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Sample records for substituted tungsten defect

  1. Point Defect Calculations in Tungsten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilowicz, Ronald

    1968-01-01

    .... The vacancy migration energy for tungsten was calculated. The calculated value of 1.73 electron volts, together with experimental data, suggests that vacancies migrate in stage III recovery in tungsten...

  2. Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    There is no substitute for tungsten in its main field of application so that the demand will not decrease, but there is a need for further important applications. If small variations are left out of account, a small but steady increase in the annual tungsten consumption can be expected. The amount of tungsten available will increase due to the exploritation of new deposits and the extension of existing mines. This tendency will probably be increased by the world-wide prospection. It is hard to make an assessment of the amount of tungsten are obtained in the People's Republic of china, the purchases of Eastern countries in the West, and the sales policy of the USA; pice forecasts are therefore hard to make. A rather interesting subject with regard to the tungsten cycle as a whole is the reprocessing of tungsten-containing wastes. (orig.) [de

  3. Positron simulations of defects in tungsten containing hydrogen and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T.; Popov, E.; Staikov, P.; Nankov, N.; Yoshiie, T.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of the behavior of defects containing hydrogen or helium in tungsten is an important issue. Here the properties of defects in tungsten containing hydrogen or helium atoms have been investigated by model positron lifetime quantum-mechanical simulations. The electron and positron wave functions have been obtained in the local density approximation to the two-component density-functional theory. The calculated values of the positron lifetime correlate with the magnitude of the electron density. The vacancy-clusters without hydrogen or helium are active positron traps. The lattice relaxation of atoms around vacancy reduces the effective vacancy volume and decrease the positron lifetime at a vacancy. The hydrogen and helium atoms are trapped in tungsten by lattice vacancies and nano-voids. It was established that positron lifetime depends on the density of gas atoms inside the nano-void. Hydrogen and helium presence in the larger nano-voids considerably decrease the positron lifetime.

  4. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Lovesey, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  5. Substitution and defect chemistry of La-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P.L.; McCarron, E.M.; Kunchur, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper substitutional effects of strontium in La-Cu-O system and defects accommodating stoichiometric deviations is investigated. The extended shear defects are analyzed using electron microscopy and the role in superconducting transport properties has been examined by magnetic measurements. The initial results suggest that the defects enhance flux pinning

  6. Defect Control of the WC Hardmetal by Mixing Recycled WC Nano Powder and Tungsten Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Man Gyu; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Deug Joong; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-03-01

    Tungsten metal powder was added to recycled WC nano powder to control the macro and micro defects of WC hardmetal. The macro and micro defects caused by the excess carbon in the recycled WC powder were markedly removed after the addition of tungsten metal powder ranging from 2 to 6 wt%. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals also increased due to the removal of defects after adding the tungsten metal powder. The density and hardness of WC hardmetals with the addition of W metal powder ranged from 8 to 12 wt% increased linearly as the W metal powder content increased due to the formation of a new (Co- and W-rich WC) composition. The surface morphology of the WC hardmetals was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and a quantitative elemental analysis was conducted via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals were respectively measured using an analytical balance and a Vikers hardness tester. The effect on the defects in the recycled WC hardmetals through the addition of the tungsten metal powder was discussed in detail.

  7. Defect Control of the WC Hardmetal by Mixing Recycled WC Nano Powder and Tungsten Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Man Gyu; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Deug Joong; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten metal powder was added to recycled WC nano powder to control the macro and micro defects of WC hardmetal. The macro and micro defects caused by the excess carbon in the recycled WC powder were markedly removed after the addition of tungsten metal powder ranging from 2 to 6 wt%. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals also increased due to the removal of defects after adding the tungsten metal powder. The density and hardness of WC hardmetals with the addition of W metal powder ranged from 8 to 12 wt% increased linearly as the W metal powder content increased due to the formation of a new (Co- and W-rich WC) composition. The surface morphology of the WC hardmetals was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and a quantitative elemental analysis was conducted via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals were respectively measured using an analytical balance and a Vikers hardness tester. The effect on the defects in the recycled WC hardmetals through the addition of the tungsten metal powder was discussed in detail.

  8. Defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Shimada; M. Hara; T. Otsuka; Y. Oya; Y. Hatano

    2014-05-01

    Accurately estimating tritium retention in plasma facing components (PFCs) and minimizing its uncertainty are key safety issues for licensing future fusion power reactors. D-T fusion reactions produce 14.1 MeV neutrons that activate PFCs and create radiation defects throughout the bulk of the material of these components. Recent studies show that tritium migrates and is trapped in bulk (>> 10 µm) tungsten beyond the detection range of nuclear reaction analysis technique [1-2], and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) technique becomes the only established diagnostic that can reveal hydrogen isotope behavior in in bulk (>> 10 µm) tungsten. Radiation damage and its recovery mechanisms in neutron-irradiated tungsten are still poorly understood, and neutron-irradiation data of tungsten is very limited. In this paper, systematic investigations with repeated plasma exposures and thermal desorption are performed to study defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose neutron-irradiated tungsten. Three tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) irradiated at High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were exposed to high flux (ion flux of (0.5-1.0)x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1x1026 m-2) deuterium plasma at three different temperatures (100, 200, and 500 °C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment at Idaho National Laboratory. Subsequently, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was performed with a ramp rate of 10 °C/min up to 900 °C, and the samples were annealed at 900 °C for 0.5 hour. These procedures were repeated three (for 100 and 200 °C samples) and four (for 500 °C sample) times to uncover damage recovery mechanisms and its effects on deuterium behavior. The results show that deuterium retention decreases approximately 90, 75, and 66 % for 100, 200, and 500 °C, respectively after each annealing. When subjected to the same TDS recipe, the desorption temperature shifts from 800 °C to 600 °C after 1st annealing

  9. Influence of tungsten substitution and oxygen deficiency on the thermoelectric properties of CaMnO3−δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Philipp; Eilertsen, James; Populoh, Sascha; Saucke, Gesine; Shkabko, Andrey; Sagarna, Leyre; Karvonen, Lassi; Döbeli, Max; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Polycrystalline tungsten-substituted CaMn 1−x W x O 3−δ (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) powders were synthesized from a polymeric precursor, pressed and sintered to high density. The impact of tungsten substitution on the crystal structure, thermal stability, phase transition, electronic and thermal transport properties is assessed. Tungsten acts as an electron donator and strongly affects high-temperature oxygen stoichiometry. Oxygen vacancies form in the high figure-of-merit (ZT)-region starting from about T = 1000 K and dominate the carrier concentration and electronic transport far more than the tungsten substitution. The analysis of the transport properties yields that in the investigated regime the band filling is sufficiently high to overcome barriers of polaron transport. Therefore, the Cutler-Mott approach describes the electrical transport more accurately than the Mott approach for small polaron transport. The lattice thermal conductivity near room temperature is strongly suppressed with increasing tungsten concentration due to mass-difference impurity scattering. A ZT of 0.25 was found for x = 0.04 at 1225 K

  10. Multiscale modelling of the interaction of hydrogen with interstitial defects and dislocations in BCC tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, A.; Mason, D. R.; Domain, C.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Marinica, M.-C.; Ventelon, L.; Becquart, C. S.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2018-01-01

    In a fusion tokamak, the plasma of hydrogen isotopes is in contact with tungsten at the surface of a divertor. In the bulk of the material, the hydrogen concentration profile tends towards dynamic equilibrium between the flux of incident ions and their trapping and release from defects, either native or produced by ion and neutron irradiation. The dynamics of hydrogen exchange between the plasma and the material is controlled by pressure, temperature, and also by the energy barriers characterizing hydrogen diffusion in the material, trapping and de-trapping from defects. In this work, we extend the treatment of interaction of hydrogen with vacancy-type defects, and investigate how hydrogen is trapped by self-interstitial atom defects and dislocations. The accumulation of hydrogen on dislocation loops and dislocations is assessed using a combination of density functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamics with empirical potentials, and linear elasticity theory. The equilibrium configurations adopted by hydrogen atoms in the core of dislocations as well as in the elastic fields of defects, are modelled by DFT. The structure of the resulting configurations can be rationalised assuming that hydrogen atoms interact elastically with lattice distortions and that they interact between themselves through short-range repulsion. We formulate a two-shell model for hydrogen interaction with an interstitial defect of any size, which predicts how hydrogen accumulates at defects, dislocation loops and line dislocations at a finite temperature. We derive analytical formulae for the number of hydrogen atoms forming the Cottrell atmosphere of a mesoscopic dislocation loop or an edge dislocation. The solubility of hydrogen as a function of temperature, pressure and the density of dislocations exhibits three physically distinct regimes, dominated by the solubility of hydrogen in a perfect lattice, its retention at dislocation cores, and trapping by long-range elastic fields of

  11. Thermally induced defects in a polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, B.N. [Department of Physics and Engineering, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa 3886 (South Africa); CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Forbes, A., E-mail: aforbes1@csir.co.z [CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Ndwandwe, O.M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa 3886 (South Africa); Hearne, G. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private bag X3, P.O. Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B.W. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private bag X3, P.O. Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, University of Malawi-The Polytechnic, Private Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 0003 (Malawi); Katumba, G. [CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    In this study we make use of laser heating of HTHP industrial diamond, to study temperature induced changes to the diamond structure, both chemically and mechanically, in the absence of mechanical forces. This has relevance to the efficacy of diamond as a hard material in such applications as rock drilling and material processing. We report on the induced defects when the diamond is irradiated with high power CO{sub 2} and Nd:YAG lasers respectively, and show that the thermal induced stresses in the diamond are sufficient to radically alter its physical properties, resulting in critical fracture. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the heating does not result in graphitisation of the diamond, but rather diffusion from the non-diamond base results in cobalt and tungsten oxides forming on the diamond surface. This has a deleterious effect on the diamond performance.

  12. Defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masashi; Hara, Masanori; Otsuka, Teppei; Oya, Yasuhisa; Hatano, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    Three tungsten samples irradiated at High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were exposed to deuterium plasma (ion fluence of 1 × 1026 m-2) at three different temperatures (100, 200, and 500 °C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment at Idaho National Laboratory. Subsequently, thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10 °C min-1 up to 900 °C, and the samples were annealed at 900 °C for 0.5 h. These procedures were repeated three times to uncover defect-annealing effects on deuterium retention. The results show that deuterium retention decreases approximately 70% for at 500 °C after each annealing, and radiation damages were not annealed out completely even after the 3rd annealing. TMAP modeling revealed the trap concentration decreases approximately 80% after each annealing at 900 °C for 0.5 h.

  13. Influence of point defects on grain boundary mobility in bcc tungsten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Valery; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Perez, Danny; Bai, Xian-Ming; Uberuaga, Blas P; Voter, Arthur F

    2013-01-23

    Atomistic computer simulations were performed to study the influence of radiation-induced damage on grain boundary (GB) sliding processes in bcc tungsten (W), the divertor material in the ITER tokamak and the leading candidate for the first wall material in future fusion reactors. In particular, we calculated the average sliding-friction force as a function of the number of point defects introduced into the GB for a number of symmetric tilt GBs. In all cases the average sliding-friction force at fixed shear strain rate depends on the number of point defects introduced into the GB, and in many cases introduction of these defects reduces the average sliding-friction force by roughly an order of magnitude. We have also observed that as the number of interstitials in the GB is varied, the direction of the coupled GB motion sometimes reverses, causing the GB to migrate in the opposite direction under the same applied shear stress. This could be important in the microstructural evolution of polycrystalline W under the harsh radiation environment in a fusion reactor, in which high internal stresses are present and frequent collision cascades generate interstitials and vacancies.

  14. Evaluation of a biodegradable graft substitute in rabbit bone defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoBo Yang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the novel biodegradable copolymers can repair large areas of cancellous bone defects. With its controllable degradation rate, it suggests that CS/PAA may be a series of useful therapeutic substitute for bone defects.

  15. Investigation on the effect of temperature excursion on the helium defects of tungsten surface by using compact plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomida, Y.; Minagawa, T.; Ohno, N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of temperature excursion on the helium defects of tungsten surface have been investigated by using compact plasma device AIT-PID (Aichi Institute of Technology - Plasma Irradiation Device). An initial stage of bubble formation has been identified with an order of smaller (sub-micron) bubbles and holes than those in the past in which the micron size is the standard magnitude. The radiation cooling has been detected when a blacking of tungsten surface coming from nanostructure formation is proceeding due to an increase in the emissivity. The temperature increase to the domain (∼1600 K) in bubble/hole formation from that in nanostructure formation has been found to bring a constriction in diameter and a reduction in length of fiber-form nanostructure.

  16. Influence of tungsten substitution and oxygen deficiency on the thermoelectric properties of CaMnO{sub 3−δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Philipp; Eilertsen, James; Populoh, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.populoh@empa.ch; Saucke, Gesine; Shkabko, Andrey; Sagarna, Leyre; Karvonen, Lassi [Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, Schafmattstrasse 20, ETH Hönggerberg, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Weidenkaff, Anke [Laboratory for Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Materials Chemistry, Institute for Materials Science, University of Stuttgart, Heisenbergstr. 3, DE-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-12-28

    Polycrystalline tungsten-substituted CaMn{sub 1−x}W{sub x}O{sub 3−δ} (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) powders were synthesized from a polymeric precursor, pressed and sintered to high density. The impact of tungsten substitution on the crystal structure, thermal stability, phase transition, electronic and thermal transport properties is assessed. Tungsten acts as an electron donator and strongly affects high-temperature oxygen stoichiometry. Oxygen vacancies form in the high figure-of-merit (ZT)-region starting from about T = 1000 K and dominate the carrier concentration and electronic transport far more than the tungsten substitution. The analysis of the transport properties yields that in the investigated regime the band filling is sufficiently high to overcome barriers of polaron transport. Therefore, the Cutler-Mott approach describes the electrical transport more accurately than the Mott approach for small polaron transport. The lattice thermal conductivity near room temperature is strongly suppressed with increasing tungsten concentration due to mass-difference impurity scattering. A ZT of 0.25 was found for x = 0.04 at 1225 K.

  17. The evolution of interaction between grain boundary and irradiation-induced point defects: Symmetric tilt GB in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Qin, Yuan; Yang, Yingying; Yao, Man; Wang, Xudong; Xu, Haixuan; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics method is used and scheme of calculational tests is designed. The atomic evolution view of the interaction between grain boundary (GB) and irradiation-induced point defects is given in six symmetric tilt GB structures of bcc tungsten with the energy of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) EPKA of 3 and 5 keV and the simulated temperature of 300 K. During the collision cascade with GB structure there are synergistic mechanisms to reduce the number of point defects: one is vacancies recombine with interstitials, and another is interstitials diffuse towards the GB with vacancies almost not move. The larger the ratio of the peak defect zone of the cascades overlaps with the GB region, the statistically relative smaller the number of surviving point defects in the grain interior (GI); and when the two almost do not overlap, vacancy-intensive area generally exists nearby GBs, and has a tendency to move toward GB with the increase of EPKA. In contrast, the distribution of interstitials is relatively uniform nearby GBs and is affected by the EPKA far less than the vacancy. The GB has a bias-absorption effect on the interstitials compared with vacancies. It shows that the number of surviving vacancies statistically has increasing trend with the increase of the distance between PKA and GB. While the number of surviving interstitials does not change much, and is less than the number of interstitials in the single crystal at the same conditions. The number of surviving vacancies in the GI is always larger than that of interstitials. The GB local extension after irradiation is observed for which the interstitials absorbed by the GB may be responsible. The designed scheme of calculational tests in the paper is completely applicable to the investigation of the interaction between other types of GBs and irradiation-induced point defects.

  18. A modified rabbit ulna defect model for evaluating periosteal substitutes in bone engineering: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M El Backly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib. For group II, an e-PTFE (GORE-TEX® membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb. Animals were euthanized after 12-16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (µCT, and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX® membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  19. A Modified Rabbit Ulna Defect Model for Evaluating Periosteal Substitutes in Bone Engineering: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Backly, Rania M.; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX®) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX®) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute. PMID:25610828

  20. A modified rabbit ulna defect model for evaluating periosteal substitutes in bone engineering: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Backly, Rania M; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX(®)) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12-16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX(®)) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  1. The carbon-substitutional-carbon-interstitial (CsCi) defect pair in silicon from hybrid functional calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ouma, CNM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available as metastable (bistable) defects [1–6]. The reason why metastable defects pose a challenge when one attempts to model them theoretically can be attributed to the fact that the two configurations of the defect being close energy thus the formation energy..., Identification of a bistable defect in silicon: The carbon interstitial-carbon substitutional pair, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 1155. doi:10.1063/1.98717. [4] L. Song, X. Zhan, B. Benson, G. Watkins, Bistable defect in silicon: The interstitial...

  2. Calcium phosphate ceramics as bone graft substitutes in filling bone tumor defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikia K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synthetic bio-inert materials are currently used as an alternative to autogenous bone graft. Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA and Beta tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP, which belong to the calcium phosphate ceramics group, are biocompatible and osteo-conductive. The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of HA and β-TCP in their ceramic forms as a bone graft substitute in filling bone voids after curettage of benign bone tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients in the age range of 3.5-55 years (mean 14.3 years having benign bone tumors with bone defects were filled with bone graft substitute following curettage. In 20 patients bone defects were filled with block/granules of HA ceramic and in four with β-TCP. Fibular strut graft was packed with HA in four patients. The patients were followed up for an average of 18 months (range 12-36 months. Results: The functional status of the patients at follow-up was evaluated and compared with preoperative functional status. Early incorporation of graft substitutes became evident radiologically between 6 and 10 weeks (Stage I. Complete incorporation (Stage III was observed in an average of nine months (6-18 months. Clinical healing was observed before radiological healing. The average time taken to return to preoperative function was 14 weeks. There was no recurrence of lesion or growth retardation. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxyapatite and β-TCP are excellent bone graft substitutes for autogenous bone graft in filling voids after curettage of benign bone tumors.

  3. Enhanced hydrogen storage on Li-doped defective graphene with B substitution: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yanan; Chu, Wei; Jing, Fangli; Zheng, Jian; Sun, Wenjing; Xue, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Li atoms were found to be well dispersed on defective structures without clustering. • First H 2 with five different initial configurations on Li/MV, Li/DV, Li/BMV, Li/BDV were explored in order. • Each system could bind up to three H 2 molecules with hydrogen average adsorption energies close to the range of 0.2–0.4 eV. • H 2 molecules bind with systems through weak electrostatic interaction between Li cation and induced H 2 dipole. • H 2 adsorption and desorption on the studied systems can process under ambient conditions. - Abstract: The characteristics of hydrogen adsorption on Li-doped defective graphene systems were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Four types of defective structures were selected. Li atoms were well dispersed on the defective graphene without clustering, evidenced by the binding energy value between Li and defective graphene than that of Li-Li x . Additionally, as the amount of adsorbed H 2 molecules increase, the H 2 molecules show tilting configuration toward the Li adatom. This is beneficial for more hydrogen adsorption under the electrostatic interaction. On these four stable structures, there were up to three polarized H 2 molecules adsorbed on per Li adatom, with the average hydrogen adsorption energy in the range of approximately 0.2–0.4 eV. These results provide new focus on the nature of Li-doped defective graphene with sometimes B substitution medium, which could be considered as a promising candidate for hydrogen storage.

  4. Enhanced hydrogen storage on Li-doped defective graphene with B substitution: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanan [School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Chu, Wei, E-mail: chuwei1965@scu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Jing, Fangli [School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Zheng, Jian [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Sun, Wenjing [China-America Cancer Research Institute, Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808 (China); Xue, Ying [Key Laboratory Green Chemistry & Technology of Ministry of Education (MOE), College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Li atoms were found to be well dispersed on defective structures without clustering. • First H{sub 2} with five different initial configurations on Li/MV, Li/DV, Li/BMV, Li/BDV were explored in order. • Each system could bind up to three H{sub 2} molecules with hydrogen average adsorption energies close to the range of 0.2–0.4 eV. • H{sub 2} molecules bind with systems through weak electrostatic interaction between Li cation and induced H{sub 2} dipole. • H{sub 2} adsorption and desorption on the studied systems can process under ambient conditions. - Abstract: The characteristics of hydrogen adsorption on Li-doped defective graphene systems were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Four types of defective structures were selected. Li atoms were well dispersed on the defective graphene without clustering, evidenced by the binding energy value between Li and defective graphene than that of Li-Li{sub x}. Additionally, as the amount of adsorbed H{sub 2} molecules increase, the H{sub 2} molecules show tilting configuration toward the Li adatom. This is beneficial for more hydrogen adsorption under the electrostatic interaction. On these four stable structures, there were up to three polarized H{sub 2} molecules adsorbed on per Li adatom, with the average hydrogen adsorption energy in the range of approximately 0.2–0.4 eV. These results provide new focus on the nature of Li-doped defective graphene with sometimes B substitution medium, which could be considered as a promising candidate for hydrogen storage.

  5. Guided bone regeneration of peri-implant defects with particulated and block xenogenic bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benic, Goran I; Thoma, Daniel S; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz Martin, Ignacio; Jung, Ronald E; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2016-05-01

    To test whether an equine bone substitute block used for guided bone regeneration (GBR) of peri-implant defects renders different results from bovine block or particulated bone substitutes regarding the dimensions of the augmented ridge and the amount of new bone. Mandibular premolars and molars were extracted in eight dogs. After 4 months, four semi-saddle bone defects were created in each mandible and one titanium implant was inserted into every site. Bone augmentation by GBR was attempted using the following randomly assigned modalities: (i) particulated deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) + a collagen membrane (CM), (ii) block DBBM + CM, (iii) equine bone substitute block + CM, and (iv) empty controls. After 4 months, one central and two lateral sections of each site were prepared. Descriptive histological and histomorphometrical assessments were performed evaluating the augmented area (AA) within the former bone defect, the area of mineralized tissue (MT), non-mineralized tissue (NMT), and residual bone substitute (BS) within AA, the horizontal thicknesses of the augmented region (HTaugm ) and of the mucosa (HTmucosa ). At the central sections, AA measured 11.2 ± 3.3 mm(2) for the equine block, 9.5 ± 2.6 mm(2) for DBBM block, 7.9 ± 4.8 mm(2) for particulated DBBM, and 2.4 ± 2.1 mm(2) for the empty control. All GBR groups rendered significantly higher values of AA in comparison with control (P ≤ 0.05). The differences in AA between GBR groups did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). The equine block rendered the highest values in HTaugm , although only the differences between equine block and control as well as equine block and DBBM block were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). With respect to HTmucosa , all GBR groups reached significantly higher values compared to control (P ≤ 0.05). The equine block revealed the most pronounced signs of graft degradation. Guided bone regeneration lead to higher ridge dimensions and thicker

  6. Effect of substitutional defects on Kambersky damping in L1{sub 0} magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Victora, R. H., E-mail: victora@umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Kambersky damping, representing the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction, is calculated for L1{sub 0} FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd alloys versus chemical degree of order. When more substitutional defects exist in the alloys, damping is predicted to increase due to the increase of the spin-flip channels allowed by the broken symmetry. It is demonstrated that this corresponds to an enhanced density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level, owing to the rounding of the DOS with loss of long-range order. Both the damping and the DOS of the Co-based alloy are found to be less affected by the disorder. Pd-based alloys are predicted to have lower damping than Pt-based alloys, making them more suitable for high density spintronic applications.

  7. Evaluation of injectable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in a rat tibia defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiguo; Ganz, Cornelia; Weber, Ulf; Adam, Martin; Holzhüter, Gerd; Wolter, Daniel; Frerich, Bernhard; Vollmar, Brigitte; Gerber, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In clinical practice, vertebral compression fractures occur after trauma and osteoporosis. Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure using bone filler material for the treatment of such fractures. A full synthetic injectable bone substitute (SIBS) was manufactured by means of spray drying. The aim of this study was to characterize the SIBS and to analyze the remodelling process during degradation of the biomaterial and new bone formation after implantation. SIBS is an aqueous suspension of donut-like microparticles. These microparticles consist of nanocrystallites of synthetic hydroxyapatite embedded in amorphous silica gel. After implantation of SIBS in a proximal tibial diaphyseal defect in 52 rats, grafts were harvested for subsequent analysis on different days. Newly formed bone originating from endosteum was observed on day 6. Hematomas in the medullary space and cortical wounds disappeared on day 12. The wound region was completely replaced by a composite of newly formed cancellous bone, extracellular matrix, and SIBS. At day 63 the cortical defect was fully healed by bone, while newly formed bone in the medullary space almost disappeared and was replaced with bone marrow. In conclusion, SIBS demonstrated a unique structure with osteoinductive and bioresorbable properties, which induced fast bone regeneration. Therefore, a clinical application of SIBS for kyphoplasty is promising.

  8. Evaluation of injectable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in a rat tibia defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Weiguo Xu1, Cornelia Ganz2, Ulf Weber2, Martin Adam2, Gerd Holzhüter2, Daniel Wolter3, Bernhard Frerich3, Brigitte Vollmar1, Thomas Gerber21Institute for Experimental Surgery, 2Institute of Physics, 3Department of Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, University of Rostock, Rostock, GermanyAbstract: In clinical practice, vertebral compression fractures occur after trauma and osteoporosis. Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure using bone filler material for the treatment of such fractures. A full synthetic injectable bone substitute (SIBS was manufactured by means of spray drying. The aim of this study was to characterize the SIBS and to analyze the remodelling process during degradation of the biomaterial and new bone formation after implantation. SIBS is an aqueous suspension of donut-like microparticles. These microparticles consist of nanocrystallites of synthetic hydroxyapatite embedded in amorphous silica gel. After implantation of SIBS in a proximal tibial diaphyseal defect in 52 rats, grafts were harvested for subsequent analysis on different days. Newly formed bone originating from endosteum was observed on day 6. Hematomas in the medullary space and cortical wounds disappeared on day 12. The wound region was completely replaced by a composite of newly formed cancellous bone, extracellular matrix, and SIBS. At day 63 the cortical defect was fully healed by bone, while newly formed bone in the medullary space almost disappeared and was replaced with bone marrow. In conclusion, SIBS demonstrated a unique structure with osteoinductive and bioresorbable properties, which induced fast bone regeneration. Therefore, a clinical application of SIBS for kyphoplasty is promising.Keywords: bone remodelling, electron microscopy, histomorphometry, nanotechnology, tissue engineering

  9. Tungsten Bronze Barium Neodymium Titanate (Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54)): An Intrinsic Nanostructured Material and Its Defect Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azough, Feridoon; Cernik, Robert Joseph; Schaffer, Bernhard; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin Mathieu; Bigatti, Marco; Ali, Amir; MacLaren, Ian; Barthel, Juri; Molinari, Marco; Baran, Jakub Dominik; Parker, Stephen Charles; Freer, Robert

    2016-04-04

    We investigated the structure of the tungsten bronze barium neodymium titanates Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54), which are exploited as microwave dielectric ceramics. They form a complex nanostructure, which resembles a nanofilm with stacking layers of ∼12 Å thickness. The synthesized samples of Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54) (n = 0, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) are characterized by pentagonal and tetragonal columns, where the A cations are distributed in three symmetrically inequivalent sites. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy allowed for quantitative analysis of the site occupancy, which determines the defect distribution. This is corroborated by density functional theory calculations. Pentagonal columns are dominated by Ba, and tetragonal columns are dominated by Nd, although specific Nd sites exhibit significant concentrations of Ba. The data indicated significant elongation of the Ba columns in the pentagonal positions and of the Nd columns in tetragonal positions involving a zigzag arrangement of atoms along the b lattice direction. We found that the preferred Ba substitution occurs at Nd[3]/[4] followed by Nd[2] and Nd[1]/[5] sites, which is significantly different to that proposed in earlier studies. Our results on the Ba(6-3n)Nd(8+2n)Ti(18)O(54) "perovskite" superstructure and its defect distribution are particularly valuable in those applications where the optimization of material properties of oxides is imperative; these include not only microwave ceramics but also thermoelectric materials, where the nanostructure and the distribution of the dopants will reduce the thermal conductivity.

  10. Evaluation of Osteoconductive and Osteogenic Potential of a Dentin-Based Bone Substitute Using a Calvarial Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the osteoconductive and osteogenic properties of processed bovine dentin using a robust rabbit calvarial defect model. In total, 16 New Zealand White rabbits were operated to create three circular defects in the calvaria. One defect was left unfilled, one filled with collected autogenous bone, and the third defect was filled with the dentin-based bone substitute. Following surgery and after a healing period of either 1 or 6 weeks, a CT scan was obtained. Following sacrificing, the tissues were processed for histological examination. The CT data showed the density in the area grafted with the dentin-based material was higher than the surrounding bone and the areas grafted with autologous bone after 1 week and 6 weeks of healing. The area left unfilled remained an empty defect after 1 week and 6 weeks. Histological examination of the defects filled with the dentin product after 6 weeks showed soft tissue encapsulation around the dentin particles. It can be concluded that the rabbit calvarial model used in this study is a robust model for the assessment of bone materials. Bovine dentin is a biostable material; however, it may not be suitable for repairing large 4-wall defects.

  11. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Pires, Inês; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-03-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials.

  12. Mn fraction substitutional site and defects induced magnetism in Mn-implanted 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziane, K., E-mail: Khalid.bouziane@uir.ac.ma [Pôle Energies Renouvelables et Etudes Pétrolières, Université Internationale de Rabat, 11000 – Salé el Jadida, Technopolis (Morocco); Al Azri, M.; Elzain, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman); Chérif, S.M. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris, 13-Nord, 99, Avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Mamor, M. [Equipe MSISM, Faculté Poly-Disciplinaire, B.P. 4162 Safi, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Declémy, A. [Institut P’, CNRS – Université de Poitiers – ENSMA, UPR 3346, SP2MI – Téléport 2, 11 boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179, F-86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Thomé, L. [CSNSM-Orsay, Bât. 108, Université d’Orsay, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Shallow Mn-implanted 6H-SiC crystal. • Correlation between Mn-substitutional site concentration and magnetism. • Correlation between defects nature surrounding Mn site and magnetism. • Correlation of magnetism in Mn-doped SiC to Mn at Si sites and vacancy-related defect. - Abstract: n-type 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) single crystal substrates were implanted with three fluences of manganese (Mn{sup +}) ions: 5 × 10{sup 15}, 1 × 10{sup 16} and 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} with implantation energy of 80 keV at 365 °C to stimulate dynamic annealing. The samples were characterized using Rutherford backscattering channeling spectroscopy (RBS/C), high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique (HRXRD), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. Two main defect regions have been identified using RBS/C spectra fitted with the McChasy code combined to SRIM simulations. Intermediate defects depth region is associated with vacancies (D{sub V}) and deeper defect (D{sub N}) essentially related to the Si and C interstitial defects. The defect concentration and the maximum perpendicular strain exhibit similar increasing trend with the Mn{sup +} fluence. Furthermore, the amount of Mn atoms at Si substitutional sites and the corresponding magnetic moment per Mn atom were found to increase with increasing Mn fluence from 0.7 μ{sub B} to 1.7 μ{sub B} and then collapsing to 0.2 μ{sub B}. Moreover, a strong correlation has been found between the magnetic moment and the combination of both large D{sub V}/D{sub N} ratio and high Mn at Si sites. These results are corroborated by our ab initio calculations considering the most stable configurations showing that besides the amount of Mn substituting Si sites, local vacancy-rich environment is playing a crucial role in enhancing the magnetism.

  13. Investigation of the Effect of Tungsten Substitution on Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Performance of In Situ VC-Reinforced High-Manganese Austenitic Steel Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Emad Galin; Karimzadeh, Neda; Varahram, Naser; Davami, Parviz

    2013-08-01

    Particulate VC-reinforced high-manganese austenitic steel matrix composites with different vanadium and tungsten contents were synthesized by conventional alloying and casting route. Microstructural characterizations showed that the composites processed by in situ precipitation of the reinforcements were composed of V8C7 particulates distributed in an austenitic matrix. It was observed that addition of tungsten to austenite increases work-hardening rate of subsurface layer during pin-on disk wear test. The maximum abrasive wear resistance was achieved at tungsten content equal to 2 wt pct. However, excessive addition of tungsten promoted the formation of W3C phase and reduced the abrasive wear resistance because of decrease in distribution homogeneity and volume fraction of the reinforcing VC particles.

  14. Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Used as Artificial Substitutes for Dural Defection in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficacy and safety of dural repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from bacterial cellulose (BC was evaluated in a rabbit model with dural defects. We prepared artificial dura mater using bacterial cellulose which was incubated and fermented from Acetobacter xylinum. The dural defects of the rabbit model were repaired with BC membranes. All surgeries were performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. All animals were humanely euthanized by intravenous injection of phenobarbitone, at each time point, after the operation. Then, the histocompatibility and inflammatory effects of BC were examined by histological examination, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western Blot. BC membranes evenly covered the surface of brain without adhesion. There were seldom inflammatory cells surrounding the membrane during the early postoperative period. The expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as iNOS and COX-2 were lower in the BC group compared to the control group at 7, 14 and 21 days after implantation. BC can repair dural defects in rabbit and has a decreased inflammatory response compared to traditional materials. However, the long-term effects need to be validated in larger animals.

  15. Quenching and recovery experiments on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, K.D.; Siegel, R.W.; Schultz, H.

    1976-01-01

    A short summary is given of new results concerning transmission electron microscopy and resistivity measurements on quenched tungsten. These results give evidence for the first time that the quenching and annealing of high purity tungsten leads to vacancy--defect clustering resulting in small voids observable in the electron microscope. 21 references

  16. One-dimensional photonic crystals with highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect in reflection polar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, T V; Berzhansky, V N; Karavainikov, A V; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Lyashko, S D

    2016-01-01

    It is represented the results of modelling of magnetooptical properties in reflection polar geometry of one-dimensional photonic crystal, in which highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect of composition Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 A l0.8 O 12 / Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 Oi 2 is located between the dielectric Bragg mirrors (SiO 2 / TiO 2 ) m (were m is number of layer pairs) and buffer SiO 2 and gold top layers of different thicknesses is placed on structure. The modification of spectral line- shapes of microcavity and Tamm plasmon-polariton modes depending on m is found. (paper)

  17. Boron-substitution and defects in B2-type AlNi compound: Site-preference and influence on structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaz, Rodrigo B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); ElMassalami, M., E-mail: massalam@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Terrazos, L.A. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Cuité, PB 58175-000 (Brazil); Elhadi, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Takeya, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Ghivelder, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2016-06-05

    Using a combination of theoretical (first-principles total-energy and electronic structure calculations) as well as experimental (structural, thermodynamics) techniques, we systematically investigated the influence of B incorporation on the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of a series of technologically-important B-containing AlNi matrix. Special attention was paid to calculating the energy cost of placing B at various sites within the cubic unit cell. The most energetically favorable defects were identified to be, depending on initial stoichiometry, substitutional B at Al site (B{sub Al}), Ni vacancy (V{sub Ni}), or Ni antisite (Ni{sub Al}). We show that the induced variation in the lattice parameters can be correlated with the type and concentration of the involved defects: e.g. the surge of V{sub Ni} defects leads to a stronger lattice-parameter reduction, that of Ni{sub Al} ones to a relatively weaker reduction while that of B{sub Al} defects to a much weaker influence. Both electronic band structure calculations as well as thermodynamics measurements indicate that the 3d bands of Ni are fully occupied and magnetically unpolarized and that the resulting N(E{sub F}) is very small: all studied compounds are normal conductors with no trace of superconductivity or magnetic polarization.

  18. Histological Analysis of the Effect of Accelerated Portland Cement as a Bone Graft Substitute on Experimentally-Created Three-Walled Intrabony Defects in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Javad Ashraf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Recent literature shows that accelerated Portland cement (APC is a non-toxic material that may have potential to promote bone healing. The objective of this study was to histologically evaluate periodontal healing focusing on new bone regeneration following implantation of APC into intra-bony defects in dogs.

    Materials and methods. Three-wall intra-bony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mesial aspect of the first molar in both sides of mandible in six dogs. One side was randomly filled with the material and other received a flap operation only. The animals were euthanized eight weeks post-surgery when block sections of the defect sites were collected and prepared for qualitative histological analysis.

    Results. Compared to control group, stimulation of growth of new bone tissue in the cavity containing APC was significantly prominent in three of six cases, showing osteoid formation with osteoblastic rimming and new bone trabeculla. New bone formation was observed just close to cavity containing APC. Connective tissue proliferation and downgrowth of epithelium were significantly less than those of control group.

    Conclusion. Our results are encouraging for the use of APC as a bone substitute, but more comprehensive study are necessary before warranting clinical use.

  19. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA......, the sheep were sacrificed. Implants with surrounding bone were harvested and sectioned into two parts: one for microcomputed tomography scanning and push-out test, and one for histomorphometry. The 77% HA/β-TCP reinforced with PDLLA had similar mechanical properties to human cancellous bone...... and was significantly stronger than the HA/β-TCP without PDLLA. Microarchitecture of gap mass was significantly changed after implantation for all groups. Allograft had stronger shear mechanical properties than the other three groups, whereas there were no significant differences between the other three groups...

  20. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of tungsten slugs.

  1. Bone formation in mono cortical mandibular critical size defects after augmentation with two synthetic nanostructured and one xenogenous hydroxyapatite bone substitute - in vivo animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Michael; Kämmerer, Peer W; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Gerber, Thomas; Frerich, Bernhard; Gundlach, Karsten K H

    2016-05-01

    Healing characteristics as well as level of tissue integration and degradation of two different nanostructured hydroxyapatite bone substitute materials (BSM) in comparison with a deproteinized hydroxyapatite bovine BSM were evaluated in an in vivo animal experiment. In the posterior mandible of 18 minipigs, bilateral mono cortical critical size bone defects were created. Randomized augmentation procedures with NanoBone(®) (NHA1), Ostim(®) (NHA2) or Bio-Oss(®) (DBBM) were conducted (each material n = 12). Samples were analyzed after five (each material n = 6) and 8 months (each material n = 6). Defect healing, formation of soft tissue and bone as well as the amount of remaining respective BSM were quantified both macro- and microscopically. For NHA2, the residual bone defect after 5 weeks was significantly less compared to NHA1 or DBBM. There was no difference in residual BSM between NHA1 and DBBM, but the amount in NHA2 was significantly lower. NHA2 also showed the least amount of soft tissue and the highest amount of new bone after 5 weeks. Eight months after implantation, no significant differences in the amount of residual bone defects, in soft tissue or in bone formation were detected between the groups. Again, NHA2 showed significant less residual material than NHA1 and DBBM. We observed non-significant differences in the biological hard tissue response of NHA1 and DBBM. The water-soluble NHA2 initially induced an increased amount of new bone but was highly compressed which may have a negative effect in less stable augmentations of the jaw. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of bone substitutes for treatment of peri-implant bone defects: biomechanical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses in the rabbit tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of bone substitutes in circumferential peri-implant defects created in the rabbit tibia. Methods Thirty rabbits received 45 implants in their left and right tibia. A circumferential bone defect (6.1 mm in diameter/4 mm depth) was created in each rabbit tibia using a trephine bur. A dental implant (4.1 mm × 8.5 mm) was installed after the creation of the defect, providing a 2-mm gap. The bone defect gaps between the implant and the bone were randomly filled according to the following groups: blood clot (CO), particulate Bio-Oss® (BI), and Bio-Oss® Collagen (BC). Ten animals were euthanized after periods of 15, 30, and 60 days. Biomechanical analysis by means of the removal torque of the implants, as well as histologic and immunohistochemical analyses for protein expression of osteocalcin (OC), Runx2, OPG, RANKL, and TRAP were evaluated. Results For biomechanics, BC showed a better biological response (61.00±15.28 Ncm) than CO (31.60±14.38 Ncm) at 30 days. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significantly different OC expression in CO and BC at 15 days, and also between the CO and BI groups, and between the CO and BC groups at 60 days. After 15 days, Runx2 expression was significantly different in the BI group compared to the CO and BC groups. RANKL expression was significantly different in the BI and CO groups and between the BI and BC groups at 15 days, and also between the BI and CO groups at 60 days. OPG expression was significantly higher at 60 days postoperatively in the BI group than the CO group. Conclusions Collectively, our data indicate that, compared to CO and BI, BC offered better bone healing, which was characterized by greater RUNX2, OC, and OPG immunolabeling, and required greater reversal torque for implant removal. Indeed, along with BI, BC presents promising biomechanical and biological properties supporting its possible use in osteoconductive grafts for filling peri-implant gaps. PMID:27382506

  3. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  4. Textbook tests with tungsten

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2010-01-01

    CERN's linear collider detector group joins forces with CALICE in building the world's first tungsten hadronic calorimeter.   Hadronic calorimeter prototype made of tungsten for the linear collider detector being equipped with CALICE scintillators. In a hall for test beam experiments at CERN, next to the CLOUD climate experiment and an irradiation facility, sits a detector prototype that is in many ways a first. It's the first ever hadronic sandwich calorimeter (HCal) prototype made of tungsten. It's the first prototype for a detector for the Compact Linear Collider Study CLIC, developed by the linear collider detector R&D group (LCD group) at CERN. And it's the first piece of hardware that results directly from the cooperation between CLIC and ILC detector study groups. Now its makers are keen to see first particle showers in their detector. The tungsten calorimeter has just moved from a workshop at CERN, where it was assembled from finely polished tungsten squares and triangles, into the ...

  5. Bone Regeneration Using a Mixture of Silicon-Substituted Coral HA and β-TCP in a Rat Calvarial Bone Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Roh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand of bone graft materials has been increasing. Among various origins of bone graft materials, natural coral composed of up to 99% calcium carbonate was chosen and converted into hydroxyapatite (HA; silicon was then substituted into the HA. Then, the Si-HA was mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP in the ratios 100:0 (S100T0, 70:30 (S70T30, 60:40 (S60T40, and 50:50 (S50T50. The materials were implanted for four and eight weeks in a rat calvarial bone defect model (8 mm. The MBCPTM (HA:β-TCP = 60:40, Biomatalante, Vigneux de Bretagne, France was used as a control. After euthanasia, the bone tissue was analyzed by making histological slides. From the results, S60T40 showed the fastest bone regeneration in four weeks (p < 0.05. In addition, S60T40, S50T50, and MBCPTM showed significant new bone formation in eight weeks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, Si-HA/TCP showed potential as a bone graft material.

