WorldWideScience

Sample records for substances qui appauvrissent

  1. Matters which shorten the ozone layer; Substances qui appauvrissent la couche d'ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This document, proposed by the ministry of the national development and the environment, gives the list of the main texts relative to the matters which shorten the ozone layer and the evolution of the community regulations in this domain. The concerned matters are the Cfc and the HCFC production and use. (A.L.B.)

  2. Archiver ce qui aurait pu avoir lieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Baumann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available L’Atlas Group, un projet de l’artiste libanais Walid Raad, est « dédié à la recherche et la compilation de documents sur l’histoire contemporaine libanaise. L’Atlas Group produit, localise, conserve et étudie des documents visuels, sonores, textuels et autres, qui mettent en lumière l’histoire actuelle du Liban. »Ce projet est ainsi présenté comme une fondation qui génère des archives historiques et qui collecte des traces relevant de la guerre au Liban afin de les mettre à disposition aux chercheurs. Mais, les matériaux sont produits par l’artiste : l’archive est imaginaire, les documents et récits sont inventés, ainsi que le Docteur Fakhouhi, le personnage principal, présenté comme étant « le plus renommé des historiens au Liban ». Le spectateur se trouve alors devant un scénario très étrange dans lequel sont détournées les notions de document (qui peut désormais être aussi bien trouvé que produit et d’histoire (car les situations décrites sont considérées comme « ayant très bien pu avoir eu lieu », l’Atlas Group  les traite comme de véritables événement historiques et qui déplace, mine de rien, tout un dispositif. Au sein de ce projet, la frontière entre fiction et documentaire est complètement estompée : le geste de l’artiste (qui, lui, se présente comme une institution, un « Groupe », interroge ainsi le statut même d’auteur vise à la déplacer pour poser des questions relatives aux représentations possibles de l’histoire, aux personnes aptes à se charger de son écriture et à l’opération historiographique.

  3. Nu, qui, où ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hancock

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Si Francine Barthe-Deloizy semble s’excuser, dans la première phrase de son introduction, de commettre « un livre de plus sur la nudité, le nu, le corps », les géographes qui la liront ne partageront certainement pas cette lassitude : leur réaction devrait bien plutôt s’apparenter à « enfin, une géographie du nu et du corps !». Peut-être par pudibonderie, ou peut-être parce que le géographe français aime à se penser comme pur esprit, notre discipline a longtemps ...

  4. 11 batailles qui ont fait la Bretagne

    OpenAIRE

    Pansini, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    L’ouvrage collectif dirigé par Dominique Le Page couvre, à travers les faits de guerre qui ont touché la région, deux millénaires d’histoire de la Bretagne, de l’affrontement entre la flotte romaine et les Vénètes du Morbihan en 56 av. J.-C. à la bataille du maquis de Saint Marcel en juin 1944. L’attention portée par les onze contributions à la mémoire de l’événement analysé rend ce très impressionnant laps de temps étudié encore plus long, en emmenant l’attention du lecteur jusqu’à nos jours...

  5. Qui gouverne les industries ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Genieys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La question de savoir qui gouverne l’économie a longtemps fasciné les sciences sociales sans pour autant souvent générer de résultats probants et rigoureux. Bernard Jouve a tenté d’y répondre en se focalisant sur l’élite de chacune des métropoles qu’il a étudiée. Ce texte prolonge son travail en changeant de focale pour aborder plutôt les élites qui régulent chaque industrie en présentant leur «  programme » respectif. Après avoir exposé les développements théoriques menant à ce concept « d’élite programmatique », l’article les croise avec une approche du gouvernement des industries afin de tracer une nouvelle voie vers une meilleure compréhension du rôle du politique dans l’économie.The question «who governs the economy ?» has fascinated social science for years without often generating stimulating and rigorous results. Bernard Jouve attempted to reply to it by focusing on the elite of each metropole he studied. This text extends his work by changing the focus in order to study the elites who regulate each industry through promoting their respective «programme». Having first presented the theoretical developments that produced the concept of «programmatic elite», the article combines it with an approach to the government of industries in order to set out a new route map towards better understanding of the role of politics in the economy.

  6. Deux nouvelles initiatives visent à soutenir les femmes qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 nov. 2017 ... Chilufya MWEWA PhD Student University of Cape Town Dept of Physics Cape Town South Africa. Dans les pays en développement, les femmes se heurtent encore à des obstacles qui limitent leur capacité à faire une carrière et à devenir des chefs de file dans le domaine des sciences, de la technologie, ...

  7. Regarder ceux qui regardent : Eudora Welty photographe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Victor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Biographes et critiques ont largement souligné la concomitance, chez Eudora Welty, de la venue à l’écriture et de la pratique photographique au milieu des années 30 : en 1936, elle obtient en même temps, et pour la première fois, la publication d’une de ses nouvelles (« Death of Traveling Salesman » ainsi que la tenue d’une exposition, dans une galerie new-yorkaise, de ses photographies du Mississippi prises pour le compte de l’agence locale de la Works Progress Administration, qui l’emploie...

  8. Qui a droit à la pensée ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Desroches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Éditions Amsterdam ont publié en septembre 2009 un ouvrage intitulé Et tant pis pour les gens fatigués , constitué d’une série d’entretiens réalisés avec le philosophe Jacques Rancière, sur une période allant de 1976 à 2009. L’intérêt de cette publication est de rendre présente l’œuvre d’un philosophe qui a scruté « les figures concrètes d’ouvriers » (p. 37, sans revendiquer une position d’historien ; d’un théoricien sensible à la dimension ...

