPC070 on 3p was found to share a sequence of 105bp in 3′ UTR with RAF gene in reversed transcription orientation. Chromosomal localizations were obtained using electronic mapping for 192 genes and with radiation hybrid (RH) for 38 genes. Macroarray technique was applied to screen the gene expression patterns in five hematopoietic cell lines (NB4, HL60, U937, K562, and Jurkat) and a number of genes with differential expression were found. The resource work has provided a wide range of information useful not only for expression genomics and annotation of genomic DNA sequence, but also for further research on the function of genes involved in hematopoietic development and differentiation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under the accession nos. listed in Table 1, pp 1548–1552.] PMID:11042152

  10. Evaluating Brazilian sugarcane expansion effects on soil structure using VESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing global demand for biofuel has accelerated land-use change (LUC) in Brazil, primarily by replacing degraded pasture with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The intensive echanization associated with this LUC has increased concerns regarding soil structural quality (SSQ). Through decades of...

  11. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  12. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho

  13. Separation of phenolic acids from sugarcane rind by online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ping; Fang, Yingtong; Xie, Ronglong; Hu, Weilun; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Dong, Genlai; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Sugarcane rind contains some functional phenolic acids. The separation of these compounds from sugarcane rind is able to realize the integrated utilization of the crop and reduce environment pollution. In this paper, a novel protocol based on interfacing online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established, aiming at improving and simplifying the process of phenolic acids separation from sugarcane rind. The conditions of online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC involving solvent system, flow rate of mobile phase as well as saturated extent of absorption of solid-phase extraction were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce separation time. The separation of phenolic acids was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of butanol/acetic acid/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5, and the developed online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC method was validated and successfully applied for sugarcane rind, and three phenolic acids including 6.73 mg of gallic acid, 10.85 mg of p-coumaric acid, and 2.78 mg of ferulic acid with purities of 60.2, 95.4, and 84%, respectively, were obtained from 150 mg sugarcane rind crude extracts. In addition, the three different elution methods of phenolic acids purification including HSCCC, elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography and back-extrusion counter-current chromatography were compared. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effect of Dicamba and 2,4 dichlorophenoxiacetic acid on sugarcane somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve sugarcane germplasm, produce microbial disease-free material, detect resistance to diseases and pests, etc., in vitro propagation of sugarcane has been established in many commercial varieties. In this sense, the aim of this work was to analyze the efficiency of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D and 3,6-dichloro -2- methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba to induce somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of plantlets from sugarcane varieties C26670, RB855546, V99245, V756, V781, V0050, CC8592, CC8475. For induction of embryogenic callus, leaf discs in tillering stage of 1 cm diameter and 2 mm thick, were inoculated on Murashige-Skoog, 1962 medium (MS, supplemented with 50 ml.l-1 coconut water, 30 g.l-1sucrose and two different treatments: 3 mg.l-1 2,4D or 6.63 mg.l-1 Dicamba, both of them in total darkness at 25 °C, during 1 month. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to ½ MS salts supplemented with coconut water 200 ml.l-1 and sucrose 60 g.l-1 and incubated under continuous light, 25 °C, for 2 months. The highest percent of embryogenic callus induction was obtained in media supplemented with Dicamba, an average of 70.83 % of embryogenic callus by variety, while in media with 2,4-D, 62.08 % of embryogenic callus was obtained by variety. An average of 89,00 % of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media with Dicamba and an average of 66.12% of plantlets was obtained from calli induced on media supplemented with 2,4D. Using Dicamba it was possible to establish an efficient somatic embryogenesis protocol for these sugarcane varieties.

  15. DNA methylation in sugarcane somaclonal variants assessed through methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, J H M B; Kemper, E L; Costa, J B; Manechini, J R V; Pinto, L R

    2017-05-04

    Micropropagation is an important tool for large-scale multiplication of plant superior genotypes. However, somaclonal variation is one of the drawbacks of this process. Changes in DNA methylation have been widely reported as one of the main causes of somaclonal variations in plants. In order to investigate the occurrence of changes in the methylation pattern of sugarcane somaclonal variants, the MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) technique was applied to micro-propagated plantlets sampled at the third subculture phase. The mother plant, in vitro normal plantlets, and in vitro abnormal plantlets (somaclonal variants) of four sugarcane clones were screened against 16 MSAP selective primers for EcoRI/MspI and EcoRI/HpaII restriction enzymes. A total of 1005 and 1200 MSAP-derived markers with polymorphism percentages of 28.36 and 40.67 were obtained for EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI restriction enzyme combinations, respectively. The genetic similarity between the mother plant and the somaclonal variants ranged from 0.877 to 0.911 (EcoRI/MspI) and from 0.928 to 0.955 (EcoRI/HpaII). Most of the MASPs among mother plant and micro-propagated plantlets were derived from EcoRI/MspI restriction enzymes suggesting alteration due to gain or loss of internal cytosine methylation. A higher rate of loss of methylation (hypomethylation) than gain of methylation (hypermethylation) was observed in the abnormal in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Although changes in the methylation pattern were also observed in the in vitro normal plantlets, they were lower than those observed for the in vitro abnormal plantlets. The MASP technique proved to be a promising tool to early assessment of genetic fidelity of micro-propagated sugarcane plants.

  16. Unraveling the genetic structure of Brazilian commercial sugarcane cultivars through microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manechini, João Ricardo Vieira; da Costa, Juliana Borges; Pereira, Bruna Turcatto; Carlini-Garcia, Luciana Aparecida; Xavier, Mauro Alexandre; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Pinto, Luciana Rossini

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry plays an important role in the worldwide supply of sugar and ethanol. Investigation into the genetic structure of current commercial cultivars and comparisons to the main ancestor species allow sugarcane breeding programs to better manage crosses and germplasm banks as well as to promote its rational use. In the present study, the genetic structure of a group of Brazilian cultivars currently grown by commercial producers was assessed through microsatellite markers and contrasted with a group of basic germplasm mainly composed of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum accessions. A total of 285 alleles was obtained by a set of 12 SSRs primer pairs that taken together were able to efficiently distinguish and capture the genetic variability of sugarcane commercial cultivars and basic germplasm accessions allowing its application in a fast and cost-effective way for routine cultivar identification and management of sugarcane germplasm banks. Allelic distribution revealed that 97.6% of the cultivar alleles were found in the basic germplasm while 42% of the basic germplasm alleles were absent in cultivars. Of the absent alleles, 3% was exclusive to S. officinarum, 33% to S. spontaneum and 19% to other species/exotic hybrids. We found strong genetic differentiation between the Brazilian commercial cultivars and the two main species (S. officinarum: [Formula: see text] = 0.211 and S. spontaneum: [Formula: see text] = 0.216, Pcommercial cultivars. Average dissimilarity within cultivars was 1.2 and 1.4 times lower than that within S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Genetic divergence found between cultivars and S. spontaneum accessions has practical applications for energy cane breeding programs as the choice of more divergent parents will maximize the frequency of transgressive individuals in the progeny.