  6. Persistent Epithelial Defects and Corneal Opacity After Collagen Cross-Linking With Substitution of Dextran (T-500) With Dextran Sulfate in Compounded Topical Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllhumer, Roland; Watson, Stephanie; Beckingsale, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is a commonly performed procedure to prevent the progression of keratoconus. Riboflavin is an essential part of the procedure, which facilitates both the cross-linking process and protection of intraocular structures. Dextran can be added to riboflavin to create an isotonic solution. This case report highlights the importance of compounding riboflavin with the correct dextran solution. A retrospective case series. Six eyes of 4 male patients with keratoconus aged from 20 to 38 years underwent CXL with substitution of 20% dextran (T-500) with 20% dextran sulfate in a compounded riboflavin 0.1% solution. Postoperatively, persistent corneal epithelial defects, stromal haze, and then scarring occurred. Corneal transplantation was performed for visual rehabilitation but was complicated by graft rejection followed by failure (n = 1 eye), dehiscence (n = 4), cataract (n = 2), post-laser ablation haze (n = 1), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n = 2). The visual outcome was riboflavin solutions during CXL results in loss of vision from permanent corneal opacity. Residual host changes may compromise the results of corneal transplantation.

  7. Quantum-Accurate Molecular Dynamics Potential for Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Mitchell; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this short contribution is to report on the development of a Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP) for tungsten. We have focused on the characterization of elastic and defect properties of the pure material in order to support molecular dynamics simulations of plasma-facing materials in fusion reactors. A parallel genetic algorithm approach was used to efficiently search for fitting parameters optimized against a large number of objective functions. In addition, we have shown that this many-body tungsten potential can be used in conjunction with a simple helium pair potential1 to produce accurate defect formation energies for the W-He binary system.

  8. Tungsten as First Wall Material in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the PLT tokamak with a tungsten limiter strong cooling of the central plasma was observed. Since then mostly graphite has been used as limiter or target plate material. Only a few tokamaks (limiter: FTU, TEXTOR; divertor: Alcator C-Mod, ASDEX Upgrade) gained experience with high-Z-materials. With the observed strong co- deposition of tritium together with carbon in JET and as a result of design studies of fusion reactors, it became clear that in the long run tungsten is the favourite for the first-wall material. Tungsten as a plasma facing material requires intensive research in all areas, i.e. in plasma physics, plasma wall-interaction and material development. Tungsten as an impurity in the confined plasma reveals considerable differences to carbon. Strong radiation at high temperatures, in connection with mostly a pronounced inward drift forms a particular challenge. Turbulent transport plays a beneficial role in this regard. The inward drift is an additional problem in the pedestal region of H-mode plasmas in ITER-like configurations. The erosion by low energy hydrogen atoms is in contrast to carbon small. However, erosion by fast particles from heating measures and impurity ions, accelerated in the sheath potential, play an important role in the case of tungsten. Radiation by carbon in the plasma boundary reduces the load to the target plates. Neon or Argon as substitutes will increase the erosion of tungsten. So far experiments have demonstrated that in most scenarios the tungsten content in the central plasma can be kept sufficiently small. The material development is directed to the specific needs of existing or future devices. In ASDEX Upgrade, which will soon be a divertor experiment with a complete tungsten first-wall, graphite tiles are coated with tungsten layers. In ITER, the solid tungsten armour of the target plates has to be castellated because of its difference in thermal expansion compared to the cooling structure. In a reactor the technical

  9. Electrocatalysis on tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of electrocatalysis, the importance of the equilibrium rest potential and its standardization on polished WC-electrodes, the influence of oxygen in the catalysts upon the oxidation of hydrogen, and the attained results of the hydrogen oxidation on tungsten carbide are treated. (HK) [de

  10. Gas tungsten arc welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  11. Computer simulations for thorium doped tungsten crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, Bernd

    2009-07-17

    set of Langevin equations, i.e. stochastic differential equations including properly chosen ''noise'' terms. A new integration scheme is derived for integrating the equations of motion, which closely resembles the well-known Velocity Verlet algorithm. As a first application of the EAM potentials, we calculate the phonon dispersion for tungsten and thorium. Furthermore, the potentials are used to derive the excess volumes of point defects, i.e. for vacancies and Th-impurities in tungsten, grain boundary structures and energies. Additionally, we take a closer look at various stacking fault energies and link the results to the potential splitting of screw dislocations in tungsten into partials. We also compare the energetic stability of screw, edge and mixed-type dislocations. Besides this, we are interested in free enthalpy differences, for which we make use of the Overlapping Distribution Method (ODM), an efficient, albeit computationally demanding, method to calculate free enthalpy differences, with which we address the question of lattice formation, vacancy formation and impurity formation at varying temperatures. (orig.)

  12. Computer simulations for thorium doped tungsten crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    differential equations including properly chosen ''noise'' terms. A new integration scheme is derived for integrating the equations of motion, which closely resembles the well-known Velocity Verlet algorithm. As a first application of the EAM potentials, we calculate the phonon dispersion for tungsten and thorium. Furthermore, the potentials are used to derive the excess volumes of point defects, i.e. for vacancies and Th-impurities in tungsten, grain boundary structures and energies. Additionally, we take a closer look at various stacking fault energies and link the results to the potential splitting of screw dislocations in tungsten into partials. We also compare the energetic stability of screw, edge and mixed-type dislocations. Besides this, we are interested in free enthalpy differences, for which we make use of the Overlapping Distribution Method (ODM), an efficient, albeit computationally demanding, method to calculate free enthalpy differences, with which we address the question of lattice formation, vacancy formation and impurity formation at varying temperatures. (orig.)

  13. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  14. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  15. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-11-01

    Pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90-850 °C to 0.03-2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (0.6 dpa). The precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.

  16. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  17. Self diffusion in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundy, J.N.; Rothman, S.J.; Lam, N.Q.; Nowicki, L.J.; Hoff, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The lack of understanding of self-diffusion in Group VI metals together with the wide scatter in the measured values of tungsten self-diffusion has prompted the present measurements to be made over a wide temperature range (1/2Tsub(m) to Tsub(m)). The diffusion coefficients have been measured in the temperature range 1430-2630 0 C. The present measurements show non-linear Arrhenius behavior but a reliable two-exponential fit of the data should await further measurements. (Auth.)

  18. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  19. Hyperthermia effect and antibacterial efficacy of Fe3+/Co2+co-substitutions in β-Ca3(PO4)2for bone cancer and defect therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Kishore; Srivastava, M; Prasad, N K; Shetty, P H; Kannan, S

    2018-04-01

    The combined effect of cobalt and iron substitutions in β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 as a potent material for application in hyperthermia and as a bone substitute is presented. Structural analysis reveals the preferential accommodation of Co 2+ and Fe 3+ at the Ca 2+ (5) sites of β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 until the limit of ∼10 mol % and, thereafter, prefer Ca 2+ (4) lattice sites. Occupancy of both the Co 2+ and Fe 3+ ions induces a significant contraction of the β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 unit cell. The Co 2+ /Fe 3+ co-substitutions in β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 display magnetic characteristics that enhances hyperthermia effect. In addition, the presence of Co 2+ in β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 enunciates pronounced antibacterial efficacy against tested microorganisms. Nevertheless, the enhanced level of Co 2+ in β-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 results to induce significant toxicity. The biocompatibility of the synthesized thermoseeds is verified from the hemolytic tests and cytotoxicity test performed on human sarcoma cell line MG-63. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1317-1328, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. On tungsten technologies and qualification for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J. van der; Hegeman, H.; Wouters, O.; Luzginova, N.; Jonker, B.; Van der Marck, S.; Opschoor, J.; Wang, J.; Dowling, G.; Stuivenga, M.; Carton, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten alloys are considered prime candidates for the in-vessel components directly facing the plasma. For example, in the HEMJ helium cooled divertor design tiles may be operated at temperatures up to 1700 deg. C, supported by a structure partially consisting of tungsten at temperatures from 600 to 1000 deg. C, and connected to a HT steel structure. The tungsten armoured primary wall is operated at 500-900 deg. C. Irradiation doses will be few tens dpa at minimum, but FPR requirements for plants availability will stretch these targets. Recently injection moulding technology was developed for pure tungsten and representative parts were manufactured for ITER monobloc divertors and DEMO HEMJ thimbles. The major advantages for this technology are the efficient use of material feedstock/resources and the intrinsic possibility to produce near-finished product, avoiding machining processes that are costly and may introduce surface defects deteriorating the component in service performance. It is well suited for mass-manufacturing of components as well known in e.g. lighting industries. To further qualify this material technology various specimen types were produced with processing parameters identical to the components, and tested successfully, showing the high potential for implementation in (fusion) devices. Furthermore, the engineering approach can clearly be tailored away from conventional design and manufacturing technologies based on bulk materials. The technology is suitable for shaping of new W-alloys and W-ODS variants as well. Basically this technology allows a particular qualification trajectory. There is no need to produce large batches of material during the material development and optimization stage. For the verification of irradiation behaviour in the specific neutron spectra, there is a further attractive feature to use e.g. isotope tailored powders to adjust to available irradiation facilities like MTR's. In addition the ingrowth of transmutation

  1. Recovery of Tungsten Surface with Fiber-Form Nanostructure by Plasmas Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Takanori; Takamura, Shuichi; Kurishita, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    One of the serious concerns for tungsten materials in fusion devices is the radiation defects caused by helium plasma irradiation since helium is a fusion product. The fiber-formed nanostructure is thought to have a possible weakness against the plasma heat flux on the plasma-facing component and also may destroy the reflectivity of optical mirrors. In this paper an interesting method for the recovery of such tungsten surfaces is shown. The recovery process depends on the grade and manufacturing process of tungsten materials. (fusion engineering)

  2. Deuterium removal from radiation damage in tungsten by isotopic exchange with hydrogen atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Markelj, S.; Efimov, V. S.; Gasparyan, Yu M.

    2016-09-01

    The tungsten samples were pre-irradiated with self-ions to create radiation-induced defects and then exposed to the deuterium atomic beam. The deuterium removal was studied by isotopic exchange with atomic hydrogen beam. Modification of the deuterium depth profile in self-ion irradiated tungsten under isotopic exchange up to a depth of 6 μm was measured in- situ by nuclear reaction analysis. The total deuterium retention after isotopic exchange was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is shown that the efficiency of the deuterium removal increases with increasing of the hydrogen incident flux, incident energy and temperature of the tungsten sample.

  3. Effects of a bone graft substitute consisting of porous gradient HA/ZrO2and gelatin/chitosan slow-release hydrogel containing BMP-2 and BMSCs on lumbar vertebral defect repair in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong-Xue; Quan, Ren-Fu; Wang, Tuo; Du, Wei-Bin; Jia, Gao-Yong; Wang, Dong; Lv, Long-Bao; Xu, Cai-Yin; Wei, Xi-Cheng; Wang, Jin-Fu; Yang, Di-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    Dense biomaterial plays an important role in bone replacement. However, it fails to induce bone cell migration into graft material. In the present study, a novel bone graft substitute (BGS) consisting of porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composite (PGHC) and gelatin/chitosan slow-release hydrogel containing bone morphogenetic protein 2 and bone mesenchymal stem cells was designed and prepared to repair lumbar vertebral defects. The morphological characteristics of the BGS evaluated by a scanning electron microscope showed that it had a three-dimensional network structure with uniformly distributed chitosan microspheres on the surfaces of the graft material and the interior of the pores. Then, BGS (Group A), PGHC (Group B), or autologous bone (Group C) was implanted into lumbar vertebral body defects in a total of 24 healthy rhesus monkeys. After 8 and 16 weeks, anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine, microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, biomechanical testing, and biochemical testing for bone matrix markers, including Type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin, basic fibroblast growth factor, alkaline phosphatase, and vascular endothelial growth factor, were performed to examine the reparative efficacy of the BGS and PGHC. The BGS displayed excellent ability to repair the lumbar vertebral defect in rhesus monkeys. Radiography, microcomputed tomography scanning, and histomorphological characterization showed that the newly formed bone volume in the interior of the pores in the BGS was significantly higher than in the PGHC. The results of biomechanical testing indicated that the vertebral body compression strength of the PGHC implant was lower than the other implants. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that the expression of bone-related proteins in the BGS implant was significantly higher than in the PGHC implant. The BGS displayed reparative effects similar to autologous bone. Therefore

  4. Bone augmentation procedures in localized defects in the alveolar ridge: clinical results with different bone grafts and bone-substitute materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgård; Terheyden, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    evidence except expert opinions. Any publication written in English and including 10 or more patients with at least 12 months of follow-up after loading of the implants was eligible for this review. The results were categorized according to the presenting defect type: (1) dehiscence and fenestration......-type defects, (2) horizontal ridge augmentations, (3) vertical ridge augmentations, and (4) maxillary sinus floor elevations using the lateral window technique or transalveolar approach. The review focused on: (1) the outcome of the individual grafting protocols and (2) survival rates of implants placed...... in the augmented bone. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Based on 2,006 abstracts, 424 full-text articles were evaluated, of which 108 were included. Eleven studies were randomized controlled clinical trials. The majority were prospective or retrospective studies including a limited number of patients and short observation...

  5. Neutron irradiation effects on the microstructural development of tungsten and tungsten alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Fukuda, Makoto; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei

    2016-04-01

    Data on the microstructural development of tungsten (W) and tungsten rhenium (Re) alloys were obtained after neutron irradiation at 400-800 °C in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), the experimental fast test reactor Joyo, and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for irradiation damage levels in the range of 0.09-1.54 displacement per atom (dpa). Microstructural observations showed that a small amount of Re (3-5%) in W-Re alloys is effective in suppressing void formation. In W-Re alloys with Re concentrations greater than 10%, acicular precipitates are the primary structural defects. In the HFIR-irradiated specimen, in which a large amount of Re was expected to be produced by the nuclear transmutation of W to Re because of the reactor's high thermal neutron flux, voids were not observed even in pure W. The synergistic effects of displacement damage and solid transmutation elements on microstructural development are discussed, and the microstructural development of tungsten materials utilized in fusion reactors is predicted.

  6. Biological background of dermal substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; van der Wal, M.B.; van Leeuwen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix

  7. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Copper and Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel T; Timotius P; Maziar R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, copper and mild steel were welded using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. To determine the weldablity factor, tests are needed to provide information on mechanical strength, potential defects in structure, and nature of failure. Mechanical testing included transverse tensile tests, micro hardness tests, and bend tests. The results for the transverse tensile test revealed failure occurred at the copper heat affected zone (HAZ) with an ultimate tensile strength of 220MPa...

  8. Tritium decay helium-3 effects in tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (T implanted by plasmas diffuses into bulk material, especially rapidly at elevated temperatures, and becomes trapped in neutron radiation-induced defects in materials that act as trapping sites for the tritium. The trapped tritium atoms will decay to produce helium-3 (3He atoms at a half-life of 12.3 years. 3He has a large cross section for absorbing thermal neutrons, which after absorbing a neutron produces hydrogen (H and tritium ions with a combined kinetic energy of 0.76 MeV through the 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the 3He produced in tungsten by tritium decay compared to the neutron-induced helium-4 (4He produced in tungsten. This is important given the fact that helium in materials not only creates microstructural damage in the bulk of the material but alters surface morphology of the material effecting plasma-surface interaction process (e.g. material evolution, erosion and tritium behavior of plasma-facing component materials. Effects of tritium decay 3He in tungsten are investigated here with a simple model that predicts quantity of 3He produced in a fusion DEMO FW based on a neutron energy spectrum found in literature. This study reveals that: (1 helium-3 concentration was equilibrated to ∼6% of initial/trapped tritium concentration, (2 tritium concentration remained approximately constant (94% of initial tritium concentration, and (3 displacement damage from 3He(n,HT nuclear reaction became >1 dpa/year in DEMO FW.

  9. Preparation method of tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of tungsten carbide in powder form from tungsten oxide powder in which the tungsten oxide is heated to 800-1,050 0 C, preferably to 850 0 C, and is reduced by the addition of carbon monoxide. The partial pressure of the CO 2 then formed must be kept below a necessary equilibrium value for the formation of the carbide. The waste gas (with max. 20 Vol% CO 2 ) is hardly reduced and is recycled in the circuit. (UWI) [de

  10. Deuterium desorption from tungsten using laser heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retention and desorption of hydrogenic species need to be accurately modeled to predict the tritium inventory of next generation fusion devices, which is needed both for tritium fuel recovery and for tritium safety concerns. In this paper, experiments on thermal desorption of deuterium from intrinsic polycrystalline tungsten defects using laser heating are compared to TMAP-7 modeling. The samples during deuterium plasma exposure were at a temperature of 373K for this benchmark study with ion fluence of 0.7–1.0 ×1024Dm−2. Following plasma exposure, a fiber laser (λ= 1100nm heated the samples to peak surface temperatures ranging from ∼500 to 1400K with pulse widths from 10ms to 1s, and 1 to 10 pulses applied to each sample. The remaining deuterium retention was measured using temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Results show that > 95% of deuterium is desorbed when the peak surface temperature reached ∼950K for > 1s. TMAP-7 is used to predict deuterium desorption from tungsten for a range of surface temperatures and heating durations, and is compared to previous work on desorption from beryllium codeposits.

  11. Bone augmentation procedures in localized defects in the alveolar ridge: clinical results with different bone grafts and bone-substitute materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgård; Terheyden, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of different grafting protocols for the augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search and an additional hand search of selected journals were performed to identify all levels of clinical...... in the augmented bone. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Based on 2,006 abstracts, 424 full-text articles were evaluated, of which 108 were included. Eleven studies were randomized controlled clinical trials. The majority were prospective or retrospective studies including a limited number of patients and short observation...... of evidence (level A to B) to support that survival rates of implants placed in augmented bone are comparable to rates of implants placed in pristine bone....

  12. Effect of Alendronate with β - TCP Bone Substitute in Surgical Therapy of Periodontal Intra-Osseous Defects: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naineni, Rohini; Ravi, Vishali; Subbaraya, Dwijendra Kocherlakota; Prasanna, Jammula Surya; Panthula, Veerendranath Reddy; Koduganti, Rekha Rani

    2016-08-01

    Alendronate (ALN), an aminobisphosphonate, inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and also stimulates osteogenesis. Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive graft material which provides a scaffold for bone formation and also a widely used drug delivery vehicle for growth factors and antibiotics. Drug delivery vehicles, like β-TCP, improve the potency of the drugs by specific local site delivery of the drug, optimal release characteristics and easy handling. The aim of the this study was to evaluate the bone formation potential of 400μg ALN delivered in β-TCP in the treatment of periodontal intra-osseous defects. Thirty patients with periodontal defects were randomly assigned to 400μg ALN + β-TCP + Saline (test) group and β-TCP + Saline (active-control) group. Clinical parameters like Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) gain, Probing Depth (PD) reduction, post-operative Gingival Recession (GR) were assessed from the baseline, 3 months and 6 months recordings. Radiographic parameters like Linear Bone Growth (LBG), Percentage Bone Fill (%BF), and change in alveolar crest height (ACH) were assessed from baseline and 6 months radiographs. Mean measurements in the ALN test group for CAL gain (3.4 ± 0.74 mm), PD reduction (4.33 ± 0.82 mm), LBG (2.88 ± 0.88 mm), and %BF (51.98 ± 15.84%) were significantly greater with a p-value TCP bone graft material was effective in improving soft tissue parameters, inhibiting alveolar crestal resorption and enhancing bone formation, compared to β-TCP alone.

  13. Gleeble Testing of Tungsten Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    length of the sample. Density measurements were also taken before and after testing using Archimedes principle . Samples were also tested at room...commonly seen in body centered cubic (BCC) metals and can be attributed to dislocation mobility theories (8). The basic principles are that the...processing of nano-tungsten and nano-tungsten alloys to achieve superior strength, ductility, and fracture toughness for room temperature applications

  14. Micro creep mechanisms of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levoy, R.; Hugon, I.; Burlet, H.; Baillin, X.; Guetaz, L.

    2000-01-01

    Due to its high melting point (3410 deg C), tungsten offers good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures for several applications in non-oxidizing environment. The creep behavior of tungsten is well known between 1200 and 2500 deg C and 10 -3 to 10 -1 strain. However, in some applications when dimensional stability of components is required, these strains are excessive and it is necessary to know the creep behavior of the material for micro-strains (between 10 -4 and 10 -6 ). Methods and devices used to measure creep micro-strains are presented, and creep equations (Norton and Chaboche laws) were developed for wrought, annealed and recrystallized tungsten. The main results obtained on tungsten under low stresses are: stress exponent 1, symmetry of micro-strains in creep-tension and creep-compression, inverse creep (threshold stress), etc. TEM, SEM and EBSD studies allow interpretation of the micro-creep mechanism of tungsten under low stresses and low temperature (∼0.3 K) like the Harper-Dorn creep. In Harper-Dorn creep, micro-strains are associated with the density and the distribution of dislocations existing in the crystals before creep. At 975 deg C, the initial dislocation structure moves differently whether or not a stress is applied. To improve the micro-creep behavior of tungsten, a heat treatment is proposed to create the optimum dislocation structure. (authors)

  15. Precipitation formation in recrystallized nickel-plated non-sag tungsten wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z.H.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that some metals, such as palladium and nickel, can easily penetrate into tungsten by fast diffusion via crystal defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. As a result of the fast penetration of these so called activators the recrystallization temperature of heavily drawn non-sag tungsten wire can be lower from about 2,000 C to about 1,000 C, thus the application of the tungsten wire, serving as reinforcement material in metal matrix composites used at high temperatures, is limited. An interesting question is in which form these activators exist in the recrystallized tungsten wire. It is generally believed that W-Ni intermediate compounds could form in the recrystallized material, presumably at grain boundaries. The free energy difference between the pure tungsten fibbers and the precipitating W(Ni) solid solution was suggested as the chemical driving force which governed the recrystallization process. The presence of nickel in small particles had also been observed in recrystallized grains of nickel plated tungsten wires using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These particles were considered to be nickel rich precipitates. However, a detailed investigation of the precipitation process has not been reported. In the present work an investigation of the structure, composition and distribution of nickel rich particles precipitated in recrystallized grains of nickel plated heavily drawn non-sage tungsten wires was carried out using analytical electron microscopy (AEM)

  16. Tungsten contamination in ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L., E-mail: maria.polignano@st.com; Barbarossa, F.; Galbiati, A.; Magni, D.; Mica, I.

    2016-06-15

    In this paper the tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes is studied by DLTS analysis both in typical operating conditions and after contamination of the implanter by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer. Of course the contaminant concentration is orders of magnitude higher after contamination of the implanter, but in addition our data show that different mechanisms are active in a not contaminated and in a contaminated implanter. A moderate tungsten contamination is observed also in a not contaminated implanter, however in that case contamination is completely not energetic and can be effectively screened by a very thin oxide. On the contrary, the contamination due to an implantation in a previously contaminated implanter is reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide. The comparison with SRIM calculations confirms that the observed deep penetration of the contaminant cannot be explained by a plain sputtering mechanism.

  17. Deuterium trapping at vacancy clusters in electron/neutron-irradiated tungsten studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, T.; Ami, K.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Hatano, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Deuterium trapping at irradiation-induced defects in tungsten, a candidate material for plasma facing components in fusion reactors, was revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. Pure tungsten was electron-irradiated (8.5 MeV at ∼373 K and to a dose of ∼1 × 10-3 dpa) or neutron-irradiated (at 573 K to a dose of ∼0.3 dpa), followed by post-irradiation annealing at 573 K for 100 h in deuterium gas of ∼0.1 MPa. In both cases of electron- or neutron-irradiation, vacancy clusters were found by positron lifetime measurements. In addition, positron annihilation with deuterium electrons was demonstrated by coincidence Doppler broadening measurements, directly indicating deuterium trapping at vacancy-type defects. This is expected to cause significant increase in deuterium retention in irradiated-tungsten.

  18. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for characterizing neutron irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.N. Taylor; M. Shimada; D.W. Akers; M.W. Drigert; B.J. Merrill; Y. Hatano

    2013-05-01

    Tungsten samples (6 mm diameter, 0.2 mm thick) were irradiated to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa with neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Samples were then exposed to deuterium plasma in the tritium plasma experiment (TPE) at 100, 200 and 500ºC to a total fluence of 1 x 1026 m-2. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy (DB-PAS) were performed at various stages to characterize damage and retention. We present the first known results of neutron damaged tungsten characterized by DB-PAS in order to study defect concentration. Two positron sources, 22Na and 68Ge, probe ~58 µm and through the entire 200 µm thick samples, respectively. DB-PAS results reveal clear differences between the various irradiated samples. These results, and the calibration of DB-PAS to NRA data are presented.

  19. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  20. 49 CFR 173.338 - Tungsten hexafluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.338 Tungsten hexafluoride. (a) Tungsten... shipped in an overpack that meets the provisions of § 173.40. (b) In place of the volumetric expansion... expansion test, must be condemned if removed from tungsten hexafluoride service. [ 74 FR 16143, Apr. 9, 2009...

  1. Anodic oxide films on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, A.; Di Quarto, F.; Sunseri, C.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphology of anodic oxide films on tungsten, obtained in various conditions of anodization. Studies were made of the growth of porous films, whose thickness increases with time and depends upon the current density. Temperature and electrolyte composition influence the film morphology. Gravimetric measurements of film dissolution at 70 0 C show that after a transient time, the rate of metal dissolution and that of film formation coincide. The porous films thicken because tungsten dissolves as WO 2 2+ and precipitates as WO 3 .H 2 O. (author)

  2. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  3. Recovery of tungsten surface with fiber-form nanostructure by the argon plasma irradiation at a high surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    One of the serious concerns for tungsten materials in fusion devices is the radiation defects caused by helium plasma irradiation, while the helium is one of fusion products. Fiber-formed nanostructure is worried to have a possible weakness against the plasma heat flux and may destroy the reflectivity as an optical mirror. In this communication an interesting method for a recovery of such a tungsten surface is shown. (author)

  4. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; Cha, Dongkyu; Ou, Yiwei; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C(3)N(4) (mpg-C(3)N(4)) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W(2)C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H(2) and O(2) in a stoichiometric ratio from H(2)O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO(3) photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Model calculation of positron states in tungsten containing hydrogen and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T; Nankov, N; Yoshiie, T; Popov, E

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten is a candidate material for plasma-facing first wall of a fusion power plant. Understanding of defects, tritium and helium behaviour in plasma facing materials [PFM] is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of its mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. Experiments with high-Z materials show that erosion of these materials under normal operation condition is considerably lower than the plasma induced erosion of low-Z materials like carbon or beryllium. Quantitative understanding of the experimental results for defects in tungsten needs a comprehensive theory of electron-positron interaction. The properties of defects in tungsten containing hydrogen or helium atoms have been investigated by model positron lifetime quantum-mechanical calculations. The electron wave functions have been obtained in the local density approximation LDA to the density functional theory DFT. On the bases of calculated results, the behaviour of vacancies, empty nano-voids and nano-voids with hydrogen and helium were discussed. It was established that hydrogen and helium in larger three-dimensional vacancy clusters in W change the annihilation characteristics dramatically. The hydrogen and helium atoms are trapped by lattice vacancies. These results provide physical insight for positron interactions in tungsten defects and can be used for prediction of hydrogen-H or helium-He4 and (tritium-H3) generation for the design of fusion reactors.

  6. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2012-12-17

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C3N 4 (mpg-C3N4) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W 2C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio from H 2O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. Platinum replacement: The phase-controlled synthesis of tungsten carbide nanoparticles from the nanoconfinement of a mesoporous graphite C 3N4 (mpg-C3N4) reactive template is shown. The nanomaterials catalyze hydrogen evolution/oxidation reactions, but are inactive in the oxygen reduction reaction. Tungsten carbide is an effective cocatalyst for photocatalytic overall water splitting (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hydrogen retention properties of polycrystalline tungsten and helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Koyama, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirohata, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen retention properties of a polycrystalline tungsten and tungsten irradiated by helium ions with an energy of 5 keV were examined by using an ECR ion irradiation apparatus and a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy, TDS. The polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated at RT with energetic hydrogen ions, with a flux of 10 15 H cm -2 and an energy of 1.7 keV up to a fluence of 5 x 10 18 H cm -2 . Subsequently, the amount of retained hydrogen was measured by TDS. The heating temperature was increased from RT to 1000 C, and the heating rate was 50 C min -1 . Below 1000 C, two distinct hydrogen desorption peaks were observed at 200 C and 400 C. The retained amount of hydrogen was observed to be five times smaller than that of graphite, but the concentration in the implantation layer was comparable with that of graphite. Also, the polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated with 5 keV helium ions up to a fluence of 1.4 x 10 18 He cm -2 , and then re-irradiated with 1.7 keV hydrogen ions. The amount of retained hydrogen in this later experiment was close to the value in the case without prior helium ion irradiation. However, the amount of hydrogen which desorbed around the low temperature peak, 200 C, was largely enhanced. The desorption amount at 200 C saturated for the helium fluence of more than 5 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The present data shows that the trapping state of hydrogen is largely changed by the helium ion irradiation. Additionally, 5 keV helium ion irradiation was conducted on a sample pre-implanted with hydrogen ions to simulate a helium ion impact desorption of hydrogen retained in tungsten. The amount of the hydrogen was reduced as much as 50%. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten or calcium doped PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.M.; Caracas, L.B.; Noronha, R.G.; Santos, M.M.T. dos; Paiva-Santos, C.O.

    2009-01-01

    Pure and doped (tungsten or calcium) PZT ceramics were prepared by association of the polymeric precursor and partial oxalate method. The phase formation was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The affect of W or Ca doping PZT and their electrical properties was evaluated. Substitution of W by Ti and Ca by Pb leads to an increase of Curie temperature and broadening of dielectric constant. A typical hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature and the remnant polarization was increased with the content of W and Ca. (author)

  9. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN TUNGSTEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSENS, [No Value; ELKERIEM, MSA; PLEITER, F

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen-vacancy interaction in tungsten was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. Hydrogen trapping at an In-111-vacancy cluster manifests itself as a change of the local electric field gradient, which gives rise to an observable

  10. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  11. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  12. Comparison of deuterium retention for ion-irradiated and neutron-irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Kobayashi, Makoto; Okuno, Kenji; Shimada, Masashi; Calderoni, Pattrick; Oda, Takuji; Hara, Masanori; Hatano, Yuji; Watanabe, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of D retentions for Fe 2+ irradiated tungsten with the damage of 0.025-3 dpa was compared with that for neutron irradiated tungsten with 0.025 dpa. The D 2 TDS spectra for Fe 2+ irradiated tungsten consisted of two desorption stages at 450 K and 550 K although that for neutron irradiated tungsten was composed of three stages and addition desorption stage was found around 750 K. The desorption rate of major desorption stage at 550 K increased as the number of dpa by Fe 2+ irradiation increased. In addition, the first desorption stage at 450 K was only found for the damaged samples, indicating that the second stage would be based on intrinsic defects or vacancy produced by Fe 2+ irradiation and the first stage should be the accumulation of D in mono vacancy leading to the lower activation energy, where the dislocation loop and vacancy was produced. The third one was only found for the neutron irradiation, showing the D trapping by void or vacancy cluster and the diffusion effect is also contributed due to high FWHM of TDS spectrum. It can be said that the D 2 TDS spectra for Fe 2+ -irradiated tungsten could not represent that for neutron-irradiated one, showing that the deuterium trapping and desorption mechanism for neutron-irradiated tungsten has a difference from that for ion-irradiated one. (author)

  13. Brazing molybdenum and tungsten for high temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Turner, W.C.; Hoffman, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to develop vacuum brazes for molybdenum and tungsten which can be used in seal joint applications up to 1870 K (1597 C, 2907 F). Joints were attempted in molybdenum, tungsten and tungsten--molybdenum. The braze materials included: Ti--10Cr powder, Ti--30V wire, Ti--65V wire, V wire, Ni electroplate, MoB--50MoC powder mixture, V--50Mo powder mixture, Mo--15MoB 2 powder mixture and Mo--49V--15MoB 2 powder mixture. Braze temperature ranged from 1900 K (1627 C, 2961 F) to 2530 K, (2257 C, 4095 F), and leak-tight joints were made with all braze materials except Ti--10Cr. After heat treatments up to 1870 K (1597 C, 2907 F) Kirkendall voiding was found to cause leakage of some of the joints made with only substitutional alloying elements. However, adding base metal powders to the braze or narrowing the root opening eliminated this problem. Kirkendall voiding was not a problem when interstitial elements were a major ingredient in the braze material. Shear testing of Ti--65V, V, MoB--50MoC and V--50Mo brazed molybdenum at 1670 K (1397 C, 2547 F) indicated strengths equal to or better than the base metal. Ti--65V, V--50Mo and MoB--50MoC brazed joints were exposed to basalt at 1670 K (1397 C, 2547 F) for 3 h without developing leaks

  14. Tensile behaviour of drawn tungsten wire used in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Feichtmayer, A.; Fuhr, M.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Gietl, H.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Neu, R.

    2017-12-01

    In tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) the brittleness problem of tungsten is solved by utilizing extrinsic toughening mechanisms. The properties of the composite are very much related to the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as fibre reinforcements. Its high strength and capability of ductile deformation are ideal properties facilitating toughening of Wf/W. Tensile tests have been used for determining mechanical properties and study the deformation and the fracture behaviour of the wire. Tests of as-fabricated and straightened drawn wires with a diameter between 16 and 150 μm as well as wire electrochemically thinned to a diameter of 5 μm have been performed. Engineering stress–strain curves and a microscopic analysis are presented with the focus on the ultimate strength. All fibres show a comparable stress–strain behaviour comprising necking followed by a ductile fracture. A reduction of the diameter by drawing leads to an increase of strength up to 4500 MPa as a consequence of a grain boundary hardening mechanism. Heat treatment during straightening decreases the strength whereas electrochemical thinning has no significant impact on the mechanical behaviour.

  15. A single amino acid substitution in IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AtMYC1 leads to trichome and root hair patterning defects by abolishing its interaction with partner proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-04-20

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or werewolf (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or enhancer of GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors.

  16. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in IIIf Subfamily of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor AtMYC1 Leads to Trichome and Root Hair Patterning Defects by Abolishing Its Interaction with Partner Proteins in Arabidopsis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or WEREWOLF (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors. PMID:22334670

  17. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  18. Structural defect accumulation in tungsten and tungsten-5wt.% tantalum under incremental proton damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatova, I.; Harrison, R. W.; Wady, P. T.; Shubeita, S. M.; Terentyev, D.; Donnelly, S. E.; Jimenez-Melero, E.

    2018-04-01

    We have performed proton irradiation of W and W-5wt.%Ta materials at 350 °C with a step-wise damage level increase up to 0.7 dpa and using two beam energies, namely 40 keV and 3 MeV, in order to probe the accumulation of radiation-induced lattice damage in these materials. Interstitial-type a/2 dislocation loops are formed under irradiation, and their size increases in W-5Ta up to a loop width of 21 ± 4 nm at 0.3 dpa, where loop saturation takes place. In contrast, the loop length in W increases progressively up to 183 ± 50 nm at 0.7 dpa, whereas the loop width remains relatively constant at 29 ± 7 nm at >0.3 dpa, giving rise to dislocation strings. The dislocation loops and tangles are observed in both materials examined after a 3 MeV proton irradiation at 350 °C. Ta doping delays the evolution of radiation-induced dislocation structures in W, and can consequently impact the hydrogen isotope retention under plasma exposure.

  19. Tungsten monocrystal cutting without distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, A.Yu.; Matveev, I.V.; Cheremisin, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Electrolyte with high electric current localization, containing 1-3 % KOH and 2-10 % NH 3 , is suggested to use for electrochemical cutting of tungsten. A cutting device is described which includes a cathode feed mechanism based on electric heating and a circuit of automatic control of an interelectrode gap. Laue patterns obtained from a cut surface are practically the same as ones from the initial monocrystal

  20. Adsorption and condensation of bismuth on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, T.; Sidorski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The bismuth-tungsten system was studied by means of field emission microscopy. The average work function changes induced by the bismuth adsorption were measured for different amounts of adsorbed bismuth. It was found that the adsorption of bismuth changes the work function of tungsten only slightly. The penetration of bismuth into the tungsten substrate was observed. The growth of bismuth single crystals was studied when bismuth was deposited with a rate of about 6 monolayers per minute onto the tungsten substrate and kept at 470 K. Bismuth single crystals with two-fold symmetry occurred most often on the (100) tungsten planes. On the (111) tungsten plane bismuth crystals with three-fold symmetry were observed. An explanation of the observed phenomena is proposed. (Auth.)

  1. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  2. Defect Structure of Localized Excitons in a WSe2 Monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuai

    2017-07-26

    The atomic and electronic structure of intrinsic defects in a WSe2 monolayer grown on graphite was revealed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Instead of chalcogen vacancies that prevail in other transition metal dichalcogenide materials, intrinsic defects in WSe2 arise surprisingly from single tungsten vacancies, leading to the hole (p-type) doping. Furthermore, we found these defects to dominate the excitonic emission of the WSe2 monolayer at low temperature. Our work provided the first atomic-scale understanding of defect excitons and paved the way toward deciphering the defect structure of single quantum emitters previously discovered in the WSe2 monolayer.

  3. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study Using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from currentless plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of W 24+ to W 33+ ions are very sensitive to electron temperature (Te) and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. Based on the first quantitative analysis of measured spatial profile of W 44+ ion, the tungsten concentration is determined to be n(W 44+ )/n e = 1.4x10 -4 and the total radiation loss is estimated as ∼4 MW, of which the value is roughly half the total NBI power. (author)

  4. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  5. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  6. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  7. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drinks. You may have heard them called “artificial sweeteners” or “non-caloric sweeteners.” They can be used ... a food or drink contains. What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA? The following sugar ...

  8. Tungsten: A Preliminary Environmental Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Effects on Flora & Fauna • Geochemistry • Soil microbial communities • Plants • Soil invertebrates • Higher order animals • Additional studies BUILDING...Bioaccumulation of Tungsten in Plants Natural Sources • Trees & shrubs in Rocky Mountain region, USA • Siberian pine, willows, mosses & lichen in tungsten

  9. Structures and transitions in tungsten grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhu, Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marian, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rudd, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational methodology to predict structure, energies of tungsten grain boundaries as a function of misorientation and inclination. The energies and the mobilities are the necessary input for thermomechanical model of recrystallization of tungsten for magnetic fusion applications being developed by the Marian Group at UCLA.

  10. International strategic mineral issues summary report: tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Antony B.T.; Sinclair, W. David; Amey, Earle B.

    1998-01-01

    Scheelite and wolframite are the principal minerals currently mined for tungsten. Both occur in hard-rock deposits; wolframite is also recovered from placer deposits. Most current mine production of tungsten is from vein/stockwork, skarn, porphyry, and strata-bound deposits. Minor amounts are produced from disseminated, pegmatite, breccia, and placer deposits.

  11. Development of Tungsten Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    CONTENTS Section Title Page 1 INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY .............................. 1 2 MATERIAL SELECTION .................................. 3 3...Metallographic Examination .. 41 - iv - 1. INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY This is the. Final Report on a Phase I SBIR Program entitled "Development of Tungsten Based...m = - -𔃺 S (l- 1- =11 = (t) 011CU ’a . 4) woj .- :2 01w c L .0 u .-. 0C 0 goa - L 0d MCDM . 3 -X - z 1 m- L. S.1 MCDM -z3-2: S - m 1 o. 01 In 0,10Lnw

  12. The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D

    2017-01-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...

  13. Development of tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites towards their use in DEMO—potassium doped tungsten wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Han, Y.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Höschen, T.; Jasper, B.; Zhao, P.; Linsmeier, Ch; Neu, R.

    2016-02-01

    For the next step fusion reactor the use of tungsten is inevitable to suppress erosion and allow operation at elevated temperature and high heat loads. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten and its susceptibility to operation embrittlement and thus allow its use as a structural as well as an armour material. That this concept works in principle has been shown in recent years. In this contribution we present a development approach towards its use in a future fusion reactor. A multilayer approach is needed addressing all composite constituents and manufacturing steps. A huge potential lies in the optimization of the tungsten wire used as fibre. We discuss this aspect and present studies on potassium doped tungsten wire in detail. This wire, utilized in the illumination industry, could be a replacement for the so far used pure tungsten wire due to its superior high temperature properties. In tensile tests the wire showed high strength and ductility up to an annealing temperature of 2200 K. The results show that the use of doped tungsten wire could increase the allowed fabrication temperature and the overall working temperature of the composite itself.

  14. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H. A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from plasmas of the large helical device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission of W24+ to W33+ ions at 1.5-3.5 nm are sensitive to electron temperature and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. We can reproduce measured EUV spectra at 1.5-3.5 nm by calculated spectra with the tungsten atomic model and obtain charge state distributions of tungsten ions in LHD plasmas at different temperatures around 1 keV. Our model is applied to calculate the unresolved transition array (UTA) seen at 4.5-7 nm tungsten spectra. We analyze the effect of configuration interaction on population kinetics related to the UTA structure in detail and find the importance of two-electron-one-photon transitions between 4p54dn+1- 4p64dn-14f. Radiation power rate of tungsten due to line emissions is also estimated with the model and is consistent with other models within factor 2.

  15. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jay L. [Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755 (United States)], E-mail: Jay.L.Clausen@erdc.usace.army.mil; Korte, Nic [1946 Clover Ct., Grand Junction, Colorado, 81506 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use.

  16. Helium segregation on surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroudas, Dimitrios; Blondel, Sophie; Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2016-02-01

    We report a hierarchical multi-scale modeling study of implanted helium segregation on surfaces of tungsten, considered as a plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors. We employ a hierarchy of atomic-scale simulations based on a reliable interatomic interaction potential, including molecular-statics simulations to understand the origin of helium surface segregation, targeted molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of near-surface cluster reactions, and large-scale MD simulations of implanted helium evolution in plasma-exposed tungsten. We find that small, mobile He n (1  ⩽  n  ⩽  7) clusters in the near-surface region are attracted to the surface due to an elastic interaction force that provides the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. This elastic interaction force induces drift fluxes of these mobile He n clusters, which increase substantially as the migrating clusters approach the surface, facilitating helium segregation on the surface. Moreover, the clusters’ drift toward the surface enables cluster reactions, most importantly trap mutation, in the near-surface region at rates much higher than in the bulk material. These near-surface cluster dynamics have significant effects on the surface morphology, near-surface defect structures, and the amount of helium retained in the material upon plasma exposure. We integrate the findings of such atomic-scale simulations into a properly parameterized and validated spatially dependent, continuum-scale reaction-diffusion cluster dynamics model, capable of predicting implanted helium evolution, surface segregation, and its near-surface effects in tungsten. This cluster-dynamics model sets the stage for development of fully atomistically informed coarse-grained models for computationally efficient simulation predictions of helium surface segregation, as well as helium retention and surface morphological evolution, toward optimal design of plasma facing components.

  17. Viscoelastic model of tungsten 'fuzz' growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S I

    2011-01-01

    A viscoelastic model of fuzz growth is presented. The model describes the main features of tungsten fuzz observed in experiments. It gives estimates of fuzz growth rate and temperature range close to experimental ones.

  18. Electronic Transitions of Tungsten Monosulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L. F.; Chan, Man-Chor; Zou, Wenli; Cheung, Allan S. C.