  9. L'univers quantique tout ce qui peut arriver arrive

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Brian Cox et Jeff Forshaw révèlent dans cet ouvrage la signification profonde de la physique quantique. Ils montrent pourquoi elle fournit une description de la Nature avec un immense pouvoir prédictif et explicatif, couvrant une vaste gamme de phénomènes, des puces de silicium aux fonctionnement des étoiles. L'histoire commence au tournant du XXe siècle, avec l'hypothèse de Max Planck qui postule que le rayonnement lumineux dégagé par un corps chaud est constituée de petits paquets d'énergie qu'il nomme "quanta". Brian Cox et Jeff Forshaw explorent ensuite plus d'un siècle de découvertes et de questionnements, jusqu'au fameux boson de higgs, clé de voûte du modèle standard décrivant la matière à son niveau le plus élémentaire.

  10. 'Des Yeux Qui Ne Voient Pas...': The smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Di Lorenzo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three of the most influential chapters of Le Corbusier’s Vers une Architecture are collected under the common title ‘Des yeux qui ne voient pas…’ (Eyes which do not see…. Liners, airplanes, and automobiles are shown as the expression of the powerful beauty of practical form: honest, simple, functional and technological. These very famous pages remind us that form is not only derived from precise typological choices or from reasoned morphogenetic diagrams, but it could also be a direct expression of the Kunstwollen. What are the paquebots of the twenty-first century? Which buildings embody this new paradigm? This graphic analysis starts from the statement that one of the ‘not seen’ features of this era is the smartphone. The subject of the survey is the first BMW Guggenheim Lab, designed in 2010 by Atelier Bow-Wow. Described by the architects themselves as a ‘travel toolbox’ or ‘pop-up fly loft theatre in the city’, this compact architecture is the incarnation of three interesting formal qualities usually associated with smartphones: the clear division between the hardware and the ergonomic user interface; the possibility to operate different functions (or software in the same space (or screen; and the real and virtual connection with different urban situations.

  11. La vérite sur ce qui nous motive

    CERN Document Server

    Pink, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Voici enfin la traduction française du best-seller international DRIVE ! Qu'est-ce qui nous motive vraiment ? Dans quels cas sommes-nous les plus performants et les plus enthousiastes ? La plupart d'entre nous sommes persuadés que les récompenses (salaire, primes...) sont notre meilleure motivation. La logique de la carotte et du bâton finalement... Et si nous faisions fausse route ? En s'appuyant sur quatre décennies d'études scientifiques et psychologiques sur la motivation humaine, Pink démontre que les entreprises dirigent très mal leurs équipes avec d'énormes conséquences sur notre vie (absence d'ambition, lassitude, morosité). Le secret de la performance (et de la satisfaction) dans les entreprises, l'enseignement ou dans notre vie personnelle , c'est le besoin profondément humain de diriger sa propre vie, d'apprendre, de créer de nouvelles choses et de s'améliorer. Dans ce livre, Pink examine les 3 éléments de la motivation, l'autonomie, la maîtrise et le besoin de donner un sens ...

  12. Interdiction de Genre: La Loi Qui Fait Taire le Corp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Duro Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche discute les identités de genre avec la base dans l'analyse du travail La Ley no escrita (2012 d'Oihana Cordero. Le travail de l'artiste plasticien a comme l'objectif provoque la réflexion sur les lois et les normes juridiques-sociales qu'ils existent autour du caractère ficcional et le genre performatife, révélant de nouvelles lectures sur l'acte du corps. C'est un travail sculptural (KRAUSS, 1984, composé par une base blanche, une épée et un groupe de feuilles, dans lesquelles ils sont exprimés, par un contrat de genre, comme ils se prononcent, interseccionam et c'est des interdictions imposées aux possibilités de genre. Comme ceci, les règles et des règlements sont faits la preuve imposés par le binarisme du genre que la force soumet et ils arrêtent des identités pour le compte de la normalisation (normatisation des corps. Pour cette enquête les concepts de genre sont problematize, le corps subjugué, la normativité et de la performance dans le Butler (2012a, 2012b, 2013, Foucault (1997, 1998, 2014, Fraser (2002, 2006, 2009, Scott (2008, Cordero (2012 et Preciado (2011. Cordero (2012, dans son travail, nous présente les copies multiples d'un contrat de papier imprimé a passé par une épée. C'est une métaphore, une forme de représentation dogmatizé du corps par les actes visibles et invisibles qui compose et ils naturalisent les identités de genre dans une dualité obscurantiste homme/femme. Ce travail comme l'objet conceptuel (FREIRE 2006 produit la puissance exprimée pour en plus d'un document légal perforé, elle vise à provoquer les gens de contempler sur leurs pratiques et leurs corps, mais, par-dessus tout, réfléchir comme ces périmètres ont de transgression difficile. Lors de l'analyse de l'intersection possible des identités de genre et un objet artistique dans le domaine juridique est prévu pour gérer des éléments capables de révéler les technologies complexes corporels politiques

  13. Une étude examine les liens qui existent entre la protection sociale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gasparini et Cruces et Carolina Robino, administratrice de programme au CRDI, qui a été publié dans El Economista. Cette étude s'inscrit dans le projet Marchés du travail et croissance partagée en Amérique latine, qui est financé par le CRDI et coordonné par le CEDLAS. Le projet vise à faire la lumière sur les rouages ...

  14. Biodiversité et santé : Tuons-nous les plantes qui peuvent nous ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 févr. 2011 ... Si cette tendance est récente, la plupart de ces produits de « médecines ... des maladies les plus graves qui affligent le monde, peut-être même face au sida. ... trop quel conseil je pourrais donner aux chercheurs qui tenteront, en 2050, de créer de ... Les populations les plus démunies sont à l'origine de la ...