  17. Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Iqbal, M.J.; Saif-Ur-Rasheed, M.; Zafar, Y.; Malik, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Expression profiles of sugarcane under drought conditions: Variation in gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Farias de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrought is a major factor in decreased sugarcane productivity because of the resulting morphophysiological effects that it causes. Gene expression studies that have examined the influence of water stress in sugarcane have yielded divergent results, indicating the absence of a fixed pattern of changes in gene expression. In this work, we investigated the expression profiles of 12 genes in the leaves of a drought-tolerant genotype (RB72910 of sugarcane and compared the results with those of other studies. The genotype was subjected to 80–100% water availability (control condition and 0–20% water availability (simulated drought. To analyze the physiological status, the SPAD index, Fv/Fm ratio, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and stomatal transpiration (E were measured. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and the expression of SAMDC, ZmPIP2-1 protein, ZmTIP4-2 protein, WIP protein, LTP protein, histone H3, DNAj, ferredoxin I, β-tubulin, photosystem I, gene 1 and gene 2 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR. Important differences in the expression profiles of these genes were observed when compared with other genotypes, suggesting that complex defense mechanisms are activated in response to water stress. However, there was no recognizable pattern for the changes in expression of the different proteins associated with tolerance to drought stress.

  19. Development of salt tolerant potato and sugarcane through in vitro techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asad, S; Iqbal, M J; Saif-Ur-Rasheed, M; Zafar, Y; Malik, K A [Plant Biotechnology Div., National Inst. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    1997-07-01

    Improvement of sugarcane and potato in Pakistan is hampered by their intricate flowering behavior under natural day-length conditions. The improvement of these crops for their salt tolerance can be carried out by tissue culture mediated techniques. To induce variation in sugarcane, five-week old white yellow nodular embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5, 20, 40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. After one month, the calli were cultured on regeneration media, and plant hardening procedures were optimized. Irradiated and non-irradiated calli were subjected to various levels of salt stress and plant regeneration was investigated. Although growth of sugarcane calli was observed at 200 mM NaCl, regeneration was inhibited even at 50 mM NaCl in the medium. The regenerants from gamma irradiated material are under field evaluation. Variation was detected in both irradiated and salt treated calli by DNA fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In potato, 6-7 weeks old in vitro grown plants with single shoots having 8-10 buds were irradiated with 20 Gy gamma rays. Shoot formation was successful only from 50% of the axillary buds. The cultures were subjected to four levels of salinity (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM Nacl). Shoot-tip necrosis was observed along with significant reduction in shoot height. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs.

  20. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use

  1. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  2. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Piccolo, Marisa C; Leite, Deborah Catharine A; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz C; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-08

    Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under

  3. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  4. Processing Pipeline of Sugarcane Spectral Response to Characterize the Fallen Plants Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Agustín; Hadad, Alejandro; Kemerer, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in agronomic systems it is possible to make a variable management of inputs to improve the efficiency of agronomic industry and optimize the logistics of the harvesting process. In this way, it was proposed for sugarcane culture the use of remote sensing tools and computational methods to identify useful areas in the cultivated lands. The objective was to use these areas to make variable management of the crop. When at the moment of harvesting the sugarcane there are fallen stalks, together with them some strange material (vegetal or mineral) is collected. This strange material is not millable and when it enters onto the sugar mill it causes important looses of efficiency in the sugar extraction processes and affects its quality. Considering this issue, the spectral response of sugarcane plants in aerial multispectral images was studied. The spectral response was analyzed in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Then, the aerial images were segmented to obtain homogeneous regions useful for producers to make decisions related to the use of inputs and resources according to the variability of the system (existence of fallen cane and standing cane). The obtained segmentation results were satisfactory. It was possible to identify regions with fallen cane and regions with standing cane with high precision rates. (paper)

  5. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

  6. Orange rust in sugarcane: molecular identification in Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanessa Borges Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. cultivation is one of the major agricultural activities in the Brazilian states. This study aimed to molecularly identify the pathogen associated with rust in sugarcane cultivars in the state of Rio de Janeiro and to suggest a control strategy. Among the 14 PCR-tested cultivars, Puccinia kuehnii infection was identified for RB947520, RB92606, RB835486, RB72454, SP89-11I5, SP83-2847, both from infected leaf sample and from urediniospores. Puccinia kuehnii was not detected by PCR for the cultivars RB955971, RB951541, RB92579, RB867515, RB855536, SP91-1049, SP80-3280, SP80-1816. This is the first molecular detection of this fungus in the state of Rio de Janeiro for six of the 14 analyzed cultivars.

  7. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi.

  8. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  9. The effect of w/c ratio on microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Victor, Amalina, Khoirunnisa Nur

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a concrete that can flow and compact by itself without vibrator. The ability of SCC to flow by itself makes this concrete very suitable for construction that has very small reinforcement gaps. In this study, SCC was designed to get a compressive strength above 60 MPa at the age of 28 days. Sugarcane bagasse ash was used as substitution material for cement replacement. Percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. There were three w/c values that vary from 0.275, 0.300, and 0.325. Testing standards referred to ASTM, EFNARC and ACI. The fresh concrete test was slump flow, L-box and V-funnel. The maximum compressive strength was in the mixture with the sugarcane bagasse ash composition of 15% and w/c=0.275 which was 67.24 MPa. The result of SEM test analysis found that the mixture composition with 15% sugarcane bagasse ash has solid CSH structure, small amount of pores, and smaller pore diameter than other mixtures.

  10. Fusarium sacchari, a cause of mycotic keratitis among sugarcane farmers - a series of four cases from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Yashik; Chander, Jagdish; Kaistha, Neelam; Singla, Nidhi; Sood, Sunandan; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2016-11-01

    The two most common filamentous fungi causing mycotic keratitis are Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. Around 70 Fusarium spp. are involved in causing human infections. In this study, four cases of keratitis in sugarcane farmers in India are being reported, caused by the sugar cane pathogen Fusarium sacchari, a species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Fusarial keratitis was established by potassium hydroxide/Calcofluor white wet mounts and fungal culture of corneal scrapings on conventional media. Final identification was done by genetic sequencing at CBS-KNAW, Utrecht, The Netherlands. The antifungal susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution method as per CLSI document M38-A2. Four cases of F. sacchari keratitis were identified. Three of them had trauma with sugarcane leaves, whereas one sugarcane farmer reported trauma by vegetative matter. The morphological similarities among various Fusarium species warrant use of molecular methods for identification of cryptic species. A wide distribution of sugarcane farming could be the possible explanation for emergence of F. sacchari keratitis in India. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Fuel ethanol production from sugarcane and corn: Comparative analysis for a Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, J.A.; Montoya, M.I.; Sanchez, O.J.; Giraldo, O.H.; Cardona, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Colombian government has defined the use of bioethanol as a gasoline enhancer to reduce greenhouse gases, gasoline imports, and to boost the rural economy. To meet the projected fuel ethanol demand needed to oxygenate the gasoline in the whole country, the construction of about five additional ethanol production plants is required. For this, a comparative analysis of the technological options using different feedstocks should be performed. In this work, a comparison of the economical and environmental performance of the ethanol production process from sugarcane and corn under Colombian conditions has been carried out. Net present value and total output rate of potential environmental impact were used as the economical and environmental indicators, respectively. Through the integration of these indicators into one index by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach, sugarcane ethanol process was determined as the best choice for Colombian ethanol production facilities. AHP scores obtained in this study for sugarcane and corn ethanol were 0.571 and 0.429, respectively. However, starchy crops like corn, cassava or potatoes used as feedstock for ethanol production could potentially cause a higher impact on the rural communities and boost their economies if social matters are considered

  12. Oxidative enzymes activity in sugarcane juice as a function of the planting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the largest producer of sugarcane in the world, the industrial process transforms this crop into ethanol and/or granulated sugar. Some cultivars exhibit enzymatic browning in the extracted sugarcane juice at levels harmful to the manufacturing process of white granulated sugar. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sugarcane straw used as soil coverage, the use of different planting systems, and treatments with hydrogel polymer on enzymatic activity. The cultivar RB 86 7515 was sampled for 8 months; the first sample was obtained by cutting the upper portion of the stalk at the internode, which was taken to the laboratory for determination of the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. The soil coverage with different forms of straw as well as the planting systems did not change the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. The polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity increased with the use of a polymer due to increased polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity in the groove system. The enzymes studied showed changes in activity during the experimental period. The production of sugar at the end of the season (August to November avoids the periods of highest enzymatic activity.