    2017-06-01

    Electronic transition spectrum of the tungsten monosulfide (WS) molecule in the near infrared region between 725 nm and 885 nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The WS molecule was produced by reacting laser - ablated tungsten atoms with 1% CS_{2} seeded in argon. Fifteen vibrational bands with resolved rotational structure have been recorded and analyzed, which were organized into seven electronic transition systems. The ground state has been identified to be the X^{3}Σ^{-}(0^{+}) state, and the determined vibrational frequency, ΔG_{1/2} and bond length, r_{0}, are respectively 556.7 cm^{-1} and 2.0676 Å. In addition, vibrational bands belong to another transition system involving lower state with Ω = 1 component have also been analyzed. Least-squares fit of the measured line positions yielded molecular constants for the electronic states involved. The low-lying Λ-S states and Ω sub-states of WS have been calculated using state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) and followed by MRCISD+Q (internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus Davidson's cluster correction). The active space consists of 10 electrons in 9 orbitals corresponding to the W 5d6s and S 3p shells. The lower molecular orbitals from W 5s5p and S 3s are inactive but are also correlated, and relativistic effective core potential (RECPs) are adopted to replace the core orbitals with 60 (W) and 10 (S) core electrons, respectively. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is calculated via the state-interaction (SI) approach with RECP spin-orbit operators using SA-CASSCF wavefunctions, where the diagonal elements in the SOC matrix are replaced by the corresponding MRCISD+Q energies calculated above. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of the ground and many low-lying Λ-S states and Ω sub-states of the WS molecule are obtained. The calculated

  19. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process. Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction. To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

  20. Deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloys exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Uytdenhouwen, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2012-01-01

    A direct comparison of deuterium retention in samples of tungsten and two grades of tungsten-tantalum alloys-W-1% Ta and W-5% Ta, exposed to deuterium plasmas (ion flux similar to 10(24) m(-2) s(-1), ion energy at the biased target similar to 50 eV) at the plasma generator Pilot-PSI was performed

  1. Nitridation of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures: Changes in structure and photoactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamás

    2017-10-12

    In the search for stable, visible light active photoelectrodes, hydrothermally synthesized tungsten oxide nanowires were modified via nitrogen incorporation into their structure. To this end, nanowires were heat-treated in ammonia/nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures. This procedure caused transitions in their structure that were investigated along with the photoelectrochemical properties of the samples. Results were subsequently compared to the reference samples treated in inert nitrogen atmosphere. Morphological changes and structural transitions were followed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Bandgap energies were determined from the UV–vis spectra of the materials, while photoelectrochemical properties were tested by linear sweep photovoltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Pristine tungsten oxide nanowires were first transformed into tungsten oxynitride and then tungsten nitride during high-temperature calcination in ammonia atmosphere. Electron microscopic investigation revealed that, along with phase transition, the initial fibrous morphology gradually converted into nanosheets. Simultaneously, bandgap energies significantly decreased in the calcination process, too. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that photoactivity in the treated samples was not improved by the decrease of the bandgap. This behavior might be explained with the deterioration of charge carrier transport properties of the materials due to the increased number of structural defects (acting as trap states), and current ongoing work aims to verify this notion.

  2. Ultrasonically Assisted Single Point Diamond Turning of Optical Mold of Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To realize high efficiency, low/no damage and high precision machining of tungsten carbide used for lens mold, a high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system was developed at first. Then, tungsten carbide was precisely machined with a polycrystalline diamond (PCD tool assisted by the self-developed high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system. Tool wear mechanism was investigated in ductile regime machining of tungsten carbide. The cutter back-off phenomenon in the process was analyzed. The subsequent experimental results of ultra-precision machining with a single crystal diamond tool showed that: under the condition of high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting, nano-scale surface roughness can be obtained by the diamond tool with smaller tip radius and no defects like those of ground surface were found on the machined surface. Tool wear mechanisms of the single crystal diamond tool are mainly abrasive wear and micro-chipping. To solve the problem, a method of inclined ultrasonic vibration cutting with negative rake angle was put forward according to force analysis, which can further reduce tool wear and roughness of the machined surface. The investigation was important to high efficiency and quality ultra-precision machining of tungsten carbide.

  3. Investigation of structural, optical, magnetic and electrical properties of tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn nano-ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Abhilash; Bhardwaj, Sanjay; Thakur, Shyam Singh; Mattei, Jean-Luc; Queffelec, Patrick; Panina, Larissa V.; Thakur, Preeti; Thakur, Atul

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten substituted nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles with chemical composition of Ni0.5Zn0.5WxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 & 1.0) were successfully synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared ferrites were pre sintered at 850 °C and then annealed at 1000 °C in a muffle furnace for 3 h each. This sintered powder was inspected by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the structural, optical, and magnetic properties. XRD measurement revealed the phase purity of all the nanoferrite samples with cubic spinel structure. The estimated crystallite size by X-ray line broadening is found in the range of 49-62 nm. FTIR spectra of all the samples have observed two prominent absorption bands in the range 400-700 cm-1 arising due to tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrations. Vibrating sample magnetometer experiments showed that the saturation magnetizations (MS) decreased with an increase in non-magnetic tungsten ion doping. The electrical resistivity of tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn nano ferrites were examined extensively as a function of temperature. With an increase in tungsten composition, resistivity was found to decrease from 2.2 × 105 Ω cm to 1.9 × 105 Ω cm which indicates the semiconducting behavior of the ferrite samples. The activation energy also decreased from 0.0264 to 0.0221 eV at x = 0.0 to x = 1.0. These low coercive field tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn ferrites are suitable for hyperthermia and sensor applications. These observations are explained in detail on the basis of various models and theories.

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of chemically vapor deposited tungsten heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupi, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A network of lithium-filled tungsten heat pipes is being considered as a method of heat extraction from high temperature nuclear reactors. The need for material purity and shape versatility in these applications dictates the use of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten. Adaptability of CVD tungsten to complex heat pipe designs is shown. Deposition and welding techniques are described. Operation of two lithium-filled CVD tungsten heat pipes above 1800 K is discussed.

  5. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  6. Electron work function of stepped tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1976-03-01

    The electron work function of tungsten (110) vicinal faces was measured with the aid of thermionic emission, and its dependence on the crystallographic orientation and the surface structure was investigated. The thermionic measurements were evaluated with the aid of the Richardson plot. The real temperature of the emitting tungsten faces was determined with an accuracy of +- 0.5% in the range between 2,200 and 2,800 K. The vicinal faces under investigation have been prepared with an orientation exactness of +- 15'. In the tungsten (110) vicinal faces under investigation, a strong dependence of the temperature coefficient d PHI/dT of the work function on the crystallographic orientation was found. A strong influence of the edge structure as well as of the step density on the temperature coefficient was observed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  7. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of irradiation damage in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Na-Young [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Han, Seung-Hee [Advanced Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [Reactor Engineering Team, Division of Research and Development, National Fusion Research Center, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Pil-Ryung [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cprdream@kookmin.ac.kr

    2007-12-15

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed for the radiation damage of tungsten using a modified Finnis-Sinclair type many-body interatomic potential. The interstitial defects and vacancies are distinguished by the Wigner-Seitz cell method and the types of the interstitial dumbbells are also identified by the azimuth and polar angles of dumbbell line vectors. It is observed that the number of interstitial defects and vacancies initially sharply increases and passing through the peak position, relaxes to the steady state for all PKA energies and that all residual interstitial dumbbells at the steady state are the <1 1 1>-oriented. Based on the variation of the orientation angles of dumbbells during the radiation damage simulation, it is found that the recombination of the <1 1 1>-oriented dumbbells with the vacancies is much faster than that of two other types of dumbbells and that the population of the <1 0 0> dumbbells is much larger than that of the <1 1 0> ones in spite of its higher formation energy, the reason of which is explained with the dynamics of the individual dumbbell.

  9. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  10. Nuclear Technology. Course 28: Welding Inspection. Module 28-3, Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Submerged Arc Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John

    This third in a series of ten modules for a course titled Welding Inspection presents the apparatus, process techniques, procedures, applications, associated defects, and inspection for the tungsten inert gas, metal inert gas, and submerged arc welding processes. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  11. Ab initio and DFT benchmarking of tungsten nanoclusters and tungsten hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoviera, J.; Novotny, M.; Cernusak, I.; Oda, T.; Louis, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present several benchmark calculations comparing wave-function based methods and density functional theory for model systems containing tungsten. They include W 4 cluster as well as W 2 , WH and WH 2 molecules. (authors)

  12. Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Continuous and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded alloy 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, A.; Manikandan, M.

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigates the microstructure and mechanical properties of joints fabricated by Continuous and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded alloy 600. Welding was done by autogenous mode. The macro examination was carried out to evaluate the welding defects in the weld joints. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were performed to assess the microstructural changes in the fusion zone. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying elements in the fusion zone. The tensile test was conducted to assess the strength of the weld joints. The results show that no welding defects were observed in the fusion zones of Continuous and Pulsed current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. The refined microstructure was found in the pulsed current compared to continuous current mode. Microsegregation was not noticed in the weld grain boundary of continuous and pulsed current mode. The pulsed current shows improved mechanical properties compared to the continuous current mode.

  13. Development of a one-step approach for the reconstruction of full thickness skin defects using minced split thickness skin grafts and biodegradable synthetic scaffolds as a dermal substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Bullock, Anthony; Ralston, David; MacNeil, Sheila

    2014-08-01

    Tissue engineering has progressed in delivering laboratory-expanded keratinocytes to the clinic; however the production of a suitable alternative to a skin graft, containing both epidermis and dermis still remains a challenge. To develop a one-step approach to wound reconstruction using finely minced split thickness skin and a biodegradable synthetic dermal substitute. This was explored in vitro using scalpel diced pieces of split thickness human skin combined with synthetic electrospun polylactide (PLA) scaffolds. To aid the spreading of tissue, 1% methylcellulose was used and platelet releasate was examined for its effect on cellular outgrowth from tissue explants. The outcome parameters included the metabolic activity of the migrating cells and their ability to produce collagen. Cell presence and migration on the scaffolds were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and SEM. Cells were identified as keratinocytes by immunostaining for pan-cytokeratin. Collagen deposition was quantified by using Sirius red. Skin cells migrated along the fibers of the scaffold and formed new collagen. 1% methylcellulose improved the tissue handling properties of the minced skin. Platelet releasate did not stimulate the migration of skin cells along scaffold fibers. Immunohistochemistry and SEM confirmed the presence of both epithelial and stromal cells in the new tissue. We describe the first key steps in the production of a skin substitute to be assembled in theatre eliminating the need for cell culture. Whilst further experiments are needed to develop this technique it can be a useful addition to armamentarium of the reconstructive surgeon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of silicon on tungsten diselenide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Qirong; van Bremen, Rik; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of the growth of silicon on a tungsten diselenide (WSe2) substrate. We have found convincing experimental evidence that silicon does not remain on the WSe2 substrate but rather intercalates between the top layers of WSe2. Upon

  15. Copper-Tungsten Composites Sprayed by HVOF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Zahálka, F.; Bensch, Jan; Chi, W.; Sedláček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-180 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermally sprayed coatings * tungsten * copper * HVOF Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/120439/

  16. Tungsten and refractory metals 3, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Tungsten and Refractory Metals was held in Greater Washington DC at the McLean Hilton, McLean Virginia, on November 15--16, 1995. This meeting was the third in a series of conferences held in the Washington DC area. The first meeting was in 1992 and was entitled ''International Conference on Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys.'' In 1994, the scope of the meeting was expanded to include other refractory metals such as molybdenum, iridium, rhenium, tantalum and niobium. The tremendous success of that meeting was the primary motivation for this Conference. The broader scope (the inclusion of other refractory metals and alloys) of the Conference was kept intact for this meeting. In fact, it was felt that the developments in the technology of these materials required a common forum for the interchange of current research information. The papers presented in this meeting examined the rapid advancements in the technology of refractory metals, with special emphasis on the processing, structure, and properties. Among the properties there was emphasis on both quasi-static and dynamic rates. Another topic that received considerable interest was the area of refractory carbides and tungsten-copper composites. One day of concurrent session was necessary to accommodate all of the presentations

  17. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-01-01

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  18. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Scott O' Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  19. CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 ...

  20. Titanium tungsten coatings for bioelectrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Amato, Letizia; Łopacińska, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of titanium tungsten (TiW) coatings and their applicability as components of biosensing systems. The focus is put on using TiW as an electromechanical interface layer between carbon nanotube (CNT) forests and silicon nanograss (SiNG) cell scaffolds. Cytotoxicity...

  1. Distribution of induced activity in tungsten targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, R.J.; Nelson, W.R.

    1988-09-01

    Estimates are made of the induced activity created during high-energy electron showers in tungsten, using the EGS4 code. Photon track lengths, neutron yields and spatial profiles of the induced activity are presented. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Electrospark doping of steel with tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, Yulia, E-mail: yukolubaeva@mail.ru; Shugurov, Vladimir, E-mail: shugurov@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Russia, Tomsk, 2/3 Akademicheskiy Ave (Russian Federation); Petrikova, Elizaveta, E-mail: elizmarkova@yahoo.com [Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Russia, Tomsk, 2/3 Akademicheskiy Ave (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Seksenalina, Malika, E-mail: sportmiss@bk.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, Olga, E-mail: ivaov@mail.ru; Ikonnikova, Irina, E-mail: irinaikonnikova@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Kunitsyna, Tatyana, E-mail: kma11061990@mail.ru; Vlasov, Victor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, Anatoliy, E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yuriy, E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Russia, Tomsk, 2/3 Akademicheskiy Ave (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Str. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to the numerical modeling of thermal processes and the analysis of the structure and properties of the surface layer of carbon steel subjected to electrospark doping with tungsten. The problem of finding the temperature field in the system film (tungsten) / substrate (iron) is reduced to the solution of the heat conductivity equation. A one-dimensional case of heating and cooling of a plate with the thickness d has been considered. Calculations of temperature fields formed in the system film / substrate synthesized using methods of electrospark doping have been carried out as a part of one-dimensional approximation. Calculations have been performed to select the mode of the subsequent treatment of the system film / substrate with a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. Authors revealed the conditions of irradiation allowing implementing processes of steel doping with tungsten. A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of iron with tungsten in equilibrium conditions has been performed. The studies have been carried out on the surface layer of the substrate modified using the method of electrospark doping. The results showed the formation in the surface layer of a structure with a highly developed relief and increased strength properties.

  3. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  4. CALICE silicon–tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 ...

  5. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  6. Electrospark doping of steel with tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, Yulia; Shugurov, Vladimir; Petrikova, Elizaveta; Seksenalina, Malika; Ivanova, Olga; Ikonnikova, Irina; Kunitsyna, Tatyana; Vlasov, Victor; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Ivanov, Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the numerical modeling of thermal processes and the analysis of the structure and properties of the surface layer of carbon steel subjected to electrospark doping with tungsten. The problem of finding the temperature field in the system film (tungsten) / substrate (iron) is reduced to the solution of the heat conductivity equation. A one-dimensional case of heating and cooling of a plate with the thickness d has been considered. Calculations of temperature fields formed in the system film / substrate synthesized using methods of electrospark doping have been carried out as a part of one-dimensional approximation. Calculations have been performed to select the mode of the subsequent treatment of the system film / substrate with a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. Authors revealed the conditions of irradiation allowing implementing processes of steel doping with tungsten. A thermodynamic analysis of phase transformations taking place during doping of iron with tungsten in equilibrium conditions has been performed. The studies have been carried out on the surface layer of the substrate modified using the method of electrospark doping. The results showed the formation in the surface layer of a structure with a highly developed relief and increased strength properties

  7. ITER tungsten divertor design development and qualification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T., E-mail: takeshi.hirai@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escourbiac, F.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Fedosov, A.; Ferrand, L.; Jokinen, T.; Komarov, V.; Kukushkin, A.; Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pitts, R.A.; Shu, W.; Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Riccardi, B. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, S. [JAEA, Fusion Research and Development Directorate JAEA, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaragi 311-0193 (Japan); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Detailed design development plan for the ITER tungsten divertor. • Latest status of the ITER tungsten divertor design. • Brief overview of qualification program for the ITER tungsten divertor and status of R and D activity. -- Abstract: In November 2011, the ITER Council has endorsed the recommendation that a period of up to 2 years be set to develop a full-tungsten divertor design and accelerate technology qualification in view of a possible decision to start operation with a divertor having a full-tungsten plasma-facing surface. To ensure a solid foundation for such a decision, a full tungsten divertor design, together with a demonstration of the necessary high performance tungsten monoblock technology should be completed within the required timescale. The status of both the design and technology R and D activity is summarized in this paper.

  8. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  9. Cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by metallo-intercalator ruthenium(II) complexes containing chloro-substituted phenylazopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Breast cancers with a BRCA1 mutation are also frequently triple-negative. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies and known specific molecular targets for this aggressive breast cancer subtype. To address this concern, we have explored the cellular responses of BRCA1-defective and triple-negative breast cancer cells, and in vitro BRCA1 interactions induced by the ruthenium(II) complexes containing the bidentate ligand, 5-chloro-2-(phenylazo)pyridine. Methods Triple-negative MDA-MB-231, BRCA1-defective HCC1937 and BRCA1-competent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were treated with ruthenium(II) complexes. The cytoxoxicity of ruthenium-induced breast cancer cells was evaluated by a real time cellular analyzer (RTCA). Cellular uptake of ruthenium complexes was determined by ICP-MS. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed using propidium iodide and Annexin V flow cytometry. The N-terminal BRCA1 RING protein was used for conformational and functional studies using circular dichroism and in vitro ubiquitination. Results HCC1937 cells were significantly more sensitive to the ruthenium complexes than the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Treatment demonstrated a higher degree of cytotoxicity than cisplatin against all three cell lines. Most ruthenium atoms were retained in the nuclear compartment, particularly in HCC1937 cells, after 24 h of incubation, and produced a significant block at the G2/M phase. An increased induction of apoptotic cells as well as an upregulation of p53 mRNA was observed in all tested breast cancer cells. It was of interest that BRCA1 mRNA and replication of BRCA1-defective cells were downregulated. Changes in the conformation and binding constants of ruthenium-BRCA1 adducts were observed, causing inactivation of the RING heterodimer BRCA1/BARD1-mediated E3

  10. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper

  11. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L.M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Byun, T.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410–780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02–9.0 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039–1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile. - Highlights: • Fusion reactors need a tough, ductile tungsten plasma-facing material. • The unirradiated tungsten-copper laminate is more ductile than tungsten alone. • After neutron irradiation, the composite has significantly less ductility. • The tungsten behavior appears to dominate the overall composite behavior.

  12. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10 10 cm -2 ). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D. [STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  15. Enhancing the adhesion of diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrate using tungsten particles via MPCVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Wen Chi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wu, Yu-Shiang, E-mail: yswu@cc.cust.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, 245, Sec. 3, Yen-Chiu-Yuan Road, Nankang, Taipei 11581, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hou-Cheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, Taipei 11581, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuan-Haun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-03-24

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > Larger particles of tungsten led to larger diamond particles with improved crystallinity, covering the specimen with increased speed. > Adhesion was indicated to be a function of the gaps between the tungsten particles. > Diamond films pretreated with tungsten particles of 2.0 {mu}m showed the highest hardness of 27.78 GPa with good crystalline. - Abstract: To increase the adhesion of diamond films and avoid the negative effects of using cobalt, previous treatments have employed tungsten particles to cover the surface of the 6 wt.% cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate. The surface of the tungsten particles is transformed into W{sub 2}C and WC, which attracts and traps carbon. Through the process of nucleation, the carbon forms around the tungsten particles, thereby satisfying the conditions necessary for the formation of diamond film. Using Raman spectroscopy, we determined that diamond films of good quality with excellent adhesive properties and a hardness level as high as 27.78 GPa could be produced following pretreatment with 2.0 {mu}m tungsten particles. Rockwell indentation tests indicate that addition of tungsten particles promotes the interfacial adhesion of diamond films with WC-Co substrates. We determined that using smaller tungsten particles decreased the number of gaps and cavities on the surface of the substrate, thereby enhancing the adhesion of the diamond film.

  16. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  17. Spectroscopic modeling for tungsten EUV spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Suzuki, Chihiro; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Sasaki, Akira; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Koike, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed an atomic model for tungsten extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra to reconstruct characteristic spectral feature of unresolved transition array (UTA) observed at 4-7 nm for tungsten ions. In the tungsten atomic modeling, we considered fine-structure levels with the quantum principal number n up to 6 as the atomic structure and calculated the electron-impact collision cross sections by relativistic distorted-wave method, using HULLAC atomic code. We measured tungsten EUV spectra in Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact Electron Beam Ion Trap device (CoBIT) and compared them with the model calculation. The model successfully explain series of emission peaks at 1.5-3.5 nm as n=5-4 and 6-4 transitions of W 24+ - W 32+ measured in CoBIT and LHD and the charge state distributions were estimated for LHD plasma. The UTA feature observed at 4-7 nm was also successfully reconstructed with our model. The peak at ∼5 nm is produced mainly by many 4f-4d transition of W 22+ - W 35+ ions, and the second peak at ∼6 nm is produced by 4f-4d transition of W 25+ - W 28+ ions, and 4d-4p inner-shell transitions, 4p 5 4d n+1 - 4p 6 4d n , of W 29+ - W 35+ ions. These 4d-4p inner-shell transitions become strong since we included higher excited states such as 4p 5 4d n 4f state, which ADAS atomic data set does not include for spectroscopic modeling with fine structure levels. (author)

  18. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  19. Process for separation of tungsten and molybdenum by extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelikman, A.N.; Voldman, G.M.; Rumyantsev, V.K.; Ziberov, G.N.; Kagermanian, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the separation of tungsten and molybdenum by extraction involves the addition of HCl or HNO 3 to an aqueous solution containing tungsten and molybdenum to obtain a pH from 0.5 to 4.3, and introduction of a stabilizer comprising water-soluble phosphorus salts and a complexing agent, hydrogen peroxide, in an amount from 1.5 to 2 mole per 1 g-atom of the total content of tungsten and molybdenum. Then molybdenum is selectively extracted from the resulting aqueous solution with tri-n-butylphosphate with equal volumetric proportioning of the aqueous and organic solutions. Re-extraction of molybdenum and partially tungsten is carried out from the organic extracting agent with an alkali or soda solution. The process makes possible the preparation of tungsten solution containing no more than 0.001 g/l of molybdenum, and an increase in the degree of extraction of tungsten and molybdenum

  20. Electronic state of europium atoms on surface of oxidized tungsten

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The energy scheme of the europium atoms adsorption system on the tungsten surface, coated with the oxygen monolayer, is considered. The evaluations of the europium adatoms charged state on the oxidized tungsten surface are performed. It is established, that europium, adsorbed at the oxidized tungsten surface, is a positive ion with the charge close to the unit. The zonal scheme of the Eu-O/W adsorption system for the europium low and high concentrations is proposed

  1. Surface composition of carburized tungsten trioxide and its catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, M.; Okamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    The surface composition and electronic structure of carburized tungsten trioxide are investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The relationship between the surface composition and the catalytic activity for methanol electro-oxidation is clarified. The tungsten carbide concentration in the surface layer increases with the carburization time. The formation of tungsten carbide enhances the catalytic activity. On the other hand, the presence of free carbon or tungsten trioxide in the surface layer reduces the activity remarkably. It is also shown that, the higher the electronic density of states near the Fermi level, the higher the catalytic activity

  2. Radiative capture of slow electrons by tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, O.M.; Belkina, G.M.; Samarin, S.N.; Yakovlev, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    Isochromatic spectra of radiation capture of slow electrons by the surface of mono- and polycrystal tungsten recorded on 322 and 405 nm wave lengths are presented. The effect of oxygen adsorption on isochromates of the (110) face of tungsten monocrystal is investigated. The obtained isochromatic spectra are compared with energy band structure of tungsten. Based on the analysis of the obtained experimental results it is assumed that optical transition to the final state at the energy of 7.3 eV relatively to Fermi level is conditioned by surface states of the tungsten face (110)

  3. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Buzhinskiy, O. I.; Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400-1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  4. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B., E-mail: lbb@plasma.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Buzhinskiy, O. I. [State Research Center Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400–1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  5. Combinatorial screening of an in situ generated library of tungsten oxyhalide and imido complexes for olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Duane R; Sussman, Victor J; Burdett, Ken; Chen, Yu; Miller, Kami J

    2014-10-13

    A series of substituted tungsten(VI) halides with general formula WECl4 (E = O or -NR (imido)) were screened via a high throughput study to identify potential new olefin metathesis catalysts. The tungsten species were treated with a series of aluminum alkyl activators and modifier ligands to generate active catalyst species in situ. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene was used as a primary screen to identify potential metathesis catalysts and active catalysts were subjected to a secondary screen to evaluate tolerance toward polar functional groups. Several combinations from the high throughput campaign yielded active metathesis catalysts for the ROMP of cyclooctene. However, none of the catalysts examined in this study exhibited any evidence of significant polar functional group tolerance as determined by the results of the secondary cyclooctene/butyl acetate screen.

  6. Deuterium retention in MeV self-implanted tungsten: Influence of damaging dose rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schwarz-Selinger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recrystallized, polycrystalline tungsten was self-damaged by 20MeV tungsten ions up to a calculated damage dose in the damage peak of 0.23dpa. The time to acquire this dose and hence the average damaging dose rate was varied from 6×10-3 to 4×10-6dpa/s, the latter coming close to the damage dose rate expected from fusion neutrons in future devices such as ITER and DEMO. One series was conducted at 295K and one at 800K to check for possible effects of defect evolution at elevated temperature. The created damage was decorated afterwards with a deuterium plasma at low ion energy of <15eV and low flux of 6×1019D/m2 until saturation to derive a measure for the defect density that can retain hydrogen isotopes. 3He nuclear reaction analysis (NRA was applied to derive the deuterium depth profile and the maximum concentration in the damage peak. Neither for the 295K nor for the 800K series a variation in deuterium retention with damage dose rate was found.

  7. Selected topics in high temperature chemistry defect chemistry of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesen, Ø

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several mater

  8. Coagulation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Doreen E; Broadman, Lynn M

    2006-09-01

    The present understanding of the coagulation process emphasizes the final common pathway and the proteolytic systems that result in the degradation of formed clots and the prevention of unwanted clot formations, as well as a variety of defense systems that include tissue repair, autoimmune processes, arteriosclerosis, tumor growth, the spread of metastases, and defense systems against micro-organisms. This article discusses diagnosis and management of some of the most common bleeding disorders. The goals are to provide a simple guide on how best to manage patients afflicted with congenital or acquired clotting abnormalities during the perioperative period, present a brief overview of the methods of testing and monitoring the coagulation defects, and discuss the appropriate pharmacologic or blood component therapies for each disease.

  9. Computer experiment studies on mechanisms for irradiation induced defect production and annealing processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, J.R. Jr.; Beeler, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    This research is based on pair potentials used in the Brookhaven work. It extends their use in defect production simulations to the 5 MeV range and characterizes the short term annealing of the primary defect states. Defect properties and interactions are studied. Defect interactions include carbon, helium, and misfit metallic substitutional impurity interactions with vacancy and interstitial defects as well as vacancy-vacancy, interstitial-interstitial and vacancy-interstitial interactions. (FS)

  10. Computer experiment studies on mechanisms for irradiation induced defect production and annealing processes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeler, J.R. Jr.; Beeler, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    This research is based on pair potentials used in the Brookhaven work. It extends their use in defect production simulations to the 5 MeV range and characterizes the short term annealing of the primary defect states. Defect properties and interactions are studied. Defect interactions include carbon, helium, and misfit metallic substitutional impurity interactions with vacancy and interstitial defects as well as vacancy-vacancy, interstitial-interstitial and vacancy-interstitial interactions

  11. Development and characterization of powder metallurgically produced discontinuous tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Riesch, J.; Sistla, S.; Almanstötter, J.; Jasper, B.; Terra, A.; Höschen, T.; Gietl, H.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.; Linsmeier, Ch; Broeckmann, C.

    2017-12-01

    In future fusion reactors, tungsten is the prime candidate material for the plasma facing components. Nevertheless, tungsten is prone to develop cracks due to its intrinsic brittleness—a major concern under the extreme conditions of fusion environment. To overcome this drawback, tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten (Wf/W) composites are being developed. These composite materials rely on an extrinsic toughing principle, similar to those in ceramic matrix composite, using internal energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crack bridging and fiber pull-out, during crack propagation. This can help Wf/W to facilitate a pseudo-ductile behavior and allows an elevated damage resilience compared to pure W. For pseudo-ductility mechanisms to occur, the interface between the fiber and matrix is crucial. Recent developments in the area of powder-metallurgical Wf/W are presented. Two consolidation methods are compared. Field assisted sintering technology and hot isostatic pressing are chosen to manufacture the Wf/W composites. Initial mechanical tests and microstructural analyses are performed on the Wf/W composites with a 30% fiber volume fraction. The samples produced by both processes can give pseudo-ductile behavior at room temperature.

  12. Comparative Investigation of Tungsten Fibre Nets Reinforced Tungsten Composite Fabricated by Three Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibre nets reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W containing four net layers were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS, hot pressing (HP and cold rolling after HP (HPCR, with the weight fraction of fibres being 17.4%, 10.5% and 10.5%, respectively. The relative density of the HPCRed samples is the highest (99.8% while that of the HPed composites is the lowest (95.1%. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattering diffraction were exploited to characterize the microstructure, while tensile and hardness tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the samples. It was found that partial recrystallization of fibres occurred after the sintering at 1800 °C. The SPSed and HPed Wf/W composites begin to exhibit plastic deformation at 600 °C with tensile strength (TS of 536 and 425 MPa and total elongation at break (TE of 11.6% and 23.0%, respectively, while the HPCRed Wf/W composites exhibit plastic deformation at around 400 °C. The TS and TE of the HPCRed Wf/W composites at 400 °C are 784 MPa and 8.4%, respectively. The enhanced mechanical performance of the Wf/W composites over the pure tungsten can be attributed to the necking, cracking, and debonding of the tungsten fibres.

  13. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Cryogenic treatment; tungsten carbide–cobalt; SEM; XRD; microhardness. 1. Introduction. Tungsten carbide tools can machine metals at speeds that cause the cutting edge to become red hot, without losing its hardness or sharpness. It exhibits about 2–3 times the produc- tivity and 10 times the life of high-speed ...

  14. Calibration and Temperature Profile of a Tungsten Filament Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles; Gitton, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work proposed for undergraduate students and teachers is the calibration of a tungsten filament lamp from electric measurements that are both simple and precise, allowing to determine the temperature of tungsten filament as a function of the current intensity. This calibration procedure was first applied to a conventional filament…

  15. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Welding Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a three-unit module in gas tungsten arc welding. The module has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The basic principles involved in gas tungsten arc welding, supplies, and applications are covered. The materials included…

  16. Tungsten Deposition on Graphite using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Uttam; Chauhan, Sachin S; Sharma, Jayshree; Sanyasi, A K; Ghosh, J; Choudhary, K K; Ghosh, S K

    2016-01-01

    The tokamak concept is the frontrunner for achieving controlled thermonuclear reaction on earth, an environment friendly way to solve future energy crisis. Although much progress has been made in controlling the heated fusion plasmas (temperature ∼ 150 million degrees) in tokamaks, technological issues related to plasma wall interaction topic still need focused attention. In future, reactor grade tokamak operational scenarios, the reactor wall and target plates are expected to experience a heat load of 10 MW/m 2 and even more during the unfortunate events of ELM's and disruptions. Tungsten remains a suitable choice for the wall and target plates. It can withstand high temperatures, its ductile to brittle temperature is fairly low and it has low sputtering yield and low fuel retention capabilities. However, it is difficult to machine tungsten and hence usages of tungsten coated surfaces are mostly desirable. To produce tungsten coated graphite tiles for the above-mentioned purpose, a coating reactor has been designed, developed and made operational at the SVITS, Indore. Tungsten coating on graphite has been attempted and successfully carried out by using radio frequency induced plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (rf -PECVD) for the first time in India. Tungsten hexa-fluoride has been used as a pre-cursor gas. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) clearly showed the presence of tungsten coating on the graphite samples. This paper presents the details of successful operation and achievement of tungsten coating in the reactor at SVITS. (paper)

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of tungsten with salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Z.C.

    1976-10-01

    The method comprises the complexation of tungsten with salicylic acid in concentrated sulphuric acid yielding a reddish color. The maximum absorbance of the complex lies within 410-420 nm, 420 nm being the chosen wavelenght. The final concentration of salicylic acid is 0,080 g/ml. The sensitivity is 0,13 μg W(%T) -1 ml -1 . Titanium, vanadium, rhenium, niobium and molybdenum interferes and must be separated, titanium being the strongest interferent. The separation procedures, advantages of the process, stoichiometric relations and equilibrium constant are discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Titanium tungsten coatings for bioelectrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Amato, Letizia; Łopacińska, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of titanium tungsten (TiW) coatings and their applicability as components of biosensing systems. The focus is put on using TiW as an electromechanical interface layer between carbon nanotube (CNT) forests and silicon nanograss (SiNG) cell scaffolds. Cytotoxicity......, applicability to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of aligned CNT forests, and electrochemical performance are investigated. Experiments include culturing of NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells on TiW coated silicon scaffolds, CNT growth on TiW substrates with nickel catalyst, and cyclic...

  19. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  20. Accurate modeling of defects in graphene transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Lukas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian

    2018-01-01

    We present an approach for embedding defect structures modeled by density functional theory into large-scale tight-binding simulations. We extract local tight-binding parameters for the vicinity of the defect site using Wannier functions. In the transition region between the bulk lattice and the defect the tight-binding parameters are continuously adjusted to approach the bulk limit far away from the defect. This embedding approach allows for an accurate high-level treatment of the defect orbitals using as many as ten nearest neighbors while keeping a small number of nearest neighbors in the bulk to render the overall computational cost reasonable. As an example of our approach, we consider an extended graphene lattice decorated with Stone-Wales defects, flower defects, double vacancies, or silicon substitutes. We predict distinct scattering patterns mirroring the defect symmetries and magnitude that should be experimentally accessible.

  1. Defect engineering of the electronic transport through cuprous oxide interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, Mohamed M.

    2016-06-03

    The electronic transport through Au–(Cu2O)n–Au junctions is investigated using first-principles calculations and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. The effect of varying the thickness (i.e., n) is studied as well as that of point defects and anion substitution. For all Cu2O thicknesses the conductance is more enhanced by bulk-like (in contrast to near-interface) defects, with the exception of O vacancies and Cl substitutional defects. A similar transmission behavior results from Cu deficiency and N substitution, as well as from Cl substitution and N interstitials for thick Cu2O junctions. In agreement with recent experimental observations, it is found that N and Cl doping enhances the conductance. A Frenkel defect, i.e., a superposition of an O interstitial and O substitutional defect, leads to a remarkably high conductance. From the analysis of the defect formation energies, Cu vacancies are found to be particularly stable, in agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work.

  2. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes ...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  3. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Song, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 μm, 1 μm and 3 μm were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m 2 respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m 2 . Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 μm size at 0.33 GW/m 2 and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 μm size at 0.55 GW/m 2 . The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 μm size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m 2 . The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 μm size has the best performance. (authors)

  4. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1988-12-01

    The behaviour of four high-density sintered tungsten alloys has been evluated and compared with that of pure tungsten. Rates of corrosion during the cyclic humidity and the salt mist tests were ascertained from weight loss measurements. Insight into the corrosion mechanism was gained from the nature of the corrosion products and an examination of the corroded surfaces. In the tests, the alloy 95% W, 2.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe was the most corrosion resistant. The data showed that copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. Both attack on the tungsten particles and the binder phase were observed together with tungsten grain loss. 6 refs., 3 tabs.,

  5. New doped tungsten cathodes. Applications to power grid tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, J. de; Cadoret, K; Martinez, L.; Veillet, D.; Millot, F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermionic emission behavior of tungsten/tungsten carbide modified with rare earth (La, Ce, Y) oxides is examined on account of suitability to deliver important current densities in a thermo-emissive set up and for long lifetime. Work functions of potential cathodes have been determined from Richardson plots for La 2 O 3 doped tungsten and for tungsten covered with variable compositions rare earth tungstates. The role of platinum layers covering the cathode was also examined. Given all cathodes containing mainly lanthanum oxides were good emitters, emphasis was put on service lifetime. Comparisons of lifetime in tungsten doped with rare earth oxides and with rare earth tungstates show that microstructure of the operating cathodes may play the major role in the research of very long lifetime cathodes. Based on these results, tests still running show lifetime compatible with power grid tubes applications. (author)

  6. Observation of the Structure of Tungsten Films Prepared by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Weiliang; Yu, Lei; Li, Yujie; Guo, Shuangquan

    2013-09-01

    The tungsten films with ultra microstructure on CuCrZr alloy and China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel have been prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were produced by pyrolysing the tungsten hexacarbonyl at air or argon atmosphere. When formed at or below 400 °C, they were poorly crystalized and the films showed low quality in thickness, density, bonding performance etc. While above this temperature, the properties of tungsten films have been improved, all the films consist of tungsten in the β-W. And β-W can change into α-W after heat treatment. As in other variations of pyrolysis, oxygen and carbon were observed. When filled with argon, the oxygen and carbon content would reduce apparently. Tungsten films prepared by MOCVD have stable chemical composition and microstructure. Besides, the properties of films on CuCrZr alloy are better than that on CLAM steel.

  7. Diffusion, trapping, and isotope exchange of plasma implanted deuterium in ion beam damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Joseph Lincoln

    Tritium accumulation in nuclear fusion reactor materials is a major concern for practical and safe fusion energy. This work examines hydrogen isotope exchange as a tritium removal technique, analyzes the effects of neutron damage using high energy copper ion beams, and introduces a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. Tungsten samples were irradiated with high energy (0.5 - 5 MeV) copper ions for controlled levels of damage - 10-3 to 10-1 displacements per atom (dpa) - at room temperature. Samples were then exposed to deuterium plasma at constant temperature (˜ 380 K) to a high fluence of 1024 ions/m2, where retention is at is maximized (i.e. saturated). By then subsequently exposing these samples to fractions of this fluence with hydrogen plasma, isotope exchange rates were observed. The resulting deuterium still trapped in the tungsten is then measured post mortem. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) gives the depth resolved deuterium retention profile with the 3He(D,p) 4He reaction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) gives the total amount of deuterium trapped in the tungsten by heating a sample in vacuum up to 1200 K and measuring the evaporated gas molecules with a residual gas analyzer. Isotope exchange data show that hydrogen atoms can displace trapped deuterium atoms efficiently only up to the first few microns, but does not affect the atoms trapped at greater depths. In ion damaged tungsten, measurements showed a significant increase in retention in the damage region proportional to dpa 0.66, which results in a significant spike in total retention, and isotope exchange in damaged samples is still ineffective at depths greater than a few microns. Thus, isotope exchange is not an affective tritium removal technique; however, these experiments have shown that trapping in material defects greatly affects diffusion. These experiments lead to a simplified diffusion model with defect densities as the only free

  8. Tensile properties of irradiated TZM and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.M.

    1975-04-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the elevated temperature tensile properties of TZM and tungsten has been experimentally determined. Specimens were irradiated at a temperature of approximately 720 0 F to fluences of 0.4 and 0.9 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Test parameters for both control and irradiated specimens included strain rates from 3 x 10 -4 to 1 s -1 and temperatures from 72 to 1700 0 F. The results of these tests were correlated with a rate-temperature parameter (T ln A/epsilon) to provide a concise description of material behavior over the range of deformation conditions of this study. The yield strength of the subject materials was significantly increased by decreasing temperature, increasing strain rate, and increasing fluence. Ductility was significantly reduced at any temperature or strain rate by increasing fluence. Cleavage fractures occurred in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens when the yield strength was elevated to the effective cleavage stress by temperature and/or strain rate. Neutron irradiation for the conditions of this study increased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of tungsten by approximately 300 0 F and TZM by approximately 420 0 F. (U.S.)

  9. Tungsten tetraboride, an inexpensive superhard material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Lech, Andrew T.; Xie, Miao; Weaver, Beth E.; Yeung, Michael T.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten tetraboride (WB4) is an interesting candidate as a less expensive member of the growing group of superhard transition metal borides. WB4 was successfully synthesized by arc melting from the elements. Characterization using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicates that the as-synthesized material is phase pure. The zero-pressure bulk modulus, as measured by high-pressure X-ray diffraction for WB4, is 339 GPa. Mechanical testing using microindentation gives a Vickers hardness of 43.3 ± 2.9 GPa under an applied load of 0.49 N. Various ratios of rhenium were added to WB4 in an attempt to increase hardness. With the addition of 1 at.% Re, the Vickers hardness increased to approximately 50 GPa at 0.49 N. Powders of tungsten tetraboride with and without 1 at.% Re addition are thermally stable up to approximately 400 °C in air as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis. PMID:21690363

  10. Vaccum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J. L.; Krotz, P. D.; Todd, D. T.; Liaw, Y. K.

    1995-01-01

    This two year program will investigate Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. VGTAW appears to offer a significant improvement in weldability because of the clean environment and lower heat input needed. The overall objective of the program is to develop the VGTAW technology and implement it into a manufacturing environment that will result in lower cost, better quality and higher reliability aerospace components for the space shuttle and other NASA space systems. Phase 1 of this program was aimed at demonstrating the process's ability to weld normally difficult-to-weld materials. Phase 2 will focus on further evaluation, a hardware demonstration and a plan to implement VGTAW technology into a manufacturing environment. During Phase 1, the following tasks were performed: (1) Task 11000 Facility Modification - an existing vacuum chamber was modified and adapted to a GTAW power supply; (2) Task 12000 Materials Selection - four difficult-to-weld materials typically used in the construction of aerospace hardware were chosen for study; (3) Task 13000 VGTAW Experiments - welding experiments were conducted under vacuum using the hollow tungsten electrode and evaluation. As a result of this effort, two materials, NARloy Z and Incoloy 903, were downselected for further characterization in Phase 2; and (4) Task 13100 Aluminum-Lithium Weld Studies - this task was added to the original work statement to investigate the effects of vacuum welding and weld pool vibration on aluminum-lithium alloys.