  15. Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants aux acheteurs. Un homme qui parle sur un téléphone mobile. Les petits exploitants agricoles dominent l'agriculture égyptienne, mais leur manque de connaissances en matière de commercialisation et de compétences techniques, ainsi qu'une mauvaise ...

  16. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  17. In search of Godard’s ‘Sauve la vie (qui peut’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Witt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a little-known compilation film titled Sauve la vie (qui peut that Jean-Luc Godard created in 1981 within the framework of a series of lectures on cinema history that he delivered in Rotterdam in 1980-1981. To make this compilation film he combined sections from his Sauve qui peut (la vie with extracts from four other films. Based on archival research, the article considers the context for the screening, the film’s structure, Godard’s wider engagement with the filmmakers whose work he incorporated, the prints he used, my attempts to reconstruct the film, and its reception in 1981 and today.

  18. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N069; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and... plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR) for...

  19. Rapport financier trimestriel pour le trimestre qui a pris fin le 30 juin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sophie Comeau

    30 juin 2017 ... Régi par la Loi sur le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ... des retombées; forme des leaders dans les secteurs de l'administration .... Au cours de la période de trois mois qui a pris fin le 30 juin 2017, ...

  20. Kenya : De la viande qui fait « bizz »Primary tabs | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 sept. 2016 ... Il effectue présentement son travail de terrain chez Sanergy, une entreprise de Nairobi qui offre un service de toilettes publiques dans les bidonvilles, pour ensuite transformer leur contenu en ... Le Centre se spécialise dans la gestion des insectes nuisibles depuis sa fondation, dans les années 1970.

  1. «¿Quién soy yo? ¿Quiénes son ellos/as?». Personajes en busca de identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caretti, Laura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Who am I? Who are they? These are the questions haunting the characters, created by writers such as Ibsen, Pirandello, Beckett and others, whose emblematic search for identity is explored in the article. The complex interconnections between subjectivity and alterity are focused within the coordinates of space (society and time (memory in their outward and inward movement. The characters are seen on stage relating also to the otherness of actors and spectators. Particular relief is given to the difference between the female and male search for identity in the light of contemporary historical changes.¿Quién soy yo? ¿Quiénes son ellos/as? Estas son las cuestiones que obsesionan a los personajes creados por escritores como Ibsen, Pirandello, Beckett y otros, cuya emblemática búsqueda de identidad se explora a lo largo de este artículo. Las complejas interconexiones entre subjetividad y alteridad son analizadas con las coordenadas del espacio (sociedad y el tiempo (memoria en su movimiento interno y externo. Los personajes son vistos en el escenario desde la alteridad de actores y espectadores. Un particular relieve se otorga a la diferencia entre la búsqueda de la identidad femenina y masculina a la luz de los cambios históricos contemporáneos.

  2. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  3. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  4. Une percée qui permet de fournir toute une industrie en petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Au cours des années 1970 et 1980, le CRDI a consenti un soutien technique et financier appréciable à ces travaux. ... En outre, le centre a enseigné à des pêcheurs qui récoltent des alevins sauvages de meilleures méthodes de manipulation et de transport de ces petits organismes de 1,5 cm de longueur, ...

  5. Rapport financier trimestriel pour le trimestre qui a pris fin le 31

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sophie Comeau

    31 déc. 2011 ... politiques, de chercheurs et de collectivités de par le monde. ..... qui a été choisi à l'issue d'un processus de recrutement mené ... Les bureaux régionaux constituent une ressource stratégique et un élément clé du modèle de.

  6. Des bananes plus nutritives et qui résistent aux maladies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Les petits agriculteurs jouissent de meilleurs revenus et d'une sécurité alimentaire accrue grâce à des variétés de bananes à haut rendement qui résistent aux maladies. Au cours des années 1980 et 1990, avec le soutien du CRDI, la Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agricola (FHIA) a mis au point ...

  7. Tache mongoloïde extensive : Un signe clinique qui mérite une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tache mongoloïde extensive : Un signe clinique qui mérite une attention particulière. R Abilkassem, A Agadr. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2013.16.41.3062 · AJOL African Journals ...

  8. Ceux qui sauront : le déclinisme uchronique de Pierre Bordage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ainseba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “What if the French Revolution had never happened? What if what seems to be France's greatest pride was simply erased from history books? These are the questions that haunt Pierre Bordage's alternate history fiction Ceux qui sauront (Those who know which was published in 2008 and is the first volume of a trilogy (Ceux qui rêvent (Those who dream, 2010; Ceux qui osent (Those who dare, 2012. Bordage does not outline all the political ramifications of this null and void revolution but his narrative is centred on the prohibition of teaching for the enduring Third Estate. Even though it has been labelled children's literature, this work of alternate history is full of violent declinism: it tackles both the State's misology and the way scholars are disdained within a mercantile order, it denounces the way politics have abandoned the social and the way school has been forced to secrecy. Given these declinist characteristics, might we not classify this alternate history as a distopia? What are the whys and the wherefores of this all-French anti-humanism? What does this work reveal as regards contemporary, end of twentieth, beginning of twenty-first century France?

  9. Ceux qui sauront : le déclinisme uchronique de Pierre Bordage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ainseba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “What if the French Revolution had never happened? What if what seems to be France's greatest pride was simply erased from history books? These are the questions that haunt Pierre Bordage's alternate history fiction Ceux qui sauront (Those who know which was published in 2008 and is the first volume of a trilogy (Ceux qui rêvent (Those who dream, 2010; Ceux qui osent (Those who dare, 2012. Bordage does not outline all the political ramifications of this null and void revolution but his narrative is centred on the prohibition of teaching for the enduring Third Estate. Even though it has been labelled children's literature, this work of alternate history is full of violent declinism: it tackles both the State's misology and the way scholars are disdained within a mercantile order, it denounces the way politics have abandoned the social and the way school has been forced to secrecy. Given these declinist characteristics, might we not classify this alternate history as a distopia? What are the whys and the wherefores of this all-French anti-humanism? What does this work reveal as regards contemporary, end of twentieth, beginning of twenty-first century France?