  13. Deposition and Characterization of Silver Oxide from Solution of Silver, Cassava and Sugarcane Juice Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche E. Ekpunobi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide was deposited on metallic substrates (zinc and lead from silver solution with different additives at a pH of 5, dc current of 0.2A, 4V for 20seconds at 25°C. The additives were cassava solution and sugarcane juice. The metallic substrates served as cathode while a copper electrode serves as the anode. Compositions of the electrolytes were 50ml AgNO3, 50ml AgNO3 and 50ml of cassava solution or 50ml of sugarcane juice. Structural and textural characterizations were carried out on the deposits. The result showed that deposition using zinc substrate gave a better result than that of lead in that the deposits were pure without impurities. Using cassava solution as additive, a pure Ag2O3 deposit was obtained while sugarcane juice gave a pure intergrowth of Ag2O3 and Ag3O4 deposits both on zinc substrates.

  14. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx, is a deep bacteriosis and prevalent in most of sugarcane-producing countries. Based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, we developed a method for detecting Lxx. The major advantages of the LAMP method are visual judgment by color and time saving with only 60 min for identification of Lxx and without the need for costly PCR apparatus and gel scanner. In the present study, positive and negative samples detected by the LAMP method were clearly distinguishable. When total DNA extracted from internode juice was used as the template, the sensitivity of LAMP was 10 times higher than that of the conventional PCR detection. The LAMP assay is a highly specific, rapid, and sensitive method for the diagnosis of ratoon stunt caused by Lxx in sugarcane. This is the first report of LAMP-based assay for the detection of Lxx in sugarcane.

  15. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Hector

    Full Text Available Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans, while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  16. STRATEGIES FOR NEW INTERNATIONAL VENTURES IN THE BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF ETH BIONERGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carrilho Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify cases of new international ventures in the Brazilian sugarcane industry, specifically as regards ethanol production, i.e., companies that are established from start to have an international profile. The paper explores the case of one such enterprise in the light of the theories addressed. In the last few years, a rising number of companies with this profile have appeared. This runs contrary to the main classical theories of internationalization, which present this process as evolutionary. As for the sugarcane industry, it has expanded considerably in recent years, which led many groups to invest in this segment. This study is a descriptive, qualitative piece of research and is based on the case study of a company recently established in this sector. Analyzing the chosen organization and comparing it to the studied theories, the authors concluded that there is, indeed, a type of organization with the profile of a new international venture. Key-words: Internationalization. New international ventures. Sugarcane industry. Brazil.

  17. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under different conditions as roughage in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Endo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the digestibility and nitrogen balance (NB of lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under different conditions. Fifteen Ile de France lambs at, on average, 23.5kg of body weight were evaluated. Treatments were: in natura sugarcane (IN, sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% calcium oxide (CaO under aerobic condition (AER, and sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% CaO under anaerobic condition (ANA. Therefore, a completely randomized design was constituted with five replicates per treatment. Treatments were supplied to animals along with concentrate. Both hydrolysis conditions aimed to alter the sugarcane fermentation pattern, therefore improving fiber digestibility. Lambs were housed in individual pens and fed with diet allowing 10% of refusals. Refusals, feces and urine were sampled daily during five days. They were collected to determine the digestibility and NB. A higher digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (57.05%, organic matter (85.39%, hemicellulose (72.09%, NB (29.46g day-1 and 2.78g kg-0.75 day-1 and rate of nitrogen absorbed (3.00g kg-0.75 day-1 were observed for lambs fed with ANA than for those fed IN (41.17%, 73.76%, 53.80%, 21.39g day-1, 2.00g kg-0.75 day-1 and 2.22g kg-0.75 day-1, respectively. As roughage, ANA in the lamb diet, optimizes the nitrogen balance and is more efficient to improve the digestibility of some nutrients compared to IN. Whereas AER was as efficient as ANA and IN

  18. Analysis of Three Sugarcane Homo/Homeologous Regions Suggests Independent Polyploidization Events of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Mariane de Mendonça; Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; de Setta, Nathalia; Kitajima, João Paulo; Cruz, Guilherme Marcelo Queiroga; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes; Grativol, Clícia; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Whole genome duplication has played an important role in plant evolution and diversification. Sugarcane is an important crop with a complex hybrid polyploid genome, for which the process of adaptation to polyploidy is still poorly understood. In order to improve our knowledge about sugarcane genome evolution and the homo/homeologous gene expression balance, we sequenced and analyzed 27 BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) of sugarcane R570 cultivar, containing the putative single-copy genes LFY (seven haplotypes), PHYC (four haplotypes), and TOR (seven haplotypes). Comparative genomic approaches showed that these sugarcane loci presented a high degree of conservation of gene content and collinearity (synteny) with sorghum and rice orthologous regions, but were invaded by transposable elements (TE). All the homo/homeologous haplotypes of LFY, PHYC, and TOR are likely to be functional, because they are all under purifying selection (dN/dS ≪ 1). However, they were found to participate in a nonequivalently manner to the overall expression of the corresponding gene. SNPs, indels, and amino acid substitutions allowed inferring the S. officinarum or S. spontaneum origin of the TOR haplotypes, which further led to the estimation that these two sugarcane ancestral species diverged between 2.5 and 3.5 Ma. In addition, analysis of shared TE insertions in TOR haplotypes suggested that two autopolyploidization may have occurred in the lineage that gave rise to S. officinarum, after its divergence from S. spontaneum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil from energy, environmental, and economic perspectives: Profit or expense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Junqueira, Tassia L.; Pavanello, Lucas G.; Cavalett, Otávio; Mantelatto, Paulo E.; Bonomi, Antonio; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion of vinasse from Brazilian sugarcane biorefineries was assessed. • Energy from biogas could be used for electricity or vehicular fuel replacement. • Biogas in cogeneration could release bagasse for second-generation ethanol production. • Environmental analysis showed decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and pollutant load. • Diesel replacement was the most economically attractive alternative. - Abstract: The need to improve the sustainability of bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has intensified the search for process energy optimization coupled with the environmental suitability of the generated coproducts and wastes. In this scenario, the anaerobic digestion of vinasse (the most abundant effluent from a sugarcane biorefinery) arises as an interesting alternative because, in addition to promoting the stabilization of organic matter, it also enables energy generation from biogas. In this work, vinasse anaerobic digestion in biorefineries was evaluated in terms of energy, environmental, and economic considerations. The energy potential from vinasse of a single sugarcane biorefinery, which is generally lost due to its application to soil with no treatment, was found to be comparable to the electricity supply demand of a city of approximately 130,000 inhabitants or to the surplus energy from bagasse burning that is exported by some sugarcane mills in Brazil. On a national level, such energy is comparable to the electricity generated by some hydroelectric plants, reaching 7.5% of the electricity generated by the world’s largest hydroelectric plant. When burned in boilers, biogas could be used to stimulate second-generation ethanol production because almost 12% of the bagasse could be released from burning and the biogas used to attenuate the process energy demand. As an alternative fuel, biogas could replace up to 40% of the annual diesel supply in the agricultural operations of a sugarcane biorefinery and still