  11. Proton beam induced dynamics of tungsten granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, O.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Davenne, T.; Fitton, M.; Atherton, A.; Densham, C.; Charitonidis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Guinchard, M.; Lacny, L. J.; Lindstrom, B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the results from single-pulse experiments of a 440 GeV /c proton beam interacting with granular tungsten samples in both vacuum and helium environments. Remote high-speed photography and laser Doppler vibrometry were used to observe the effect of the beam on the sample grains. The majority of the results were derived from a trough containing ˜45 μ m diameter spheres (not compacted) reset between experiments to maintain the same initial conditions. Experiments were also carried out on other open and contained samples for the purposes of comparison both with the 45 μ m grain results and with a previous experiment carried out with sub-250 μ m mixed crystalline tungsten powder in helium [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 101005 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.101005]. The experiments demonstrate that a greater dynamic response is produced in a vacuum than in a helium environment and in smaller grains compared with larger grains. The examination of the dynamics of the grains after a beam impact leads to the hypothesis that the grain response is primarily the result of a charge interaction of the proton beam with the granular medium.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten or calcium doped PZT ceramics; Sintese e caracterizacao do PZT dopado com W ou Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, D.M.; Caracas, L.B.; Noronha, R.G.; Santos, M.M.T. dos [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Desenho e Tecnologia. Curso de Desenho Industrial; Paiva-Santos, C.O., E-mail: denilson@ufma.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Pure and doped (tungsten or calcium) PZT ceramics were prepared by association of the polymeric precursor and partial oxalate method. The phase formation was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The affect of W or Ca doping PZT and their electrical properties was evaluated. Substitution of W by Ti and Ca by Pb leads to an increase of Curie temperature and broadening of dielectric constant. A typical hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature and the remnant polarization was increased with the content of W and Ca. (author)

  13. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigation of the combined effect of neutron irradiation and electron beam exposure on pure tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Renterghem, W., E-mail: wvrenter@sckcen.be; Uytdenhouwen, I., E-mail: iuytdenh@sckcen.be

    2016-08-15

    Pure tungsten samples were neutron irradiated in the BR2 reactor of SCK·CEN to fluences of 1.47 × 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.74 × 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} at 300 °C under Helium atmosphere and exposed to the electron beam of the Judith 1 installation The effect of these treatments on the defect structure was studied with transmission electron microscopy. In the irradiated samples the defect structure in the bulk is compared to the structure at the surface. The neutron irradiation created a large amount of a/2‹111› type dislocation loops forming dislocation rafts. The loop density increased from 8.5 × 10{sup 21}/m³ to 9 × 10{sup 22}/m³ with increasing dose, while the loop size decreased from 5.2 nm to 3.5 nm. The electron beam exposure induced significant annealing of the defects and almost all of the dislocation loops were removed. The number of line dislocations in that area increased as a result of the thermal stresses from the thermal shock. - Highlights: • Neutron irradiated and electron beam exposed tungsten samples were studied with transmission electron microscopy. • Neutron irradiation creates dislocation loops and rafts, while voids are created at higher irradiation dose. • No precipitates of transmutation products were found under these low dose irradiation conditions. • Electron beam exposure annihilates the dislocation loops and rafts.

  15. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  16. Performance of tungsten-based materials and components under ITER and DEMO relevant steady-state thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritz, Guillaume Henri

    2011-07-01

    sophisticated material tests at different surface temperatures. The steady-state thermal loading with superimposed transient thermal loading was induced by high frequency scanning of the electron beam. The steady-state thermal loading was performed with different power densities, surface temperatures and cycle numbers. The cracking threshold was investigated in a temperature range of 1000 to 1900 C. Once cracks occurred, the surface temperature had no impact on the crack network of the loaded surface. The cracks grew in depth with increasing the cycle number. However, under all loading conditions, crack depths were still limited in a shallow region, namely below 100 {mu}m. One disadvantage of tungsten is its high brittleness at room temperature which makes the manufacturing of tungsten parts challenging as it requires suitable machining techniques. The examination of the helium-cooled tungsten plasma-facing components revealed cracks in as-machined surfaces. For a better understanding of the performance of plasma-facing components it was necessary to estimate the impact of precracked surfaces on the components' degradation under high heat fluxes. Therefore, in the frame of the tungsten qualification program, specimens with defect-free and pre-cracked surfaces were exposed to high heat fluxes. Surface processing by electric discharge machining (EDM) led to pre-cracked surfaces and defect-free surfaces were achieved by polishing. EDM-pre-cracking resulted in a high crack density consisting of inter- and intra-granular cracks, which did not change after thermal loading. Even more, the cracks did not grow with the cycle number in contrast to thermo-mechanical induced cracks on polished surfaces which occurred at lower crack density. (orig.)

  17. Performance of tungsten-based materials and components under ITER and DEMO relevant steady-state thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, Guillaume Henri

    2011-01-01

    material tests at different surface temperatures. The steady-state thermal loading with superimposed transient thermal loading was induced by high frequency scanning of the electron beam. The steady-state thermal loading was performed with different power densities, surface temperatures and cycle numbers. The cracking threshold was investigated in a temperature range of 1000 to 1900 C. Once cracks occurred, the surface temperature had no impact on the crack network of the loaded surface. The cracks grew in depth with increasing the cycle number. However, under all loading conditions, crack depths were still limited in a shallow region, namely below 100 μm. One disadvantage of tungsten is its high brittleness at room temperature which makes the manufacturing of tungsten parts challenging as it requires suitable machining techniques. The examination of the helium-cooled tungsten plasma-facing components revealed cracks in as-machined surfaces. For a better understanding of the performance of plasma-facing components it was necessary to estimate the impact of precracked surfaces on the components' degradation under high heat fluxes. Therefore, in the frame of the tungsten qualification program, specimens with defect-free and pre-cracked surfaces were exposed to high heat fluxes. Surface processing by electric discharge machining (EDM) led to pre-cracked surfaces and defect-free surfaces were achieved by polishing. EDM-pre-cracking resulted in a high crack density consisting of inter- and intra-granular cracks, which did not change after thermal loading. Even more, the cracks did not grow with the cycle number in contrast to thermo-mechanical induced cracks on polished surfaces which occurred at lower crack density. (orig.)

  18. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur

    2015-04-30

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  19. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  20. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  1. Microstructural development of tungsten and tungsten-rhenium alloys due to neutron irradiation in HFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira; Tanaka, Teruya

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural development of pure tungsten (W) and tungsten-rhenium (Re) alloys due to neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA, was investigated in this work. The irradiation conditions were ∼1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 500 and 800 °C. After the neutron irradiation, microstructural observations were performed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Large amounts of precipitates identified as sigma- and chi-phases were observed in not only the W-Re alloys but also in the pure W after the neutron irradiation. The precipitates observed in the pure W were coarse and larger than those in the W-Re alloys. This was considered to be caused by the transmutation products of W and Re, namely, Re and osmium (Os), respectively, under irradiation in the HFIR with a higher contents of thermal neutron flux.

  2. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  3. On the mechanism of imine elimination from Fischer tungsten carbene complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Veit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available (Aminoferrocenyl(ferrocenylcarbene(pentacarbonyltungsten(0 (CO5W=C(NHFcFc (W(CO5(E-2 is synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the ethoxy group of (CO5W=C(OEtFc (M(CO5(1Et by ferrocenyl amide Fc-NH– (Fc = ferrocenyl. W(CO5(E-2 thermally and photochemically eliminates bulky E-1,2-diferrocenylimine (E-3 via a formal 1,2-H shift from the N to the carbene C atom. Kinetic and mechanistic studies to the formation of imine E-3 are performed by NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI mass spectrometry as well as by trapping experiments for low-coordinate tungsten complexes with triphenylphosphane. W(CO5(E-2 decays thermally in a first-order rate-law with a Gibbs free energy of activation of ΔG‡298K = 112 kJ mol−1. Three proposed mechanistic pathways are taken into account and supported by detailed (time-dependent densitiy functional theory [(TD-DFT] calculations. The preferred pathway is initiated by an irreversible CO dissociation, followed by an oxidative addition/pseudorotation/reductive elimination pathway with short-lived, elusive seven-coordinate hydrido tungsten(II intermediates cis(N,H-W(CO4(H(Z-15 and cis(C,H-W(CO4(H(Z-15.

  4. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  5. Investigation of Tungsten and Beryllium Behaviour under Short Transient Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintsuk, G.; Kuehnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Roedig, M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam facility JUDITH is a rather versatile test facility for the simulation of high heat fluxes. One key issue is the simulation of the material performance under short transient events. The study of melting behaviour and crack formation, which occurs even for heat pulses below the melting threshold of the metals, is of huge importance for the qualification of materials for future nuclear devices. Heat load simulations at RT with a pulse length of 5 ms have been performed on beryllium (S65C), the ITER candidate material for the first wall, at power loads of 0.5 - 2 GW/m 2 . Crack formation, surface roughening and melt layer motion has been studied. Similar conditions during single and multiple shots below and above the melting threshold (∼50 MW·m-2·s 1 /2) have been applied to tungsten. Since its material properties are dependent on grain size and shape, 3 different grades have been tested in an as-delivered state: 1) deformed tungsten aligned in deformation direction, which corresponds to the actual ITER specification for tungsten used in the divertor; 2) deformed tungsten aligned perpendicular to the deformation direction; 3) sintered tungsten. Significant differences in the crack resistance and the crack pattern of the various tungsten grades below the melting threshold have been determined and further material degradation has been found after multiple shots. This is of importance also in regard to expected ELM loads in ITER, in which power densities below the melting threshold are applied at a high repetition rate (∼ 1 Hz). Crack formation for sintered tungsten starts at ∼20 MW·m -2 ·s -1 /2. The cracks are located across the loaded area and increase in number, length and width with increasing power load. In comparison to that for deformed tungsten cracking was first detected at ∼35 MW·m -2 ·s -1 /2. Whereas for tungsten aligned in deformation direction a crack pattern comparable to those of sintered tungsten was formed, tungsten

  6. Classification of tungsten powder by fluidization method and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Khan-Guan'.

    1989-01-01

    Search for accessible in practice, the technological method to increase the level of control of the granulometric composition of tungsten powder and to increase quality of products and to prepare new materials is carried out. It is shown that the method of fluidization is effective and accessible in practice for tungsten powder (and other refractory metals and compounds) classification, that increases the level of control of the granulometric composition of the powder and thus - its quality, and that improves control of properties of tungsten and other refractory metal products

  7. Dense Pure Tungsten Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzheng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing using tungsten, a brittle material, is difficult because of its high melting point, thermal conductivity, and oxidation tendency. In this study, pure tungsten parts with densities of up to 18.53 g/cm3 (i.e., 96.0% of the theoretical density were fabricated by selective laser melting. In order to minimize balling effects, the raw polyhedral tungsten powders underwent a spheroidization process before laser consolidation. Compared with polyhedral powders, the spherical powders showed increased laser absorptivity and packing density, which helped in the formation of a continuous molten track and promoted densification.

  8. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  9. Development, characterization and testing of tungsten doped DLC coatings for dry rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselbruch Henning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of lubricant during rotary swaging is particularly required for a good surface finish of the work piece and the reduction of tool wear. Abandonment of lubricant would improve the ecological process-balance and could also accelerate for further work piece refinements. Also cleaning of the manufactured components becomes obsolete. Thus, a dry machining is highly innovative, consequently new strategies to substitute the lubricant functions become necessary. To encounter the changed tribological conditions due to dry rotary swaging, low friction, tungsten doped, hard DLC coatings and structured surfaces are the most promising approaches. In this work the development of hard coating by means of reactive magnetron sputtering is presented, a promising layer variant is deposited on a set of tools and then tested and investigated in real use.

  10. High precision tungsten cutting for optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reglero, V.; Velasco, T.; Rodrigo, J.; Gasent, L.J.; Alamo, J.; Chato, R.; Ruiz Urien, I.; Santos, I.; Zarauz, J.; Clemente, G.; Sanz-Tudanca, C.; Lopez, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The results obtained during the INTEGRAL masks development program an implementing the HURA and MURA codes on tungsten plates of different thickness are presented. Hard scientific requirements on pixels size and location tolerances (tenths of microns over large areas -1 m 2 - and thickness from 0.5 mm to 60 mm) required the set up of a dedicated program for testing cutting technologies: laser, photochemical milling, spark machining and electro discharge wire cutting. After a very intensive test campaign the wire cutting process was selected as the optimum technology for code manufacturing . Accuracies achieved an the code cutting fulfill scientific requirements. In fact, they are 5 times better than required. Pixel size and centroids location accuracies of 0.01 mm over a 1 m 2 area have been obtained for the 10,000 pixels on IBIS, 100 pixels on SPI and 24000 pixels on JEM-X masks. Comparative results among different cutting technologies are also discussed. (author)

  11. Modification of tungsten layers by arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, M.; Schneider, W.; Juettner, B.; Lindig, S.; Mayer, M.; Balden, M.; Beilis, I.; Djakov, B.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous traces of arcs have been found on W-covered graphite tiles of ASDEX Upgrade after exposure. The distributions of number density, lengths and orientation are calculated and compared to pure graphite tiles at comparable locations. It was established that arcs perforate a 1 μm tungsten layer down to the carbon substrate. The amount of removal should rise with arc current, but a surface fraction of about 8% is eroded at 10 A already. At tiles of the divertor baffle the layer is continuously removed along the entire track pointing to higher currents. The carbon of the stripped parts is subject to subsequent erosion processes. The distribution of materials in and around arc tracks was investigated by sputter depth profiling (SIMS and AES) and the characteristic geometry was studied using an electron microscope. Observations are interpreted using results from laboratory vacuum arcs on the same material

  12. The movement of screw dislocations in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Xiaogeng; Woo Chungho

    2004-03-25

    Using Acland potential for tungsten, the movement of 1/2a<1 1 1> screw dislocation under shear stress was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Equilibrated core structure was obtained by relaxation of screw dislocation with proper boundary conditions. We found that the equilibrium dislocation core has three-fold symmetry and spread out in three <1 1 2> direction on {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. The screw dislocation core could not keep the original shape when the shear stress applied. The dislocation could not move until the shear stress became large enough. The dislocation moved in zigzag when the shear stress neared the Peierls stress. When the shear stress became larger, the dislocation moved in zigzag at the beginning and than moved almost in straight line in [2-bar11] direction. The large shear stress applied, the long distance moved before the dislocation stilled in z-direction and the large velocity in y-direction.

  13. Electronic structure and Compton profiles of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal Ahuja, Babu; Rathor, Ashish; Sharma, Vinit; Sharma, Yamini; Ramniklal Jani, Ashvin; Sharma, Balkrishna

    2008-01-01

    The energy bands, density of states and Compton profiles of tungsten have been computed using band structure methods, namely the spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (SPR-KKR) approach as well as the linear combination of atomic orbitals with Hartree-Fock scheme and density functional theory. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave scheme to calculate these properties and the Fermi surface topology(except the momentum densities) have also been used to analyze the theoretical data on the electron momentum densities. The directional Compton profiles have been measured using a 100 mCi 241 Am Compton spectrometer. From the comparison, the measured anisotropies are found to be in good agreement with the SPR-KKR calculations. The band structure calculations are also compared with the available data. (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen generation from steam reaction with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolik, G. R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Petti, D. A.; Coates, K.

    1998-10-01

    A LOCA in a fusion reactor involving an ingress of steam presents a safety concern due to hydrogen generated from steam reactions with plasma facing components. Hydrogen concentrations must be maintained below explosive levels. To support safety evaluations we have experimentally determined hydrogen generation rates when a tungsten alloy is exposed to steam from 400°C to 1200°C. We studied effects of steam pressure between 2.8 × 10 4 and 8.5 × 10 4 Pa, i.e., (0.28-0.84 atm) and gas velocity between 0.011 and 0.063 m/s. We present relationships for the reaction rates, oxidation phases, and mechanisms associated with the hydrogen generation.

  15. Laser irradiation of carbon–tungsten materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, A; Lungu, C P; Ursescu, D; Porosnicu, C; Grigoriu, C; Avotina, L; Kizane, G; Marin, A; Osiceanu, P; Grigorescu, C E A; Demitri, N

    2014-01-01

    Carbon–tungsten layers deposited on graphite by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) were directly irradiated with a femtosecond terawatt laser. The morphological and structural changes produced in the irradiated area by different numbers of pulses were systematically explored, both along the spots and in their depths. Although micro-Raman and Synchrotron-x-ray diffraction investigations have shown no carbide formation, they have shown the unexpected presence of embedded nano-diamonds in the areas irradiated with high fluencies. Scanning electron microscopy images show a cumulative effect of the laser pulses on the morphology through the ablation process. The micro-Raman spatial mapping signalled an increased percentage of sp 3 carbon bonding in the areas irradiated with laser fluencies around the ablation threshold. In-depth x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations suggested a weak cumulative effect on the percentage increase of the sp 2 -sp 3 transitions with the number of laser pulses just for nanometric layer thicknesses. (paper)

  16. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, T.J., E-mail: tjpetty@liv.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Khan, A. [Pariser Building-G11, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Heil, T. [NiCaL, Block C Waterhouse Building, 1-3 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL (United Kingdom); Bradley, J.W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10{sup 23}–3.0 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ{sup 1/2} relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  17. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, T.J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10 23 –3.0 × 10 24  m −2 , the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10 24  m −2 , and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ 1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  18. Electrodeposition of tungsten coatings on molybdenum substrates and deuterium irradiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Ziwei; Fang, Xianqin; Han, Wenjia; Yu, Jiangang; Wang, Zhanlei; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Kaigui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were successfully electroplated on molybdenum substrates. • The current density affected the performance of tungsten coatings. • Deuterium irradiation property of tungsten coatings was investigated. • Deuterium retention in the tungsten coating was less than that in the bulk tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings were prepared using pulse electrodeposition on the molybdenum substrates. Effects of variations in current density on surface morphology, thickness distribution and crystal orientation of the coatings were investigated. The results indicate that with the current density increasing, the grain size of tungsten coatings first decreases, then increases; while the deposited thickness increases all the time. And all of tungsten coatings exhibit the preferred orientation of (200) plane. Moreover, the polished tungsten coating and bulk tungsten were exposed to low energy (80 eV) and high flux (7.2 × 10 20 D/m 2 /s) deuterium plasma in a linear plasma device (Simulator of Tokamak Edge Plasma, STEP). Deuterium (D) retention was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It is found that blisters on the tungsten coating are much fewer than that on the bulk tungsten. TDS spectroscopy of the tungsten coating reveals one D 2 release peak at 740 K, while the bulk tungsten has two D 2 release peaks at 500 K and 660 K. The amount of deuterium retention in the tungsten coating is lower.

  19. Study of defects and radiation damage in solids by field-ion and atom-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.

    1979-06-01

    A brief review is presented of: the basic physical principles of the field-ion and atom-probe microscopes; the many applications of these instruments to the study of defects and radiation damage in solids; and the application of the atom-probe field-ion microscope to the study of the behavior of implanted 3 He and 4 He in tungsten

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the diffusion and coalescence of helium in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.L.; Wang, J.; Hou, Q.; Deng, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed on the diffusion and coalescence of helium in tungsten. A new method for determining the effective capture radii (ECRs) and the dissociation energies of helium-related defects is proposed in this work. It is observed that the ECR of an interstitial helium atom trapping helium interstitials (denoted as He–He n , n = 1–3) decreases with increasing temperature, except for He–He 2 at T n for helium clusters are also investigated. He 2 migrates more quickly than a single He atom does at T 2 changes at higher temperatures. Another counterintuitive observation is that D 5 > D 3 > D 4 at T 5 . The Arrhenius relation describes the diffusion of He n well in the temperature range from 300 K to 550 K, whereas the diffusion is not a standard thermally activated process at higher temperatures. Taken together, these results help elucidate the initial stage of helium bubble formation in tungsten as well as the requirements of long-term evolution methods such as KMC or RT models

  1. High-flux He+ irradiation effects on surface damages of tungsten under ITER relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu; Liu, Dongping; Hong, Yi; Fan, Hongyu; Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Bi, Zhenhua; Benstetter, Günther; Li, Shouzhe

    2016-01-01

    A large-power inductively coupled plasma source was designed to perform the continuous helium ions (He + ) irradiations of polycrystalline tungsten (W) under International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant conditions. He + irradiations were performed at He + fluxes of 2.3 × 10 21 –1.6 × 10 22 /m 2  s and He + energies of 12–220 eV. Surface damages and microstructures of irradiated W were observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study showed the growth of nano-fuzzes with their lengths of 1.3–2.0 μm at He + energies of >70 eV or He + fluxes of >1.3 × 10 22 /m 2  s. Nanometer-sized defects or columnar microstructures were formed in W surface layer due to low-energy He + irradiations at an elevated temperature (>1300 K). The diffusion and coalescence of He atoms in W surface layers led to the growth and structures of nano-fuzzes. This study indicated that a reduction of He + energy below 12–30 eV may greatly decrease the surface damage of tungsten diverter in the fusion reactor.

  2. Advances of orbital gas tungsten arc welding for Brazilian space applications – experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Orlowski de Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes details of the several steps of the technology involved for the orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process of pure commercially titanium tubes. These pieces will be used to connect the several components of the propulsion system of the China-Brazilian Satellite CBERS, and is part of the Brazilian aerospace industry development. The implantation involved the steps of environment control; cut and facing of the base metal; cleaning procedures; piece alignment; choice of the type, geometry and installation of the tungsten electrode; system for the pressure of the purge gas; manual tack welding; choice of the welding parameters; and, finally, the qualification of welding procedures. Three distinct welding programs were studied, using pulsed current with increasing speed, continuous current and pulsed current with decreasing amperage levels. The results showed that the high quality criteria required to the aerospace segment is such that usual welding operations must be carefully designed and executed. The three welding developed programs generated welds free of defects and with adequate morphology, allowing to select the condition that better fits the Brazilian aerospace segment, and to be implanted in the welding of the CBERS Satellite Propulsion System.

  3. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M.; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Hasegawa, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten was performed in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). To investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ∼90-∼800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02-9.00 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and microstructure changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten.

  4. Object Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Radiation Damage in Bulk Tungsten Part-II: With a PKA Spectrum Corresponding to 14-MeV Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Object kinetic Monte Carlo was employed to study the effect of dose rate on the evolution of vacancy microstructure in polycrystalline tungsten under neutron bombardment. The evolution was followed up to 1.0 displacement per atom (dpa) with point defects generated in accordance with a primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum corresponding to 14-MeV neutrons. The present study includes the effect of grain size (2.0 and 4.0 $\\mu$m) but excludes the impact of transmutation or pre-existing defects be...

  5. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  6. Understanding metal–insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARPES) and spectro- microscopy studies to understand the metal–insulator transition (MIT) observed in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaxWO3. The experimentally determined band structure is compared with the theoretical calculation based on ...

  7. A Compact Gas/Tungsten-Arc Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Gene E.

    1991-01-01

    Compact gas/tungsten-arc welding torch delivers 100-A current, yet used in confined spaces inaccessible to even smallest commercially available torch. Despite its extremely small size, torch contains all usual components and delivers high current.

  8. TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding; Le soudage TIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-09-15

    After having recalled the Tungsten Inert Gas process principle and the different alternative TIG processes, the author explains the advantages and limits of this process. The applications and recent developments are given. (O.M.)

  9. The substitutability of reinforcers

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportio...

  10. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  11. Operation of ASDEX Upgrade with tungsten coated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, V.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Geier, A.; Gong, X.; Kallenbach, A.; Krieger, K.; Lindig, S.; Maier, H.; Mueller, W.; Pugno, R.; Schneider, W.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998 a step by step approach to investigate high-Z material at the main chamber walls of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak was followed, resulting in 7.1 m 2 of tungsten coated tiles at the central column during the 2001-02 campaign. Despite this large area, plasma operation was not hampered in any way by tungsten radiation. Results obtained from a variety of confinement regimes indicate that the core tungsten concentration depends mostly on core transport rather than on the tungsten erosion source. For medium density H-mode discharges tungsten concentration ∼ 1·10 -6 are found. Higher concentrations are observed only under discharge conditions where neoclassical accumulation becomes dominant as in case of strong background plasma peaking. On the other hand, core accumulation can be effectively controlled without noticeable confinement degradation by applying central heating. Unexpected high average tungsten erosion due to ions could be attributed to transient limiter phases, especially during plasma ramp-down. (author)

  12. Development of Low Thermal Expansion Tungsten UO 2 Cermet Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, M O; Kaznoff, A I

    1970-03-31

    An attempt was made to develop a tungsten-uranium dioxide cermet of high fue 1 loading with thermal expansion approaching that of tungsten and with good dimensional stability on thermal cycling. These goals were sought through the use of tungsten-coated uranium dioxide particles with sufficient locally available void volume to accommodate the difference in thermal expansion between the uranium dioxide and the tungsten matrix and through limitation of plastic deformation in the particles during fabrication to avoid mechanical keying of the particles and the matrix. The particles were vibratorily compacted prior to hot pressing. The thermal expansion of the cermets was determined and they were thermal cycle tested. The thermal expansion of the cermets was considerably closer to that of tungsten than was observed with previously reported specimens of similar composition. However, the thermal cycling of the cermets resulted in intolerable growth. This growth could be accounted for by the agglomeration of gases trapped in the uranium dioxide particles during deposition of the tungsten coating.

  13. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Byun, T. S.; Reiser, J.; Rieth, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410-780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02-9.0 × 1025 n/m2, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039-1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.

  14. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.; Byun, T. S.; Reiser, J.; Rieth, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410-780°C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02-9.0×1025 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV, 0.0039-1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22°C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22°C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.

  15. Positron studies of defected metals, metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, A.

    1991-01-01

    Specific problems proposed under this project included the treatment of electronic structure and momentum density in various disordered and defected systems. Since 1987, when the new high-temperature superconductors were discovered, the project focused extensively on questions concerning the electronic structure and Fermiology of high-T c superconductors, in particular, (i) momentum density and positron experiments, (ii) angle-resolved photoemission intensities, (iii) effects of disorder and substitutions in the high-T c 's

  16. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Santore, Robert C.; McGill, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values < 0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p < 0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 μg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 μg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 μg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it is

  17. Gap States at Low-Angle Grain Boundaries in Monolayer Tungsten Diselenide

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yu Li

    2016-05-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have revealed many novel properties of interest to future device applications. In particular, the presence of grain boundaries (GBs) can significantly influence the material properties of 2D TMDs. However, direct characterization of the electronic properties of the GB defects at the atomic scale remains extremely challenging. In this study, we employ scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of low-angle GBs of monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) with misorientation angles of 3-6°. Butterfly features are observed along the GBs, with the periodicity depending on the misorientation angle. Density functional theory calculations show that these butterfly features correspond to gap states that arise in tetragonal dislocation cores and extend to distorted six-membered rings around the dislocation core. Understanding the nature of GB defects and their influence on transport and other device properties highlights the importance of defect engineering in future 2D device fabrication. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  18. Effect of collision cascades on dislocations in tungsten: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B.Q., E-mail: bqfu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, S.P. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Hou, Q.; Wang, J.; Li, M. [Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A cascde near a dislocation promotes climb motion. • Kinks induced by cascade facilitate the dipoles motion toward the cascade. • Shearing of dipole is dependent on PKA energy, position, direction, and dipole width. - Abstract: Tungsten (W) is the prime candidate material for the divertor and other plasma-facing components in DEMO. The point defects (i.e. vacancies and self-interstitials) produced in collision cascades caused by incident neutrons aggregate into dislocation loops (and voids), which strongly affect the mechanical properties. The point defects also interact with existing microstructural features, and understanding these processes is crucial for modelling the long term microstructural evolution of the material under fusion conditions. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of cascades interacting with initially straight edge dislocation dipoles. It was found that the residual vacancy number usually exceeds the residual interstitial number for cascades interacting with vacancy type dipoles, but for interstitial type dipoles these are close. We observed that a cascade near a dislocation promotes climb, i.e. it facilitates the movement of point defects along the climb direction. We also observed that the dislocations move easily along the glide direction, and that kinks are formed near the centre of the cascade, which then facilitate the movement of the dipoles. Some dipoles are sheared off by the cascade, and this is dependent on PKA energy, position, direction, and the width of dipole.

  19. Crystal orientation effects on helium ion depth distributions and adatom formation processes in plasma-facing tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    We present atomistic simulations that show the effect of surface orientation on helium depth distributions and surface feature formation as a result of low-energy helium plasma exposure. We find a pronounced effect of surface orientation on the initial depth of implanted helium ions, as well as a difference in reflection and helium retention across different surface orientations. Our results indicate that single helium interstitials are sufficient to induce the formation of adatom/substitutional helium pairs under certain highly corrugated tungsten surfaces, such as (1 1 1)-orientations, leading to the formation of a relatively concentrated layer of immobile helium immediately below the surface. The energies involved for helium-induced adatom formation on (1 1 1) and (2 1 1) surfaces are exoergic for even a single adatom very close to the surface, while (0 0 1) and (0 1 1) surfaces require two or even three helium atoms in a cluster before a substitutional helium cluster and adatom will form with reasonable probability. This phenomenon results in much higher initial helium retention during helium plasma exposure to (1 1 1) and (2 1 1) tungsten surfaces than is observed for (0 0 1) or (0 1 1) surfaces and is much higher than can be attributed to differences in the initial depth distributions alone. The layer thus formed may serve as nucleation sites for further bubble formation and growth or as a source of material embrittlement or fatigue, which may have implications for the formation of tungsten “fuzz” in plasma-facing divertors for magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors and/or the lifetime of such divertors.

  20. Low flux and low energy helium ion implantation into tungsten using a dedicated plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecoste, Lucile [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Thomann, Anne-Lise, E-mail: anne-lise.thomann@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Melhem, Amer; Caillard, Amael; Cuynet, Stéphane; Lecas, Thomas; Brault, Pascal [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Desgardin, Pierre; Barthe, Marie-France [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex2 (France)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the first stages of defect formation in tungsten (W) due to the accumulation of helium (He) atoms inside the crystal lattice. To reach the required implantation conditions, i.e. low He ion fluxes (10{sup 11}–10{sup 14} ions.cm{sup 2}.s{sup −1}) and kinetic energies below the W atom displacement threshold (about 500 eV for He{sup +}), an ICP source has been designed and connected to a diffusion chamber. Implantation conditions have been characterized by means of complementary diagnostics modified for measurements in this very low density helium plasma. It was shown that lowest ion fluxes could only be reached for the discharge working in capacitive mode either in α or γ regime. Special attention was paid to control the energy gained by the ions by acceleration through the sheath at the direct current biased substrate. At very low helium pressure, in α regime, a broad ion energy distribution function was evidenced, whereas a peak centered on the potential difference between the plasma and the biased substrate was found at higher pressures in the γ mode. Polycrystalline tungsten samples were exposed to the helium plasma in both regimes of the discharge and characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy in order to detect the formed vacancy defects. It was found that W vacancies are able to be formed just by helium accumulation and that the same final implanted state is reached, whatever the operating mode of the capacitive discharge.

  1. Toxicity of tungsten carbide and cobalt-doped tungsten carbide nanoparticles in mammalian cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Susanne; Busch, Wibke; Kühnel, Dana; Springer, Armin; Meissner, Tobias; Holke, Roland; Scholz, Stefan; Iwe, Maria; Pompe, Wolfgang; Gelinsky, Michael; Potthoff, Annegret; Richter, Volkmar; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Schirmer, Kristin

    2009-04-01

    Tungsten carbide nanoparticles are being explored for their use in the manufacture of hard metals. To develop nanoparticles for broad applications, potential risks to human health and the environment should be evaluated and taken into consideration. We aimed to assess the toxicity of well-characterized tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt-doped tungsten carbide (WC-Co) nanoparticle suspensions in an array of mammalian cells. We examined acute toxicity of WC and of WC-Co (10% weight content Co) nanoparticles in different human cell lines (lung, skin, and colon) as well as in rat neuronal and glial cells (i.e., primary neuronal and astroglial cultures and the oligodendrocyte precursor cell line OLN-93). Furthermore, using electron microscopy, we assessed whether nanoparticles can be taken up by living cells. We chose these in vitro systems in order to evaluate for potential toxicity of the nanoparticles in different mammalian organs (i.e., lung, skin, intestine, and brain). Chemical-physical characterization confirmed that WC as well as WC-Co nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 145 nm form stable suspensions in serum-containing cell culture media. WC nanoparticles were not acutely toxic to the studied cell lines. However, cytotoxicity became apparent when particles were doped with Co. The most sensitive were astrocytes and colon epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity of WC-Co nanoparticles was higher than expected based on the ionic Co content of the particles. Analysis by electron microscopy demonstrated presence of WC nanoparticles within mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that doping of WC nanoparticles with Co markedly increases their cytotoxic effect and that the presence of WC-Co in particulate form is essential to elicit this combinatorial effect.

  2. Toxicity of Tungsten Carbide and Cobalt-Doped Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles in Mammalian Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Susanne; Busch, Wibke; Kühnel, Dana; Springer, Armin; Meißner, Tobias; Holke, Roland; Scholz, Stefan; Iwe, Maria; Pompe, Wolfgang; Gelinsky, Michael; Potthoff, Annegret; Richter, Volkmar; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Schirmer, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Background Tungsten carbide nanoparticles are being explored for their use in the manufacture of hard metals. To develop nanoparticles for broad applications, potential risks to human health and the environment should be evaluated and taken into consideration. Objective We aimed to assess the toxicity of well-characterized tungsten carbide (WC) and cobaltdoped tungsten carbide (WC-Co) nanoparticle suspensions in an array of mammalian cells. Methods We examined acute toxicity of WC and of WC-Co (10% weight content Co) nanoparticles in different human cell lines (lung, skin, and colon) as well as in rat neuronal and glial cells (i.e., primary neuronal and astroglial cultures and the oligodendro cyte precursor cell line OLN-93). Furthermore, using electron microscopy, we assessed whether nanoparticles can be taken up by living cells. We chose these in vitro systems in order to evaluate for potential toxicity of the nanoparticles in different mammalian organs (i.e., lung, skin, intestine, and brain). Results Chemical–physical characterization confirmed that WC as well as WC-Co nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 145 nm form stable suspensions in serum-containing cell culture media. WC nanoparticles were not acutely toxic to the studied cell lines. However, cytotoxicity became apparent when particles were doped with Co. The most sensitive were astrocytes and colon epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity of WC-Co nanoparticles was higher than expected based on the ionic Co content of the particles. Analysis by electron microscopy demonstrated presence of WC nanoparticles within mammalian cells. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that doping of WC nanoparticles with Co markedly increases their cytotoxic effect and that the presence of WC-Co in particulate form is essential to elicit this combinatorial effect. PMID:19440490

  3. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  4. Simulation of neutron-induced damage in tungsten by irradiation with energetic self-ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Gann, V.

    2015-05-01

    A direct comparison of the deuterium (D) decoration of radiation-induced damage in polycrystalline tungsten irradiated with self-ions [present work] and neutrons in the high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) (Hatano et al., 2013) shows a reasonably good agreement at least up to 0.3 displacement per atom indicating that MeV heavy ions can be a good proxy to simulate neutron-produced damage at room temperature and low dpa. The coefficient of similarity between two kinds of irradiation was obtained experimentally to be Kexp ∼ 0.65 ± 0.1 in the case of the deuterium decoration of both kinds of radiation-induced defects with low and high de-trapping energies for deuterium. We introduced the theoretical estimation for coefficient of similarity between neutron- and self-ion-irradiations, which is a fraction of common area under the curves of two overlapping damage energy spectra of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced in tungsten by these two types of irradiation. In other words, Ksim is a part of displaced atoms produced in the similar conditions under two different types of irradiation. The theoretical values of Ksim = 0.34 and Ksim = 0.29 were obtained for tungsten target irradiated with 20 MeV self-ions in comparison to irradiation with neutrons in HFIR reactor (>0.1 MeV) and 14 MeV neutrons, respectively. The theoretical value of Ksim = 0.34 is about two times less than the experimental value of Kexp = 0.65. It means that high energy PKAs can play more important role in the production of similar damage structure by irradiation with self-ions and neutrons which is responsible for deuterium retention. The model assuming that all cascades with an energy higher than Tc = 150 keV split into identical sub-cascades gives the value of Ksim = 0.64 ± 0.01 for the coefficient of similarity between HFIR-neutron and 20 MeV self-ion irradiations that is in an agreement with experimental value of Kexp = 0.65 ± 0.1. Consequently, splitting of high-energy part of cascades might take

  5. Growth and structure analysis of tungsten oxide nanorods using environmental TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kenta; Nakamura, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Kuroda, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2012-01-25

    WO3 nanorods targeted for applications in electric devices were grown from a tungsten wire heated in an oxygen atmosphere inside an environmental transmission electron microscope, which allowed the growth process to be observed to reveal the growth mechanism of the WO3 nanorods. The initial growth of the nanorods did not consist of tungsten oxide but rather crystal tungsten. The formed crystal tungsten nanorods were then oxidized, resulting in the formation of the tungsten oxide nanorods. Furthermore, it is expected that the nanorods grew through cracks in the natural surface oxide layer on the tungsten wire.

  6. Bundled tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shibin; Zhao Yimin; Xia Yongde; Zhu Yanqiu; Zou Zengda; Min Guanghui

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-thin W 18 O 49 nanowires were initially obtained by a simple solvothermal method using tungsten chloride and cyclohexanol as precursors. Thermal processing of the resulting bundled nanowires has been carried out in air in a tube furnace. The morphology and phase transformation behavior of the as-synthesized nanowires as a function of annealing temperature have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The nanostructured bundles underwent a series of morphological evolution with increased annealing temperature, becoming straighter, larger in diameter, and smaller in aspect ratio, eventually becoming irregular particles with size up to 5 μm. At 500 deg. C, the monoclinic W 18 O 49 was completely transformed to monoclinic WO 3 phase, which remains stable at high processing temperature. After thermal processing at 400 deg. C and 450 deg. C, the specific surface areas of the resulting nanowires dropped to 110 m 2 g -1 and 66 m 2 g -1 respectively, compared with that of 151 m 2 g -1 for the as-prepared sample. This study may shed light on the understanding of the geometrical and structural evolution occurring in nanowires whose working environment may involve severe temperature variations

  7. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  8. The DAMPE silicon–tungsten tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzarello, P., E-mail: philipp.azzarello@unige.ch [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Ambrosi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Asfandiyarov, R. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cadoux, F. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprai, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Domenjoz, M. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Dong, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Duranti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Fan, R. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); and others

    2016-09-21

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV–10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon–tungsten tracker–converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m{sup 2}. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.

  9. Muon substituted free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Gygax, F.N.; Brinkman, G.A.; Louwrier, P.W.F.; McKenna, D.; Ramos, M.; Webster, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Spin polarized energetic positive muons are injected as magnetic probes into unsaturated organic liquids. They are implemented via fast chemical processes ( -10 s) in various molecules. Of particular interest among these are muonium substituted free radicals. The technique allows determination of accurate rate coefficients for fast chemical reactions of radicals. Furthermore, radiochemical processes occuring in picoseconds after injection of the muon are studied. Of fundamental interest are also the structural and dynamical implications of substituting a proton by a muon, or in other terms, a hydrogen atom by a muonium atom. Selected examples for each of these three types of experiments are given. (Auth.)

  10. Cranial Defects and Cranioplasty. Part 8. Chapter 194,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    skull. That such tissue is quantitatively unavailable explains the search for an acceptable albeit imperfect substitute. An ideal material would be...deficiency of periosteum from skull to form bone (55, 56). Isolated periosteum of tibia over tibial defects had 7 times the potency for osteogenesis ...Folkman J, Mulliken JB: Application of the biological principle of induced osteogenesis for craniofacial I. defects. Lancet 1:959-963, 1981. 18. Grant

  11. Contamination by slow diffusers in ion implantation processes: The examples of molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L., E-mail: maria.polignano@st.com [ST Microelectronics, via Olivetti, 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Mica, I., E-mail: isabella.mica@st.com [ST Microelectronics, via Olivetti, 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Barbarossa, F., E-mail: fbarbarossa87@gmail.com [ST Microelectronics, via Olivetti, 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Galbiati, A., E-mail: amos.galbiati@st.com [ST Microelectronics, via Olivetti, 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Grasso, S., E-mail: salvatore.grasso-r2@st.com [ST Microelectronics, via Olivetti, 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Soncini, V., E-mail: vsoncini@micron.com [Micron, via Olivetti, 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    A procedure to measure molybdenum and tungsten contamination in implantation processes by DLTS (Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy) is defined and calibrated for the evaluation of molybdenum and tungsten contaminant dose. The obtained calibrations are used to study molybdenum contamination in BF{sub 2} implantations and tungsten contamination by sputtering from a previously contaminated wafer holder. In molybdenum-implanted samples, the molybdenum level located 0.3 eV above valence band is revealed only. In tungsten-implanted samples, two levels are revealed. One of these levels is the tungsten-related hole trap located 0.4 eV above valence band. The other level does not correspond to any tungsten-related level, however it is related to the presence of tungsten and to the sample preparation process. The SPV (Surface Photovoltage) measurement sensitivity to tungsten contamination was also tested, and it was found much lower than the DLTS sensitivity, due to the low tungsten diffusivity. This procedure was used to evaluate contamination in implantation processes. In BF{sub 2} implantations, in addition to molybdenum, tungsten contamination is found. Molybdenum and tungsten contamination is found in boron implantation too. The tungsten contamination induced by implantation in a previously contaminated implanter was quantified, and the efficiency of arsenic implantation as a decontamination process was tested. Finally, it was shown that TXRF (Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence) is much less sensitive than DLTS for monitoring tungsten contamination.

  12. Contamination by slow diffusers in ion implantation processes: The examples of molybdenum and tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polignano, M. L.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Soncini, V.

    2015-08-01

    A procedure to measure molybdenum and tungsten contamination in implantation processes by DLTS (Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy) is defined and calibrated for the evaluation of molybdenum and tungsten contaminant dose. The obtained calibrations are used to study molybdenum contamination in BF2 implantations and tungsten contamination by sputtering from a previously contaminated wafer holder. In molybdenum-implanted samples, the molybdenum level located 0.3 eV above valence band is revealed only. In tungsten-implanted samples, two levels are revealed. One of these levels is the tungsten-related hole trap located 0.4 eV above valence band. The other level does not correspond to any tungsten-related level, however it is related to the presence of tungsten and to the sample preparation process. The SPV (Surface Photovoltage) measurement sensitivity to tungsten contamination was also tested, and it was found much lower than the DLTS sensitivity, due to the low tungsten diffusivity. This procedure was used to evaluate contamination in implantation processes. In BF2 implantations, in addition to molybdenum, tungsten contamination is found. Molybdenum and tungsten contamination is found in boron implantation too. The tungsten contamination induced by implantation in a previously contaminated implanter was quantified, and the efficiency of arsenic implantation as a decontamination process was tested. Finally, it was shown that TXRF (Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence) is much less sensitive than DLTS for monitoring tungsten contamination.