  10. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  11. pour le trimestre qui a pris fin le 30 septembre 2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    30 sept. 2014 ... d'information financière (normes IFRS). Toutes les ... 42,9 %. (1 684) d'un exercice à l'autre. Écart en %. Budget. 2014-2015. Période de six mois qui a pris fin le 30 septembre. Réalisations. Réalisations. 2013 ... a augmenté de 9,6 millions de dollars (soit 17,5 %) par rapport à ce qu'elle était à la période.

  12. OPS : élaborer de nouveaux partenariats et consolider ceux qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... L'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) « est devenue très engagée [en ce qui a trait à l'écosanté] quand l'Évaluation des écosystèmes pour le millénaire a été faite, » a indiqué le Dr Corvalan. Entreprise en 2001, l'Évaluation des écosystèmes pour le millénaire a evalué les conséquences du ...

  13. Qui a peur du harcèlement sexuel ? des femmes témoignent

    CERN Document Server

    Ducret, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Le harcèlement sexuel au travail est un comportement banalisé tant par les auteurs que par les collègues et les responsables hiérarchiques. Cette attitude contribue à maintenir les victimes dans le silence et c'est pour briser ce cercle que Véronique Ducret a choisi de récolter et publier les témoignages de dix femmes. Les parcours de ces femmes, semés d'embûches, montrent qu'elles ont essayé de se faire entendre ; pour certaines, au risque de perdre leur place de travail. Si le harcèlement sexuel est douloureux, plus insupportable encore est l'incompréhension à laquelle elles ont dû faire face. Ces femmes témoignent ici des stratégies qu'elles ont utilisées pour faire reconnaître ce qu'elles ont subi. Cet ouvrage s'adresse à toutes les femmes qui travaillent et qui ont été ou risquent d'être confrontées un jour au harcèlement sexuel. Ces récits permettront à certaines de se reconnaître dans ces situations et peut-être de dévoiler à leur tour, et sans honte, les violences sexuel...

  14. Choix qui s'offrent à la Chine en matière de politiques à la suite de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet, qui est le prolongement d'un projet antérieur - Réseau de recherche sur la pauvreté et les inégalités en Chine (no 103310) - est amorcé en raison du débat qui a actuellement cours en Chine sur la crise économique mondiale. Cette subvention permettra à de jeunes chercheurs de contribuer au débat en ...

  15. Catastrophes et consommation des substances psychoactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivokapić Žilijeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Les catastrophes, les accidents, les stress, les traumatismes sont des expériences négatives de vie accompagnées de changements physiologiques, cognitifs, émotionnels et comportementaux. Les stratégies les plus courantes inefficaces à résoudre les expériences de vie négatives sont: l' agression - ouverte (physique et / ou verbale, passive et latente, le retrait social, le placage, la dépression, l'impuissance, l' isolement et l' abus de médicaments, en particulier de drogues. Les personnes se trouvant dans des situations stressantes essayent de s' aider elles-mêmes souvent en recourant à des substances qui procurent une amélioration de leur état et suppriment le malaise momentané. Cette 'thérapie par auto-thérapie' comporte de graves risques La personne qui, après une période de consommation de ces substances devenaient dépendante, manifeste des changements visibles au niveau physique et psychologique. Elle se dérobe à ses obligations, rompt avec les activités auxquelles elle prenait plaisir autrefois de même qu' avec ses loisirs et ses intérêts; elle change des amis, ses relations familiales et amicales deviennent pauvres et remplies de nombreux conflits; elle devient moins critique et plus manipulative, commence à mentir, trompe pour dissimuler sa toxicomanie, rejoint un groupe de ses semblables, se livre à des activités criminogènes, de plus en plus se dégrade physiquement. L' alcool qui, étant le plus accessible et par conséquent généralement 'la première mesure d' auto-thérapie', a un impact particulièrement dévastateur sur l' organisme sensible au point de vue psycho-physique. Nous assistons à de nombreuses difficultés et des problèmes qui, à la suite de la consommation d' alcool, aggravent ceux liés à des expériences des événements traumatisants. De même l' efficacité de certains comprimés de réduire les tensions ou d' améliorer l' état du patient conduit fréquemment

  16. De l’ethnologie du Japon : par qui, où, comment ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bouchy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available « Ce qui importe, c’est que l’esprit humain, sans égard pour l’identité de ses messagers occasionnels, y [dans ce livre] manifeste une structure de mieux en mieux intelligible à mesure que progresse la démarche doublement réflexive de deux pensées agissant l’une sur l’autre et dont, ici l’une, là l’autre, peut être la mèche ou l’étincelle du rapprochement desquelles jaillira leur commune illumination. Et, si celle-ci vient à révéler un trésor, on n’aura pas besoin d’arbitre pour procéder au p...

  17. La crisis bancaria de 1999 en el Ecuador: un análisis a partir del Cuadro de Operaciones Financieras (COF) y la matriz de flujo de fondos de "quién a quién"

    OpenAIRE

    Salguero Llanos, Magally

    2005-01-01

    Este trabajo toma como referencia al Cuadro de Operaciones Financiera (COF) y la Matriz de Flujo de Fondos de "quién a quién " de las Cuentas Nacionales del Ecuador, interrelacionando sus resultados con las condiciones macro económicas y microeconómicas bajo las cuales se desarrolló la crisis bancaria de 1999. A nivel microeconómico, se observan las pruebas estadísticas y variables con las respuestas de los bancos frente a la crisis. Se analiza la interacción entre sectores y transacciones fi...