  20. Present situation concerning studies on associative n-fixation in sugarcane, 'Saccharum officinarum' L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Vose, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    High nitrogenase activity in sugarcane has been confirmed, using 15 N procedure, which indicated rapid translocation of the fixed nitrogen to the plant tissue. It is observed that there are differences in variety concerning nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of sugarcane. Basic calculations and an evaluation of possible biological N-fixation with 15 N suggest that possibly as much as 25-30% of the plant nitrogen may be derived from biological fixation. Both eight and electron microscope studies suggest that there are bacteria inside healthy roots and if such a root is surface sterilized and placed ou nitrogen-free media then bacteria stream from the cut surface [pt

  1. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold

  2. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  3. Efficacy of selected herbicide formulations on sugarcane field weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation for the search of appropriate weed control strategy for sugarcane field weeds at the Unilorin Sugar Research Institute (USRI), Ilorin located at 8o 030' N; 4o 32' E , Nigeria. Field trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons to evaluate four herbicide ...

  4. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa-MG. pp. 977-985. Ferreira DA, Gonçalves L, Molina LR, Castro-Neto A, Tomich TR. (2007). Fermentation of sugarcane silage treated with urea, zeolita, bacteria inoculant and bacteria/enzymatic inoculants. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 59:423-433. Garcia H, Abreu M, Soto JM ...

  5. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Baksha R, Alam R, Karim MZ, Paul SK, Hossain MA, Miah MAS,. Rahman ABMM (2002). In vitro Shoot Tip Culture of Sugarcane. (Saccharum officinarum) Variety Isd 28. Int. Quarterly J. Biotech. 1: 67-72. Brisibe E, Miyake AH, Taniguchi T, Maeda E (1994). Regulation of somatic embryogenesis in long-term ...

  6. Growth, proline and ion accumulation in sugarcane callus cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calli obtained from two sugarcane cultivars (R570 and CP59-73) were exposed to different osmotic stress intensities followed by a period of stress relief. Relative rate growth, callus water content and changes in organic and inorganic solutes were determined at the end of stress and relief periods. After the stress period, ...

  7. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  8. Sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi: Measures to optimize the carbon footprint and to avoid indirect emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelberg, Elisa; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Hirschl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is considered to be one of the most efficient first-generation biofuels in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF), however, increases significantly when taking into account emissions induced by indirect land-use changes (ILUC). This case study investigates sugarcane ethanol production in the Republic of Malawi, in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA); the research objectives were to identify and quantify direct and indirect emissions and to identify measures to optimize the CF. The CF has been calculated with a life cycle approach and with data obtained from the involved companies; our estimations with regard to ILUC take into account further expansion plans for sugarcane crop production. Under existing production conditions ethanol produced in Malawi leads to GHG emissions expressed as CO 2eq of 116 g MJ −1 of ethanol. However, high optimization potentials exist when the vinasse is used as an input for biogas production and the harvesting switches from pre-harvest burning to green harvesting. ILUC induced by prospective sugarcane expansions in the Southern Region will, according to current planning, probably not occur since these expansions are linked to the implementation of a large-scale irrigation project. However if ILUC takes place, high levels of additional CO 2 emissions of about 77 g MJ −1 of ethanol are to be expected. Although the case study results are only valid for a specific region, some of the findings, such as the high compensation potential regarding ILUC through investments in irrigation systems, may be transferable to other regions in SSA. - Highlights: • We conducted a case study on sugarcane ethanol production in Malawi and calculated its carbon footprint (CF). • The current CF of sugarcane ethanol produced in the Southern Region in Malawi amounts for 116 g MJ −1 of ethanol. • The usage of vinasse in biogas plants would significantly improve the CF. • Another optimization measure is to

  9. RNA interference of endochitinases in the sugarcane endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 reduces its fitness as a biocontrol agent of pineapple disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of biomorphic 45S5 bioglass scaffold from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junmin; Kang Yahong; Wei Zilin; Zhang Wei

    2009-01-01

    A biomorphic 45S5 bioglass scaffold has been fabricated from natural plant sugarcane successfully by a novel biotemplating process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) technologies were employed to characterize the morphology, phase and chemical composition of the products. Experimental results show that the as-fabricated 45S5 bioglass scaffold retained the microstructure of sugarcane very well, and consisted of major crystal phase Na 2 Ca 2 Si 3 O 9 of hexagonal system, secondary crystal phase orthorhombic NaCaPO 4 and amorphous glass. The biomorphic 45S5 bioglass scaffold may be a promising candidate scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Quantitative variables associated to the resistance to sugarcane brown rust disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Montalvan Delgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to analyze the behavior of a group of sugarcane cultivars in the presence of brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala Sydow and P. Sydow in the area of the Territorial Sugarcane Research Station Oriental Center Camagüey, it was carried out an experiment with 11 sugarcane cultivars (C1051-73, C132-81, C266-70, C323-68, C86-12, C86-503, C86- 56, C88-380, C90-530, Co997, SP70-1284 and six patterns of well-known reaction PR980 (I grade, Ja64-11 (II grade, C334-64 (III grade, My5514 y Ja60-5 (IV grade y B4362 (V grade. The evaluations were made at the plant and ratoon shoot at the ages of three, four, five, six and nine months in the leaves +1, +3 y +5. The evaluated parameters were: length and the number of pustules, size of the biggest pustule, and the occupied area by pustules. It was made an analysis of variance and Tukey’s test to find the differences between the cultivars. The statistical packet SPSS such as the main additive and multiplicative interactions (AMMI Models were used. There are differences in every analyzed factors (cultivar, leaf and evaluation moment and in the analyzed variables (TPM and occupied area by pustule. The resistance patterns kept the expected behavior and the biggest cultivars percentage behaved like resistant.