  13. Hydrogen in tungsten as plasma-facing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim; Schmid, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Materials facing plasmas in fusion experiments and future reactors are loaded with high fluxes (1020-1024 m-2 s-1) of H, D and T fuel particles at energies ranging from a few eV to keV. In this respect, the evolution of the radioactive T inventory in the first wall, the permeation of T through the armour into the coolant and the thermo-mechanical stability after long-term exposure are key parameters determining the applicability of a first wall material. Tungsten exhibits fast hydrogen diffusion, but an extremely low solubility limit. Due to the fast diffusion of hydrogen and the short ion range, most of the incident ions will quickly reach the surface and recycle into the plasma chamber. For steady-state operation the solute hydrogen for the typical fusion reactor geometry and wall conditions can reach an inventory of about 1 kg. However, in short-pulse operation typical of ITER, solute hydrogen will diffuse out after each pulse and the remaining inventory will consist of hydrogen trapped in lattice defects, such as dislocations, grain boundaries and irradiation-induced traps. In high-flux areas the hydrogen energies are too low to create displacement damage. However, under these conditions the solubility limit will be exceeded within the ion range and the formation of gas bubbles and stress-induced damage occurs. In addition, simultaneous neutron fluxes from the nuclear fusion reaction D(T,n)α will lead to damage in the materials and produce trapping sites for diffusing hydrogen atoms throughout the bulk. The formation and diffusive filling of these different traps will determine the evolution of the retained T inventory. This paper will concentrate on experimental evidence for the influence different trapping sites have on the hydrogen inventory in W as studied in ion beam experiments and low-temperature plasmas. Based on the extensive experimental data, models are validated and applied to estimate the contribution of different traps to the tritium inventory in

  14. Vaporization of tungsten-metal in steam at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate

  15. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemically deposited tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten – The way to a mock-up for divertor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Riesch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced materials is essential for sophisticated energy systems like a future fusion reactor. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W utilize extrinsic toughening mechanisms and therefore overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten at low temperature and its sensitivity to operational embrittlement. This material has been successfully produced and tested during the last years and the focus is now put on the technological realisation for the use in plasma facing components of fusion devices. In this contribution, we present a way to utilize Wf/W composites for divertor applications by a fabrication route based on the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of tungsten. Mock-ups based on the ITER typical design can be realized by the implementation of Wf/W tiles. A concept based on a layered deposition approach allows the production of such tiles in the required geometry. One fibre layer after the other is positioned and ingrown into the W-matrix until the final sample size is reached. Charpy impact tests on these samples showed an increased fracture energy mainly due to the ductile deformation of the tungsten fibres. The use of Wf/W could broaden the operation temperature window of tungsten significantly and mitigate problems of deep cracking occurring typically in cyclic high heat flux loading. Textile techniques are utilized to optimise the tungsten wire positioning and process speed of preform production. A new device dedicated to the chemical deposition of W enhances significantly, the available machine time for processing and optimisation. Modelling shows that good deposition results are achievable by the use of a convectional flow and a directed temperature profile in an infiltration process.

  17. Development and optimisation of tungsten armour geometry for ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Safronov, V.; Yablokov, N.

    1998-01-01

    The plasma facing components (PFC) of the future thermonuclear reactor in great extend determine the time of non-stop operation of the reactor. In current ITER project the most of the divertor PFC surfaces are covered by tungsten armour. Therefore selection of tungsten grade and attachment scheme for joining the tungsten armour to heat sink is a matter of great importance. Two attachment schemes for highly loaded components (up to 20 MW/m 2 ) are described in this paper. The small size mock-ups were manufactured and successfully tested at heat fluxes up to 30 MW/m 2 in screening test and up to 20 MW/m 2 at thermal fatigue test. One mock-up with four different tungsten grades was tested by consequent thermal shock (15 MJ/m 2 at 50 μs) and thermal cycling loading (15 MW/m 2 ). The damages that could lead to mock-up failure were not found but the behaviour of tungsten grades was quite different. (author)

  18. Experimental study of tungsten transport properties in T-10 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupin, V. A.; Nurgaliev, M. R.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.; Nemets, A. R.; Zemtsov, I. A.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Sarychev, D. V.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurygin, V. A.; Leontiev, D. S.; Borschegovskij, A. A.; Grashin, S. A.; Ryjakov, D. V.; Sergeev, D. S.; Mustafin, N. A.; Trukhin, V. M.; Solomatin, R. Yu.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Naumenko, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    First experimental results of tungsten transport investigation in OH and ECRH plasmas in the T-10 tokamak with W-limiter and movable Li-limiter are presented. It is shown that tungsten tends to accumulate (a joint process of cumulation and peaking) near the plasma axis in ohmic regimes. The cumulation of W is enhanced in discharges with high values of the parameter γ ={{\\bar{n}}\\text{e}}\\centerdot {{\\bar{Z}}\\text{eff}}\\centerdot I\\text{pl}-1.5 that coincides with accumulation conditions of light and medium impurities in T-10 plasmas. Experiments with Li-limiter show the immeasurable level of Li3+ (0.3-0.5% of n e) of T-10 CXRS diagnostics because of the low inflow of Li with respect to other light impurities. Nevertheless, the strong influence of lithium on inflow of light and tungsten impurities is observed. In discharges with lithized walls, vanishing of light impurities occurs and values of {{Z}\\text{eff}}≈ 1 are obtained. It is also shown that the tungsten density in the plasma center decreases by 15 to 20 times while the W inflow reduces only by 2 to 4 times. In lithized discharges with high γ, the flattening of the tungsten density profile occurs and its central concentration decreases up to 10 times during the on-axis ECRH. This effect is observed together with the increase of the W inflow by 3 to 4 times at the ECRH stage.

  19. [Artificial bone substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníček, Petr

    Bone tissue substitutes are divided into basic classification with its pros and cons described. Arteficial bone grafts are especially pointed out in article, publishing our own experience with two specific synthetic preps. Finally there is a blink in the near future of bone tissue augmentation.

  20. Early stage damage of ultrafine-grained tungsten materials exposed to low energy helium ion irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Atwani, O.; Gonderman, S.; Suslov, S.; Efe, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T.; Bystrov, K.; Hattar, K.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten is considered as a plasma facing component in the divertor region of the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER). High flux, high fluence helium (He) exposure of tungsten surfaces induces severe morphology changes and nanostructure formation, which may eventually erode

  1. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  2. Study of Tungsten effect on CFETR performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengyu; Xiang Gao Collaboration; Guoqiang Li Collaboration; Nan Shi Collaboration; Vincent Chan Collaboration; Xiang Jian Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    An integrated modeling workflow using OMFIT/TGYRO is constructed to evaluate W impurity effects on China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) performance. Self-consistent modeling of tungsten(W) core density profile, accounting for turbulence and neoclassical transport, is performed based on the CFETR steady-state scenario developed by D.Zhao (ZhaoDeng, APS, 2016). It's found that the fusion performance degraded in a limited level with increasing W concentration. The main challenge arises in sustainment of H-mode with significant W radiation. Assuming the power threshold of H-L back transition is approximately the same as that of L-H transition, using the scaling law of Takizuka (Takizuka etc, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 2004), it is found that the fractional W concentration should not exceed 3e-5 to stay in H-mode for CFETR phase I. A future step is to connect this requirement to W wall erosion modeling. We are grateful to Dr. Emiliano Fable and Dr. Thomas Pütterich and Ms. Emily Belli for very helpful discussions and comments. We also would like to express our thanks to all the members of the CFETR Physics Group, and we appreciate the General Atomic Theory Group for permission to use the OMFIT framework and GA code suite, and for their valuable technical support. Numerical computations were performed on the ShenMa High Performance Computing Cluster in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This work was mainly supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014GB110001, 2014GB110002, 2014GB110003) and supported in part by the National ITER Plans Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013GB106001, 2013GB111002, 2015GB110001).

  3. Synthesis of bundled tungsten oxide nanowires with controllable morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shibin; Zou Zengda; Min Guanghui

    2009-01-01

    Bundled tungsten oxide nanowires with controllable morphology were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride (WCl 6 ) as precursor and cyclohexanol as solvent. The as-synthesized products were systematically characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller gas-sorption measurements were also employed. Accompanied by an apparent drop of specific surface area from 151 m 2 g -1 for the longer nanowires synthesized using a lower concentration of WCl 6 to 106 m 2 g -1 for the shorter nanowires synthesized using a higher concentration of WCl 6 , a dramatically morphological evolution was also observed. With increasing concentration of tungsten hexachloride (WCl 6 ) in cyclohexanol, the nanostructured bundles became larger, shorter and straighter, and finally a block-shape product occurred

  4. 3D-microscopy of hydrogen in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeper, K., E-mail: katrin.peeper@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 München (Germany); Moser, M.; Reichart, P. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 München (Germany); Markina, E.; Mayer, M.; Lindig, S.; Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 München (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The mapping of hydrogen distributions in 3 dimensions and its correlation with structural features allow further insight into mechanisms of hydrogen trapping in tungsten. We studied hydrogen distributions in 25 μm thick polycrystalline tungsten foils by 3D hydrogen microscopy using a proton–proton-scattering method. Two types of tungsten samples were prepared: (i) at 1200 K annealed foils and using 1.8 MeV implantation energy (ii) at 2000 K annealed foils using 200 eV implantation energy. It has been found that large variations of surface hydrogen contamination occur within different samples. Nevertheless, a statistically significant variation of the hydrogen content across grain boundaries has been observed.

  5. Displacement disorder and reconstruction of the (001) face of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorushkin, V.E.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.; Savushkin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of the (001) border of tungsten is examined taking into consideration random static displacements of surface atoms in the high-temperature (1 x 1) phase. A microscopic model is proposed, in which the creation of c(2 x 2) phase is described as a transition of the Jahn-Teller type and an ordering of static displacements. It is shown that displacement disorder induces instability of (001) tungsten with respect to reconstruction. The effect of a uniform electric field on a disordered reconstructing surface is examined. A possible reason is given for pronounced differences in the results of investigations of the structural conversion of the (001) face in tungsten when different experimental methods are used

  6. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; McDonald, I.G.; Moore, B.T.; Silva, V.M.

    1988-10-01

    The corrosion behaviour of four tungsten alloys has been evaluated through weight loss measurements after total immersion in both distilled water insight into the mechanism of corrosion was afforded by an examination of the and 5% sodium chloride solutions. Some insight the mechanism of corrosion was afforded by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy and through an analysis of the corrosion products. Pure tungsten and all the alloys studied underwent corrosion during the tests, and in each case the rare of corrosion in sodium chloride solution was markedly less than that in distilled water. A 95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe alloy was found to be the most corrosion resistant of the alloys under the experimental conditions. Examination of the data shows that for each of the tests, copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. 9 refs., 7 tabs., 12 figs

  7. Hypoeutectic Silumin to Pressure Die Casting with Vanadium and Tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczak T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vanadium and tungsten on the crystallization process, microstructure and mechanical properties of silumin grade EN-AC 46000. The research involved a derivative thermal analysis DTA of the crystallization process, the metallographic analysis as well as the mechanical properties. The metallographic analysis was carried out on pressure die castings and made in the DTA probe. Vanadium and tungsten were added simultaneously to silumin in amount of approximately 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4%. The DTA studies have shown the similar shape of all crystallization curves. It has been shown the additives of vanadium and tungsten in pressure die cast silumin can significantly increase its tensile strength as an well as elongation.

  8. Volatility from copper and tungsten alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, G.R.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Piet, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accident scenarios for fusion power plants present the potential for release and transport of activated constituents volatilized from first wall and structural materials. The extent of possible mobilization and transport of these activated species, many of which are ''oxidation driven'', is being addressed by the Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report presents experimental measurements of volatilization from a copper alloy in air and steam and from a tungsten alloy in air. The major elements released included zinc from the copper alloy and rhenium and tungsten from the tungsten alloy. Volatilization rates of several constituents of these alloys over temperatures ranging from 400 to 1200 degree C are presented. These values represent release rates recommended for use in accident assessment calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Synthesis of Tungsten Diselenide Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Condensation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Tolochko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline tungsten diselenide (WSe2 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a gas phase reaction using tungsten hexacarbonyl and elemental selenium as precursors. The WSe2 nanoparticle morphology varies from the spherical shape to flake-like layered structures. Mean size in smaller dimension are less than 5 nm and the number of layers decreased linearly with decreasing of reaction time and concentration of carbonyl in the gas phase. The mean value of interlayer distance in <0001> direction is comparable with the microscopic values. The selenium-to-tungsten atomic ratios of 2.07, 2.19 and 2.19 were determined respectively, approach to the stoichiometric ratio of 2:1. Main impurities are oxygen and carbon and strongly interrelated with carbonyl concentration in the gas phase.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7356

  10. Tungsten-microdiamond composites for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livramento, V.; Nunes, D.; Correia, J.B.; Carvalho, P.A.; Mardolcar, U.; Mateus, R.; Hanada, K.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Alves, E.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten is considered as one of promising candidate materials for plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors due to its resistance to sputtering and high melting point. High thermal conductivity is also a prerequisite for plasma facing components under the unique service environment of fusion reactor characterised by the massive heat load, especially in the divertor area. The feasibility of mechanical alloying of nanodiamond and tungsten, and the consolidation of the composite powders with Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was previously demonstrated. In the present research we report on the use of microdiamond instead of nanodiamond in such composites. Microdiamond is more favourable than nanodiamond in view of phonon transport performance leading to better thermal conductivity. However, there is a trade off between densification and thermal conductivity as the SPS temperature increases tungsten carbide formation from microdiamond is accelerated inevitably while the consolidation density would rise.

  11. Computational models of the single substitutional nitrogen atom in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, E B; Osuch, K; Reynhardt, E C

    2003-01-01

    The single substitutional nitrogen atom in diamond is apparently a very simple defect in a very simple elemental solid. It has been modelled by a range of computational models, few of which either agree with each other, or with the experimental data on the defect. If the computational models of less well understood defects in this and more complex materials are to be reliable, we should understand why the discrepancies arise and how they can be avoided in future modelling. This paper presents an all-electron, augmented plane-wave (APW) density functional theory (DFT) calculation using the modern APW with local orbitals full potential periodic approximation. This is compared to DFT, finite cluster pseudopotential calculations and a semi-empirical Hartree-Fock model. Comparisons between the results of these and previous models allow us to discuss the reliability of computational methods of this and similar defects.

  12. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  13. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  14. 40 CFR 421.310 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. 421.310 Section 421.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Secondary Tungsten and Cobalt Subcategory § 421.310 Applicability: Description of the secondary tungsten and cobalt subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  15. A high energy density all solid-state tungsten-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Xu, Nansheng; Romito, Kevin; Huang, Kevin

    2013-06-14

    An all solid-state tungsten-air battery is reported here, which is based on a new metal-air chemistry, featuring decoupled design of electrodes and energy storage. Benefited from higher specific density and better redox kinetics of tungsten, the new tungsten-air battery exhibits roughly higher energy density (W h L(-1)) than the previously reported iron-air battery.

  16. Thermal outgassing studies on machinable tungsten and TZM molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Nielsen, R.W.; Li, Y.; Ryding, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Machinable tungsten and molybdenum alloys are extensively used as safety shutters and optical slits at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends. These materials may present a vacuum problem because of their porosity. Also, an environmentally hazard-free cleaning procedure has to be developed for these materials. We have chosen specially heat-treated machinable tungsten with a density of 18 g/cm 3 for safety shutters and TZM (a molybdenum alloy containing 0.5% titanium and ∼0.1% zirconium) for optical slits. Thermal outgassing tests have been performed for a machinable tungsten set with a total surface area of 4500 cm 2 and a 2.8 x 4.6 x 32.6 cm 3 piece of TZM. A cleaning procedure using alkaline detergent ultrasonic washes and vacuum furnace baking was used before outgassing measurements. Outgassing rates 10 hours after initial pump down at room temperature are 1.6 x 10 -10 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for machinable tungsten and 6.0 x 10 -10 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for TZM. The outgassing rates 24 hours after an in situ bake at 160 degrees C for two days decreased to 2.2 x 10 -12 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for machinable tungsten and 2.2 x 10 -11 Torr·l·s -1 · -2 for TZM. Optical studies confirmed that the TZM sample is more porous than the machinable tungsten sample. Further studies of a denser TZM sample show that the outgassing rate decreases as the porosity decreases. The outgassing rate 24 hours after a 48-h bake at 160 degree C reached 7.4 x 10 -12 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for the denser TZM sample

  17. Hidroxiapatita sintética como substituto ósseo em defeito experimental provocado no terço proximal da tíbia em cão: aspectos à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Sinthetic hydroxyapatite as bone substitute in the experimentally caused defect on the dog tibia proximal third: electronic transmission microscopy aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.B. Borges

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a hidroxiapatita sintética (HAP-91 como substituto ósseo, foram utilizados oito cães adultos, sem raça definida, clinicamente sadios. Após protocolo anestésico e cirúrgico habituais, foi provocado um defeito ósseo na diáfise proximal das tíbias esquerda e direita, sendo implantada a HAP-91 apenas na tíbia direita. Os animais, dois de cada vez, foram sacrificados aos 8, 30, 60 e 120 dias após a cirurgia, quando foram obtidas amostras do local da lesão, que foram fixadas, lavadas, polimerizadas, cortadas e submetidas a dupla coloração em solução aquosa de acetato de uranila a 1% e em solução de citrato de chumbo. Essas secções foram avaliadas e fotografadas ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. Os componentes tissulares na tíbia tratada e na controle foram similares. A absorção da HAP-91 caracterizou-se pela presença de células multinucleadas na interface entre HAP-91 e osso, morfologicamente consideradas como osteoclastos. Ainda, encontraram-se grânulos de HAP-91 no interior de células morfologicamente caracterizadas como macrófagos. A absorção celular de grânulos de HAP-91, concomitante com a formação adjacente de osso novo, sugere que a osteointegração da HAP-91 seja análoga ao processo normal de reabsorção-aposição óssea.With the objective of studying the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP-91 as a bone substitute, eight healthy mongrel adult dogs were used. Following the habitual anesthetic and surgical protocol, a bone defect was provoked in the proximal diafisis of the left and right tibias, being implanted the graft of HAP-91 just in the right tibia. The animals, two at each time, were sacrificed at the 8th, 30th, 60th and 120th days after the surgery, when lesion samples were obtained for histopathology, submitted to the double coloration in 1% uranil acetate solution and in lead citrate solution. These sections were examined and photographed in an electronic

  18. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  19. Helium effects on tungsten surface morphology and deuterium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Peng, H.Y.; Lee, H.T.; Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Yoshida, N.; Doerner, R.; De Temmerman, G.; Alimov, V.; Wright, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental results on tungsten surface morphology, especially nano-structure (fuzz), induced by helium plasma exposure at temperatures between 1000 K and 2000 K are reviewed. This structure was firstly reported in 2006. In this review, most of experimental results reported so far including characteristics and formation conditions of the nano-structure in both linear plasma devices and magnetic confinement devices, erosion and arcing by steady-state plasma exposure and ELM-like pulsed heat or pulsed plasma exposure by a laser and a plasma gun are summarized. In addition, He effects on D retention under simultaneous D/He irradiation on tungsten are presented

  20. Engineered Surface Properties of Porous Tungsten from Cryogenic Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Julius Malte

    Porous tungsten is used to manufacture dispenser cathodes due to it refractory properties. Surface porosity is critical to functional performance of dispenser cathodes because it allows for an impregnated ceramic compound to migrate to the emitting surface, lowering its work function. Likewise, surface roughness is important because it is necessary to ensure uniform wetting of the molten impregnate during high temperature service. Current industry practice to achieve surface roughness and surface porosity requirements involves the use of a plastic infiltrant during machining. After machining, the infiltrant is baked and the cathode pellet is impregnated. In this context, cryogenic machining is investigated as a substitutionary process for the current plastic infiltration process. Along with significant reductions in cycle time and resource use, surface quality of cryogenically machined un-infiltrated (as-sintered) porous tungsten has been shown to significantly outperform dry machining. The present study is focused on examining the relationship between machining parameters and cooling condition on the as-machined surface integrity of porous tungsten. The effects of cryogenic pre-cooling, rake angle, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed are all taken into consideration with respect to machining-induced surface morphology. Cermet and Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools are used to develop high performance cryogenic machining of porous tungsten. Dry and pre-heated machining were investigated as a means to allow for ductile mode machining, yet severe tool-wear and undesirable smearing limited the feasibility of these approaches. By using modified PCD cutting tools, high speed machining of porous tungsten at cutting speeds up to 400 m/min is achieved for the first time. Beyond a critical speed, brittle fracture and built-up edge are eliminated as the result of a brittle to ductile transition. A model of critical chip thickness ( hc ) effects based on cutting

  1. Tool life of ceramic wedges during precise turning of tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legutko Stanislaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties, application and machinability of tungsten and its alloys have been demonstrated. The comparison of the tool life and wear of the wedges made of SiAlON and whisker ceramics during the precise turning at different cutting parameters have been presented. The CNC lathe DMG CTX 310 Ecoline and tungsten of 99.7 % purity were used during the experiments. Only the wedge of whisker ceramics has proved to be sufficiently suitable and only for relatively low cutting speeds.

  2. Simulating irradiation hardening in tungsten under fast neutron irradiation including Re production by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Gilbert, Mark R.; Marian, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Simulations of neutron damage under fusion energy conditions must capture the effects of transmutation, both in terms of accurate chemical inventory buildup as well as the physics of the interactions between transmutation elements and irradiation defect clusters. In this work, we integrate neutronics, primary damage calculations, molecular dynamics results, Re transmutation calculations, and stochastic cluster dynamics simulations to study neutron damage in single-crystal tungsten to mimic divertor materials. To gauge the accuracy and validity of the simulations, we first study the material response under experimental conditions at the JOYO fast reactor in Japan and the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for which measurements of cluster densities and hardening levels up to 2 dpa exist. We then provide calculations under expected DEMO fusion conditions. Several key mechanisms involving Re atoms and defect clusters are found to govern the accumulation of irradiation damage in each case. We use established correlations to translate damage accumulation into hardening increases and compare our results to the experimental measurements. We find hardening increases in excess of 5000 MPa in all cases, which casts doubts about the integrity of W-based materials under long-term fusion exposure.

  3. Size-dependent plastic deformation of twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Startt, Jacob K.; Payne, Thomas G.; Deo, Chaitanya S.; McDowell, David L.

    2017-05-01

    Compared with face-centered cubic metals, twinned nanopillars in body-centered cubic (BCC) systems are much less explored partly due to the more complicated plastic deformation behavior and a lack of reliable interatomic potentials for the latter. In this paper, the fault energies predicted by two semi-empirical interatomic potentials in BCC tungsten (W) are first benchmarked against density functional theory calculations. Then, the more accurate potential is employed in large scale molecular dynamics simulations of tensile and compressive loading of twinned nanopillars in BCC W with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. A single crystal, a twinned crystal, and single crystalline nanopillars are also studied as references. Analyses of the stress-strain response and defect nucleation reveal a strong tension-compression asymmetry and a weak pillar size dependence in the yield strength. Under both tensile and compressive loading, plastic deformation in the twinned nanopillars is dominated by dislocation slip on {110} planes that are nucleated from the intersections between the twin boundary and the pillar surface. It is also found that the cross sectional shape of nanopillars affects the strength and the initial site of defect nucleation but not the overall stress-strain response and plastic deformation behavior.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and optical properties of hexagonal tungsten oxide nanocrystals assisted by ammonium tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hua-Feng; Li, Zhi-Jie [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiao-Tao [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); International Center for Material Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Fu, Yong-Qing [Thin Film Center, Scottish Universities of Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Crystals of hexagonal tungsten oxides (hex-WO{sub 3}) have been synthesized using hydrothermal method at 150 C, assisted by the capping reagent of ammonium tartrate (AT). The XRD and EDX results reveal that the lattice distortion exists in all the samples, possibly due to the defects and the intercalation of the residual sodium ions. Different crystal shapes including plate-like, urchin-like, and particle structures were obtained by varying concentration of AT and pH values in the precursor solution. Beside the absorption action of the NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Na{sup +} ions, the capping effect can be reinforced by the hydrogen bonding from the tartrate groups in the crystallization process. The bandgap energies were modulated by the size of the nanostructured hex-WO{sub 3} crystals due to quantum confinement effect, which increases from 2.74 to 3.04 eV. Based on the analysis of the photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the enhancement of the blue emission of the nanocrystals is assigned as a result of a complex of the local intercalation of the residual sodium ions and the oxygen vacancies or defects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Effect of strain field on displacement cascade in tungsten studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, N., E-mail: ning.gao@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Z.G., E-mail: zhgwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, W.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, M.H.; Pang, L.L.; Zhu, Y.B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Using atomistic methods, the coupling effect of strain field and displacement cascade in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten is directly simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at different temperatures. The values of the hydrostatic and uniaxial (parallel or perpendicular to primary knock-on atom (PKA) direction) strains are from −2% to 2% and the temperature is from 100 to 1000 K. Because of the annealing effect, the influence of strain on radiation damage at low temperature has been proved to be more significant than that at high temperature. When the cascade proceeds under the hydrostatic strain, the Frenkel Pair (FP) production, the fraction of defect in cluster and the average size of the defect cluster, all increase at tensile state and decrease at compressive state. When the cascade is under uniaxial strain, the effect of strain parallel to PKA direction is less than the effect of hydrostatic strain, while the effect of strain perpendicular to PKA direction can be negligible. Under the uniaxial strain along 〈1 1 1〉 direction, the SIA and SIA cluster is observed to orientate along the strain direction at tensile state and the uniaxial compressive strain with direction perpendicular to 〈1 1 1〉 has led to the similar preferred nucleation. All these results indicate that under irradiation, the tensile state should be avoided for materials used in nuclear power plants.

  6. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  7. Simulation of cracks in tungsten under ITER specific heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschany, S.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of high tritium retention in co-deposited carbon layers on the walls of ITER vacuum chamber motivates investigation of materials for the divertor armour others than carbon fibre composite (CFC). Tungsten is most probable material for CFC replacement as the divertor armour because of high vaporisation temperature and heat conductivity. In the modern ITER design tungsten is a reference material for the divertor cover, except for the separatrix strike point armoured with CFC. As divertor armour, tungsten should withstand severe heat loads at off-normal ITER events like disruptions, ELMs and vertical displacement events. Experiments on tungsten heating with plasma streams and e-beams have shown an intense crack formation at the surface of irradiated sample [ V.I. Tereshin, A.N. Bandura, O.V. Byrka et al. Repetitive plasma loads typical for ITER type-I ELMs: Simulation at QSPA Kh-50.PLASMA 2005. ed. By Sadowski M.J., AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, 2006, V 812, p. 128-135., J. Linke. Private communications.]. The reason for tungsten cracking under severe heat loads is thermo stress. It appears as due to temperature gradient in solid tungsten as in resolidified layer after cooling down. Both thermo stresses are of the same value, but the gradiental stress is compressive and the stress in the resolidified layer is tensile. The last one is most dangerous for crack formation and it was investigated in this work. The thermo stress in tungsten that develops during cooling from the melting temperature down to room temperature is ∼ 8-16 GPa. Tensile strength of tungsten is much lower, < 1 GPa at room temperature, and at high temperatures it drops at least for one order of magnitude. As a consequence, various cracks of different characteristic scales appear at the heated surface of the resolidified layer. For simulation of the cracks in tungsten the numeric code PEGASUS-3D [Pestchanyi and I. Landman. Improvement of the CFC structure to

  8. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.fukuda@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Kiran Kumar, N.A.P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Snead, Lance L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten was performed in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). To investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ∼90–∼800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and microstructure changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten. - Highlights: • The microstructure and irradiation hardening of single crystal pure W irradiated in HFIR was investigated. • The neutron energy spectrum influence was evaluated by comparing the HFIR results with previous work in Joyo and JMTR. • In the dose range up to ∼1 dpa, the neutron energy spectrum influence of irradiation hardening was not clear. • In the dose range above 1 dpa, the neutron energy influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development was clearly observed. • The irradiation induced precipitates caused significant irradiation hardening of pure W irradiated in HFIR.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of grain boundary diffusion of hydrogen in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Toussaint, U; Gori, S; Manhard, A; Höschen, T; Höschen, C

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of the microstructure of tungsten on hydrogen transport is crucial for the use of tungsten as first-wall material in fusion reactors. Here, we report the results of molecular dynamics and transition state studies on the influence of grain boundaries in tungsten on the transport of hydrogen. An exhaustive mapping of possible minimum activation energy migration trajectories for hydrogen as the trace impurity reveals a strongly modified activation energy distribution in the neighborhood of grain boundaries together with an altered connectivity matrix. The results indicate that grain boundaries in polycrystalline tungsten may provide an important transport channel, especially for neutron-damaged tungsten.

  10. Incorporation of tungsten metal fibers in a metal and ceramic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brozek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibers have high tensile strength but a poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Using this first characteristic and to prevent oxidation of tungsten coated composite materials in which the primary requirement: reinforcement against destruction or deformation, was studied on tungsten fibers and tungsten wires which were coated by applying the metal and ceramic powders via plasma spraying device in plasma generator WSP®. Deposition took place in an atmosphere of Ar + 7 % H2, sufficient to reduce the oxidized trace amounts of tungsten.

  11. Vanadium(V-Substitution Reactions of Wells–Dawson-Type Polyoxometalates: From [X2M18O62]6− (X = P, As; M = Mo, W to [X2VM17O62]7−

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaharu Ueda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation processes of V(V-substituted polyoxometalates with the Wells–Dawson-type structure were studied by cyclic voltammetry and by 31P NMR and Raman spectroscopy. Generally, the vanadium-substituted heteropolytungstates, [P2VW17O62]7− and [As2VW17O62]7−, were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of the corresponding lacunary species—[P2W17O61]10− and [As2W17O61]10−—and vanadate. According to the results of various measurements in the present study, the tungsten site in the framework of [P2W18O62]6− and [As2W18O62]6− without defect sites could be substituted with V(V to form the [P2VW17O62]7− and [As2VW17O62]7−, respectively. The order in which the reagents were mixed was observed to be the key factor for the formation of Dawson-type V(V-substituted polyoxometalates. Even when the concentration of each reagent was identical, the final products differed depending on the order of their addition to the reaction mixture. Unlike Wells–Dawson-type heteropolytungstates, the molybdenum sites in the framework of [P2Mo18O62]6− and [As2Mo18O62]6− were substituted with V(V, but formed Keggin-type [PVMo11O40]4− and [AsVMo11O40]4− instead of [P2VMo17O62]7− and [As2VMo17O62]7−, respectively, even though a variety of reaction conditions were used. The formation constant of the [PVMo11O40]4− and [AsVMo11O40]4− was hypothesized to be substantially greater than that of the [P2VMo17O62]7− and [As2VMo17O62]7−.

  12. Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Sloof, W.G.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings, sputter deposited in a reactive argon/acetylene plasma, has been studied as a function of the acetylene partial pressure. Stress and microstructure have been investigated by wafer curvature and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  13. Hollow microspheres with a tungsten carbide kernel for PEMFC application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arbigny, Julien Bernard; Taillades, Gilles; Marrony, Mathieu; Jones, Deborah J; Rozière, Jacques

    2011-07-28

    Tungsten carbide microspheres comprising an outer shell and a compact kernel prepared by a simple hydrothermal method exhibit very high surface area promoting a high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles, and an exceptionally high electrochemically active surface area (EAS) stability compared to the usual Pt/C electrocatalysts used for PEMFC application.

  14. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding processes to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively reduced the ...

  15. Thermal Neutron Capture onto the Stable Tungsten Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal neutron-capture measurements of the stable tungsten isotopes have been carried out using the guided thermal-neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor. Prompt singles spectra were collected and analyzed using the HYPERMET γ-ray analysis software package for the compound tungsten systems 183W, 184W, and 187W, prepared from isotopically-enriched samples of 182W, 183W, and 186W, respectively. These new data provide both confirmation and new insights into the decay schemes and structure of the tungsten isotopes reported in the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File based upon previous elemental analysis. The experimental data have also been compared to Monte Carlo simulations of γ-ray emission following the thermal neutron-capture process using the statistical-decay code DICEBOX. Together, the experimental cross sections and modeledfeeding contribution from the quasi continuum, have been used to determine the total radiative thermal neutron-capture cross sections for the tungsten isotopes and provide improved decay-scheme information for the structural- and neutron-data libraries.

  16. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences.

  17. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences. Component

  18. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  19. Features of simultaneous discharge of tungsten with nickel and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.L.; Krivtsov, A.K.; Pavel'eva, L.A.; Zajtsev, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the kinetics of electrolytic codeposition of tungsten alloys with nickel and cobalt were investigated. Experiments were conducted with ammonia-citrate electrolytes having the following composition in g/1: (1)CoSO 4 x7H 2 O-60, Na 2 WO 4 x2H 2 O -70, citric acid-60, NH 4 OH to pH=6-7; (2) NiSO 4 x7H 2 O - from 1 to 20, Na 2 WO 4 x2H 2 O-50, citric acid-66, NH 4 OH, to pH=6-7. Dependences of tungsten content in the alloy on the concentration of citric acid and current densities are investigated. It is shown that intermediate tungsten oxides of lower oxidation degrees can be formed in the electrolyte. Experimental proofs are obtained of tungsten discharge into the alloy with cobalt and nickel from citrate solutions through the film of intermediate compounds, which forms in the near-cathode space

  20. Understanding metal–insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-20

    May 20, 2015 ... We have carried out angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and spectromicroscopy studies to understand the metal–insulator transition (MIT) observed in sodium tungsten bronzes, NaWO3. The experimentally determined band structure is compared with the theoretical calculation based ...

  1. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

    1969-12-08

    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  2. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  3. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cryogenic treatment is a recent advancement in the field of machining to improve the properties of cutting tool materials. Tungsten carbide is the most commonly used cutting tool material in the industry and the technique can also be extended to it. Although the importance of tempering after cryogenic treatment has been ...

  4. Dioxobridged complexes of molybdenum (IV) and tungsten (IV) with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The molar conductance values measured in DMF indicate the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes (table 2). Ion-exchange studies show that the complexes are neutral. .... molydbenum and tungsten complexes respectively. The second step consists of the decomposition of the organic moiety and the formation of MO3.

  5. Dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity of sodium tungsten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Studies of dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity have been made on three samples of sodium tungsten phosphate glasses over a temperature range of 77–420 K. Complex relative permit- tivity data have been analyzed using dielectric modulus approach. Conductivity relaxation frequency increases with the ...

  6. Electrochemical properties of tungsten oxysulphide thin films as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Lithium microbattery; tungsten oxysulphide; thin film; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); sputtering. ... At the beginning of the intercalation, W6+ was first partially reduced into W5+, and then into W4+, but the important stage was the reduction of W4+ into W0. In W0, the electron binding energy was very ...

  7. Understanding the surface and structural characteristics of tungsten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Tungsten oxide; tin oxide; etherification; glycerol; tert-butanol; glycerol ethers. 1. Introduction. Biodiesel, an eco-friendly biofuel is being chosen as an alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel has been produced in large quantities by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats.1 During the production of biodiesel.

  8. Hot-wire assisted atomic layer deposition of Tungsten films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Mengdi

    2018-01-01

    This thesis aims to establish a novel technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the future ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) of microelectronics. We developed a hot-wire assisted ALD (HWALD), where a heated tungsten (W) filament is utilized instead of a plasma to generate radicals. HWALD is

  9. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. II. Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerbacher, B.; Egede Christensen, N.

    1974-01-01

    Energy-distribution spectra of photoelectrons emitted normal to three single-crystal faces of tungsten have been measured for photon energies between 7.7 and 21.2 eV. The results are interpreted in terms of one-dimensional electronic properties along the symmetry lines in k space that correspond ...

  10. Electrochemical properties of tungsten oxysulphide thin films as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    1⋅2 V. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed on different compounds in both inter- calated (Li1WO1⋅05S2 ... during the first discharge–charge cycle. The analysis of both the W4f and the S2p peaks has shown that the redox processes involve not only the tungsten atoms but also sulphur atoms.

  11. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding pro- cesses to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively ...

  12. Refining waste hardmetals into tungsten oxide nanosheets via facile method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Guangwei; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Hongyi; Wu, Junshu; Du, Yucheng

    2016-04-01

    A new hydrothermal system has been designed to recycle waste WC-Co hardmetal with low cobalt (Co) content (3 %). In the solution system, nitric acid was designed to dissolve Co, H2O2 served as oxidant to accelerate the oxidation of the WC-Co hardmetals, and fluorine (F-) was designed to dissolve and recrystallize generated tungsten oxides, which were found to possess a layered structure using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained tungsten oxides were identified as WO3·0.33H2O by X-ray diffraction and their specific surface area was measured as 89.2 m2 g-1 via N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The present layered structure tungsten oxides exhibited a promising capability for removing lead ion (Pb2+) and organic species, such as methyl blue. The adsorption model was found to be in agreement with Langmuir isotherm model. Given the facile synthesis procedure and promising properties of final products, this new approach should have great potential for refining some other waste hardmetals or tungsten products.

  13. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  14. Low temperature processing of tungsten-fibre high-strength composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semrau, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A tungsten nickel/iron compound with a high tungsten content up to over 90 percent by volume of tungsten and an ideal distribution of the nickel-iron multilayer-matrix avoiding tungsten - tungsten interfaces, has been processed without the use of any sintering process and thus resulted in avoiding temperatures of above 700 o C during the entire manufacturing process. An electrochemical coating of coarse tungsten powder with alternating layers of nickel and iron and a forging process at temperatures not exceeding 650 o C resulted in a high strength compound, which easily could be altered into a tungsten fiber compound with a fiber-length to fiber-diameter ratio of more than 10 3 . From the viewpoint of the metallurgist, easier handling systems are obtained when both a liquid phase and high temperatures with their risks for grain structures and grain boundaries are lacking. (author)

  15. The high temperature impact response of tungsten and chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock waves has been studied in pure polycrystalline tungsten and chromium at room and elevated temperatures over propagation distances ranging from 0.05 to 3 mm (tungsten) and from 0.1 to 2 mm (chromium). The use of fused silica windows in all but one experiment with chromium and in several high temperature experiments with tungsten led to the need for performing shock and optic characterization of these windows over the 300-1200 K temperature interval. Experiments with tungsten and chromium samples showed that annealing of the metals transforms the initial ramping elastic wave into a jump-like wave, substantially increasing the Hugoniot elastic limits of the metals. With increased annealing time, the spall strength of the two metals slightly increases. Both at room and at high temperatures, the elastic precursor in the two metals decays in two distinct regimes. At propagation distances smaller than ˜1 mm (tungsten) or ˜0.5 mm (chromium), decay is fast, with the dislocation motion and multiplication being controlled by phonon viscous drag. At greater distances, the rate of decay becomes much lower, with control of the plastic deformation being passed to the thermally activated generation and motion of dislocation double-kinks. The stress at which this transition takes place virtually coincides with the Peierls stress τP of the active glide system. Analysis of the annealing effects in both presently and previously studied BCC metals (i.e., Ta, V, Nb, Mo, W, and Cr) and of the dependencies of their normalized Peierls stresses τP(θ) /τP(0 ) on the normalized temperature θ=T /Tm allows one to conclude that the non-planar, split into several glide planes, structure of the dislocation core in these metals is mainly responsible for their plastic deformation features.

  16. Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten disulfide (WS2-x) films: Influence of deposition parameters on texture, microstructure, and stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, V.; Seeger, S.; Ellmer, K.; Mientus, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS 2-x ) films (0.07≤x≤0.7) were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a tungsten target in rare gas/H 2 S atmospheres and at substrate temperatures up to 620 degree sign C. The nucleation and growth of the films were investigated by in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) and by ex situ techniques such as electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and x-ray reflectivity. From the EDXRD analysis it was found that the films always nucleate with the (001) planes, i.e., the van der Waals planes, parallel to the substrate surface. For high deposition rates and/or low substrate temperatures a texture crossover from the (001) to the (100) crystallite orientation occurs during the growth. High deposition rates, low substrate temperatures, or low sputtering pressures lead to a significant lattice expansion of the crystallites in the c direction (up to 3%). This is most probably caused by a disturbed or turbostratic film growth induced by the energetic bombardment during film deposition. Reflected and neutralized energetic ions (Ar 0 ,S 0 ) from the tungsten target and negative ions (S - ) accelerated in the cathode dark space constitute the main sources of the energetic bombardment leading to crystallographic defects. The energy of these particles can be tailored by (i) thermalization between target and substrate in the sputtering gas or (ii) by a reduction of the discharge or target voltage, respectively, by high frequency excitation of the plasma. Films deposited under favorable conditions with respect to low particle energies and at substrate temperatures higher than 200 degree sign C exhibit a significant sulfur deficiency of up to about 5 at. % compared to the stoichiometric composition of WS 2 . This is ascribed to an energetic particle bombardment-induced sulfur desorption from the growing films

  17. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, K. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: codl@sci.muni.cz; Stankova, A. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Haekkaenen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. BOX 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Otruba, V.; Kanicky, V. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2007-12-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r{sup 2} > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r{sup 2} = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  18. Synthesis of high purity tungsten nanoparticles from tungsten heavy alloy scrap by selective precipitation and reduction route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, S.S. Kalyan, E-mail: kalyanchem03@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, P.K.; Vimala, J.; Shanker, B.; Ghosal, P.; Durai, L.

    2016-09-05

    In this paper we report synthesis of tungsten nanoparticles of high purity >99.7 wt% from heavy alloy scrap using a novel chemical route of selective precipitation and reduction. The effect of Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer on controlling the particle size is established through FTIR spectra and corroborated with TEM images, wherein the average size decreased form 210 to 45 nm with increasing PVP content from zero to 2 g under different experimental conditions. This process is economical as raw material is a scrap and the efficiency of the reaction is >95%. - Highlights: • Tungsten nanoparticles were synthesized from tungsten heavy alloy scrap. • A novel chemical route of precipitation and reduction with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer as stabilizer is reported. • The average size decreased form 210 to 45 nm with increasing PVP content from zero to 2 g. • High pure tungsten nanoparticles of >99.7% purity could be synthesized using this route. • Efficiency of the reaction is >95%.

  19. Influence of point defects on the near edge structure of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Nicholas L.; Partridge, Jim G.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Russo, Salvy P.; McCulloch, Dougal G.

    2017-10-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with applications including gate insulation layers in graphene transistors, far-ultraviolet light emitting devices and as hydrogen storage media. Due to its complex microstructure, defects in hBN are challenging to identify. Here, we combine x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with ab initio theoretical modeling to identify energetically favorable defects. Following annealing of hBN samples in vacuum and oxygen, the B and N K edges exhibited angular-dependent peak modifications consistent with in-plane defects. Theoretical calculations showed that the energetically favorable defects all produce signature features in XANES. Comparing these calculations with experiments, the principle defects were attributed to substitutional oxygen at the nitrogen site, substitutional carbon at the boron site, and hydrogen passivated boron vacancies. Hydrogen passivation of defects was found to significantly affect the formation energies, electronic states, and XANES. In the B K edge, multiple peaks above the major 1 s to π* peak occur as a result of these defects and the hydrogen passivated boron vacancy produces the frequently observed doublet in the 1 s to σ* transition. While the N K edge is less sensitive to defects, features attributable to substitutional C at the B site were observed. This defect was also calculated to have mid-gap states in its band structure that may be responsible for the 4.1-eV ultraviolet emission frequently observed from this material.