  18. Le soja local en Allemagne, une demande soutenue, une offre qui s’étoffe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recknagel Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 2009, la sole de soja ne cesse d’augmenter en Allemagne, surtout dans le sud du pays mais aussi à l’est et un peu partout dans les régions au climat propice. Un programme national a permis de créer les références nécessaires pour un conseil qualifié apporté aux agriculteurs via un réseau de développement. Ainsi toute une filière soja est déjà bien avancée dans le sud et en cours de mise en place dans le reste du pays, pour organiser la collecte auprès des producteurs et obtenir une offre groupée pour les transformateurs pour l’alimentation animale et humaine. Le soja allemand ne veut pas rivaliser avec le soja OGM ni pour instant avec le soja non-OGM des Amériques mais vise plutôt les filières courtes régionales et le marché bio qui est encore plus déficitaire en auto-approvisionnement que le conventionnel. Avec 10 000 ha en 2014, dont 25 % en bio, le soja en Allemagne est encore loin de la surface du maïs grain (2008–2014 autour de 500 000 ha. En pratique, 20 % de ces surfaces de maïs au climat a priori propice pourraient représenter le potentiel réel pour le soja en Allemagne, sous condition de prix garantissant une rentabilité suffisante par rapport aux autres grandes cultures. Pour les programmes non-OGM des grands distributeurs, il faut de toute façon une base de production élargie comme celle proposée par l’initiative Danube-Soja, qui dans une version Europe-Soja engloberait aussi la France. Avec le verdissement de la PAC et la montée du cours du Dollar par rapport à l’Euro, les perspectives pour une augmentation de la surface de production de soja en Allemagne et en Europe paraissent bonnes. Maintenant il faut travailler sur les débouchés pour garantir l’absorption de la production grandissante par les marchés et les consommateurs à tous les niveaux : régional, national et européen.

  19. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  20. What Will the New Generation Generate? Gendering Accumulation in Fatou Diome’s Celles qui attendent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hogarth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on the penultimate installment of the oeuvre of the much-celebrated Franco-Senegalese writer Fatou Diome, whose largely autobiographical work has garnered a wide following and a lucrative contract with the Flammarion publishing house. I propose that Diome’s 2010 novel Celles qui attendent strongly contributes to a discourse surrounding the roles of males and females in an African economy increasingly dominated by migration. Diome started as a writer who portrayed the empowered role of the female migrant, who is able to accumulate financial capital in Europe and send it back to Africa in order for males to slowly hoard goods and start businesses. Her more recent work, however, has been marked by a shift to reflect a portrait of Senegalese society and migration that is backed by sociological studies: men take on the role of migrants, tempted by “marchands d’illusions” 'merchants of illusions,' but are also determined to get away from social pressures in order to accumulate their own set of experiences in the world, at a distance from the expectations of a traditional African society. Women, on the other hand, are left in extreme proximity to the problems of everyday life on a cash-starved continent, as they have to go about the business of surviving and raising children, engaging in many forms of hoarding that have to do with accumulating finance, memories and myths.

  1. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N259; FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive... significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...

  2. Guide en matière d'évaluation à l'intention des instances qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les évaluations sont un élément clé de la recherche pour le développement, puisqu'elles ... Comprendre le rôle des instances qui commandent des évaluations ... Avec l'aide du CRDI, l'Instituto de la Salud, Medio Ambiente, Economia y ...

  3. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context; Plan Mineral de la Republique du Niger : Tome IV - 1er volume : Etude specifique des principales substances minerals et leur contexte geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo' , Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-07-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates. [French] Ce volume contient l'etude detaillee des substances minerals exploitees industriellement a ce jour : l'uranium, le charbon, les materiaux non metalliques de construction et de travaux publics et les substances exploitees artisanalement qui sont : l'etain, la Colombo-tantalite, le tungstene, l'or, les phosphates et les evaporates.

  4. Académico Correspondiente Arturo Morillo Quiñones (1925-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nació en Cereté, Córdoba, el 28 de abril de 1925, murió en Bogotá, el 27 de abril de 2015, a la edad de 90 años. Transcurría el año 1950 cuando estudiaba medicina en la Universidad Javeriana en Bogotá. Una tarde casi noche, con el frío sabanero, conocí un personaje cuyo nombre era Arturo Morillo Quiñones, el cual generaría en mí un impacto a diferentes niveles: intelectuales, científicos y humanos, en especial por su manera de ser auténtica, veraz, cálida, con un amplio humor, leal, inteligente, real y brillante. Por aquellos años 1950 establecimos una relación de una profunda amistad. Así vinieron diferentes hechos de nuestras historias personales y el conocimiento de la vida familiar, así como nuestras experiencias. Arturo relataba una serie de reminiscencias vividas de niño por allá en la región del Sinú, el Magdalena, y toda la región llamada de la “Costa Caribe”. Las narraciones que él hacía tenían un tinte de fascinación y despertaban al niño que todos guardamos, y que le seduce esa clase de historias, las cuales oscilaban entre la realidad y la fantasía, lo absurdo y lo lógico, lo primitivo imaginario de sueños despiertos a la realidad, además de una multiplicidad de creencias supersticiones dirigidas por el pensamiento mágico. Personalmente no cesaba de preguntar sobre detalles de los contenidos de las narraciones. Aquí consigno, cómo en los años 1967 volví a leer en textos novelescos estos mismos relatos de Arturo Morillo; ahora escritos por un genio Nobel, Gabriel García Márquez. El doctor Arturo Morillo Quiñones, académico y neurocientífico acabó sus estudios de medicina en 1951 y se graduó en 1954 en la misma Universidad Javeriana; realizó su postgrado en electroencefalografía y neurofisiología en National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Perfeccionó sus estudios de neurofisiología y métodos neurofisiológicos en la investigación de psicofármacos en el Galesburg