  12. Screening of sugarcane somaclones of variety bl4 for agronomic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S.; Qamarunnisa, S.; Jamil, I.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the environmental conditions of Pakistan where sugarcane breeding is constrained due to non viable fuzz (seeds) production. Somaclonal variation could prove to be a useful tool to overcome the difficulties in cane breeding. In the present study, 324 sugarcane somaclones regenerated from immature leaf roll callus of sugarcane variety BL4 were evaluated for their yield and yield contributing characters and the quality traits of cane. The field trial of somaclones showed variation in 160 somaclones from the mother plant in at least one character observed. Most of the somaclones showed variation in weight of stalks per plant; however, only twenty four out of 89 clones showed increase in the weight of the stalks per clump. The second highly variable trait was the number of stalks, 88 plants showed either increase or decrease in the number of stalks. It is noteworthy that the sucrose accumulation was not increased in any of the somaclones. Twenty one somaclones were selected for their increased yield potential. The comparative performance of these selected clones revealed that clones 'K-250, K-265, K-251, K-109, K-106, K-300 and K-315 gave better sugar yield /plant as compared to BL4. Maximum sugar yield/plant was observed in Clone 'K-250' (2.5 Kg) followed by K-265 (2.44 Kg), whereas the average sugar yield of BL4 was 1.2 Kg/plant. (author)

  13. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  14. Mapping salinity stress in sugarcane fields with hyperspectral satellite imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamzeh, S.; Naseria, A.A.; Alavi Panah, S.K.; Mojaradic, B.; Bartholomeus, H.; Herold, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. An area with more than 70,000 ha sugarcane farming and its by-products are the major agricultural activities in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest

  15. Influence of calcium oxide level and time of exposure to sugarcane on in vitro and in situ digestion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate, using in vitro and in situ techniques, the effects of three inclusion levels of calcium oxide (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of sugarcane fresh matter) and four exposure times (0, 24, 48, and 72 h) of sugarcane to calcium oxide on the chemical composition and digestive ...

  16. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pagotto Borin

    Full Text Available Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses, must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant.Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external

  17. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external

  18. Subtractive hybridization-mediated analysis of genes and in silico prediction of associated microRNAs under waterlogged conditions in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammad Suhail; Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Gupta, Ram Sagar; Singh, Jyotsnendra; Duttamajumder, Sanjoy Kumar; Kapur, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical cash crop meeting 75% of world sugar demand and it is fast becoming an energy crop for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. A considerable area under sugarcane is prone to waterlogging which adversely affects both

  19. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina Campos Antoniêto

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0, neutral (pH 7.0, and alkaline (pH 10.0 medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  20. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub

  1. Sugarcane straw as a feedstock for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Andrés Felipe; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30°C, 200rpm, for 48h in 125mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67gg(-1)) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34gL(-1)h(-1)) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, San-Ji; Lin, Yi-Hua; Pan, Yong-Bao; Damaj, Mona B; Wang, Qin-Nan; Mirkov, T Erik; Chen, Ru-Kai

    2012-10-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first detected in China in 2006. To assess the distribution of SCYLV in the major sugarcane-growing Chinese provinces, leaf samples from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum spp. hybrid) showing YLD symptoms were collected and analyzed for infection by the virus using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunological assays. A complete genomic sequence (5,879 nt) of the Chinese SCYLV isolate CHN-FJ1 and partial genomic sequences (2,915 nt) of 13 other Chinese SCYLV isolates from this study were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The genomic sequence of the CHN-FJ1 isolate was found to share a high identity (98.4-99.1 %) with those of the Brazilian (BRA) genotype isolates and a low identity (86.5-86.9 %) with those of the CHN1 and Cuban (CUB) genotype isolates. The genetic diversity of these 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates was assessed along with that of 29 SCYLV isolates of worldwide origin reported in the GenBank database, based on the full or partial genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all the 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates clustered into one large group with the BRA genotype and 12 other reported SCYLV isolates. In addition, five reported Chinese SCYLV isolates were grouped with the Peruvian (PER), CHN1 and CUB genotypes. We therefore speculated that at least four SCYLV genotypes, BRA, PER, CHN1, and CUB, are associated with YLD in China. Interestingly, a 39-nt deletion was detected in the sequence of the CHN-GD3 isolate, in the middle of the ORF1 region adjacent to the overlap between ORF1 and ORF2. This location is known to be one of the recombination breakpoints in the Luteoviridae family.

  4. Transgenic Sugarcane Resistant to Sorghum mosaic virus Based on Coat Protein Gene Silencing by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the critical diseases of sugarcane, sugarcane mosaic disease can lead to serious decline in stalk yield and sucrose content. It is mainly caused by Potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV and/or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV, with additional differences in viral strains. RNA interference (RNAi is a novel strategy for producing viral resistant plants. In this study, based on multiple sequence alignment conducted on genomic sequences of different strains and isolates of SrMV, the conserved region of coat protein (CP genes was selected as the target gene and the interference sequence with size of 423 bp in length was obtained through PCR amplification. The RNAi vector pGII00-HACP with an expression cassette containing both hairpin interference sequence and cp4-epsps herbicide-tolerant gene was transferred to sugarcane cultivar ROC22 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After herbicide screening, PCR molecular identification, and artificial inoculation challenge, anti-SrMV positive transgenic lines were successfully obtained. SrMV resistance rate of the transgenic lines with the interference sequence was 87.5% based on SrMV challenge by artificial inoculation. The genetically modified SrMV-resistant lines of cultivar ROC22 provide resistant germplasm for breeding lines and can also serve as resistant lines having the same genetic background for study of resistance mechanisms.

  5. Estimation of Emissions from Sugarcane Field Burning in Thailand Using Bottom-Up Country-Specific Activity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Open burning in sugarcane fields is recognized as a major source of air pollution. However, the assessment of its emission intensity in many regions of the world still lacks information, especially regarding country-specific activity data including biomass fuel load and combustion factor. A site survey was conducted covering 13 sugarcane plantations subject to different farm management practices and climatic conditions. The results showed that pre-harvest and post-harvest burnings are the two main practices followed in Thailand. In 2012, the total production of sugarcane biomass fuel, i.e., dead, dry and fresh leaves, amounted to 10.15 million tonnes, which is equivalent to a fuel density of 0.79 kg∙m−2. The average combustion factor for the pre-harvest and post-harvest burning systems was determined to be 0.64 and 0.83, respectively. Emissions from sugarcane field burning were estimated using the bottom-up country-specific values from the site survey of this study and the results compared with those obtained using default values from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The comparison showed that the use of default values lead to underestimating the overall emissions by up to 30% as emissions from post-harvest burning are not accounted for, but it is the second most common practice followed in Thailand.

  6. Reliability evaluation and analysis of sugarcane 7000 series harvesters in sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The performance of agricultural machines depends on the reliability of the equipment used, the maintenance efficiency, the operation process, the technical expertise of workers, etc. As the size and complexity of agricultural equipment continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become even more critical. Machine failure probability is (1-R and R is machine reliability (Vafaei et al., 2010. Moreover, system reliability is the probability that an item will perform a required function without failure under stated conditions for a stated period of time (Billinton and Allan, 1992. Therefore, we must be able to create an appropriate compromise between maintenance methods and acceptable reliability levels. Precision failure data gathering in a farm is a worthwhile work, because these can represent a good estimate of machine reliability combining the effects of machine loading, surrounding effects and incorrect repair and maintenance. Each machine based on its work conditions, parts combinationand manufacturing process follows a failures distribution function depending on the environment where the machine work and the machine’s specifications (Meeker and Escobar, 1998. General failures distributions for contiguous data are normal, log-normal, exponential and Weibull (Shirmohamadi, 2002. Each machine can represent proportionate behavior with these functions in short or long time. Materials and methods: The study area was the Hakim Farabi agro-industry Company located 35 kilometers south of Ahvaz in Iran. Arable lands of this company are located in 31 to 31°10 N latitude and 45 to 48°36 E longitudes. The region has dry and warm climate. A total of 24 Austoft 7000 sugarcane chopper harvester are being used in the company. Cane harvesters were divided into 3 group consisting of old, middle aged and new. From each group, one machine was chosen. Data from maintenance reports of harvesters which have been recorded within 400

  7. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, F.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  8. Ensilage Of Sugarcane Tops Using Urea And Broiler Litter Additives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane tops (SCT) constitute a source of readily available and cheap agroindustrial by-product for ruminant feeding in Mauritius. Its nutritional constraints are its low digestibility, and low crude protein (CP) content. Wilted SCT (50% DM) was ensiled in the laboratory using a SemiMicro technique with PVC silos.