  20. Defects in hardwood timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  1. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... with cosmetic deformity of fore head (Figure 1), and he claimed that he could not get job because of ... 1: Pre-operative forontal view of patient. Figure 2: Intra operative photography of defect (A) reconstructed defect (B) ... with a cosmetic deformity of forehead on left side. (4nA and B). He was a candidate for.

  2. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  3. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  4. Effects of bone substitute architecture and surface properties on cell response, angiogenesis, and structure of new bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F.S.L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The success of bone substitutes used to repair bone defects such as critical sized defects depends on the architecture of the porous biomaterial. The architectural parameters and surface properties affect cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and eventually bone formation. The

  5. Pitfalls of tungsten multileaf collimator in proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Particle beam therapy is associated with significant startup and operational cost. Multileaf collimator (MLC) provides an attractive option to improve the efficiency and reduce the treatment cost. A direct transfer of the MLC technology from external beam radiation therapy is intuitively straightforward to proton therapy. However, activation, neutron production, and the associated secondary cancer risk in proton beam should be an important consideration which is evaluated. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation with FLUKA particle transport code was applied in this study for a number of treatment models. The authors have performed a detailed study of the neutron generation, ambient dose equivalent [H*(10)], and activation of a typical tungsten MLC and compared with those obtained from a brass aperture used in a typical proton therapy system. Brass aperture and tungsten MLC were modeled by absorber blocks in this study, representing worst-case scenario of a fully closed collimator. Results: With a tungsten MLC, the secondary neutron dose to the patient is at least 1.5 times higher than that from a brass aperture. The H*(10) from a tungsten MLC at 10 cm downstream is about 22.3 mSv/Gy delivered to water phantom by noncollimated 200 MeV beam of 20 cm diameter compared to 14 mSv/Gy for the brass aperture. For a 30-fraction treatment course, the activity per unit volume in brass aperture reaches 5.3 x 10 4 Bq cm -3 at the end of the last treatment. The activity in brass decreases by a factor of 380 after 24 h, additional 6.2 times after 40 days of cooling, and is reduced to background level after 1 yr. Initial activity in tungsten after 30 days of treating 30 patients per day is about 3.4 times higher than in brass that decreases only by a factor of 2 after 40 days and accumulates to 1.2 x 10 6 Bq cm -3 after a full year of operation. The daily utilization of the MLC leads to buildup of activity with time. The overall activity continues to increase due to 179 Ta with

  6. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm -2 at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced damages

  7. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-07-19

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced

  8. Thermal reaction of SiC films with tungsten and tungsten-rhenium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, J.; Le Petitcorps, Y. [Univ Bordeaux 1, Lab Composites Thermostruct, CNRS-SAFRAN-CEA-UB1, UMR 5801, F-33600 Pessac, (France); Roger, J.; Audubert, F. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SPUA/LTEC, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Solid-state reactions between SiC films and W-xRe (x = 0, 5 and 25 at%) substrates on thermal annealing between 1673 K and 1873 K for various durations have been investigated. SiC coatings were deposited on metallic wires by hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) from a gas mixture of tetramethyl-silane (TMS) and hydrogen at 1373 K under normal pressure. The interface zones were characterized using scanning electron and optical microscopies, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe microanalysis. All analyses reveal that SiC reacts with substrates. Various metal silicides and carbides were formed in layered reaction and the presence of these phases was confirmed by electron probe microanalysis. The effects of rhenium on the reactivity were established by the determination of growth kinetics deducted from the thicknesses of reaction zones as a function of annealing time. It has been found that an increase in the diffusion kinetics and activation energy with the quantity of rhenium in the tungsten wire. (authors)

  9. Generation and development of damage in double forged tungsten in different combined regimes of irradiation with extreme heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paju, Jana; Väli, Berit; Laas, Tõnu; Shirokova, Veroonika; Laas, Katrin; Paduch, Marian; Gribkov, Vladimir A.; Demina, Elena V.; Prusakova, Marina D.; Pimenov, Valeri N.; Makhlaj, Vadym A.; Antonov, Maksim

    2017-11-01

    Armour materials in fusion devices, especially in the region of divertor, are exposed to a continuous heat and particle load. In addition, several off-normal events can reach the material during a work session. Calculations show that the effects of plasma and heat during such events can lead to cracking, erosion and detachment of the armour material. On the other hand, mutual and combined influences of different kinds of heat and particle loads can lead to the amplification of defects or vice versa, to the mitigation of damages. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to investigate the plasma induced damages on samples of double forged tungsten, which is considered a potential candidate for armour material of future tokamak's divertor. The combined effect of different kinds of plasma induced damages was investigated and analysed in this research. The study was conducted by irradiating the samples in various irradiation regimes twice, to observe the accumulation of the damages. Afterwards the analysis of micro-topography, scanning electron microscopy images and electrical conductivity measurements was used. Results indicate that double-forging improved the tungsten's durability to irradiation. Nevertheless, powerful pulses lead to significant damage of the sample, which will lead to further deterioration in the bulk. Although the average micro-roughness on the sample's surface does not change, the overall height/depth ratios can change.

  10. Nitrides and carbides of molybdenum and tungsten with high specific-surface area: their synthesis, structure, and catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, L.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature-programmed reactions between trioxides of molybdenum or tungsten and ammonia provide a new method to synthesize dimolybdenum and ditungsten nitrides with specific surface areas to two-hundred-and-twenty and ninety-one square meters per gram, respectively. These are the highest values on record for any unsupported metallic powders. They correspond to three-four nonometer particles. The reaction of molybdenum trioxide with ammonia is topotactic in the sense that one-zero-zero planes of dimolybdenum nitride are parallel to zero-one-zero planes of molybdenum trioxide. As the trioxide transforms, it passes through an oxynitride intermediate with changing bulk structure and increasing surface area and extent of reduction. The nitride product consists of platelets, pseudomorphous with the original trioxide, which can be regarded as highly porous defect single crystals. By treating small particles of dimolybdenum or ditungsten nitride with methane-dihydrogen mixtures it is possible to replace interstitial nitrogen atoms by carbon atoms, without sintering, and thus to prepare carbides of molybdenum and tungsten with very high specific surface areas. Molybdenum nitride powders catalyze ammonia synthesis. A pronounced increase in the catalytic activity with increasing particle size confirms the structure-sensitive character of this reaction

  11. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group......, the tibial defect was filled manually with Osteoset pellets, in the control group the defect was left empty. CTs of the defect were taken on the first day after the operation, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We found about the same amount of bone in the defect in the Osteoset and control groups...

  12. Results on the electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, K Muthu; Subrahmanyam, A

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, vanadium doped tungsten oxide (V : WO 3 ) thin films are prepared at room temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering employing a tungsten-vanadium 'inlay' target. In comparison with pure sputtered tungsten oxide thin films, 11% vanadium doping is observed to decrease the optical band gap, enhance the colour neutral property, decrease the coloration efficiency (from 121 to 13 cm 2 C -1 ), increase the surface work function (4.68-4.83 eV) and significantly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency in WO 3 thin films. These observations suggest that (i) vanadium creates defect levels that are responsible for optical band gap reduction, (ii) multivalent vanadium bonding with terminal oxygen in the WO 3 lattice gives rise to localized covalent bonds and thus results in an increase in the work function, and (iii) a suitable work function of V : WO 3 with ITO results in an enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. These results on electrochromic and photocatalytic properties of V : WO 3 thin films show good promise in the low maintenance window application

  13. Tungsten and molybdenum double perovskites as pinning centers in melt-textured Y123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Gandini, Alberto; Ren, Yanru; Rusakova, Irene

    2003-01-01

    Y123+30 mol% Y211 powders were doped with tungsten and platinum, and textured. Microstructure studies show the presence of profuse spherical deposits, 200-300 nm in diameter. These deposits were identified as (W{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, a double perovskite. The size of the W-rich deposits is independent of the W doping level. There is no substitution of W into the Y123 matrix. For Pt doping >0.5 wt.%, trapped field is observed to increase monotonically up to 40% for W doping of up to 0.48 wt.%. We conservatively estimate that this corresponds to a 60% increase in J{sub c} at constant field. Thus (W{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6} double perovskites deposits act as pinning centers. Similar studies of molybdenum doping indicate deposits 200-300 nm, of (Mo{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, also a double perovskite. The (W{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6} and (Mo{sub 0.5}Pt{sub 0.5})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6} deposits are remarkably similar to the (U{sub 0.6}Pt{sub 0.4})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6} deposits found earlier in U-doped Y123. Therefore, W and Mo are suitable non-radioactive substitutes for U.

  14. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  15. In-situ TEM observation of the response of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to extreme irradiation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atwani, O; Hinks, J A; Greaves, G; Gonderman, S; Qiu, T; Efe, M; Allain, J P

    2014-05-06

    The accumulation of defects, and in particular He bubbles, can have significant implications for the performance of materials exposed to the plasma in magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors. Some of the most promising candidates for deployment into such environments are nanocrystalline materials as the engineering of grain boundary density offers the possibility of tailoring their radiation resistance properties. In order to investigate the microstructural evolution of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten under conditions similar to those in a reactor, a transmission electron microscopy study with in situ 2 keV He(+) ion irradiation at 950 °C has been completed. A dynamic and complex evolution in the microstructure was observed including the formation of defect clusters, dislocations and bubbles. Nanocrystalline grains with dimensions less than around 60 nm demonstrated lower bubble density and greater bubble size than larger nanocrystalline (60-100 nm) and ultrafine (100-500 nm) grains. In grains over 100 nm, uniform distributions of bubbles and defects were formed. At higher fluences, large faceted bubbles were observed on the grain boundaries, especially on those of nanocrystalline grains, indicating the important role grain boundaries can play in trapping He and thus in giving rise to the enhanced radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials.

  16. On Improving the Quality of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded 18Ni 250 Maraging Steel Rocket Motor Casings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Renu N.; Raja, V. S.; Mukherjee, M. K.; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.

    2017-10-01

    In view of their excellent combination of strength and toughness, maraging steels (18Ni 250 grade) are widely used for the fabrication of large sized solid rocket motor casings. Gas tungsten arc welding is commonly employed to fabricate these thin walled metallic casings, as the technique is not only simple but also provides the desired mechanical properties. However, sometimes, radiographic examination of welds reveals typical unacceptable indications requiring weld repair. As a consequence, there is a significant drop in weld efficiency and productivity. In this work, the nature and the cause of the occurrence of these defects have been investigated and an attempt is made to overcome the problem. It has been found that weld has a tendency to form typical Ca and Al oxide inclusions leading to the observed defects. The use of calcium fluoride flux has been found to produce a defect free weld with visible effect on weld bead finish. The flux promotes the separation of inclusions, refines the grain size and leads to significant improvement in mechanical properties of the weldment.

  17. Fabrication of a tantalum-clad tungsten target for KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Li, J.-F.; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2001-01-01

    Since the cold neutron source intensity of KENS (the spallation neutron source at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) was decreased into about a third of the designed value because a cadmium liner at the cold neutron source deformed and obstructed the neutron beam line, the target-moderator-and-reflector assembly (TMRA) has been replaced by a new one aimed at improving the neutron performance and recovering the cold neutron source. The tantalum target has also been replaced by a tantalum-clad tungsten one. In order to bond the tantalum-clad with the tungsten block, a hot isostatic press (HIP) process was applied and optimized. It was found that gaseous interstitial impurity elements severely attacked tantalum and embrittled, and that the getter materials such as zirconium and tantalum were effective to reduce the embrittlement

  18. Field electron emission from dense array of microneedles of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.; Aoyagi, M.; Kitai, T.; Ishikawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    Characteristics of field electron emission from the dense array of microneedles of tungsten prepared on a 10-μm tungsten filament were measured at an environmental pressure of approx.1 x 10 -8 Torr (1.33 x 10 -6 Pa). Electron emission was not uniform over the filament surface, but the variation of emission current with applied voltage explicitly obeyed the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. At an emission current of approx.10 -4 A, a vacuum arc was induced that led to a permanent change in current-voltage characteristic. Current fluctuation was dependent on emitter temperature and applied voltage, and the lowest fluctuation of about 4% was routinely obtained at approx.550 K and at applied voltages several percent lower than the arc-inducing voltage. Macroscopic current density amounted to approx.20-80 mA/cm 2 at the best stability

  19. First-principles study on migration of vacancy in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Ito, Atsushi M.; Takayama, Arimichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    We calculated di-vacancy binding energies and migration energies of mono-vacancy and di-vacancy in tungsten material using DFT calculation. The mono-vacancy diffuses in [111] direction easily rather than in [001] direction. The migration energies of di-vacancies are almost the same value of the mono-vacancy. The migration of di-vacancy is approximately the same as the migration of mono-vacancy. The di-vacancy binding energies are almost zero or negative. The interactions between two vacancies in tungsten material are repulsive from the second to fifth nearest-neighbor. The vacancies are difficult to aggregate since di-vacancy is less stable than mono-vacancy. (author)

  20. A comparison of interatomic potentials for modeling tungsten nanocluster structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jiannan; Shu, Xiaolin; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulation is utilized to study the nanocluster and the fuzz structure on the PFM surface of tungsten. The polyhedral and linear cluster structures based on the icosahedron, cuboctahedron and rhombic dodecahedron are built up. Three interatomic potentials are used in calculating the relationship between the cluster energy and the number of atoms. The results are compared with first-principles calculation to show each potential’s best application scale. Furthermore, the transition between the icosahedral and the cuboctahedral clusters is observed in molecular dynamic simulation at different temperatures, which follows a critical curve for different numbers of atoms. The linear structures are proved to be stable at experimental temperatures by thermodynamics. The work presents a selection of interatomic potentials in simulating tungsten cluster systems and helps researchers understand the growth and evolution laws of clusters and the fuzz-like structure formation process in fusion devices.

  1. Characterization of tungsten silicides formed by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.; Santiago, J.J.; VanDerSpiegel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Tungsten silicide samples were formed by sputter depositing 80 nm W metal onto (100) oriented, 5 ohm-cm Si wafers. After deposition, the samples were fast radiatively processed in an RTA system using quartz-halogen tungsten lamps as radiation sources for time intervals ranging from 20 to 60s under high vacuum. Films processed at 22-25 W/cm 2 radiation with the film side of the samples oriented away from the lamps result in films which are metallic or cloudy in color, and have mixed composition as evidenced by x-ray diffraction (W, W 5 Si 3 and WSi 2 ). Films processed with the film side oriented toward the lamps show the occurrence of a phase transformation clearly nucleated at the film edge

  2. Tungsten-182 heterogeneity in modern ocean island basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundl, Andrea; Touboul, Mathieu; Jackson, Matthew G.; Day, James M. D.; Kurz, Mark D.; Lekic, Vedran; Helz, Rosalind T.; Walker, Richard J.

    2017-04-01

    New tungsten isotope data for modern ocean island basalts (OIB) from Hawaii, Samoa, and Iceland reveal variable 182W/184W, ranging from that of the ambient upper mantle to ratios as much as 18 parts per million lower. The tungsten isotopic data negatively correlate with 3He/4He. These data indicate that each OIB system accesses domains within Earth that formed within the first 60 million years of solar system history. Combined isotopic and chemical characteristics projected for these ancient domains indicate that they contain metal and are repositories of noble gases. We suggest that the most likely source candidates are mega-ultralow-velocity zones, which lie beneath Hawaii, Samoa, and Iceland but not beneath hot spots whose OIB yield normal 182W and homogeneously low 3He/4He.

  3. High-temperature brazing for reliable tungsten-CFC joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppitz, Th; Pintsuk, G; Reisgen, U; Remmel, J; Hirai, T; Sievering, R; Rojas, Y; Casalegno, V

    2007-01-01

    The joining of tungsten and carbon-based materials is demanding due to the incompatibility of their chemical and thermophysical properties. Direct joining is unfeasible by the reason of brittle tungsten carbide formation. High-temperature brazing has been investigated in order to find a suitable brazing filler metal (BFM) which successfully acts as an intermediary between the incompatible properties of the base materials. So far only low Cr-alloyed Cu-based BFMs provide the preferential combination of good wetting action on both materials, tolerable interface reactions, and a precipitation free braze joint. Attempts to implement a higher melting metal (e.g. Pd, Ti, Zr) as a BFM have failed up to now, because the formation of brittle precipitations and pores in the seam were inevitable. But the wide metallurgical complexity of this issue is regarded to offer further joining potential

  4. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  5. A comparison of interatomic potentials for modeling tungsten nanocluster structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jiannan; Shu, Xiaolin, E-mail: shuxlin@buaa.edu.cn; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-15

    Molecular dynamic simulation is utilized to study the nanocluster and the fuzz structure on the PFM surface of tungsten. The polyhedral and linear cluster structures based on the icosahedron, cuboctahedron and rhombic dodecahedron are built up. Three interatomic potentials are used in calculating the relationship between the cluster energy and the number of atoms. The results are compared with first-principles calculation to show each potential’s best application scale. Furthermore, the transition between the icosahedral and the cuboctahedral clusters is observed in molecular dynamic simulation at different temperatures, which follows a critical curve for different numbers of atoms. The linear structures are proved to be stable at experimental temperatures by thermodynamics. The work presents a selection of interatomic potentials in simulating tungsten cluster systems and helps researchers understand the growth and evolution laws of clusters and the fuzz-like structure formation process in fusion devices.

  6. R&D of the CEPC scintillator-tungsten ECAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The circular electron and positron collider (CEPC) was proposed as a future Higgs factory. To meet the physics requirements, a particle flow algorithm-oriented calorimeter system with high energy resolution and precise reconstruction is considered. A sampling calorimeter with scintillator-tungsten sandwich structure is selected as one of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) options due to its good performance and relatively low cost. We present the design, the test and the optimization of the scintillator module read out by silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), including the design and the development of the electronics. To estimate the performance of the scintillator and SiPM module for particles with different energy, the beam test of a mini detector prototype without tungsten shower material was performed at the E3 beams in Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The results are consistent with the expectation. These studies provide a reference and promote the development of particle flow electromagnetic calorimeter for the CEPC.

  7. Thermal desorption and surface modification of He+ implanted into tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhang; Yoshida, N.; Iwakiri, H.; Xu Zengyu

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten divertor plates in fusion reactors will be subject to helium bombardment. Helium retention and thermal desorption is a concerned issue in controlling helium ash. In the present study, fluence dependence of thermal desorption behavior of helium in tungsten was studied at different irradiation temperatures and ion energies. Results showed that helium desorption could start at ∼400 K with increasing fluence, while no noticeable peaks were detected at low fluence. Total helium desorption reached a saturation value at high fluence range, which was not sensitive to irradiation temperature or ion energy for the conditions evaluated. Surface modifications caused by either ion irradiation or thermal desorption were observed by SEM. The relationship of surface modifications and helium desorption behavior was discussed. Some special features of elevated irradiation temperature and lower ion energy were also indicated

  8. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  9. Study and development of solid fluxes for gas tungsten arc welding applied to titanium and its alloys and stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, N.

    2000-06-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding uses an electric arc between the refractory tungsten electrode and the plates to be welded under an argon shielding gas. As a result, the joint quality is excellent, no pollution nor defects are to be feared, consequently this process is used in nuclear, aeronautic, chemical and food industries. Despite of this good qualities, GTAW is limited because of, on the one side, a poor penetrating weld pool and, on the other side, a week productivity rate. Indeed, up to 3 mm thick plates, machining and filler metal is needed. Multiple runs increase the defect's risks, the manufactory time and increase the deformations and the heat affected zone. The goal of this study is to break through this limits without any device investment. Active GTA welding (or ATIG) is a new technique with GTA device and an activating flux to be spread on the upper plate before welding. The arc, by plasma electrochemical equilibrium modifications, and the pool with the inner connective flows inversion, allow 7 mm thick joints in one run without edges machining or filler metal for both stainless steel and titanium alloys. This manuscript describes the development of these fluxes, highlights the several phenomena and presents the possibilities of this new process. This work, in collaboration with B.S.L. industries, leads to two flux formulations (stainless steel and titanium alloys) now in a commercial phase with CASTOLIN S.A. Moreover, B.S.L.industries produces a pressure device (nitrate column) with the ATIG process using more than 2800 ATIG welds. (author)

  10. Erosion of nanostructured tungsten by laser ablation, sputtering and arcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogyun Hwangbo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of nanostructured tungsten, which was formed by helium plasma irradiation, due to laser ablation, sputtering, and arcing was investigated. Below the helium sputtering energy threshold (200eV. Reduction in sputtering on nanostructured surface was observed. Arcing was initiated using laser pulses, and the erosion rate by arcing was measured. The erosion rate increased with arc current, while the erosion per Coulomb was not affected by arc current.

  11. Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs

  12. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites for advanced plasma facing components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Neu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Fusion Roadmap foresees water cooled plasma facing components in a first DEMO design in order to provide enough margin for the cooling capacity and to only moderately extrapolate the technology which was developed and tested for ITER. In order to make best use of the water cooling concept copper (Cu and copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr are envisaged as heat sink whereas as armour tungsten (W based materials will be used. Combining both materials in a high heat flux component asks for an increase of their operational range towards higher temperature in case of Cu/CuCrZr and lower temperatures for W. A remedy for both issues- brittleness of W and degrading strength of CuCrZr- could be the use of W fibres (Wf in W and Cu based composites. Fibre preforms could be manufactured with industrially viable textile techniques. Flat textiles with a combination of 150/70 µm W wires have been chosen for layered deposition of tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten (Wf/W samples and tubular multi-layered braidings with W wire thickness of 50 µm were produced as a preform for tungsten-fibre reinforced copper (Wf /Cu tubes. Cu melt infiltration was performed together with an industrial partner resulting in sample tubes without any blowholes. Property estimation by mean field homogenisation predicts strongly enhanced strength of the Wf/CuCrZr composite compared to its pure CuCrZr counterpart. Wf /W composites show very high toughness and damage tolerance even at room temperature. Cyclic load tests reveal that the extrinsic toughening mechanisms counteracting the crack growth are active and stable. FEM simulations of the Wf/W composite suggest that the influence of fibre debonding, which is an integral part of the toughening mechanisms, and reduced thermal conductivity of the fibre due to the necessary interlayers do not strongly influence the thermal properties of future components.

  13. Far-infrared spectroscopy of thermally annealed tungsten silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiotti, M.; Borghesi, A.; Guizzetti, G.; Nava, F.; Santoro, G.

    1991-01-01

    The far-infrared transmittance spectrum of tungsten silicide has been observed for the first time. WSi 2 polycrystalline films were prepared by coevaporation and chemical-vapour deposition on silicon wafers, and subsequently thermally annealed at different temperatures. The observed structures are interpreted, on the basis of the symmetry properties of the crystal, such as infrared-active vibrational modes. Moreover, the marked lineshape dependence on annealing temperature enables this technique to analyse the formation of the solid silicide phases

  14. Hydroxyaromatic compounds of tantalum, tungsten, and the lighter actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfaller, H.

    1980-01-01

    Some hydroxyaromatic compounds of the elements tantalum, tungsten, thorium and uranium were prepared as well as the basic materials for these synthesis processes, i.e. metal halides and metal alkoxides. The hydroxyaromatic compounds were studied by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, 1 H-NMR spectroscopy (if soluble in suitable solvents) and, in some cases, by X-ray fine structure analysis. (orig./EF) [de

  15. Refining waste hardmetals into tungsten oxide nanosheets via facile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Guangwei; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi, E-mail: lhy06@bjut.edu.cn; Wu, Junshu; Du, Yucheng [Beijing University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-04-15

    A new hydrothermal system has been designed to recycle waste WC–Co hardmetal with low cobalt (Co) content (3 %). In the solution system, nitric acid was designed to dissolve Co, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} served as oxidant to accelerate the oxidation of the WC–Co hardmetals, and fluorine (F{sup −}) was designed to dissolve and recrystallize generated tungsten oxides, which were found to possess a layered structure using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained tungsten oxides were identified as WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O by X-ray diffraction and their specific surface area was measured as 89.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} via N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption techniques. The present layered structure tungsten oxides exhibited a promising capability for removing lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}) and organic species, such as methyl blue. The adsorption model was found to be in agreement with Langmuir isotherm model. Given the facile synthesis procedure and promising properties of final products, this new approach should have great potential for refining some other waste hardmetals or tungsten products.Graphical AbstractA new hydrothermal system was designed to recycle waste hardmetal with low cobalt content. Through this method, waste hardmetal was refined into WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O nanosheets which shows excellent adsorption capacities toward methylene blue and lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}).

  16. Single Ventricle Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects along with pulmonary atresia. (Children with tetralogy of Fallot who also have pulmonary atresia may have treatment similar to others with tetralogy of Fallot.) How does it affect the heart? An opening ...

  17. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  18. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  19. USE OF TITANIUM AND TUNGSTEN AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO GOLD IN JEWELLERY MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Y.R. Surnam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the use titanium and tungsten as alternatives to the noble metals in the jewellery industry was investigated. The degradation of titanium and tungsten were compared to that of gold, used as reference. Alternate immersion tests were performed in 3.5% sodium chloride and artificial perspiration. The metals’ abrasion resistance with respect to textile fabrics was determined. In general, there is around 30% difference in pit density for titanium and tungsten as compared to that of gold. Pit depth and pit diameter showed a similar trend. From the abrasive test performed, it was observed that titanium and tungsten had insignificant changes in the surface reflectivity with time. Hence, it was deduced that titanium and tungsten products would have longer maintenance intervals than that of gold. New tools and techniques, however, would be required by jewellers to work with titanium and tungsten.  

  20. The use of tungsten as a chronically implanted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Idil, A; Donaldson, N

    2018-04-01

    This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally be used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength, and yield point. However, a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long-term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide. The latter is often assumed for elemental tungsten, with references to its 'inertness' and 'stability' common in the literature. This review argues that in the body, metallic tungsten fails this criterion, and will eventually dissolve into the soluble hexavalent form W 6+ , typically represented by the orthotungstate [Formula: see text] (monomeric tungstate) anion. This paper outlines the metal's unfavourable corrosion thermodynamics in the human physiological environment, the chemical pathways to either metallic or metal oxide dissolution, the rate-limiting steps, and the corrosion-accelerating effects of reactive oxidising species that the immune system produces post-implantation. Multiple examples of implant corrosion have been reported, with failure by dissolution to varying extents up to total loss, with associated emission of tungstate ions and elevated blood serum levels measured. The possible toxicity of these corrosion products has also been explored. As the field of medical implants grows and designers explore novel solutions to medical implant problems, the authors recommend the use of alternative materials.

  1. Flow behaviour of a heat treated tungsten heavy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Jiten; Sarkar, R.; Rao, G. Appa; Sankaranarayana, M.; Nandy, T.K.; Pabi, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An Arrhenius type of constitutive equation is proposed for the investigated alloy. ► Peierl's controlled dislocation motion is observed at low temperature. ► Transition from Peierl's to forest controlled mechanism is observed at 673 K. ► At room temperature predominantly tungsten grain, cleavage fracture is observed. ► At elevated temperature predominantly intergranular fracture is observed. - Abstract: Flow behaviour of a tungsten heavy alloy was studied in the strain rate-temperature range of 10 −5 –1/s and 298–973 K, respectively. It was observed in this study that the dislocation motion in tungsten heavy alloy was controlled by a Peierl's mechanism at low temperatures (up to 573 K). This was confirmed by the magnitude of apparent activation volume and apparent activation enthalpy as well as TEM observations. Apparent activation enthalpy in the Peierls regime, determined by several methods, was found to vary in between 22 and 37 kJ/mol. An Arrhenius type of constitutive equation was also proposed in the Peierls controlled regime for predicting flow stress as a function of temperature and strain rate. Transition temperature of rate controlling mechanism—from Peierl's mechanism to forest mechanism—was determined from the strain rate sensitivity and apparent activation volume estimation at several temperatures. The transition temperature was found to be about 673 K.

  2. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Bombaci, S.A.; Garrard, W.N.C.; Moore, B.T.; Smith, B.S.

    1988-12-01

    The corrosion behaviour of tungsten and high-density tungsten alloys (W ≥ 90 weight %) has been examined electrochemically through anodic polarization measurements, instantaneous corrosion rate measurements, galvanic coupling, and surface potential mapping. In the anodic polarization tests, pure tungsten and the four alloys studied underwent transitions from an active state to a state where any further increase in potential produced no further increase in current. The presence of chloride ions increased corrosion rates. Predictions of likely trends in corrosion rates from the above electrochemical tests were not in complete agreement with those obtained by the long-term immersion tests. Similarly, a consistent prediction of the likely nature of the corrosion products that would result from long-term immersion testing was not obtained from the above studies. Predictions about which alloys would be susceptible to a crevice effect were in agreement with the immersion testing results, namely those alloys not containing Cu would be the most susceptible. Some insight into the nature of the corrosion mechanism is afforded by the work on galvanic coupling and surface potential mapping. This supported the view that galvanic corrosion plays a part in the corrosion process. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 19 figs

  3. Deuterium retention in tungsten films after different heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Jacob, W.; Elgeti, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten films deposited by magnetron sputtering on polycrystalline tungsten substrates were used as a model system to study the influence of the film microstructure on deuterium retention behavior. Different microstructures were produced by annealing the films up to recrystallization temperature and the corresponding structural changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam (FIB) cross sectioning. The influence of the induced structural changes on D retention was investigated by both nuclear reaction analysis and temperature-programmed desorption. D concentration in the investigated W films is higher than in polycrystalline bulk tungsten by a factor of 3. D retention in the films decreases as a function of annealing temperature. After annealing at 2000 K, FIB cross-section images reveal that cavities appeared at the grain boundaries within the film and at the initial interface between the W film and W substrate. This new microstructure strongly affects the D depth profile and leads to the increase of D retention. Although a further increase of the holding time at 2000 K or an increase of the annealing temperature to 2150 K lead to the reduction of the retained D amount, the D concentration in the recrystallized W films cannot be reduced to a level as low as that of bulk W recrystallized at 2000 K for 30 min.

  4. Tungsten Oxide Photonic Crystals as Optical Transducer for Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Wu, Xia; Wagner, Thorsten

    2018-01-26

    Some metal oxide semiconductors, such as tungsten trioxide or tin dioxide, are well-known as resistive transducers for gas sensing and offer high sensitivities down to the part per billion level. Electrical signal read-out, however, limits the information obtained on the electronic properties of metal oxides to a certain frequency range and its application because of the required electrical contacts. Therefore, a novel approach for building an optical transducer for gas reactions utilizing metal oxide photonic crystals is presented here. By the rational design of the structure and composition it is possible to synthesize a functional material which allows one to obtain insight into its electronic properties in the optical frequency range with simple experimental measures. The concept is demonstrated by tungsten trioxide inverse opal structure as optical transducer material for hydrogen sensing. The sensing behavior is analyzed in a temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C and in a wide hydrogen concentration range (3000 ppm to 10%). The sensing mechanism is mainly the refractive index change resulting from hydrogen intercalation in tungsten trioxide, but the back reaction has also impact on the optical properties of this system. Detailed chemical reaction studies provide suggestions for specific sensing conditions.

  5. Extraction Factor Of Pure Ammonium Paratungstate From Tungsten Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical oxidation process of tungsten scraps was modified by the rotary kiln with oxygen burner to increase the oxidation rate of tungsten scraps. Also to accelerate the solubility of solid oxidized products, the hydrothermal reflux method was adapted. By heating tungsten scraps in rotary kiln with oxygen burner at around 900° for 2hrs, the scraps was oxidized completely. Then oxidized products (WO3 and CoWO4 was fully dissolved in the solution of NaOH by hydrothermal reflux method at 150° for 2hrs. The dissolution rate of oxidized products was increased with increasing the reaction temperature and concentration of NaOH. And then CaWO4 and H2WO4 could be generated from the aqueous sodium tungstate solution. Ammonium paratungstate (APT also could be produced from tungstic acid using by aqueous ammonium solution. The morphologies (cubic and plate types of APT was controlled by the stirring process of purified solution of ammonium paratungstate.

  6. Closed-cage tungsten oxide clusters in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D M David Jeba; Pradeep, T; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2010-05-06

    During the course of a study on the clustering of W-Se and W-S mixtures in the gas phase using laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry, we observed several anionic W-O clusters. Three distinct species, W(6)O(19)(-), W(13)O(29)(-), and W(14)O(32)(-), stand out as intense peaks in the regular mass spectral pattern of tungsten oxide clusters suggesting unusual stabilities for them. Moreover, these clusters do not fragment in the postsource decay analysis. While trying to understand the precursor material, which produced these clusters, we found the presence of nanoscale forms of tungsten oxide. The structure and thermodynamic parameters of tungsten clusters have been explored using relativistic quantum chemical methods. Our computed results of atomization energy are consistent with the observed LDI mass spectra. The computational results suggest that the clusters observed have closed-cage structure. These distinct W(13) and W(14) clusters were observed for the first time in the gas phase.

  7. The thermal accommodation of helium and argon on hot tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the momentum flux of gas atoms, remitted normal to the surface of a hot clean tungsten ribbon immersed in a low pressure of helium or argon, is measured with a torsion balance and the thermal accommodation coefficient deduced. Data are presented in which the tungsten temperature range was 700 to 1900 K for helium and 1100 to 1700 K for argon. A model is proposed which assumes that atoms impinging on and remitted from the hot tungsten ribbon conserve momentum in directions parallel to the surface. This results in a remitted flux, in the direction of the normal, greater than the cosine emission relation would predict. The resulting accommodation coefficients are then of the same order as those found using the total heat loss method. The accuracy of the reported method increases with the temperature of the hot solid. Measurement of translational thermal accommodation is possible without relying on the temperature coefficient of resistance of the solid and hence is applicable to alloys and to non-metals. For metals, which have a normal temperature coefficient of resistance, the method allows translational accommodation to be measured and internal energy accommodation to be deduced. (U.K.)

  8. Extractive separation and spectrophotometric determination of tungsten as phosphotungsten blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatirajam, V.; Dhamija, S.

    1977-01-01

    Phosphotungsten blue is produced by tin(II) reduction of tungstate solution complexed with phosphate at a w/w ratio of W/P = 5, in 4M hydrochloric acid medium, and extracted with isoamyl alcohol; thus tungsten is separated from Fe(III), Ni, Co, Cr(III), V(V), As(V), Sb(III), Bi, Si, U(VI), Ca and Cu(II). In presence of bismuth (0.5 mg/ml), >= 99.7% W is separated in a single extraction. After alkaline back-extraction, tungsten is determined spectrophotometrically as phosphotungsten blue; it is measured at 930 nm in aqueous solution or at 900 to 960 nm after isoamyl alcohol extraction, the Beer's law ranges being 0.08 to 0.6 and 0.16 to 0.72 mg/ml respectively. The methods are shown to give satisfactory results in the analysis of practical samples containing some milligrams of tungsten. (author)

  9. The use of tungsten as a chronically implanted material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Idil, A.; Donaldson, N.

    2018-04-01

    This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally be used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength, and yield point. However, a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long-term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide. The latter is often assumed for elemental tungsten, with references to its ‘inertness’ and ‘stability’ common in the literature. This review argues that in the body, metallic tungsten fails this criterion, and will eventually dissolve into the soluble hexavalent form W6+, typically represented by the orthotungstate WO42- (monomeric tungstate) anion. This paper outlines the metal’s unfavourable corrosion thermodynamics in the human physiological environment, the chemical pathways to either metallic or metal oxide dissolution, the rate-limiting steps, and the corrosion-accelerating effects of reactive oxidising species that the immune system produces post-implantation. Multiple examples of implant corrosion have been reported, with failure by dissolution to varying extents up to total loss, with associated emission of tungstate ions and elevated blood serum levels measured. The possible toxicity of these corrosion products has also been explored. As the field of medical implants grows and designers explore novel solutions to medical implant problems, the authors recommend the use of alternative materials.

  10. Hypervelocity impact of tungsten cubes on spaced armour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandel, Pradeep S; Sood, Dharmanshu; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Prince; Sewak, Bhupinder; Bhardwaj, Vikas; Athwal, Manoj; Mangla, Vikas; Biswas, Ipsita; Singh, Manjit

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental observations and simulation studies of damage potential of tungsten alloy cubes on relatively thin mild steel spaced armour target plates in the velocity regime 1300 – 4000 ms −1 using Two Stage Light Gas Gun technique. The cubes of size 9.5 mm and 12 mm having mass 15 g and 30 g respectively were made to impact normally on three target plates of size 300 mm × 300 mm of thickness 4, 4 and 10 mm at 100 mm distance apart. Flash radiography has been used to image the projectile-target interaction in the nitrogen environment at 300 mbar vacuum at room temperature. The results reveal clear perforation by 9.5 mm cube in all the three target plates up to impact velocity of about 2000 m/s. While 12 mm cube can perforate the spaced armour upto impact velocity of 4000 m/s. This shows that 9.5mm tungsten alloy cube is not effective beyond 2000 m/s while 12 mm tungsten alloy cube can defeat the spaced armour upto 4000 m/s. The simulation studies have been carried out using Autodyn 3D nonlinear code using Lagrange solver at velocities 1200 – 4000 m/s. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  11. Substitution in recreation choice behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson; Daniel J. Stynes; Donald H. Rosenthal; John F. Dwyer

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses concepts and theories of substitution in recreation choice. It brings together the literature of recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, and transportation. Parallel and complementary developments need integration into an improved theory of substitution. Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice...

  12. A fracture mechanics study of tungsten failure under high heat flux loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Muyuan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of fusion devices is highly dependent on plasma-facing components. Tungsten is the most promising candidate material for armors in plasma-facing components in ITER and DEMO. However, the brittleness of tungsten below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is very critical to the reliability of plasma-facing components. In this work, thermo-mechanical and fracture behaviors of tungsten are predicted numerically under fusion relevant thermal loadings.

  13. Deuterium supersaturation in low-energy plasma-loaded tungsten surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Jacob, W.; von Toussaint, U.; Manhard, A.; Balden, M.; Schmid, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of hydrogen-metal interactions is challenging due to a lack of knowledge on defect production and/or evolution upon hydrogen ingression, especially for metals undergoing hydrogen irradiation with ion energy below the displacement thresholds reported in literature. Here, applying a novel low-energy argon-sputter depth profiling method with significantly improved depth resolution for tungsten (W) surfaces exposed to deuterium (D) plasma at 300 K, we show the existence of a 10 nm thick D-supersaturated surface layer (DSSL) with an unexpectedly high D concentration of ~10 at.% after irradiation with ion energy of 215 eV. Electron back-scatter diffraction reveals that the W lattice within this DSSL is highly distorted, thus strongly blurring the Kikuchi pattern. We explain this strong damage by the synergistic interaction of energetic D ions and solute D atoms with the W lattice. Solute D atoms prevent the recombination of vacancies with interstitial W atoms, which are produced by collisions of energetic D ions with W lattice atoms (Frenkel pairs). This proposed damaging mechanism could also be active on other hydrogen-irradiated metal surfaces. The present work provides deep insight into hydrogen-induced lattice distortion at plasma-metal interfaces and sheds light on its modelling work.

  14. Thermomechanical analysis of diffusion-bonded tungsten/EUROFER97 with a vanadium interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuki, Widodo Widjaja; Dahm, Ralf; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-01-01

    Earlier basic investigations revealed that diffusion bonding between tungsten and RAFM-steel at a relatively low temperature using a thin low-activation vanadium interlayer having a CTE between that of the parent materials can significantly reduce the residual stresses and produce defect-free bond interfaces. The joint has a high strength as well as sufficient ductility and toughness especially at the test temperature of about 550 °C. To apply this knowledge in fusion power plants, particularly in divertors, an acceptable lifetime of such structural joints is required, since they are exposed to high thermomechanical cyclic loading. To simulate the possible operational conditions of a He-cooled divertor, diffusion-bonded specimens are loaded by thermal cycling in a temperature range between 350 °C and 500 °C and a constant tensile stress based on the calculation of the internal pressure of the divertor thimble. The aim of this experimental work is to check the resistance of the diffusion-bonded W/EUROFER97 against ratcheting during thermomechanical loading and analyze the evolution of microstructures of the joint especially along the bond interfaces

  15. Structure of superhard tungsten tetraboride: A missing link between MB2 and MB12 higher borides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T.; Turner, Christopher L.; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Superhard metals are of interest as possible replacements with enhanced properties over the metal carbides commonly used in cutting, drilling, and wear-resistant tooling. Of the superhard metals, the highest boride of tungsten—often referred to as WB4 and sometimes as W1–xB3—is one of the most promising candidates. The structure of this boride, however, has never been fully resolved, despite the fact that it was discovered in 1961—a fact that severely limits our understanding of its structure–property relationships and has generated increasing controversy in the literature. Here, we present a new crystallographic model of this compound based on refinement against time-of-flight neutron diffraction data. Contrary to previous X-ray–only structural refinements, there is strong evidence for the presence of interstitial arrangements of boron atoms and polyhedral bonding. The formation of these polyhedra—slightly distorted boron cuboctahedra—appears to be dependent upon the defective nature of the tungsten-deficient metal sublattice. This previously unidentified structure type has an intermediary relationship between MB2 and MB12 type boride polymorphs. Manipulation of the fractionally occupied metal and boron sites may provide insight for the rational design of new superhard metals. PMID:25733870

  16. Temperature dependence of underdense nanostructure formation in tungsten under helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, G.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Nordlund, K.; Lasa, A.; Björkas, C.; Safi, E.; Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, tungsten has been found to form a highly underdense nanostructured morphology (“W fuzz”) when bombarded by an intense flux of He ions, but only in the temperature window 900–2000 K. Using object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (pseudo-3D simulations) parameterized from first principles, we show that this temperature dependence can be understood based on He and point defect clustering, cluster growth, and detrapping reactions. At low temperatures (<900 K), fuzz does not grow because almost all He is trapped in very small He-vacancy clusters. At high temperatures (>2300 K), all He is detrapped from clusters, preventing the formation of the large clusters that lead to fuzz growth in the intermediate temperature range. - Highlights: •OKMC simulation of temperature window for fuzz formation. •Stable He-V clusters prevent fuzz formation at low temperatures. •Dissociation of He-V clusters prevent fuzz formation at high temperatures. •Fuzz formation rate increases with increasing temperature. •An incubation fluence observed in the simulations, similar to experimental observations.