  5. D’étranges étrangers. Qui gouverne les correspondants de Jérusalem ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bourdon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit d’une enquête ethnographique auprès des correspondants de la presse étrangère en Israël dans les années 2000, cet article analyse la façon dont les relations des journalistes avec les différents états et nations (y compris les leurs impliqués dans le conflit, affectent leur travail. Il montre comment les journalistes, en fonction de leurs appartenances nationales ou ethniques, sont sommés de prendre parti vis-à-vis de multiples acteurs, ce qui déstabilise la possibilité d’une couverture « neutre » ou « extérieure » acceptable par tous. Cette déstabilisation est analysée à quatre niveaux. 1. Le monde professionnel des journalistes est traversé par ce conflit qui est perçu comme très proche, « quasiment une affaire de politique intérieure », les divisions étant politiques mais aussi nationales, singulièrement entre journalistes américains et européens. 2. Les journalistes sont sommés par les deux parties au conflit, toutes deux très soucieuses de leur image, l’Etat d’Israël recourant aux brimades – ou à la force vis-à-vis des gens d’image palestiniens, les deux partis étant « assoiffés de médias » ; 3. Les journalistes sont mis en cause en raison de leurs origines juive ou arabe, réelles ou supposées ; 4. Enfin des publics nationaux, proisraéliens ou propalestiniens, que le conflit divise, eux-mêmes dotés de moyens de surveillance et de critique nouveaux (satellites, internet, s’en prennent aux correspondants dont le travail ne correspond pas à leur attente.This study is based on an ethnographic investigation of foreign-press correspondentsin Israel/Palestine in the year 2000. It analyzes how the journalists’ work is affected by their relationship to the different states and nations (including their own involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It shows how journalists, according to their own national or ethnic affiliation, are pressured to take sides by various participants

  6. Commentaire : Comment gérer l'eau qui se raréfie dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 oct. 2010 ... Les agriculteurs protestèrent contre la perte de sources d'eau qui leur avaient appartenu pendant des générations. La grogne monta et aboutit à la très médiatisée « guerre de l'eau » de Cochabamba en 2000 et aux manifestations massives d'El Alto. À Cochabamba, les escouades anti-émeute et les ...

  7. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  8. ‘Il n’y a que Superman qui porte le slip par-dessus le pantalon’ – les clivées en il n’y a que x qui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karssenberg Lena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, je me propose d’étudier les clivées en il y a qui contiennent la tournure de restriction ne… que, comme Il n’y a que Superman qui porte le slip par-dessus le pantalon (voir Jeanjean 1979 ; Pierrard 1985 ; Léard 1992 ; Furukawa 1996. Je répondrai à deux questions principales, à savoir (i Quelle est la distribution de ces clivées à travers deux registres différents de français ? (ii Quelles sont leurs caractéristiques au niveau de la Structure de l’Information ? Une analyse de corpus nous amène à la conclusion que, premièrement, ce type de clivée est beaucoup plus fréquent en français écrit informel qu’en français écrit journalistique. Deuxièmement, les données de corpus contiennent trois types d’articulations informationnelles, dont seule la première a été mentionnée dans la littérature linguistique sur les phrases en il n’y a que x qui : (i dans les clivées focus – arrière-fond, l’élément clivé (Superman est en focus, alors que l’information exprimée par la phrase relative représente l’arrière-fond. (ii Dans l’articulation ‘à double focus’, (une partie de l’élément clivé et (une partie de la phrase relative sont focalisé(es. Finalement, (iii l’élément clivé peut également être un topique spatio-temporel qui sert d’encadrement de l’information exprimée par la phrase relative. En outre, plusieurs clivées ont une articulation informationnelle ambiguë en raison du fait que l’information nouvelle en discours peut être réinterprétée par l’interlocuteur comme donnée en discours par un processus d’ « accommodation » (Lewis 1979.

  9. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Enrique, E-mail: villae@unican.es; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel [Departamento Ingeniería de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Plaza de la Ciencia s/n, Santander 39005 (Spain); Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros s/n, Santander 39005 (Spain); Hoyland, Roger [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna 38205 (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  10. Systèmes de santé équitables : à qui revient la facture ? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2012 ... Les pays à faible revenu, de leur côté, s'efforcent d'offrir à leurs citoyens ce qui est déjà monnaie courante ailleurs : un accès à des services de santé ... à revenu intermédiaire s'appuient sur des sources variées : régimes d'assurance publics et privés, impôts et taxes directs et indirects, frais imposés aux ...

  11. Opinion: Parvenir à une réelle égalité entre les sexes en ce qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 nov. 2016 ... L'augmentation des conflits et de la fragilité politique dans plusieurs régions du monde ont exacerbé et enraciné les disparités relatives à la santé des jeunes, particulièrement pour les adolescentes qui font régulièrement face à des obstacles et à une réduction de l'accès aux soins de santé. Lisez l'article ...

  12. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J.; Hoyland, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching

  13. Impact de quelques substances polluantes (éléments traces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les 2 principaux axes canoniques de cette ACC qui renseignent le plus sur la relation entre les vers de terre et les substances polluantes (ETM et HAP) ont été défini par le plomb, le thallium, le cuivre et le nickel. Conclusion et applications des résultats: Le long des bordures de l'autoroute du Nord en Côte d'Ivoire, les ETM ...

  14. Substance use - cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors Sleep problems ...

  15. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... a result, you may act strangely or become aggressive and violent. PCP's other harmful effects include: It ...