  9. Life cycle impact assessment of bio-based plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Faaij, A. P C; Lundquist, L.; Schenker, U.; Briois, J. F.; Patel, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  10. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  11. Enzymes that cleave non-glycosidic ether bonds between lignins or derivatives thereof and saccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravit, Nancy G.; Schmidt, Katherine A.

    2017-10-24

    The patent application relates to isolated polypeptides that specifically cleave non-glycosidic ether bonds between lignins or derivatives thereof and saccharides, and to cDNAs encoding the polypeptides. The patent application also relates to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors and host cells comprising the cDNAs, as well as methods of producing and using the isolated polypeptides for treating pulp and biomass to increase soluble saccharide yield and enrich lignin fractions.

  12. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant

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    Retzel Ernest

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an important tool with which to examine coordinated gene expression. Soybean (Glycine max is one of the most economically valuable crop species in the world food supply. In order to accelerate both gene discovery as well as hypothesis-driven research in soybean, global expression resources needed to be developed. The applications of microarray for determining patterns of expression in different tissues or during conditional treatments by dual labeling of the mRNAs are unlimited. In addition, discovery of the molecular basis of traits through examination of naturally occurring variation in hundreds of mutant lines could be enhanced by the construction and use of soybean cDNA microarrays. Results We report the construction and analysis of a low redundancy 'unigene' set of 27,513 clones that represent a variety of soybean cDNA libraries made from a wide array of source tissue and organ systems, developmental stages, and stress or pathogen-challenged plants. The set was assembled from the 5' sequence data of the cDNA clones using cluster analysis programs. The selected clones were then physically reracked and sequenced at the 3' end. In order to increase gene discovery from immature cotyledon libraries that contain abundant mRNAs representing storage protein gene families, we utilized a high density filter normalization approach to preferentially select more weakly expressed cDNAs. All 27,513 cDNA inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The amplified products, along with some repetitively spotted control or 'choice' clones, were used to produce three 9,728-element microarrays that have been used to examine tissue specific gene expression and global expression in mutant isolines. Conclusions Global expression studies will be greatly aided by the availability of the sequence-validated and low redundancy cDNA sets described in this report. These cDNAs and ESTs represent a wide array of developmental

  13. Sugarcane and pine biochar as amendments for greenhouse growing media for the production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana sugarcane farmers in 2016 harvested 11.7 million Mg of millable sugarcane from 163,000 ha, producing 1.47 million Mg of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million Mg of bagasse. Even though Louisiana sugar mills use 80% to 90% of the bagasse for fuel production, another 350,000 to 700,000 Mg o...

  14. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Turra de Ávila, Márcio; Pacca, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m 3 ha −1 y −1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha −1 y −1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and −7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ► LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ► Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ► Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ► Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

  15. Comparative analysis for power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Joaquim E.A.; Macedo, Isaias C.

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the technical, economic and environmental (GHG emissions mitigation) performance of power generation and ethanol production from sugarcane residual biomass, considering conversion plants adjacent to a sugarcane mill in Brazil. Systems performances were simulated for a projected enzymatic saccharification co-fermentation plant (Ethanol option) and for a commercial steam-Rankine power plant (Electricity option). Surplus bagasse from the mill would be used as fuel/raw material for conversion, while cane trash collected from the field would be used as supplementary fuel at the mill. For the Electricity option, the sugarcane biorefinery (mill+adjacent plant) would produce 91 L of ethanol per tonne of cane and export 130 kWh/t of cane, while for the Ethanol option the total ethanol production would be 124 L/t of cane with an electricity surplus of 50 kWh/t cane. The return on investment (ROI) related to the biochemical conversion route was 15.9%, compared with 23.2% for the power plant, for the conditions in Brazil. Considering the GHG emissions mitigation, the environmentally preferred option is the biochemical conversion route: the net avoided emissions associated to the adjacent plants are estimated to be 493 and 781 kgCO 2 eq/t of dry bagasse for the Electricity and Ethanol options, respectively. - Research Highlights: → Power generation would present better profitability than ethanol production from sugarcane residues in Brazil, in the reference scenario adopted here. → The Ethanol option would be able to mitigate more GHG emissions in Brazil. → The economics for the ethanol production technology are more likely to improve in the future.

  16. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take

  17. The effect of in-vitro environmental conditions on some sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    in-vitro morphogenetic responses of leaf sheath explants of sugarcane varieties, CoS 96258 and CoS. 99259. High frequency callus initiation was recorded in leaf sheath explants incubated in dark for 10 ... tool for rapid and large scale production of disease free ... propagation of Saccharum varieties using RAPD analysis.

  18. River water quality in the northern sugarcane-producing regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane is the major irrigated crop with regards to area cultivated in the Crocodile, Komati-Lomati and Pongola River catchments. Increasing demand for and use of water resources in these catchments has led to concerns about deterioration in water quality. In this study, chemical water quality data obtained from the ...

  19. ANALYZING THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN LOGISTICS SUGARCANE MILL: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tognoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to present and analyze the physical arrangement of logistics and production process plant in a sugarcane mill, in order to expose the processes involved, analyzing them more deeply and thus collaborate in a more efficient production. The relevance of this presentation is linked to the benefits that the plant and professionals can get through this work, enabling the development of methods and production alternatives. The research method used was case study based on interviews, on-site observation and document analysis, which was very appropriate as it could examine and cross checking. This work will allow a better understanding of the production process of the logistics of the plant in a sugarcane mill and working with suggestions and methods for more efficient production.