  17. On helium cluster dynamics in tungsten plasma facing components of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Faney, T.; Wirth, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of helium clustering behaviour within either a nanometer-sized tendril of fuzz, or a half-space domain, as predicted by a reaction–diffusion model. This analysis has identified a dimensionless parameter, P Δ , which is a balance of the reaction and diffusion actions of insoluble He in a metal matrix and which governs the self-trapping effects of He into growing bubbles within a tendril. The impact of He self-trapping, as well as trapping caused by pre-existing traps in the form of lattice defects or clusters of impurities, within a half-space domain results in the formation of a densely packed layer of nanometer-sized bubbles with high number density. This prediction is consistent with available experimental observations in which a dense zone of helium bubbles is observed in tungsten, which are compared to estimates of the layer characteristics. Direct numerical simulation of the reaction–diffusion cluster dynamics supports the analysis presented here. (paper)

  18. Atom probe field ion microscope study of the range and diffusivity of helium in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1978-08-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) atom-probe field-ion microscope (FIM) specifically designed for the study of defects in metals is described. With this automated system 600 TOF min -1 can be recorded and analyzed. Performance tests of the instrument demonstrated that (1) the seven isotopes of molybdenum and the five isotopes of tungsten can be clearly resolved; and (2) the concentration and spatial distribution of all constitutents present at levels greater than 0.05 at. % in a W--25 at. % Re, Mo--1.0 at. % Ti, Mo--1.0 at. % Ti--0.08 at. % Zr (TZM), a low swelling stainless steel (LS1A) and a metallic glass (Metglas 2826) can be measured. The effect of the rate of field evaporation on the quantitative atom probe analysis of a Mo--1.0 at. % Ti alloy and a Mo--1.0 at. % Ti--0.08 at. % Zr alloy was investigated. As the field evaporation rate increased the measured Ti concentration was found to also increase. A simple qualitative model was proposed to explain the observation. The spatial distribution of titanium in a fast neutron irradiated Mo--1.0 at. % Ti alloy has been investigated. No evidence of Ti segregation to the voids was detected nor has any evidence of significant resolution of Ti from the TiC precipitates been detected. A small amount of segregation of carbon to a void was detected

  19. First-principles engineering of charged defects for two-dimensional quantum technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Galatas, Andrew; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Rocca, Dario; Ping, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Charged defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerging applications in quantum technologies such as quantum emitters and quantum computation. The advancement of these technologies requires a rational design of ideal defect centers, demanding reliable computation methods for the quantitatively accurate prediction of defect properties. We present an accurate, parameter-free, and efficient procedure to evaluate the quasiparticle defect states and thermodynamic charge transition levels of defects in 2D materials. Importantly, we solve critical issues that stem from the strongly anisotropic screening in 2D materials, that have so far precluded the accurate prediction of charge transition levels in these materials. Using this procedure, we investigate various defects in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN ) for their charge transition levels, stable spin states, and optical excitations. We identify CBVN (nitrogen vacancy adjacent to carbon substitution of boron) to be the most promising defect candidate for scalable quantum bit and emitter applications.

  20. Clustering and segregation of small vacancy clusters near tungsten (0 0 1) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guohua; Li, Xiangyan; Xu, Yichun; Zhang, Yange; Jiang, Yan; Hao, Congyu; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.; Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2018-01-01

    Nanoporous metals have been shown to exhibit radiation-tolerance due to the trapping of the defects by the surface. However, the behavior of vacancy clusters near the surface is not clear which involves the competition between the self-trapping and segregation of small vacancy clusters (Vn) nearby the surface. In this study, we investigated the energetic and kinetic properties of small vacancy clusters near tungsten (0 0 1) surface by combining molecular statics (MS) calculations and object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations. Results show that vacancies could be clustered with the reduced formation energy and migration energy of the single vacancy around a cluster as the respective energetic and kinetic driving forces. The small cluster has a migration energy barrier comparable to that for the single vacancy; the migration energy barriers for V1-5 and V7 are 1.80, 1.94, 2.17, 2.78, 3.12 and 3.11 eV, respectively. Clusters and become unstable near surface (0 0 1) and tend to dissociate into the surface. At the operation temperature of 1000 K, the single vacancy, V2, 2 V 3 V3 and V4 were observed to segregate to the surface within a time of one hour. Meanwhile, larger clusters survived near the surface, which could serve as nucleating center for voids near the surface. Our results suggest that under a low radiation dose, surface (0 0 1) could act as a sink for small vacancy clusters, alleviating defect accumulation in the material under a low radiation dose. We also obtained several empirical expressions for the vacancy cluster formation energy, binding energy, and trapping radius as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster.

  1. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-648] Certain Semiconductor Integration... semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten metallization and products containing the same by reason of...

  2. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  3. An update to the toxicological profile for water-soluble and sparingly soluble tungsten substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Ranulfo; Venezia, Carmen F

    2015-05-01

    Tungsten is a relatively rare metal with numerous applications, most notably in machine tools, catalysts, and superalloys. In 2003, tungsten was nominated for study under the National Toxicology Program, and in 2011, it was nominated for human health assessment under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System. In 2005, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) issued a toxicological profile for tungsten, identifying several data gaps in the hazard assessment of tungsten. By filling the data gaps identified by the ATSDR, this review serves as an update to the toxicological profile for tungsten and tungsten substances. A PubMed literature search was conducted to identify reports published during the period 2004-2014, in order to gather relevant information related to tungsten toxicity. Additional information was also obtained directly from unpublished studies from within the tungsten industry. A systematic approach to evaluate the quality of data was conducted according to published criteria. This comprehensive review has gathered new toxicokinetic information and summarizes the details of acute and repeated-exposure studies that include reproductive, developmental, neurotoxicological, and immunotoxicological endpoints. Such new evidence involves several relevant studies that must be considered when regulators estimate and propose a tungsten reference or concentration dose.

  4. Programming voltage reduction in phase change memory cells with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Gong Yuefeng; Wu Liangcai; Feng Songlin; Chen, Bomy

    2008-01-01

    A phase change memory cell with tungsten trioxide bottom heating layer/electrode is investigated. The crystalline tungsten trioxide heating layer promotes the temperature rise in the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 layer which causes the reduction in the reset voltage compared to a conventional phase change memory cell. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are applied to understand the thermal effect of the tungsten trioxide heating layer/electrode. The improvement in thermal efficiency of the PCM cell mainly originates from the low thermal conductivity of the crystalline tungsten trioxide material.

  5. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  6. Defect structures of ion-implanted α-tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.W.; Weyer, G.; Damgaard, S.; Nielsen, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystalline and polycrystalline α-tin has been implanted at the room temperature 80-keV ions of radioactive sup(119m)Sn, 119 Sb, and sup(119m)Te. The radioactive nuclei decay to the Moessbauer level of 119 Sn. Moessbauer spectra of the emitted 24-keV γ radiation have been measured for different source temperatures by resonance counting techniques. Five individual lines in the spectra are characterized mainly by their isomer shifts and Debye temperatures. From these parameters the radiogenic 119 Sn atoms are concluded to be located in regular substitutional and interstitial lattice sites and in defect complexes. Simple models for the defects are proposed: A Sn-vacancy pair consists of Sn atoms on (nearly) substitutional sites with a dangling bond into an adjacent vacancy. In a complex oxygen-containing defect the Sn atoms have approximately a 5s 2 configuration with p-bonds to two nearest neighbour atoms. Sn atoms, having an atomic 5s 2 5p 2 configuration and large vibrational amplitudes, are concluded to be in non-bonding regular interstitial sites. For special implantation conditions minor fractions of SnO 2 molecules are formed in the bulk, The interstitial 119 Sn and the 119 Sn-vacancy pairs are proposed to represent elementary point defects in α-tin. Conclusions are also drawn concerning the lattice location and the defects created in the implantation process by the implanted parent isotopes. (orig.)

  7. The influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the elevated temperature mechanical properties of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of composition on the tensile and creep strength of 001-line oriented nickel-base superalloy single crystals at temperatures near 1000 C was investigated. Cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten concentrations were varied according to a matrix of compositions based on the single crystal version of MAR-M247. For alloys with the baseline refractory metal level of 3 wt pct Ta and 10 wt pct W, decreases in Co level from 10 to 0 wt pct resulted in increased tensile and creep strength. Substitution of 2 wt pct W for 3 wt pct Ta resulted in decreased creep life at high stresses, but improved life at low stresses. Substitution of Ni for Ta caused large reductions in tensile strength and creep resistance, and corresponding increases in ductility. For these alloys with low Ta-plus-W totals, strength was independent of Co level. The effects of composition on properties were related to the microstructural features of the alloys. In general, high creep strength was associated with high levels of gamma-prime volume fraction, gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch, and solid solution hardening.

  8. Optical sensor for real-time weld defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Antonio; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Ferrara, Michele; Lugara, Pietro M.

    2002-04-01

    In this work we present an innovative optical sensor for on- line and non-intrusive welding process monitoring. It is based on the spectroscopic analysis of the optical VIS emission of the welding plasma plume generated in the laser- metal interaction zone. Plasma electron temperature has been measured for different chemical species composing the plume. Temperature signal evolution has been recorded and analyzed during several CO2-laser welding processes, under variable operating conditions. We have developed a suitable software able to real time detect a wide range of weld defects like crater formation, lack of fusion, excessive penetration, seam oxidation. The same spectroscopic approach has been applied for electric arc welding process monitoring. We assembled our optical sensor in a torch for manual Gas Tungsten Arc Welding procedures and tested the prototype in a manufacturing industry production line. Even in this case we found a clear correlation between the signal behavior and the welded joint quality.

  9. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská

    2009-01-01

    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  10. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  11. The WEST project: preparing power exhaust control for ITER tungsten divertor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Traverse, J.M.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Firdaouss, M.; Grosman, A.; Missirlian, M.; Nardon, E.; Salasca, S.; Tsitrone, E.; Van Houtte, D.; Aumeunier, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    WEST scenarios. Based on these simulations, an intelligent monitoring system is being developed on the IRFM software platform (PINUP), integrating information both from available measurements and up to date models, in order to provide, in real time, the best possible picture of the PFC power loads. Possible evolution of the power handling capability of the PFC (damages consecutive to transient, defects, aging, etc.) are also taken into account and should be detected by this wall monitoring system. The ongoing Research/Development program on the wall protection system for WEST is discussed in view of ITER tungsten divertor operation. (authors)

  12. Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang Chi [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsin-Li [Industrial Technology Research Institute - South, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua [Institute of Microelectronics, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Argonne National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Structure defects in cementite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    After a presentation of experimental techniques (elaboration principles, elaboration techniques, and investigation techniques for cementite thin layers and iron-carbon massive alloys), the author of this research thesis reports the study of cementite structure (interatomic distance, description and representation), reports the study of iron-carbon thin layers (structure, influence of silicon, defects), reports the study of perfect and imperfect dislocations and of plane defects in cementite. The author also reports hardness measurements, and discusses the relationships between cementite and other iron carbides

  14. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food choices does not mean you have to sacrifice flavor. The key is to substitute less healthy ... trout, and mackerel. Shrimp has less cholesterol than chicken, pork, or beef. Choose lean meats. They have ...

  15. bis(n'-substituted a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    substituted acetohydrazide) ... biological activity associated with their corresponding hydrazones attributed to the presence of the active ... Hence, in this paper, we are reporting eco-friendly synthesis of some new Schiff bases by condensing 2 ...

  16. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  17. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on silicate-substituted tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lea; Bünger, Cody; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Autologous bone grafts are currently the gold standard for treatment of large bone defects, but their availability is limited due to donor site morbidity. Different substitutes have been suggested to replace these grafts, and this study presents a bone tissue engineered alternative using silicate...

  18. Potential irradiation of Cu alloys and tungsten samples in DONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, F.; Palermo, I.; Laces, S.; Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten and Cu alloys are currently proposed as reference candidate material for ITER and DEMO first wall and divertor. Tungsten is proposed for its high fusion temperature and CuCrZr alloys for their high thermal conductivity together with good mechanical properties. However its behaviour under the extreme irradiation conditions as expected in ITER or DEMO fusion reactors is still unknown. Due to the determinant role of H and He played in the material behaviour any irradiation experiment must take into account the amount of these gases produced during the irradiation in Fusion reactors with high-energy neutrons. DONES (DEMO oriented neutron source) has been conceived as a simplified IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) like plant to provide in a reduced time scale and with a reduced budget—both compared to IFMIF—the basic information on materials damage. The objective of DONES-IFMIF in its first stage will be to test structural materials under similar neutron irradiation nuclear fusion conditions as expected in fusion reactors. These tests will be carried out with specimens irradiated in the so called high flux test module (HFTM). The objective of this paper is to assess on the potential use of DONES to irradiate copper (Cu) alloys and tungsten (W) in the HFTM together with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel like for example EUROFER (9%-Cr-steel). The presence of Cu alloys or W specimens may have an effect in the irradiation parameters of the EUROFER samples placed also in the HFTM and in the samples of the creep fatigue test module (CFTM). McDeLicious code is used for neutron transport calculations. Damage dose rate and H and He production are analysed in the different locations and compared with the irradiation conditions in first wall and divertor in fusion machines.

  19. Pipe bend wear - is tungsten carbide the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freinkel, D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to compare the relative wear resistance of various grades of sintered tungsten carbide liners against a mild steel standard in a full-scale pneumatic conveying testing rig. Speciments ranging in cobalt content from 6 to 30 per cent and in grain size from 0,56 to 2,98 microns, including a mild steel standard, were placed on a specially designed holder which fitted into a tee type 100 mm diameter bend. The specimens were tested under various operating conditions, ie air velocity ranging from 28m/s to 52m/s, impact angles of 30 0 to 70 0 mass flow rates of 35kg/min to 83kg/min and phase densities of 1,2 to 2,9, using a 4 mm nominal size crushed granite rock. The experimental results show that the ultrafine-grained, low cobalt (6 per cent) tungsten carbide displays little sensitivity to varying velocities, impact angles, mass flow rates or phase densities, and consistently gave the best wear resistance under all testing conditions. It consistently showed the least wear resistance under all testing conditions and performed only slightly better than mild steel. The effect of the carbide grain size was found to be small, although the finer grain sizes displayed greater wear resistance than the coarse grains. The effect of cobalt content was such that the lower cobalt specimens (6 per cent range) consistently performed better than the higher cobalt contents (10 per cent, 15 per cent, 30 per cent) under all testing conditions; the wear resistance decreasing with increasing cobalt content. An empirical model for the prediction of wear for each type of material tested has been proposed, given the particular operating conditions. Microstructurally it has been shown that there is a definite relationship between erosion resistance and the inverse of the magnetic coercivity of the tungsten carbide alloys

  20. Durability of adhesive bonds to uranium alloys, tungsten, tantalum, and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    Long-term durability of epoxy bonds to alloys of uranium (U-Nb and Mulberry), nickel-plated uranium, thorium, tungsten, tantalum, tantalum--10 percent tungsten, and aluminum was evaluated. Significant strengths remain after ten years of aging; however, there is some evidence of bond deterioration with uranium alloys and thorium stored in ambient laboratory air

  1. Incorporation of tungsten metal fibers in a metal and ceramic matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Vokáč, M.; Kolísko, J.; Pokorný, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, 1-2 (2017), s. 79-82 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten wires * tungsten fibers * plasma spraying * metallic coatings * ceramic coatings Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics http://hrcak.srce.hr/168890

  2. Electrodeposition mechanism and corrosion behavior of multilayer nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allahyarzadeh, M.H.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer nickel-tungsten coatings were deposited on carbon steel using the pulse reverse current technique. Nickel-tungsten layered structure coatings were developed using the continuous and alternative variation of pulse duty cycle at two specific and fixed values. In these coatings, the multi...

  3. Binary-collision-approximation-based simulation of noble gas irradiation to tungsten materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Takayama, Arimichi; Ito, Atsushi M.; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    To reveal the possibility of fuzz formation of tungsten material under noble gas irradiation, helium, neon, and argon atom injections into tungsten materials are performed by binary-collision-approximation-based simulation. The penetration depth is strongly depends on the structure of the target material. Therefore, the penetration depth for amorphous and bcc crystalline structure is carefully investigated in this paper

  4. TiNi shape memory alloy coated with tungsten : A novel approach for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Huafang; Zheng, Yufeng; Pei, Y. T.; de Hosson, Jeff

    This study explores the use of DC magnetron sputtering tungsten thin films for surface modification of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) targeting for biomedical applications. SEM, AFM and automatic contact angle meter instrument were used to determine the surface characteristics of the tungsten thin

  5. Phase II Tungsten Fate-and Transport Study for Camp Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    cubic meters degrees Fahrenheit (oF-32)/1.8 degrees Celsius (oC) feet 0.3048 meters gallons (U.S. liquid) 3.785412 E-03 liters inches 0.0254 meters...1 Desorption/dissolution of tungsten 451 39 8.1 2 Sorption of sodium tungstate and desorption/dissolution of tungsten and sodium tungstate 124

  6. Deepening of floating potential for tungsten target plate on the way to nanostructure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Takanori; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2010-01-01

    Deepening of floating potential has been observed on the tungsten target plate immersed in high-density helium plasma with hot electron component on the way to nanostructure formation. The physical mechanism is thought to be a reduction of secondary electron emission from such a complex nano fiber-form structure on the tungsten surface. (author)

  7. Thermal shock behaviour of tungsten after high flux H-plasma loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, M.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; De Temmerman, G.; Wright, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transient thermal shock loads induce crack networks on tungsten samples especially at low base temperatures. To achieve test conditions which are more relevant for the performance of tungsten-armoured plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices

  8. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Groenland, A.W.; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Kumar Chinthaginjala, J.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution

  9. Electrical and optical properties of mixed phase tungsten trioxide films grown by laser pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser pyrolysis was chosen to synthesize tungsten trioxide starting with tungsten ethoxide precursor. The film was found to have a thickness that varied from 205 nm to 1 µm. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of a...

  10. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  11. Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes: the xanthine oxidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Carlos D; Romão, Maria João; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

    2006-04-01

    Mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten are found in the active site of a diverse group of enzymes that, in general, catalyze oxygen atom transfer reactions. Enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family are the best-characterized mononuclear Mo-containing enzymes. Several 3D structures of diverse members of this family are known. Recently, the structures of substrate-bound and arsenite-inhibited forms of two members of this family have also been reported. In addition, spectroscopic studies have been utilized to elucidate fine details that complement the structural information. Altogether, these studies have provided an important amount of information on the characteristics of the active site and the electron transfer pathways.

  12. Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yinyue; Cui, Yanxia; Ding, Fei

    2017-01-01

    : We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 μm to 9 μm with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow...... of the nano-cones and the interaction between neighboring nano-cones is quite weak. Our proposal has some potential applications in the areas of solar energy harvesting and thermal emitters....

  13. Femtosecond laser fabrication of microspike-arrays on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tomokazu; Yanai, Masato; Ohmura, Etsuji; Nomura, Yasumitsu; Miyamoto, Isamu; Hirose, Akio; Kobayashi, Kojiro F.

    2005-01-01

    Microspike-arrays were fabricated by irradiating a femtosecond laser on a tungsten surface through a mask opening in air. The natural logarithms of the calculated intensity distributions diffracted at the edge of the mask opening were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of the shape and arrays of microspikes fabricated. The shape and the array of microspikes depend on the intensity distribution diffracted at the edge of the mask opening. This microspike-array has the potential to be used as a source of micro emitter tips

  14. Transient induced tungsten melting at the Joint European Torus (JET).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coenen, J.W.; Matthews, G.F.; Krieger, K.; Iglesias, D.; Bunting, P.; Corre, Y.; Silburn, S.; Balboa, I.; Bazylev, B.; Conway, N.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gauthier, E.; Gaspar, J.; Jachmich, S.; Jepu, I.; Makepeace, C.; Scannell, R.; Stamp, M.; Petersson, P.; Pitts, R.A.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Heinola, K.; Baron-Wiechec, A.

    T170, December (2017), č. článku 014013. ISSN 0031-8949. [PFMC 2017: 16th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications. Düsseldorf, 16.05.2017-19.05.2017] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * melting * plasma wall interaction * tungsten * plasma facing components Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/ article /10.1088/1402-4896/aa8789/meta

  15. Titania supported tungsten oxide species studied by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hack Sung; Kim, Kwan

    1991-01-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the tungsta catalyst supported on titania. The surface tungsten species which forms on titania after calcination appeared to possess a structure that is independent of the initial impregnation condition. The surface polytungstate seemed to be stable only at the interfacial region since the crystalline WO 3 phase was observed as long as the tungsta loading was in excess of monolayer coverage. The close intact and strong interaction between the polytungstate and the titania could be evidenced from the inhibition of the phase transition of TiO 2 from anatase to rutile.(Author)

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  17. Tungsten surface evolution by helium bubble nucleation, growth and rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, Karl D.; Juslin, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal sub-surface mechanisms likely involved in the initial formation of nanometre-sized ‘fuzz’ in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. Helium clusters grow to over-pressurized bubbles as a result of repeated cycles of helium absorption and Frenkel pair formation. The self-interstitials either reach the surface as isolated adatoms or trap at the bubble periphery before organizing into prismatic 〈1 1 1〉 dislocation loops. Surface roughening occurs as single adatoms migrate to the surface, prismatic loops glide to the surface to form adatom islands, and ultimately as over-pressurized gas bubbles burst. (paper)

  18. Theoretical investigation of crack formation in tungsten after heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, A. S.; Huber, A.; Wirtz, M.; Sergienko, G.; Steudel, I.; Burdakov, A. V.; Coenen, J. W.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Mertens, Ph.; Shoshin, A. A.; Unterberg, B.; Vasilyev, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Transient events such as ELMs in large plasma devices lead to significant heat load on plasma-facing components (PFCs). ELMs cause mechanical damage of PFCs (e.g. cracks). The cracks appear due to stresses caused by thermal extension. Analytical calculations of the stresses are carried out for tungsten. The model only takes into account the basic features of solid body mechanics without material modifications (e.g. fatigue or recrystallization). The numerical results of the model demonstrate good agreement with experimental data obtained at the JUDITH-1, PSI-2 and GOL-3 facilities.

  19. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  20. Molybdenum (6) and tungsten (6) complexes with aminopropanols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Subbotina, N.A.; Felin, M.G.; Mozgin, S.V. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-04-01

    Interaction of molybdenum and tungsten acids or their ammonium salts with 1-aminopropanediol-2, 3, 1-2-diaminopropanol, tris-(oxymethyl) aminomethane, as well as with N-buthyldiethanolamine is studied: and compounds of MO/sub 2/(AP)xR composition, where M=Mo, W; AP-aminopropoxyl group, R-water, dimethyl sulphoxide, n-butyl alcohol are separated. The obtained substances are characterized by the data of element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermography and magnetic measurements. On the base of these physicochemical investigations the structure of the mentioned complexes is proposed.

  1. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites for advanced plasma facing components

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, R.; Riesch, J.; Müller, A.v.; Balden, M.; Coenen, J.W.; Gietl, H.; Höschen, T.; Li, M.; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    The European Fusion Roadmap foresees water cooled plasma facing components in a first DEMO design in order to provide enough margin for the cooling capacity and to only moderately extrapolate the technology which was developed and tested for ITER. In order to make best use of the water cooling concept copper (Cu) and copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr) are envisaged as heat sink whereas as armour tungsten (W) based materials will be used. Combining both materials in a high heat flux comp...

  2. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Evaluation of stable tungsten isotopes in the resolved resonance region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillebeeckx P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade benchmark experiments and simulations, together with newly obtained neutron cross section data, have pointed out deficiencies in evaluated data files of W isotopes. The role of W as a fundamental structural material in different nuclear applications fully justifies a new evaluation of 182, 183, 184, 186W neutron resonance parameters. In this regard transmission and capture cross section measurements on natural and enriched tungsten samples were performed at the GELINA facility of the EC-JRC-IRMM. A resonance parameter file used as input in the resonance shape analysis was prepared based on the available literature and adjusted in first instance to transmission data.

  4. Fabricating tungsten crucibles by drawing and extrusion spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edstrom, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of seamless tungsten crucibles 127-mm ID x 265-mm high x 6.25-mm wall thickness (5 in. x 10 1/2 in. x 1/4 in.) involved three drawing operations and extrusion spinning. The success of the drawing operations came from a combination of low draw reduction percentage, generous draw radii, large punch-to-die clearance, and attention to drawing temperature. The extrusion spinning success related to good drawn-cup-to-spinning-mandrel fit prior to making the extrusion passes, removal of stress risers in the part prior to spinning, and special attention to part and mandrel temperature

  5. The occurrence and damage of unipolar arcing on fuzzy tungsten

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussems, D.U.B.; Nishijima, D.; Brandt, C.; van der Meiden, H.J.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří; De Temmerman, G.; Doerner, R.P.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 303-307 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tungsten * fuzz * unipolar arcing * melting * fusion reactor Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514005996514005996

  6. Structural perfection and residual electric resistance of tungsten single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagirova, D.M.; Dyakina, V.P.; Startsev, V.E.; Esin, V.O.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made into residual relative resistance (RRR) and structural perfection (SP) of tungsten single crystals, grown by electron beam zone melting using seeding crystals of several orientations, namely, , , , . The single crystals were of 99.98 and 99.9995 wt.% purity. The RRR value is found to depend on crystallographic orientation of an axis of crystal growth and to correlate with SP. Single crystals of different purity are differ in the nature of orientational dependences. It is shown that the correlation between RRR and SP of crystals is mainly due to conduction electron scattering by subgrain boundaries (internal size effect)

  7. Tungsten-nanodiamond composite powders produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.nunes@ist.utl.pt [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Mardolcar, U.V. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Ciencias Moleculares e Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    The major challenge in producing tungsten-nanodiamond composites by ball milling lies in successfully dispersing carbon nanoparticles in the metallic matrix while keeping carbide formation at a minimum. Processing windows for carbide minimization have been established through systematic variation of the nanodiamond fraction, milling energy and milling time. Materials characterization has been carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness testing. Nanostructured matrices with homogeneously dispersed particles that preserved the diamond structure have been produced. Differential thermal analysis has been used to evaluate the composites thermal stability.

  8. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  9. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sizes were less than 100 Si atoms due to computational limitations. An interesting parallel is that current first principles calculations alluded to in §5 are size ham- pered for similar reasons. These 'defect molecule' calculations were probably the first studies in SN. We believe that a perusal of this 'ancient' scientific literature.

  10. Production of point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1975-01-01

    Vacancies at thermodynamic equilibrium and the annealing of these defects are studied first, after which electron irradiations are dealt with. The displacement threshold energy concept is introduced. Part three concerns heavy ion and neutron irradiations. Displacement cascades and the thermal spike concept are discussed [fr

  11. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Defects in flexoelectric solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.

    2015-11-01

    A solid is said to be flexoelectric when it polarizes in proportion to strain gradients. Since strain gradients are large near defects, we expect the flexoelectric effect to be prominent there and decay away at distances much larger than a flexoelectric length scale. Here, we quantify this expectation by computing displacement, stress and polarization fields near defects in flexoelectric solids. For point defects we recover some well known results from strain gradient elasticity and non-local piezoelectric theories, but with different length scales in the final expressions. For edge dislocations we show that the electric potential is a maximum in the vicinity of the dislocation core. We also estimate the polarized line charge density of an edge dislocation in an isotropic flexoelectric solid which is in agreement with some measurements in ice. We perform an asymptotic analysis of the crack tip fields in flexoelectric solids and show that our results share some features from solutions in strain gradient elasticity and piezoelectricity. We also compute the energy release rate for cracks using simple crack face boundary conditions and use them in classical criteria for crack growth to make predictions. Our analysis can serve as a starting point for more sophisticated analytic and computational treatments of defects in flexoelectric solids which are gaining increasing prominence in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  13. Semiconductor Nanowires: Defects Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2008-05-01

    Structural defects commonly observed in semiconducting nanowires by electron microscopy will be reviewed and their origins discussed. Their effects on electrical and optical properties will be illustrated with examples from GaSb, InAs, and ZnSe nanowires grown by MOCVD and MBE.

  14. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panayotis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highlighted that the higher the recrystallization resistance, the lower the number of cracks detected during high heat flux tests. Thermo-mechanical finite element modelling demonstrated that the maximum surface temperature ranges from 1800 °C to 2200 °C and in this range recrystallization of tungsten occurred. Furthermore, it indicated that loss of strength due to recrystallization is responsible for the development of macro-cracks in the tungsten monoblock.

  15. Chemical states and deuterium retention behavior of vacuum plasma sprayed tungsten coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yaran; Suzuki, Sachiko; Zheng Xuebin; Ding Chuanxian; Chen Junling; Wang Wanjing; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten (W) coatings were prepared using vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) technology and then the chemical states and retention behaviors of deuterium in VPS-W coatings were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The results showed that chemical reacted oxygen (W-O bonds) and chemisorbed oxygen (O-O bonds) existed both on the surface and interior of tungsten coatings. Oxygen was chemically sputtered during D 2 + implantation. Two deuterium desorption stages at the temperature ranges around 300-700 K and 800-1150 K were observed for tungsten coatings. The retention behavior of deuterium in tungsten coatings was greatly different from that of bulk tungsten, which was related to the existence of oxygen.

  16. Optimum tungsten content in high strength 9 to 12% chromium containing creep resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Muraki, T.; Mimura, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tungsten containing ferritic creep resistant steels are the candidate materials for ultra-super-critical fossil power plant because of their high creep rupture strength. But the strengthening mechanisms by tungsten addition have not yet been completely studied. In this report, creep rupture time and creep strain rate measurement decided the optimum tungsten content in 9 to 12% chromium ferritic steels. The precipitation behavior of Laves phase and the precise discussion of creep strain rate analyses explain the contribution of Laves phase at the lath boundary and the contribution of tungsten in solid solution. P92 contains the optimum amount of tungsten and chromium, 1.8 mass% and 9 mass% respectively judging from the creep rupture strength point of view. (orig.)

  17. R and D on tungsten plasma facing components for the JET ITER-like wall project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, G. [European Fusion Development Agreement, JET Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: giovanni.piazza@jet.efda.org; Matthews, G.F. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pamela, J. [European Fusion Development Agreement, JET Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Altmann, H. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Coad, J.P. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hirai, T. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Lioure, A. [European Fusion Development Agreement, JET Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maier, H. [Association EURATOM-IPP Garching, P.O. Box 1322, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Mertens, Ph. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Philipps, V. [Association EURATOM-Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Riccardo, V. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rubel, M. [Royal Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-VR, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Villedieu, E. [Association EURATOM-CEA, Cadarache, DSM/DRFC, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2007-08-01

    Currently, the primary ITER materials choice is a full beryllium main wall with carbon fibre composite at the divertor strike points and tungsten on the upper vertical targets and dome. The full tungsten divertor option is a possibility for the subsequent D-T phase. Neither of the ITER material combinations of first wall and divertor materials has ever been tested in a tokamak. To collect operational experience at JET with ITER relevant material combination (Be, C and W) would reduce uncertainties and focus the preparation for ITER operations. Therefore, the ITER-like wall project has been launched to install in JET a tungsten divertor and a beryllium main wall. This paper describes the R and D activities carried out for the project to develop an inertially cooled bulk tungsten divertor tile, to fully characterise tungsten coating technologies for CFC divertor tiles and to develop erosion markers for use as diagnostics on beryllium tiles.

  18. On the shear strength of tungsten nano-structures with embedded helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.D.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Modification of plastic properties of tungsten nano-structures under shear stress load due to embedded helium atoms is studied using molecular dynamics modelling. The modelling demonstrates that the yield strength of tungsten nano-structures reduces significantly with increasing embedded helium concentration. At high helium concentrations (>10 at%), the yield strength decreases to values characteristic to the pressure in helium nano-bubbles, which are formed in tungsten under such conditions and thought to be responsible for the formation of nano-fuzz on tungsten surfaces irradiated with helium plasma. It is also shown that tungsten plastic flow strongly facilitates coagulation of helium clusters to larger bubbles. The temperature dependencies of the yield strength are obtained. (letter)

  19. Surface modification and droplet formation of tungsten under hot plasma irradiation at the GOL-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Bataev, I. A.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Ivantsivsky, M. V.; Kuklin, K. N.; Mekler, K. I.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Shoshin, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of tungsten surface modification after plasma loads at the multimirror trap GOL-3. Energy loads on tungsten surface varied from 2 up to 4 MJ/m2 per shot with sets from 1 to 9 repetitive irradiations that corresponds to loads higher than tungsten melting threshold and is close to ITER giant ELM loads. Targets surface modification and transverse microsections after irradiation was studied by optical microscopy, SEM and hardness tester. Formation on tungsten surface of three different crack networks with typical cell sizes of 1000, 10 and 0.3 μm and bubbles are identified. The network of large cracks extend perpendicularly to the irradiated sample surface to a depth of 50-350 μm. Erosion depth depends on energy loads - rises from 20 to 200 μm at 2 and 4 MJ/m2 correspondingly. Cracking, development of tungsten surface morphology and droplets splashing are discussed.

  20. Surface modification and droplet formation of tungsten under hot plasma irradiation at the GOL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhannikov, A.V.; Bataev, V.A.; Bataev, I.A.; Burdakov, A.V.; Ivanov, I.A.; Ivantsivsky, M.V.; Kuklin, K.N.; Mekler, K.I.; Rovenskikh, A.F.; Polosatkin, S.V.; Postupaev, V.V.; Sinitsky, S.L.; Shoshin, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of tungsten surface modification after plasma loads at the multimirror trap GOL-3. Energy loads on tungsten surface varied from 2 up to 4 MJ/m 2 per shot with sets from 1 to 9 repetitive irradiations that corresponds to loads higher than tungsten melting threshold and is close to ITER giant ELM loads. Targets surface modification and transverse microsections after irradiation was studied by optical microscopy, SEM and hardness tester. Formation on tungsten surface of three different crack networks with typical cell sizes of 1000, 10 and 0.3 μm and bubbles are identified. The network of large cracks extend perpendicularly to the irradiated sample surface to a depth of 50–350 μm. Erosion depth depends on energy loads – rises from 20 to 200 μm at 2 and 4 MJ/m 2 correspondingly. Cracking, development of tungsten surface morphology and droplets splashing are discussed

  1. Growth and characterization of α and β-phase tungsten films on various substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Seop; Cho, Jaehun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The growth conditions of tungsten thin films were investigated using various substrates including Si, Si/SiO 2 , GaAs, MgO, and Al 2 O 3 , and recipes were discovered for the optimal growth conditions of thick metastable β-phase tungsten films on Si, GaAs, and Al 2 O 3 substrates, which is an important material in spin orbit torque studies. For the Si/SiO 2 substrate, the crystal phase of the tungsten films was different depending upon the tungsten film thickness, and the transport properties were found to dramatically change with the thickness owing to a change in phase from the α + β phase to the α-phase. It is shown that the crystal phase changes are associated with residual stress in the tungsten films and that the resistivity is closely related to the grain sizes

  2. Two component tungsten powder injection molding – An effective mass production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Mueller, Marcus; Piotter, Volker; Weingaertner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-alloys are presently considered to be the most promising materials for plasma facing components for future fusion power plants. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) divertor design concept for the future DEMO power plant is based on modular He-cooled finger units and the development of suitable mass production methods for such parts was needed. A time and cost effective near-net-shape forming process with the advantage of shape complexity, material utilization and high final density is Powder Injection Molding (PIM). This process allows also the joining of two different materials e.g. tungsten with a doped tungsten alloy, without brazing. The complete technological process of 2-Component powder injection molding for tungsten materials and its application on producing real DEMO divertor parts, characterization results of the finished parts e.g. microstructure, hardness, density and joining zone quality are discussed in this contribution

  3. Tungsten transport and sources control in JET ITER-like wall H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorczak, N., E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jlich, Assoc EURATOM-FZJ, Jlich (Germany); Devynck, P.; Dumont, R.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maddison, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maggi, C. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Istituto de plasmas e fusao nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Rimini, F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Solano, E.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsalas, M. [Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, NCSR Demokritos 153 10, Attica (Greece); Vries, P. de [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    A set of discharges performed with the JET ITER-like wall is investigated with respect to control capabilities on tungsten sources and transport. In attached divertor regimes, increasing fueling by gas puff results in higher divertor recycling ion flux, lower divertor tungsten source, higher ELM frequency and lower core plasma radiation, dominated by tungsten ions. Both pedestal flushing by ELMs and divertor screening (including redeposition) are possibly responsible. For specific scenarios, kicks in plasma vertical position can be employed to increase the ELM frequency, which results in slightly lower core radiation. The application of ion cyclotron radio frequency heating at the very center of the plasma is efficient to increase the core electron temperature gradient and flatten electron density profile, resulting in a significantly lower central tungsten peaking. Beryllium evaporation in the main chamber did not reduce the local divertor tungsten source whereas core radiation was reduced by approximately 50%.

  4. Arsenic(3) extraction from fluoride-iodide solutions. Extraction-photometric determination of arsenic in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, V.A.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Sharova, N.A.; Malyutina, T.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii)

    1977-01-01

    For developing a rapid and sensitive method of determining arsenic in tungsten, extraction of arsenic and tungsten from fluoride-chloride-iodide and fluoride-iodide solutions with the aid of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, benzene, toluene and amyl acetate has been studied. It is established that optimum extractant for separating arsenic from tungsten and fluoride ions is CCl 4 . Since in the presence of HCl considerable quantity of HF and tungsten passes into the organic phase, introducing of HCl had to be renounced. Extraction of arsenic with carbon tetrachloride increases with the growth of KI concentration and with an increase of HF concentration in the aqueous phase. A procedure is given for extraction-photometric determination of arsenic in tungsten, based on extraction of arsenic with carbon tetrachloride and subsequent determination of arsenic in the form of reduced molybdoarsenic heteropolyacid. Arsenic detection limit is 1-10 -5 %. Relative standard deviation is 0.1 to 0.2

  5. Numerical simulation of CFC and tungsten target erosion in ITER-FEAT divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Physical, chemical and thermal surface erosion for water-cooled target armoured by CFC and tungsten is simulated by numerical code ERosion OF Immolated Layer (EROFIL-1). Some calculation results on the CFC and tungsten vertical target (VT) erosion in the ITER-FEAT divertor are presented for various operation modes (normal operations, slow transients, ELMs and disruptions). The main erosion mechanisms of CFC armour are the chemical and sublimation ones. Maximum erosion depth per 3000 cycles during normal operations and slow transients is of 2.7 mm at H phase and of 13.5 mm at DT phase. An evaluation of VT tungsten armour erosion per 3000 cycles of H and DT operations shows that no physical or chemical erosion as well as no melting are expected for tungsten armour at normal operations and slow transients. The tungsten armour melting at 2x10 6 ELMs is not allowable. The 300 disruptions are not dangerous in view of evaporation

  6. Electronic and structural properties of ultrathin tungsten nanowires and nanotubes by density functional theory calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Lin, Ken-Huang; Li, Jia-Yun; Ju, Shin-Pon

    2014-01-01

    The simulated annealing basin-hopping method incorporating the penalty function was used to predict the lowest-energy structures for ultrathin tungsten nanowires and nanotubes of different sizes. These predicted structures indicate that tungsten one-dimensional structures at this small scale do not possess B.C.C. configuration as in bulk tungsten material. In order to analyze the relationship between multi-shell geometries and electronic transfer, the electronic and structural properties of tungsten wires and tubes including partial density of state and band structures which were determined and analyzed by quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, in order to understand the application feasibility of these nanowires and tubes on nano-devices such as field emitters or chemical catalysts, the electronic stability of these ultrathin tungsten nanowires was also investigated by density functional theory calculations.

  7. In situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of chemical compositions in stainless steels during tungsten inert gas welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparli, Ugur Alp; Jacobsen, Lars; Griesche, Axel; Michalik, Katarzyna; Mory, David; Kannengiesser, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was combined with a bead-on-plate Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process for the in situ measurement of chemical compositions in austenitic stainless steels during welding. Monitoring the weld pool's chemical composition allows governing the weld pool solidification behavior, and thus enables the reduction of susceptibility to weld defects. Conventional inspection methods for weld seams (e.g. ultrasonic inspection) cannot be performed during the welding process. The analysis system also allows in situ study of the correlation between the occurrence of weld defects and changes in the chemical composition in the weld pool or in the two-phase region where solid and liquid phase coexist. First experiments showed that both the shielding Ar gas and the welding arc plasma have a significant effect on the selected Cr II, Ni II and Mn II characteristic emissions, namely an artificial increase of intensity values via unspecific emission in the spectra. In situ investigations showed that this artificial intensity increase reached a maximum in presence of weld plume. Moreover, an explicit decay has been observed with the termination of the welding plume due to infrared radiation during sample cooling. Furthermore, LIBS can be used after welding to map element distribution. For austenitic stainless steels, Mn accumulations on both sides of the weld could be detected between the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base material.

  8. In-situ field-ion microscope study of the recovery behavior of heavy metal ion-irradiated tungsten, tungsten (rhenium) alloys and molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, C.H.

    1977-06-01

    Three field ion microscope (FIM) experiments were carried out to study the annealing behavior of heavy ion irradiated tungsten, tungsten (rhenium) alloys and molybdenum. The first experiment dealt with the stage I long-range migration of tungsten self interstitial atoms (SIAs) in high purity tungsten of resistivity ratio, R = 24,000 (R = rho 300 /rho 4 . 2 , where rho 300 and rho 4 . 2 are the room temperature and 0 0 C resistivities). The FIM specimens were irradiated in situ at 18 K with 30 keV W + ions to an average dose of 5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 and subsequently examined by the pulsed-field evaporation technique. The second experiment dealt with the phenomenon of impurity atom trapping of SIAs during long-range migration. It was shown that rhenium atoms in a tungsten matrix tend to capture tungsten SIAs and remain bound up to temperatures as high as 390 K. The final experiment was concerned with the low temperature annealing kinetics of irradiated molybdenum. High purity molybdenum of resistivity ratio R = 5700 was irradiated at 10 K with 30 keV Mo + ions to a dose of approximately 5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . The results indicated that the electric field has only a minimal effect on the SIA annealing kinetics. This tends to strengthen the contention that the molybdenum SIA becomes mobile at 32 K

  9. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides: interface and defect engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zehua; Wu, Zhangting; Han, Cheng; He, Jun; Ni, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei

    2018-03-06

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been considered as promising candidates for next generation nanoelectronics. Because of their atomically-thin structure and high surface to volume ratio, the interfaces involved in TMDC-based devices play a predominant role in determining the device performance, such as charge injection/collection at the metal/TMDC interface, and charge carrier trapping at the dielectric/TMDC interface. On the other hand, the crystalline structures of TMDCs are enriched by a variety of intrinsic defects, including vacancies, adatoms, grain boundaries, and substitutional impurities. Customized design and engineering of the interfaces and defects provides an effective way to modulate the properties of TMDCs and finally enhance the device performance. Herein, we summarize and highlight recent advances and state-of-the-art investigations on the interface and defect engineering of TMDCs and their corresponding applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Various interface engineering approaches for TMDCs are overviewed, including surface charge transfer doping, TMDC/metal contact engineering, and TMDC/dielectric interface engineering. Subsequently, different types of structural defects in TMDCs are introduced. Defect engineering strategies utilized to modulate the optical and electronic properties of TMDCs, as well as the developed high-performance and functional devices are summarized. Finally, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for interface and defect engineering in TMDC materials for electronics and optoelectronics.