  16. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  17. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  18. Polarimetric receiver in the forty gigahertz band: new instrument for the Q-U-I joint Tenerife experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Mediavilla, Ángel; Artal, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the analysis, design and characterization of a polarimetric receiver developed for covering the 35 to 47 GHz frequency band in the new instrument aimed at completing the ground-based Q-U-I Joint Tenerife Experiment. This experiment is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background. The described high frequency instrument is a HEMT-based array composed of 29 pixels. A thorough analysis of the behaviour of the proposed receiver, based on electronic phase switching, is presented for a noise-like linearly polarized input signal, obtaining simultaneously I, Q and U Stokes parameters of the input signal. Wideband subsystems are designed, assembled and characterized for the polarimeter. Their performances are described showing appropriate results within the 35-to-47 GHz frequency band. Functionality tests are performed at room and cryogenic temperatures with adequate results for both temperature conditions, which validate the receiver concept and performance.

  19. De l'injure en pays maure ou « qui ne loue pas critique »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Taine-Cheikh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Taine-Cheikh, qui s'intéresse au phénomène de l'injure dans la société arabophone de Mauritanie, commence par étudier les différents termes du dialecte hassâniyya qui relèvent de ce champ sémantique. Elle s'attache ensuite à montrer l'importance et la complexité de l'« effet injure », dans cette société fortement imprégnée par les valeurs de l'honneur où non seulement la critique mais aussi la louange peuvent apparaître comme des manifestations de l'injure. Passant en revue diverses situations empruntées à la vie quotidienne ou puisées dans des matériaux littéraires (écrits et surtout oraux, l'auteur relève diverses stratégies adoptées, soit par les injurieurs, soit par les injuriaires, pour tenter de maîtriser les effets des mots (ou gestes « déplacés ». Bien que le problème du contrôle de soi semble presque toujours primordial, la gestion de l'injure laisse apparaître une différenciation importante en fonction du sexe et du statut relatif des acteurs sociaux concernés.

  20. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  3. La langue qui fâche : quand la norme qui lâche suscite l’insulte When norms loosen, abuse pops up and language offends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rosier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article nous proposons d’étudier les titres de groupes facebook dont les dénominations visent à dévaloriser les locuteurs qui ne maîtrisent pas la norme linguistique. On verra que lorsqu’il s’agit de la maîtrise de la langue, les internautes stigmatisent les accrocs à la norme et peuvent adopter des attitudes d’une extrême violence : les fautes sont considérées comme insultantes pour ceux qui maîtrisent la langue. La violence verbale observée trouverait sa légitimité dans le fait qu’il y a « outrage à la langue » : les locuteurs « censeurs » seraient dès lors autorisés à produire un discours violent « outrageant » vis-à-vis des faiseurs de fautes. Nos analyses montreront que l’appel au regroupement contre les « locuteurs-fauteurs » repose sur une doxa commune (l’importance de la maîtrise de la langue plutôt que sur une argumentation explicite. Nous verrons comment se manifeste linguistiquement la violence verbale dans notre corpus (phénomènes énonciatifs, processus interactionnel,… et où se situent les dénominations facebookiennes sur une échelle graduée de violence.In this article, we study the names of facebook groups which aim at reducing the value of the speakers who do not control linguistic norms. The internet users stigmatize tears in norm and can adopt attitudes of an extreme violence: errors are considered as insulting for those who master the language. The “offense to the language” is supposed to legitimize verbal violence: the speakers “censors” would since then be authorized to produce a violent speech "offending" in relation to the miracle-workers of errors. Our analyses will show that the call to grouping against the “speakers-troublemakers” rests on a common doxa (the importance of the workmanship of the language rather than on a definite argumentation. We will examine the various manifestations of verbal violence (on the level on enunciation

  4. ¿Quién es la víctima y quién el agresor en la violencia física entre parejas?: estudio epidemiológico en siete ciudades del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Identificar factores asociados con la probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en violencia física entre parejas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la base de datos de una encuesta poblacional aplicada en siete ciudades de Perú (Lima, Arequipa, Huamanga, Trujillo, Cusco, Callao y Maynas. Participaron 6399 hombres y mujeres, de los cuales 3909 refirieron vivir en pareja al momento de la entrevista. Se empleó regresión logística univariada y multivariada para identificar factores asociados con cualquiera de los roles, víctima o agresor. El alfa establecido fue 0,01. Resultados. La probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en la violencia física entre parejas fue similar para ambos sexos (p>0,01, e independiente del tiempo de convivencia. La exposición a la violencia en la niñez, tener una actitud favorable a la violencia, ser menor de 45 años, el consumo excesivo de alcohol, tener educación superior incompleta y tener un ingreso familiar de menos de 750 USD son factores asociados tanto a ser víctima como a ser agresor. Geográficamente, Cusco es la ciudad en que se puede encontrar con mayor probabilidad personas que ejercen violencia física contra la pareja o son víctimas de ella. El valor fue p<0,001 para la mayoría de estas asociaciones. Conclusiones. El patrón de características que predice quién es la víctima, es muy similar al que predice quién es el agresor en los casos de violencia física contra la pareja. El sexo y los años de convivencia no son predictivos para ninguno de los roles violencia física contra la pareja.