  20. Endogenous phosphorus excretion by sheep fed hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, lucerne hay and citrus pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R.S.; Roque, A.P.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine endogenous phosphorus excretion in sheep fed with different diets. Sixteen male growing sheep, received a basic diet with: 42% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (HSB), 45% lucerne hay (LH) plus 14% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and 30% citrus pulp (CTP) plus 40% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. A dose of 7.7 MBq 32 P was injected into the left jugular vein of each animal. The P endogenous fecal losses were: 1.69, 2.50, 2.33 and 1.45 g/animal for treatments HSB, LH, and CTP respectively (P>0.05). The type of diet influenced slight endogenous P excretion but altered excretion of P in urine. Endogenous P excreted in feces (P F ) comes mainly from saliva and represents an important loss of P. The estimation of net requirements of phosphorus (P) for ruminants includes endogenous losses, which is also essential for calculating true absorption of this mineral. Physical structure of the feed may influence endogenous losses, altering the metabolism of P and also the demand of this mineral, therefore being important to know how different feeds affect endogenous P losses. (author)

  1. Clay bricks prepared with sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash – A sustainable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Saleem Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the clay bricks produced by the addition of the two agricultural waste materials i.e. sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash. Disposing off these waste materials is a very challenging task and is a hazard to environment. The sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash were collected locally from the cities of Peshawar and Wazirabad, respectively. These were mixed with the clay for brick manufacturing in three different proportions i.e. 5, 10 and 15% by weight of clay. Mechanical i.e. compressive strength and modulus of rupture and durability properties i.e. water absorption; freeze-thaw and sulphate resistance of these bricks were evaluated. Test results indicated that the sulphate attack resistance and efflorescence of clay bricks incorporating sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash have been increased significantly. However, no significant effect on mechanical properties was observed. Furthermore, the additions of wastes have reduced the unit weight of bricks which decrease the overall weight of the structure leading to economical construction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the addition of waste materials in brick manufacturing can minimize the environmental burden leading towards more economical and sustainable construction.

  2. Biochemical conversion of sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with co-substrates for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, A F; Costa, I A L; Silva, D D V; Dussán, K J; Villela, T R; Canettieri, E V; Carvalho, J A; Soares Neto, T G; Felipe, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnological production of xylitol is an attractive route to add value to a sugarcane biorefinery, through utilization of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane straw, whose availability is increasing in Brazil. Herein, supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate (xylose 57gL(-1)) with maltose, sucrose, cellobiose or glycerol was proposed, and their effect as co-substrates on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was studied. Sucrose (10gL(-1)) and glycerol (0.7gL(-1)) supplementation led to significant increase of 8.88% and 6.86% on xylose uptake rate (1.11gL(-1)h(-1) and 1.09gL(-1)), respectively, but only with sucrose, significant increments of 12.88% and 8.69% on final xylitol concentration (36.11gL(-1)) and volumetric productivity (0.75gL(-1)h(-1)), respectively, were achieved. Based on these results, utilization of complex sources of sucrose, derived from agro-industries, as nutritional supplementation for xylitol production can be proposed as a strategy for improving the yeast performance and reducing the cost of this bioprocess by replacing more expensive nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  4. The Impact of the 2008 Credit Crisis on the Sugarcane Sector: A Study Econometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Castro Camioto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry contributes approximately 2% to the Brazilian GDP, and generates more than 600,000 jobs in nearly a thousand cities. This study aims to determine the main variables that affect the growth of the Brazilian sugarcane sector. For this, econometric techniques were used to quantify the impact of each variable studied in the growth of Gross Domestic Product in this sector from 1980 to 2013. A specific analysis of the impact of the 2008 credit crisis on growth this sector was also performed. The results showed that the variables that impact the growth of Brazilian sugarcane industry are: exchange rate, fuel alcohol consumption, and the average price of a barrel of petroleum. Moreover, it was found that the 2008 crisis contributed negatively to the GDP of this sector. It was possible to conclude that the crisis in this sector had its origin in the optimism in this sector, due to the growth of the sector in 2006 and the global factors in 2008, which was reflected in variables such as exchange rate and the consumption of alcohol fuel, that negatively impacted the sector.

  5. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency due to differences in photosynthetic capacity among sugarcane-related clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjia; Jackson, Phillip; Lu, Xin; Xu, Chaohua; Cai, Qing; Basnayake, Jayapathi; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Ghannoum, Oula; Fan, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane, derived from the hybridization of Saccharum officinarum×Saccharum spontaneum, is a vegetative crop in which the final yield is highly driven by culm biomass production. Cane yield under irrigated or rain-fed conditions could be improved by developing genotypes with leaves that have high intrinsic transpiration efficiency, TEi (CO2 assimilation/stomatal conductance), provided this is not offset by negative impacts from reduced conductance and growth rates. This study was conducted to partition genotypic variation in TEi among a sample of diverse clones from the Chinese collection of sugarcane-related germplasm into that due to variation in stomatal conductance versus that due to variation in photosynthetic capacity. A secondary goal was to define protocols for optimized larger-scale screening of germplasm collections. Genotypic variation in TEi was attributed to significant variation in both stomatal and photosynthetic components. A number of genotypes were found to possess high TEi as a result of high photosynthetic capacity. This trait combination is expected to be of significant breeding value. It was determined that a small number of observations (16) is sufficient for efficiently screening TEi in larger populations of sugarcane genotypes The research methodology and results reported are encouraging in supporting a larger-scale screening and introgression of high transpiration efficiency in sugarcane breeding. However, further research is required to quantify narrow sense heritability as well as the leaf-to-field translational potential of genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency-related traits observed in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Utilization of a major brown rust resistance gene in sugarcane breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala has had devastating effects on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs and on commercial production. The discovery of Bru1, a major gene conferring resistance to brown rust represented a substantial breakthrough and markers for the detection of Bru1 ...

  7. Identification of RAPD marker associated with brown rust resistance in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility to brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala is a major reason for the withdrawal of sugarcane cultivars from production. An efficient way to control the disease is to breed cultivars with durable resistance. Our aim was to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers ...

  8. Assessment of genetic variability in somaclonal population of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seema, N.; Raza, S.; Yasmeen, S.; Bibi, S.; Nizamani, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study plant tissue culture technique was used to create the genetic variability in three sugarcane clones NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026. Callus induced in these clones in media containing MS + 2, 4 D (2mg 1it-1) and Dicamba (1mg1it-1). The embryogenic calli then regenerated in media containing MS basal media + Kinetin (2mg1it-1) + IBA (2mg1it-1) + IAA (2mglit-1). After shooting and rooting, plants were exposed to green house and acclimatization of the somaclones in the field condition. RAPD markers were used to evaluate the genetic variation at DNA level between parents and somaclones of NIA98, BL4 and AEC82-1026 developed through callus culture. Fourteen RAPD primer chosen randomly were used to amplify DNA from plant material to assess the genetic variation between parents and regenerated somaclones. The highest similarity was obtained between BL4 parent and BL4 somaclone (96%). While minimum similarity found between NIA-98 parent and AEC82-1026 somaclone (69%). In this study, we used RAPD to investigate the somaclonal variation in sugarcane clones derived from callus cultures. (author)

  9. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....

  10. FvBck1, a Component of Cell Wall Integrity MAP Kinase Pathway, is Required for Virulence and Oxidative Stress Response in Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkang eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane.