  10. A new fundamental hydrogen defect in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato, S.P.; Luety, F.

    1978-01-01

    Atom hydrogen in neutral (H 0 ) and negative (H - ) form on substitutional and interstitial lattice sites gives rise to well characterized model defects in alkali-halides (U,U 1 ,U 2 ,U 3 centers), which have been extensively investigated in the past. When studying the photo-decomposition of OH - defects, a new configuration of atomic charged hidrogen was discovered, which can be produced in large quantities in the crystal and is apparently not connected to any other impurity. This new hidrogen defect does not show any pronounced electronic absorption, but displays a single sharp local mode band (at 1114cm -1 in KCl) with a perfect isotope shift. The defect can be produced by various UV or X-ray techniques in crystais doped with OH - , Sh - or H - defects. A detailed study of its formation kinetics at low temperature shows that it is primarily formed by the reaction of a mobile CI 2 - crowdion (H-center) with hidrogen defects [pt

  11. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution process...

  12. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David Emory [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies VGa. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1μm. Gallium vacancies, VGa, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 1019 cm-3 Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more AsGa in the layer. As AsGa increases, photoquenchable AsGa decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral AsGa content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed GaAs, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which AsGa-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to VGa enhanced diffusion of AsGa to As precipitates. The supersaturated VGa and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for AsGa-related defects gives 2.0 ± 0.3 eV and 1.5 ± 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the AsGa and VGa. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable AsGa-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 ± 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of AsGa-BeGa pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  13. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  14. Arcing in ASDEX Upgrade with a tungsten first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Balden, M.; Laux, M.; Krieger, K.; Mueller, H.W.; Pugno, R.; Rohde, V.

    2009-01-01

    In-vessel inspections of AUG reveal arc tracks at different locations. This paper presents investigation of arcing at the inner transition and retention module where arc tracks were found around the whole toroidal circumference. A representative tile was investigated with profilometry, SEM, EDX, RBS, and colourimetry. Type 2 arc tracks with an area fraction of 12% were found in a 10 mm wide region near to the leading edge. Here the tungsten coating (3-4 μm) is removed and a small amount of carbon (max. 1-2 μm) is eroded. Droplets are detected at the surface. The region of the inner divertor where the arcs are observed shows a local enhancement of plasma density, n e ∼ 10 20 m -3 , and neutral pressure, 0.1 mbar, favouring the arc ignition. A high sheath potential at the beginning of an ELM might trigger the arc. The arc pattern and the target load as measured with a fast IR-camera coincide. 2 g of tungsten are eroded in the inner divertor. If 10% of the material is eroded as droplets, 10 8 droplets (5 μm diameter) are ejected.

  15. Prompt ignition of a unipolar arc on helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Takamura, Shuichi; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    A fibreform nanostructured layer is formed on a tungsten surface by helium plasma bombardment. The helium fluence was of the order of 10 26 m -2 , and the surface temperature and incident ion energy during helium irradiation were, respectively, 1900 K and 75 eV. By irradiating a laser pulse to the surface in the plasma, a unipolar arc, which many people have tried to verify in well-defined experiments, is promptly initiated and continued for a much longer time than the laser pulse width. The laser pulse width (∼0.6 ms) and power (∼5 MJ m -2 ) are similar to the heat load accompanied by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER. The unipolar arc is verified from an increase in the floating potential, a moving arc spot detected by a fast camera and arcing traces on the surface. This result suggests that the nanostructure on the tungsten surface formed by the bombardment of helium, which is a fusion product, could significantly change the ignition property of arcing, and ELMs become a trigger of unipolar arcing, which would be a great impurity source in fusion devices. (letter)

  16. Preparation and performance of nanosized tungsten carbides for electrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Peikang; Yin Shibin; Li Zihui; Chen Chan

    2010-01-01

    The principle of the intermittent microwave heating (IMH) method and the details on the working procedure for prepare nanosized materials were presented along with the comparison to the traditional continuous microwave heating (CMH) method. The nanosized tungsten carbides were synthesized as an example by this novel method. It produced WC with the average particle size of 21.4 nm at the procedure of 15 s-on and 15 s-off for 20 times, however, the particle size increased to 35.7 nm by CMH method for 5 min. The pure WC was obtained by post-treating the sample in NaOH solution, which gave the better performance as support. The nanosized WC was used as support for the Pt nanoparticles (Pt-WC/C(IMH)) for alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction. It was proved that the Pt-WC/C(IMH) electrocatalysts gave the better performance than that prepared by CMH method (Pt-WC/C(CMH)) or Pt/C electrocatalysts in terms of the activity and CO-tolerance. The intermittent microwave heating method is easier to scale-up for mass production of the nanosized tungsten carbides and other nanosized materials as well.

  17. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of tungsten and molybdenum with dithiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Toluene-3,4-dithiol is a very sensitive reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of tungsten and molybdenum. Since the absorption spectra of the dithiol complexes of these two elements overlap, a separation of the two elements is carried out. This leads to time consuming extraction procedures. Measuring the absorption of the mixed complexes at two wavelengths and solving a set of simultaneous equations is also not favorable because a lot of time and effort is required for solving the simultaneous equations for each sample. A faster and simpler method is described here for the simultaneous determination of the two elements. The method is based on measurement of absorbance of the mixed complexes at three pre-selected wavelengths and simple calculations involving the absorbance differences. The criteria for selecting the three wavelengths and the theory are described. Application of the method for the determination of tungsten and molybdenum in ore samples is presented. The method is applicable to any similar system consisting of two interfering components. 4 figures, 2 tables, 6 refs. (author)

  18. Band gap engineering and optical properties of tungsten trioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yuan; Li, Yan; Rocca, Dario; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia

    2012-02-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a good photoanode material for water oxidation but it is not an efficient absorber of sunlight because of its large band gap (2.6 eV). Recently, stable clathrates of WO3 with interstitial N2 molecules were synthesized [1], which are isostructural to monoclinic WO3 but have a substantially smaller bang gap, 1.8 eV. We have studied the structural, electronic, an vibrational properties of N2-WO3 clathrates using ab-initio calculations and analyzed the physical origin of their gap reduction. We also studied the effect of atomic dopants, in particular rare gases. Substantial band gap reduction has been observed, especially in the case of doping with Xe, due to both electronic and structural effects. Absorption spectra have been computed by solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation [2] to gain a thourough insight into the optical properties of pure and doped tungsten trioxide. [1] Q. Mi, Y. Ping, Y. Li., B.S. Brunschwig, G. Galli, H B. Gray, N S. Lewis (preprint) [2]D. Rocca, D. Lu and G. Galli, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 164109 (2010)

  19. Constitutive law for thermally-activated plasticity of recrystallized tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovev, Aleksandr; Terentyev, Dmitry; Dubinko, Andrii; Delannay, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A physically-based constitutive law relevant for ITER-specification tungsten grade in as-recrystallized state is proposed. The material demonstrates stages III and IV of the plastic deformation, in which hardening rate does not drop to zero with the increase of applied stress. Despite the classical Kocks-Mecking model, valid at stage III, the strain hardening asymptotically decreases resembling a hyperbolic function. The material parameters are fitted by relying on tensile test data and by requiring that the strain and stress at the onset of diffuse necking (uniform elongation and ultimate tensile strength correspondingly) as well as the yield stress be reproduced. The model is then validated in the temperature range 300-600 °C with the help of finite element analysis of tensile tests which confirms the reproducibility of the experimental engineering curves up to the onset of diffuse necking, beyond which the development of ductile damage accelerates the material failure. This temperature range represents the low temperature application window for tungsten as divertor material in fusion reactor ITER.

  20. A reanalysis of resistive size effects in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambles, J.R.; Mundy, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    A reanalysis of available data on the influence of surface scattering upon the resistivity of high-purity tungsten is presented. It is shown that some of the data appear to fit quite well to Soffer's model of surface scattering. From this new analysis values for the product rhosub(infinity)lambdasub(infinity) (bulk resistivity times bulk mean free path) may be obtained lying in the range 1.0-1.7 fΩ m 2 . Early data, which could not be interpreted using Fuchs' theory of surface scattering, may now be explained and yield surface roughness ratios (ratio of root mean square height of deviations from the mean surface to the Fermi wavelength) of the order of 0.2-2.5, typical of the value expected for atomically smooth to atomically rough surfaces. However, more recent data violate Soffer's theory in a convincing fashion. They illustrate fully the severe dangers of using a theory to interpret data for which it is not at all applicable. The Fermi surface of tungsten by no means approximates a simple sphere (one of the basic assumptions of the Soffer model). Hence such a naive treatment as Fuchs' leads to meaningless parameters such as quoted above. This paper is presented as a warning to all experimentalists who attempt to interpret data from metals with complex Fermi surfaces in a simple-minded fashion (e.g. using Fuchs' model). (author)

  1. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a heart defect should avoid getting body piercings. Piercing increases the possibility that bacteria can get into ... damage heart valves. If you're considering a piercing and you have a heart defect, talk to ...

  2. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed until the teen years — or even adulthood. Newborn Screening Newborns in the U.S. are screened at ... Has a Heart Defect Coarctation of the Aorta Arrhythmias Mitral Valve Prolapse Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal ...

  3. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten; Prozessentwicklung fuer das Mikro-Pulverspritzgiessen von Wolfram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-15

    For He-cooled Divertors as integral components of future fusion power plants, about 300000 complex shaped tungsten components are to be fabricated. Tungsten is the favoured material because of its excellent properties (high melting point, high hardness, high sputtering resistance, high thermal conductivity). However, the material's properties cause major problems for large scale production of complex shaped components. Due to the resistance of tungsten to mechanical machining, new fabrication technologies have to be developed. Powder injection moulding as a well established shaping technology for a large scale production of complex or even micro structured parts might be a suitable method to produce tungsten components for fusion applications but is not yet commercially available. The present thesis is dealing with the development of a powder injection moulding process for micro structured tungsten components. To develop a suitable feedstock, the powder particle properties, the binder formulation and the solid load were optimised. To meet the requirements for a replication of micro patterned cavities, a special target was to define the smallest powder particle size applicable for micro-powder injection moulding. To investigate the injection moulding performance of the developed feedstocks, experiments were successfully carried out applying diverse cavities with structural details in micro dimension. For debinding of the green bodies, a combination of solvent debinding and thermal debinding has been adopted for injection moulded tungsten components. To develop a suitable debinding strategy, a variation of the solvent debinding time, the heating rate and the binder formulation was performed. For investigating the thermal consolidation behaviour of tungsten components, sinter experiments were carried out applying tungsten powders suitable for micro-powder injection moulding. First mechanical tests of the sintered samples showed promising material properties such

  4. Defects in Quantum Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H; Zwolak, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The shift of interest from general purpose quantum computers to adiabatic quantum computing or quantum annealing calls for a broadly applicable and easy to implement test to assess how quantum or adiabatic is a specific hardware. Here we propose such a test based on an exactly solvable many body system-the quantum Ising chain in transverse field-and implement it on the D-Wave machine. An ideal adiabatic quench of the quantum Ising chain should lead to an ordered broken symmetry ground state with all spins aligned in the same direction. An actual quench can be imperfect due to decoherence, noise, flaws in the implemented Hamiltonian, or simply too fast to be adiabatic. Imperfections result in topological defects: Spins change orientation, kinks punctuating ordered sections of the chain. The number of such defects quantifies the extent by which the quantum computer misses the ground state, and is, therefore, imperfect.

  5. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  6. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent...... performed equally well on all tissues tested. While several of the commercial fixatives appeared to preserve liver tissue at 200x, the preservation of kidney, intestinal villi, and smooth muscle was unacceptable. Histological distortion, cell shrinkage and vacuolization were prominent when the substitutes...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  7. Experimental and numerical simulations of ELM-like transient damage behaviors to different grade tungsten and tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Chen, Lei; Chen, Zhenkui; Chen, Jiming; Duan, Xuru; Fan, Jinlian; Song, Jiupeng

    2015-01-01

    Transient heat loads, such as plasma disruptions and ELMs, could induce plastic deformations, cracking, melting, even fatigue cracks and creep of tungsten (W) surface. A high purity W, CVD-W coating, TiC dispersion strengthened and K doped tungsten alloys were tested in a 60 kW electron-beam facility by simulating the transient load events under different base temperatures. It was found that CVD-W, W-TiC and W-K alloys have higher crack thresholds than high purity W, meanwhile CVD-W is more sensitive to the crack disappearing at elevated base temperatures. On the other hand, repetitive pulse loading like ELMs can induce serious network cracks even the power density was quite lower than the crack threshold determined by a single shot. The ABAQUS code was used to simulate the crack behaviors of ITER grade pure W by a single shot and a FE-SAFE code was adopted to estimate the fatigue life under ELMs-like loads. A good agreement with experiment results was found

  8. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  9. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  10. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Jiang, F.; Fu, B.J.; Sun, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%

  11. Fabrication of tungsten probe for hard tapping operation in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guebum, E-mail: hanguebum@live.co.kr [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803 (United States); Department of Mechanical Design and Robot Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Sok, E-mail: hsahn@seoultech.ac.kr [Manufacturing Systems and Design Engineering Programme, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We propose a method of producing a tungsten probe with high stiffness for atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to acquire enhanced phase contrast images and efficiently perform lithography. A tungsten probe with a tip radius between 20 nm and 50 nm was fabricated using electrochemical etching optimized by applying pulse waves at different voltages. The spring constant of the tungsten probe was determined by finite element analysis (FEA), and its applicability as an AFM probe was evaluated by obtaining topography and phase contrast images of a Si wafer sample partly coated with Au. Enhanced hard tapping performance of the tungsten probe compared with a commercial Si probe was confirmed by conducting hard tapping tests at five different oscillation amplitudes on single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). To analyze the damaged graphene sample, the test areas were investigated using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The test results demonstrate that the tungsten probe with high stiffness was capable of inducing sufficient elastic and plastic deformation to enable obtaining enhanced phase contrast images and performing lithography, respectively. - Highlights: • We propose a method of producing highly stiff tungsten probes for hard tapping AFM. • Spring constant of tungsten probe is determined by finite element method. • Enhanced hard tapping performance is confirmed. • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used to identify damage to graphene.

  12. Effect on structure and mechanical property of tungsten irradiated by high intensity pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xianxiu; Zhang, Xiaonan; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Younian

    2017-09-01

    The anti-thermal radiation performance of tungsten was investigated by high intensity pulsed ion beam technology. The ion beam was mainly composed of Cn+ (70%) and H+ (30%) at an acceleration voltage of 250 kV under different energy densities for different number of pulses. GIXRD analysis showed that no obvious phase structural changes occurred on the tungsten, and microstress generated. SEM analysis exhibited that there was no apparent irradiation damage on the surface of tungsten at the low irradiation frequency (3 times and 10 times) and at the low energy density (0.25 J/cm2 and 0.7 J/cm2). Cracks appeared on the surface of tungsten after 100-time and 300-time irradiation. Shedding phenomenon even appeared on the surface of tungsten at the energy densities of 1.4 J/cm2 and 2.0 J/cm2. The surface nano-hardness of tungsten decreased with the increase of the pulse times and the energy density. The tungsten has good anti-thermal radiation properties under certain heat load environment.

  13. Defects in metal crystals. Progress report, May 1, 1975--April 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.

    1976-02-01

    Emphasis was on use of different irradiating species (300-700 eV Xe + ions, 20-30 keV W + ions, 20-30 keV Mo + ions, and fast neutrons) to introduce both vacancies and interstitials in Mo, W, Au, Pt--(Au), W--(Re), Mo(Ti), Ni 4 Mo, and low-swelling and commercial 316 stainless steels. The following are reported: (A) an in-situ field-ion microscope study of ion-irradiated tungsten and tungsten alloys (W-Re) (recovery in Stages I and II); (B) a review of Stages I to IV of irradiated or quenched tungsten and tungsten alloys by field-ion microscopy; (C) a review of field-ion microscope studies of the defect structure of the primary state of damage of irradiated metals; (D) an in-situ field-ion microscope study of the recovery behavior of ion-irradiated molybdenum in Stages I and II; (E) a field-ion microscope study of the recovery behavior of Stage II in ion-irradiated platinum-0.10, 0.62 and 4.0 at. percent gold alloys; (F) a new technique for focused-collision sequence range measurements; (G) atom-probe field-ion microscopy (improvements, results on W alloys, Mo alloys [Mo, TZM, Mo--Ti], low-swelling stainless steel alloy); (H) range of a focused collision replacement sequence in ordered alloys; and (I) interaction of self-interstitial atoms with impurity gas solute atoms in refractory metals. 11 fig, 5 tables, 37 references

  14. Annihilating vacancies via dynamic reflection and emission of interstitials in nano-crystal tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyan; Duan, Guohua; Xu, Yichun; Zhang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.; Liang, Yunfeng; Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-11-01

    Radiation damage not only seriously degrades the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) but also enhances hydrogen retention in the material. Introducing a large amount of defect sinks, e.g. grain boundaries (GBs) is an effective method for improving radiation-resistance of W. However, the mechanism by which the vacancies are dynamically annihilated at long timescale in nano-crystal W is still not clear. The dynamic picture for eliminating vacancies with single interstitials and small interstitial-clusters has been investigated by combining molecular dynamics, molecular statics and object Kinetic Monte Carlo methods. On one hand, the annihilation of bulk vacancies was enhanced due to the reflection of an interstitial-cluster of parallel ≤ftright> crowdions by the GB. The interstitial-cluster was observed to be reflected back into the grain interior when approaching a locally dense GB region. Near this region, the energy landscape for the interstitial was featured by a shoulder, different to the decreasing energy landscape of the interstitial near a locally loose region as indicative of the sink role of the GB. The bulk vacancy on the reflection path was annihilated. On the other hand, the dynamic interstitial emission efficiently anneals bulk vacancies. The single interstitial trapped at the GB firstly moved along the GB quickly and clustered to be the di-interstitial therein, reducing its mobility to a value comparable to that that for bulk vacancy diffusion. Then, the bulk vacancy was recombined via the coupled motion of the di-interstitial along the GB, the diffusion of the vacancy towards the GB and the accompanying interstitial emission. These results suggest that GBs play an efficient role in improving radiation-tolerance of nano-crystal W via reflecting highly-mobile interstitials and interstitial-clusters into the bulk and annihilating bulk vacancies, and via complex coupling of in-boundary interstitial diffusion, clustering of the interstitial and vacancy

  15. Acceptor-oxygen vacancy defect dipoles and fully coordinated defect centers in a ferroelectric perovskite lattice: Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of Mn2+ in single crystal BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R. A.; Pomorski, T. A.; Lenahan, P. M.; Randall, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    Defect dipoles are significant point defects in perovskite oxides as a result of their impact on oxygen vacancy dynamics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the local defect structure of single crystal BaTiO3 doped with manganese. These results, along with a re-analysis of literature data, do not support the conclusion that transition metal-oxygen vacancy nearest neighbor defect dipoles ( M nT i ″ - VO • • ) × in ferroelectric BaTiO3 are majority defect centers as previously reported. Local symmetry analysis of the zero-field splitting term of the spin Hamiltonian supports the assignment of fully coordinated defect centers as opposed to defect dipoles for resonance signals at geff ˜ 2. A newly discovered defect center with g⊥ ˜ 6 is observed in the manganese doped system, and it is argued that this defect center belongs to an associated defect complex or defect dipole. This newly reported strong axial defect center, however, is present in small, minor concentrations compared to the well-known Mn2+ center with zero-field splitting of D ˜ 645 MHz. In regard to relative concentration, it is concluded that the dominant point defect related to the Mn2+ ion doped in BaTiO3 corresponds to B-site substitution with six nearest neighbor anions in octahedral coordination.

  16. Oxidation of cyclic amines by molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mbuvi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br react with a large excess of the nitrogen bases, 1-methylpyrrolidine, 1-methylpiperidine, 1-ethylpiperidine and 2-ethylpiperidine to give aminecarbonyl complexes of the type M(CO3L3 (L= alkylamine. Excess piperidine reacts with the tungsten halocarbonyls, [W(CO4X2]2 (X = Cl, Br, to give the trans isomer of the complex, W(CO3(C5H11N3. The halogens were recovered as the amminium salts, amine, HX. The oxidized amine dimerized to form a yellow product which was recovered as an oily liquid but in very small amounts. However, in the reaction between Mo(CO4Br2 and 1-ethylpiperidine, a yellow crystalline solid, with a melting point of 224 oC was recovered in sufficient amounts for elemental analysis, melting point and spectral data. Its mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak at m+/z = 222, a clear evidence that the oxidized amine dimerizes. The cyclic dibasic amine piperazine, C4H10N2 is not, however, oxidized by these halocarbonyls but rather it reacts by substituting some CO groups to form products of the type, M(CO3(C4H10N22X2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br. Products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry.

  17. Smart tungsten alloys as a material for the first wall of a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Du, H.; Mayer, J.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Calvo, A.; Ordas, N.

    2017-06-01

    Tungsten is currently deemed as a promising plasma-facing material (PFM) for the future power plant DEMO. In the case of an accident, air can get into contact with PFMs during the air ingress. The temperature of PFMs can rise up to 1200 °C due to nuclear decay heat in the case of damaged coolant supply. Heated neutron-activated tungsten forms a volatile radioactive oxide which can be mobilized into the atmosphere. New self-passivating ‘smart’ alloys can adjust their properties to the environment. During plasma operation the preferential sputtering of lighter alloying elements will leave an almost pure tungsten surface facing the plasma. During an accident the alloying elements in the bulk are forming oxides thus protecting tungsten from mobilization. Good plasma performance and the suppression of oxidation are required for smart alloys. Bulk tungsten (W)-chroimum (Cr)-titanium (Ti) alloys were exposed together with pure tungsten (W) samples to the steady-state deuterium plasma under identical conditions in the linear plasma device PSI 2. The temperature of the samples was ~576 °C-715 °C, the energy of impinging ions was 210 eV matching well the conditions expected at the first wall of DEMO. Weight loss measurements demonstrated similar mass decrease of smart alloys and pure tungsten samples. The oxidation of exposed samples has proven no effect of plasma exposure on the oxidation resistance. The W-Cr-Ti alloy demonstrated advantageous 3-fold lower mass gain due to oxidation than that of pure tungsten. New yttrium (Y)-containing thin film systems are demonstrating superior performance in comparison to that of W-Cr-Ti systems and of pure W. The oxidation rate constant of W-Cr-Y thin film is 105 times less than that of pure tungsten. However, the detected reactivity of the bulk smart alloy in humid atmosphere is calling for a further improvement.

  18. Molecular dynamics and density functional simulations of tungsten nanostructure formation by helium plasma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, A.M.; Takayama, A.; Oda, Y.

    2014-10-01

    For the purposes of long-term use of tungsten diverter walls, it is necessary to suppress the surface deterioration due to the helium ash which induces the formations of helium bubbles and tungsten fuzzy nanostructures. In the present paper, the formation mechanisms of helium bubbles and tungsten fuzzy nanostructures were explained by the four-step process which is composed of the penetration process, the diffusion and agglomeration process, the helium bubble growth process and the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure formation process. The first to third step processes of the four-step process were investigated by using binary collision approximation, density functional theory and molecular dynamics, respectively. Furthermore, newly developed molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo hybrid simulation has successfully reproduced the early formation process of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure. From these simulations, we here suggest the following key mechanisms of the formations of helium bubbles and tungsten fuzzy nanostructures: (1) By comparison between helium, neon, argon and hydrogen, the noble gas atoms can agglomerate limitlessly not only at a vacancy but also at an interstitial site. In particular, at the low incident energy, only helium atoms bring about the nucleation for helium bubble. (2) In the helium bubble growth process, the strain of the tungsten material around a helium atom is released as a dislocation loop, which is regarded as the loop punching phenomenon. (3) In the tungsten nanostructure formation process, the bursting of a helium bubble forms cavity and convexity in the surface. The helium bubbles tend to be grown and to burst at the cavity region, and then the difference of height between the cavity and convexity on the surface are enhanced. Consequently, the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure is formed. (author)

  19. Tissue distribution of tungsten in mice following oral exposure to sodium tungstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Gustavo S; Zhang, Lingsu; Fornero, Elisa; Centeno, Jose A; Mokashi, Vishwesh P; Ortiz, Pedro A; Stockelman, Michael D; Osterburg, Andrew R; Chapman, Gail G

    2011-04-18

    Heavy metal tungsten alloys have replaced lead and depleted uranium in many munitions applications, due to public perception of these elements as environmentally unsafe. Tungsten materials left in the environment may become bioaccessible as tungstate, which might lead to population exposure through water and soil contamination. Although tungsten had been considered a relatively inert and toxicologically safe material, recent research findings have raised concerns about possible deleterious health effects after acute and chronic exposure to this metal. This investigation describes tissue distribution of tungsten in mice following oral exposure to sodium tungstate. Twenty-four 6-9 weeks-old C57BL/6 laboratory mice were exposed to different oral doses of sodium tungstate (0, 62.5, 125, and 200 mg/kg/d) for 28 days, and after one day, six organs were harvested for trace element analysis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Kidney, liver, colon, bone, brain, and spleen were analyzed by sector-field high-resolution ICP-MS. The results showed increasing tungsten levels in all organs with increased dose of exposure, with the highest concentration found in the bones and the lowest concentration found in brain tissue. Gender differences were noticed only in the spleen (higher concentration of tungsten in female animals), and increasing tungsten levels in this organ were correlated with increased iron levels, something that was not observed for any other organ or either of the two other metals analyzed (nickel and cobalt). These findings confirmed most of what has been published on tungsten tissue distribution; they also showed that the brain is relatively protected from oral exposure. Further studies are necessary to clarify the findings in splenic tissue, focusing on possible immunological effects of tungsten exposure.

  20. Tungsten coatings electro-deposited on CFC substrates from oxide molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Yingchun; Lang, Shaoting; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Lili

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten is considered as plasma facing material in fusion devices because of its high melting point, its good thermal conductivity, its low erosion rate and its benign neutron activation properties. On the other hand, carbon based materials like C/C fiber composites (CFC) have been used for plasma facing materials (PFMs) due to their high thermal shock resistance, light weight and high strength. Tungsten coatings on CFC substrates are used in the JET divertor in the frame of the JET ITER-like wall project, and have been prepared by plasma spray (PS) and other techniques. In this study, tungsten coatings were electro-deposited on CFC from Na2WO4-WO3 molten salt under various deposition parameters at 900 °C in air. In order to obtain tungsten coatings with excellent performance, the effects of pulse duration ratio and pulse current density on microstructures and crystal structures of tungsten coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku Industrial Co., Ltd., D/MAX-RB) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, JSM 6480LV). It is found that the pulsed duration ratio and pulse current density had a significant influence on tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. SEM observation revealed that intact, uniform and dense tungsten coatings formed on the CFC substrates. Both the average grain size and thickness of the coating increased with the pulsed current density. The XRD results showed that the coatings consisted of a single phase of tungsten with the body centered cubic (BCC) structure. The oxygen content of electro-deposited tungsten coatings was lower than 0.05%, and the micro-hardness was about 400 HV.

  1. Structural stability of super duplex stainless weld metals and its dependence on tungsten and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, J.O.; Wilson, A.; Huhtala, T.; Karlsson, L.; Jonsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Three different superduplex stainless weld metals have been produced using manual metal arc welding under identical welding conditions. The concentration of the alloying elements tungsten and copper corresponded to the concentrations in commercial superduplex stainless steels (SDSS). Aging experiments in the temperature range 700 C to 1,110 C showed that the formation of intermetallic phase was enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal and also dissolved at higher temperatures compared with tungsten-poor and tungsten-free weld metals. It could be inferred from time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams produced in the present investigation that the critical cooling rate to avoid 1 wt pct of intermetallic phase was 2 times faster for tungsten-rich weld metal. Microanalysis in combination with thermodynamic calculations showed that tungsten was accommodated in χ phase, thereby decreasing the free energy. Experimental evidence supports the view that the formation of intermetallic phase is enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal, owing to easier nucleation of nonequilibrium χ phase compared with σ phase. The formation of secondary austenite (γ 2 ) during welding was modeled using the thermodynamic computer program Thermo-Calc. Satisfactory agreement between theory and practice was obtained. Thermo-Calc was capable of predicting observed lower concentrations of chromium and nitrogen in γ 2 compared with primary austenite. The volume fraction of γ 2 was found to be significantly higher in tungsten-rich and tungsten + copper containing weld metal. The results could be explained by a higher driving force for precipitation of γ 2 in these

  2. Structural stability of super duplex stainless weld metals and its dependence on tungsten and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.-O.; Huhtala, T.; Jonsson, P.; Karlsson, L.; Wilson, A.

    1996-08-01

    Three different superduplex stainless weld metals have been produced using manual metal arc welding under identical welding conditions. The concentration of the alloying elements tungsten and copper corresponded to the concentrations in commercial superduplex stainless steels (SDSS). Aging experiments in the temperature range 700 °C to 1110 °C showed that the formation of intermetallic phase was enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal and also dissolved at higher temperatures compared with tungsten-poor and tungsten-free weld metals. It could be inferred from time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams produced in the present investigation that the critical cooling rate to avoid 1 wt pct of intermetallic phase was 2 times faster for tungsten-rich weld metal. Microanalysis in combination with thermodynamic calculations showed that tungsten was accommodated in χ phase, thereby decreasing the free energy. Experimental evidence supports the view that the formation of intermetallic phase is enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal, owing to easier nucleation of nonequilibrium χ phase compared with σ phase. The formation of secondary austenite (γ2) during welding was modeled using the thermodynamic computer program Thermo-Calc. Satisfactory agreement between theory and practice was obtained. Thermo-Calc was capable of predicting observed lower concentrations of chromium and nitrogen in γ2 compared with primary austenite. The volume fraction of γ2 was found to be significantly higher in tungsten-rich and tungsten + copper containing weld metal. The results could be explained by a higher driving force for precipitation of γ2 in these.

  3. Field-ion microscope studies of the defect structure of the primary state of damage of irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of field ion microscope applications in studies of point defect distribution in irradiated metals. FIM results on the primary state of radiation damage in neutron and ion-irradiated iridium and tungsten, at both room-temperature and 78/sup 0/K, showed that it consists of: (1) isolated vacancies; (2) depleted zones; (3) compact vacancy clusters of voids; and (4) dislocation loops. The fraction of vacancies stored in the dislocation loops represented a small fraction of the total vacancy concentration; in the case of tungsten it was approximately 10 percent. These FIM observations provide a simple explanation of the low yield-factor, determined by transmission electron microscopy, for a number of ion-irradiated metals.

  4. Thermal properties of defective fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defective fullerene (C60) by using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of C60 with one defect is lower than the thermal conductivity of perfect C60. However, double defects in C60 have either positive or negative influence on the thermal conductivity, which depends on the positions of the defects. The phonon spectra of perfect and defective C60 are also provided to give corresponding supports. Our results can be extended to long C60 chains, which is helpful for the thermal management of C60.

  5. Solvent Extraction of Tungsten(VI) from Moderate Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with LIX 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Hoai Thanh; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Incheon Technology Service Centre, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The solvent extraction of tungsten(VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions using 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxydodecan-6-one oxime (LIX 63) was analyzed in solutions having an initial pH range from 2 to 5, by varying the concentration of metal and extractant. In our experimental range, the cationic exchange reaction as well as the solvation reaction occurred simultaneously. The cation exchange reaction was identified by applying a slope analysis method to the extraction data. The existence of cationic tungsten(VI) species was confirmed by ion exchange experiments with Diphonix resin at pH 3. Further study is needed to identify the nature of this tungsten cationic species.

  6. Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Hanika; Walker, Richard J.; Carlson, Richard W.; Horan, Mary F.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Manthos, Vicky; Francis, Don; Jackson, Matthew G.

    2016-05-01

    How much of Earth's compositional variation dates to processes that occurred during planet formation remains an unanswered question. High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tungsten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle. These heterogeneities, caused by the decay of hafnium-182 in mantle domains with high hafnium/tungsten ratios, were created during the first ~50 million years of solar system history, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth’s primary accretionary period have survived to the present.

  7. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis, S.; Hirai, T.; Wirtz, Marius; Barabash, V.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Merola, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Uytdenhouwen, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highligh...

  8. Status of technology R&D for the ITER tungsten divertor monoblock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T., E-mail: takeshi.hirai@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Escourbiac, F.; Barabash, V.; Durocher, A.; Fedosov, A.; Ferrand, L.; Jokinen, T.; Komarov, V.; Merola, M.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arkhipov, N. [Project Center ITER, 1, Building 3, Kurchatov Sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetcov, V.; Volodin, A. [NIIEFA, 3 doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, St. Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation); Suzuki, S.; Ezato, K.; Seki, Y. [JAEA, Fusion Research and Development Directorate JAEA, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaragi 311-0193 (Japan); Riccardi, B.; Bednarek, M.; Gavila, P. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    In order to develop and validate the high performance tungsten monoblock technology, the full-tungsten divertor qualification program was defined. As the first step, small-scale mock-ups were manufactured and successfully tested under the required high heat flux loads. The test results demonstrated that the technology is available in Japan and Europe. Post-tests observation of the loaded W monoblocks showed generation of self-castellation – a crack along coolant tube axis. The cause of the self-castellation was discussed and a tungsten material characterization program is being developed with the objective to understand mechanical properties that influence the occurrence of the self-castellation.

  9. Measurements of carbon and tungsten erosion/deposition in the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Cuthbertson, J.W.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Brooks, N.; Junge, R.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Net erosion/deposition rates of carbon and tungsten were measured at the outer strike point of the divertor plasma on the floor of the DIII-D tokamak during deuterium H-mode operation at a peak power deposition of about 40 W/cm 2 . For carbon, net erosion rates of up to 4 nm/s were found. For a tungsten film, no appreciable erosion was detected. However, measurements of deposited tungsten on adjacent carbon surfaces indicated a net W erosion rate of 0.06 nm/s

  10. Study of neutron induced outgassing from tungsten alloy for ATLAS FCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Cheplakov, A P; Golikov, V; Golubyh, S M; Kulagin, E; Kukhtin, V; Luschikov, V

    1999-01-01

    The use of sintered tungsten alloy slugs as absorber in the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter (FCAL) raised concern that it could possibly poison the liquid argon during the detector operation in the hard radiation environment expected at LHC. A vacuum container filled with tungsten slugs was exposed to the fast neutron fluence of 1.5$\\cdot$10$^{16}$~n~cm$^{-2}$ at the IBR-30 reactor of JINR, Dubna. The residual gas pressure was analysed. The study was completed by mass spectrometer measurements. An upper limit value of 0.1~ppm was determined for the pollution of liquid argon in FCAL due to outgassing from tungsten slugs under irradiation.

  11. In situ transmission electron microscope observation of the formation of fuzzy structures on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, M; Watanabe, T; Nagashima, H; Nishijima, D; Doerner, R P; Krasheninnikov, S I; Sagara, A; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the formation processes of tungsten nano-structures, so called fuzz, in situ transmission electron microscope observations during helium ion irradiation and high temperature annealing have been performed. The irradiation with 3 keV He + from room temperature to 1273 K is found to cause high-density helium bubbles in tungsten with no significant change in the surface structure. At higher temperatures, surface morphology changes were observed even without helium irradiation due probably to surface diffusion of tungsten atoms driven by surface tension. It is clearly shown that this morphology change is enhanced with helium irradiation, i.e. the formation of helium bubbles. (paper)

  12. The determination of oxygen in molybdenum and tungsten monocrystals taking into account the surface oxygen contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.D.; Egiazarov, B.G.; Polyakova, I.S.; Sel'dyakov, Yu.P.; Chernyavskij, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    The method has been developed for determining oxygen content in molybdenum and tungsten usign the neutron activation analysis. The sensitivity is 1.6X10 -5 and 1.3x10 -3 wt.% for molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. The density of oxygen distribution in surface layers has been experimentally evaluated. It is shown that the oxygen presence in a surface layer of molybdenum and tungsten does not impede oxygen determination in the bulk of the sample, when the oxygen content is >5x10 -5 wt.%. If oxygen content is -3 wt.%, the presence of oxygen in the surface layer should be taken into account

  13. Investigation on the structural and mechanical properties of anti-sticking sputtered tungsten chromium nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tai-Nan [Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng [Department of Leisure and Recreation Management, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Weng, Ko-Wei, E-mail: kowei@nqu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Chin-Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    Tungsten chromium nitride (WCrN) thin films are prepared by dual-gun co-sputter process. As the surface coatings on the molding die for glass forming, WCrN films show less deterioration at high temperature than the conventional CrN coating. WCrN thin films are deposited via the reactive co-sputtering of Cr/W targets. The working pressure is kept at 2.66 Pa and the argon/nitrogen ratio is 10. Applied power of chromium is fixed and the applied power of tungsten is varied. Experimental results indicate that the atomic ratio of tungsten in the films increases with the applied power of tungsten. The dominant crystalline phase is chromium nitride when the tungsten target power is below 100 W, while tungsten nitride dominates in the film structure when the tungsten target power is beyond 200 W. A dense structure with much finer particles is developed as the tungsten power is 200 W. As the power is increased to 300 W, the particles become coarser in size. The film roughness exhibits a decreasing trend at low tungsten power and then increases as the tungsten power increased up to 300 and 400 W, presumably due to the phase change from chromium nitrides to tungsten nitrides. Further annealing of the WCrN thin films is simulated as the glass molding condition to check the anti-sticking property which is a critical requirement in molding die surface coating application. The WCrN thin film coating shows good anti-sticking property at 400 °C annealing when the tungsten target power is 200 W. - Highlights: ► WCrN films are deposited by dual sputtering of pure Cr and W targets. ► The covalent bonding character of WCrN films explains the difference in hardness. ► WCrN (200 W W-target-power/400 °C-annealing) exhibits the best anti-sticking performance.

  14. Hydrogen and helium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunari Katayama; Kazumi Imaoka; Takayuki Okamura; Masabumi Nishikawa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of tritium behavior in plasma facing materials is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of fuel control and radiation safety. Tungsten is used as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER. However, investigation of hydrogen isotope behavior in tungsten deposition layer is not sufficient so far. It is also necessary to evaluate an effect of helium on a formation of deposition layer and an accumulation of hydrogen isotopes because helium generated by fusion reaction exists in fusion plasma. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen and helium RF plasma. An erosion rate and a deposition rate of tungsten were estimated by weight measurement. Hydrogen and helium retention were investigated by thermal desorption method. Tungsten deposition was performed using a capacitively-coupled RF plasma device equipped with parallel-plate electrodes. A tungsten target was mounted on one electrode which is supplied with RF power at 200 W. Tungsten substrates were mounted on the other electrode which is at ground potential. The plasma discharge was continued for 120 hours where pressure of hydrogen or helium was controlled to be 10 Pa. The amounts of hydrogen and helium released from deposition layers was quantified by a gas chromatograph. The erosion rate of target tungsten under helium plasma was estimated to be 1.8 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. The deposition rate on tungsten substrate under helium plasma was estimated to be 4.1 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. Atomic ratio of hydrogen to tungsten in a deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma was estimated to be 0.17 by heating to 600 o C. From a deposition layer formed by helium plasma, not only helium but also hydrogen was released by heating to 500 o C. Atomic ratios of helium and hydrogen to tungsten were estimated to be 0.080 and 0.075, respectively. The trapped hydrogen is probably impurity hydrogen

  15. Fabrication of Tungsten-UO 2 Hexagonal-Celled Fuel-Element Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, R.R.; Cover, P.W.; Gripshover, P.J.; Wilson, W.J.

    1964-12-04

    The gas-pressure-bonding process is being evaluated as a means of fabricating tungsten-UO 2 hexagonal-celled fuel geometries. A two-part study was initiated to optimize the fuel materials and to develp the required fixturing and loading techniques. Production of fueled tungsten-coated UO 2 particles in in progress so that geometries embodying coated particles or coated particles plus fine tungsten powder can be evaluated. Tests to data have shown the rquirement for a pretreatment in which a gaseous oxide phase is removed. Initial loading and fixturing procedures were proven satisfactory by the fabrication of a 19-cylindrical-hole hexagonal-type composite.

  16. Defect complexes in Ti-doped sapphire: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, L. Yu.; Fil, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the formation of defect complexes in Ti doped α-Al2O3 crystals. The formation energies of isolated Ti3+ and Ti4+ defects, pairs, triples, and quadruples of Ti ions and Al vacancies are computed under different equilibrium conditions of Al-Ti-O related phases. Taking into account the charge neutrality of the whole system, we determine the equilibrium concentrations of simple and complex defects as well as the total equilibrium concentration of Ti in an α-Al2O3 crystal. It is shown that the equilibrium concentration of complex defects can be on the same order of or even larger than the concentrations of isolated substitutional Ti3+ and Ti4+ defects. It is found that in Ti-deficient conditions, the relative fraction of isolated defects increases and the balance is shifted towards Ti4+ defects. A universal relation between equilibrium concentrations of isolated and complex defects is obtained. The band structure of the system with complex defects is calculated and extra levels inside the band gap caused by such defects are found.

  17. Efficient synthesis of substituted dihydrotetraazapentacenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillan, Claire; Brisset, Hugues; Siri, Olivier

    2008-09-18

    We describe a versatile and very efficient synthesis of previously unknown substituted 5,14-dihydro-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacenes (DHTAPs). A structural study by NMR spectroscopy showed that the conjugated pi-system of the pentacyclic skeleton rearranges depending on the electronic effect of the substituent(s).

  18. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic

  19. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    corresponds to the out-of-plane distortion of the hydrogen atom connected to the heteroatoms, which is then ..... etc. exhibits significant localization.24 The skeletally substituted benzenes considered in the study with a wide ... involving cationic and anionic systems are expected to show considerable localization. In. Table 3.

  20. Effects of Tungsten on the Precipitation Kinetics of Secondary Phases and the Associated Susceptibility to Pitting Corrosion in Duplex Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2006-01-01

    Effects of tungsten (W) on the precipitation kinetics of secondary phases and the associated resistance to pitting corrosion of 25% Cr duplex stainless steels were investigated through microstructural and electrochemical noise analyses. With the partial substitution of W for Mo in duplex stainless steel, the potential and current noises of the alloy were significantly decreased in chloride solution due to retardation of the σ phase precipitation. The preferential precipitation of the χ phase in the W-containing alloy during the early period of aging contributed to retarding the precipitation of the σ phase by depleting W and Mo along grain boundaries. In addition, the retardation of the nucleation and growth of the σ phase in the W-containing alloy appears to be attributed to the inherently low diffusivity of W compared with that of Mo