  11. Life cycle environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Saeid Shahvarooghi; Asoodar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology. Inventory data for production of the inputs were taken from Ecoinvent, BUWAL 250, and IDMAT 2001 databases. The results revealed that in sugarcane cultivation process, electricity and trash burning were the most important contributors to all impact categories except OLD and TE. In industrial phase, natural gas had the highest contribution to the most impact categories. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for production of 1000 L molasses-based bioethanol was 1322.78 kg CO 2  eq. By comparing total GHG emissions from 1000 L bioethanol to gasoline, the net avoided GHG emissions came out at 503.17 kg CO 2  eq. According to results, it is clear that with increasing irrigation efficiency and improving performance of heating systems in industrial phase, environmental burdens would be significantly reduced.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE BUSINESS STRATEGIES IN THE AGUADA DE PASAJEROS SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

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    Yamila González Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research: Considerations about the business strategies in the Aguada de Pasajeros sugarcane industry analyzes the environmental management during the transfer processes of technologies in agriculture and the role of the sustainable development in sugar cane cultivations. For this, it was used as the main materials and research methods the Historical – logical, the Analytical – exegetical, the comparative judicial, and as techniques the open observation, interview, questionnaire and as sample, the UBPC Viet Nam Heroico. The objective is to evaluate la environmental management and the alternatives of the sustainable development in the sugarcane production during the application of technologies. In order to fulfill the desired objective, several instruments of the environmental management were characterized: Education and the Territorial arrangement, analyzing the need of a sustainable environment in the agriculture processes and it was also analyzed the situation of the sustained agriculture related to the new technologies in Aguada de Pasajeros. The research offered a conclusion and a recommendation: The environmental management in Aguada during the sugarcane production is not appropriate in order to have a sustainable development, and the latter, will be only fulfilled with the participation of the sample and it was recommended to take agreement among the enterprises, the communities with a right environmental management during the transfer of technologies, and in this way to guarantee a popular participation in order to have a sustainable agriculture in order to implement a contemporary environmental strategy suitable to the characteristics of the territory.

  13. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT EXOTIC SUGARCANE GENOTYPES

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    Khaliq A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at research area of Sugarcane Research Institute (Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the best sugarcane clones amongst twenty eight clones against two standard varietiesHSF-240 and CPF-249 for different agronomic traits and yield characters during the crop season of 2016-2017 at third selection stage of variety development. In the experiment, three clones (S2014-SL-1322, S2014-SL-1359, S2014-SL-1372 out of twenty eight (11% were selected on the basis of good performance and did not show splits, lodging tendency, pithiness, aerials roots, disease infestation and these showed good crop stand and thick canes. These three clones were promoted to next stage of variety development cycle. In set-1, Clone S2014-SL-347 gave higher cane yield (58.37 tha-1 with sugar yield of 7.18 tha-1. But it showed some characters of high aerial roots and pithiness and so rejected. In set-II, the clone S2014-SL-1224 gave higher cane yield of 71.51t ha-1 with 8.73t ha-1 sugar yield and showed high disease infestation of red rot and smut and so rejected. But S2014-SL-1322, S2014-SL-1359, S2014-SL-1372 produced cane yield of 71.37 t ha-1 , 68.56 t ha-1 , 67.33 t ha-1 with 8.71 t ha-1, 8.34 t ha-1 , 8.31 t ha-1 sugar yield respectively. The remaining twenty five clones (89% out of twenty eight were rejected due to diseases susceptibility, lodging, pithiness, poor crop stand, aerial roots and high splits.

  14. Physico-chemical and sensorial evaluation of sugarcane spirits produced using distillation residue

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    Evandro Galvão Tavares Menezes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the use of vinasse from cachaça as an ingredient of the fermentation medium for the spirit production. The fermentations were conducted out in three successive batches using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate. In the first batch, the sugarcane broth was only diluted with distilled water. In the second and third batches, the fermentations were carried out using the cane broth diluted with vinasse from the distillation of the sugarcane wines of the first and second batches, respectively at a concentration of 10% (v/v. The spirits were submitted to the physicochemical and sensorial analyses. The results showed that vinasse addition did not affect the fermentation, distillation and chemical-sensorial quality of the beverage. Therefore, the vinasse addition could be an alternative use for that residue.

  15. Least limiting water range in assessing compaction in a Brazilian Cerrado latosol growing sugarcane

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    Wainer Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the south-central region of Brazil, there is a trend toward reducing the sugarcane inter-harvest period and increasing traffic of heavy harvesting machinery on soil with high water content, which may intensify the compaction process. In this study, we assessed the structural changes of a distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol by monitoring soil water content as a function of the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR and quantified its effects on the crop yield and industrial quality of the first ratoon crop of sugarcane cultivars with different maturation cycles. Three cultivars (RB 83-5054, RB 84-5210 and RB 86-7515 were subjected to four levels of soil compaction brought about by a differing number of passes of a farm tractor (T0 = soil not trafficked, T2 = 2 passes, T10 = 10 passes, and T20 = 20 passes of the tractor in the same place in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement with three replications. The deleterious effects on the soil structure from the farm machinery traffic were limited to the surface layer (0-10 cm of the inter-row area of the ratoon crop. The LLWR dropped to nearly zero after 20 tractor passes between the cane rows. We detected differences among the cultivars studied; cultivar RB 86-7515 stood out for its industrial processing quality, regardless of the level of soil compaction. Monitoring of soil moisture in the crop showed exposure to water stress conditions, although soil compaction did not affect the production variables of the sugarcane cultivars. We thus conclude that the absence of traffic on the plant row maintained suitable soil conditions for plant development and may have offset the harmful effects of soil compaction shown by the high values for bulk density between the rows of the sugarcane cultivars.

  16. Genetic itemization of exotic sugarcane clones of the basis of quantitative and qualitative parameters

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    Seema, N.; Khan, M. T.; Khan, I. A.; Yasmeen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane varietal development program in Pakistan primarily depends on evaluation of imported genotypes because of the unfavorable climatic conditions for sugarcane flowering and hybridization in the country. Performance of 41 exotic sugarcane clones was assessed in this study on the basis of seven quantitative (plant height, number of tillers, internode length, number of internode, cane girth, cane yield, and weight per stool) and six qualitative (sucrose %, brix %, CCS %, fiber %, sugar recovery % and sugar yield) attributes. Sugarcane clones comprised of fifteen genotypes from Canal Point (USA), eight from Homma (USA), and eighteen from Brazil. The clones exhibited statistically significant differences for tillers per plant, weight per stool, plant height, cane yield, brix%, sucrose%, fiber%, sugar recovery and sugar yield. Highest cane yield of 51.66 t/ha was observed for Canal Point clone CPNIA-240 while the lowest yield of 26.66 t/ha was recorded in Homma clone HoNIA-795. The highest sugar recovery (10.83 and 10.81) was exhibited by the clones SPNIA-396 and SPNIA-8 whereas the lowest (4.00) was observed in clone SPNIA-05. Moreover, maximum sugar yield was recorded in clone SPNIA-8 (5.37 tha-1) and minimum was observed in clone SPNIA-05 (0.91). Ward's linkage cluster analysis of the exotic clones placed the genotypes into six major groups in dendrogram. Genotypes appeared in the clusters irrespective of their geographical location. Cluster II, IV and V showed excellent qualitative, combination of quantitative and qualitative, and quantitative characters respectively. Clones from different clusters demonstrate genetic variations and thus can be subjected to selection and hybridization for further improvement. The accessions demonstrating excellent cane and sugar yield can serve as potential candidates for varietal development program in Pakistan. (author)

  17. Use of Temporary Immersion System (RITA in sugarcane the plants propagation by organogenesis

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    Laisyn Posada-Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the possibilities to use the RITA, in the micropropagation plant via axillary buds of sugarcane and of the banana hybrid (Musa sp. AAAA cv. FHIA-01 and AAAB cv. FHIA-18. Two different culture medium i.e. multiplication and thickenment were studied in the multiplication phase of t