  5. ¿Quién es la víctima y quién el agresor en la violencia física entre parejas? Estudio epidemiológico en siete ciudades del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Fiestas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Identificar factores asociados con la probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en violencia física entre parejas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la base de datos de una encuesta poblacional aplicada en siete ciudades de Perú (Lima, Arequipa, Huamanga, Trujillo, Cusco, Callao y Maynas. Participaron 6399 hombres y mujeres, de los cuales 3909 refirieron vivir en pareja al momento de la entrevista. Se empleó regresión logística univariada y multivariada para identificar factores asociados con cualquiera de los roles, víctima o agresor. El alfa establecido fue 0,01. Resultados. La probabilidad de ser víctima o agresor en la violencia física entre parejas fue similar para ambos sexos (p>0,01, e independiente del tiempo de convivencia. La exposición a la violencia en la niñez, tener una actitud favorable a la violencia, ser menor de 45 años, el consumo excesivo de alcohol, tener educación superior incompleta y tener un ingreso familiar de menos de 750 USD son factores asociados tanto a ser víctima como a ser agresor. Geográficamente, Cusco es la ciudad en que se puede encontrar con mayor probabilidad personas que ejercen violencia física contra la pareja o son víctimas de ella. El valor fue p<0,001 para la mayoría de estas asociaciones. Conclusiones. El patrón de características que predice quién es la víctima, es muy similar al que predice quién es el agresor en los casos de violencia física contra la pareja. El sexo y los años de convivencia no son predictivos para ninguno de los roles violencia física contra la pareja

  6. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF HEALTH OFFICER AND MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JIMMA. UNIVERSITY ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these substances ... mainly through cancer especially lung cancer, of which about 90% of cases are ...

  7. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  8. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  9. Qui attrapera le Higgs?

    CERN Multimedia

    Colas, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Higgs boson was theoretically created about 40 years ago by a Scott Peter Higgs who wanted to explain why some particles get a mass. Since then the Higgs boson has taken consistency and has become an important point of the standard model theory. Its experimental discovery would be a milestone of modern physics. The search for the Higgs boson is an international challenge that takes place around 2 huge machines: the Tevatron near Chicago and the LHC (large hadron collider) that is being built in CERN. The Tevatron is in fact the upgrading of an old particle accelerator, it is a proton collider and its narrow range of energy is compensated by a low background noise. On the other hand the LHC will begin operating only in 2007 and its full power will be reached a few years later, the energy available to create particles will be then 7 times higher than for the Tevatron. Both machines have chance of succeeding by being the first to detect the Higgs boson. Time plays in favor of the Tevatron but in any case if ...

  10. Qui Exanimis Nascitur?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    Better regulation is of grave importance to the European Union as this is seen as a way of obtaining output legitimacy. To achieve this, the European Commission has established a so-called REFIT Stakeholder Platform where stakeholders’ proposals for more effective and efficient EU law are discussed....... The central premise for this meta-regulatory instrument is depoliticisation of the REFIT program and the whole better regulation agenda. To ensure this, the European Commission plays a crucial gatekeeping role by only granting access for proposals that echo that premise and by securing depoliticised...

  11. Qui Exanimis Nascitur?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk Pedersen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Better regulation is of grave importance to the European Union, as it is seen as a way of obtaining output legitimacy. To achieve this, the European Commission has established a so-called REFIT Stakeholder Platform where stakeholders' proposals for more effective and efficient EU law are discussed....... The central premise for this meta-regulatory instrument is depoliticisation of the REFIT program and the whole better regulation agenda. To ensure this, the European Commission plays a crucial gatekeeping role by only granting access for proposals that echo that premise and by securing depoliticised...

  12. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  13. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  14. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  15. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  17. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  18. Qui s’assoit où ? Who sits down where? Strategies of seats’ occupation in the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Forest

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’observation et l’analyse du comportement des spectateurs entrant dans une salle de cinéma, choisissant leurs places puis les libérant en fin de séance, ont permis de mettre en relief de nombreuses caractéristiques communes. Le choix et l’occupation d’un siège dans ces salles ne relève pas de la recherche d’un optimum technique de visionnement de la projection du film.  Une différenciation de certains comportements peut s’observer selon la composition du public qui varie elle-même selon la salle, le film ou  l’heure de séance, mais les interactions mimétiques entre spectateurs sont indéniables, et des mécanismes d’influence récurrents, indépendants de la composition du public, et peuvent être structurés par l’architecture et l’espace de la salle elle-même. L’essentiel des comportements de choix et libération des sièges obéissent avant tout à des règles et stratégies d’occupation d’un espace et d’un territoire, fortement conditionnées par l’âge et surtout le sexe du spectateur.The observation and the analysis of the spectators’ behavior entering a cinema, choosing their places then releasing them at the end of the meeting, made possible to highlight many common characteristics. The choice and the occupation of a seat don’t concern the search for a technical optimum of viewing of the film’s projection. A differentiation of certain behaviors can be observed according to the composition of the public which varies itself according to the room, film or the hour of meeting, but the interactions mimetic between spectators is undeniable, and the recurring mechanisms of influence, independent of public’s composition, and can be structured by the architecture and the space of the room itself. The main part of behaviors for the choice and the release of the seats first obey rules and strategies of occupation of a space and a territory, strongly conditioned by the age and especially the sex

  19. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  2. Experiencias de montaje creativo: de la historia oral a la imagen en movimiento ¿Quién escribe la historia oral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo marca la apertura de Silvia Rivera al mundo de la sociología de la imagen y del montaje audiovisual. De este modo nos ofrece una reflexión importante sobre la práctica de la historia oral ¿Quién escucha? ¿Quién habla? Por otro lado, nos invita a pensar acerca de la producción audiovisual y la autoría, vinculándola con los distintos movimientos sociales y políticos de gran influencia en la historia social boliviana, como el anarquismo, el katarismo y el indianismo. Finalmente nos comparte los procesos creativos que la llevaron a trabajar en el cine, mayoritariamente en el género de docu ficción.

  3. Alimentación de bovinos con ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo y ráquis en diferentes proporciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. De la Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de bovinos consumiendo ensilado de mezclas de banano de rechazo como fruta y ráquis en diferentes proporciones, se realizó una prueba de alimentación con 12 bovinos cebú comercial, machos, enteros, con un peso promedio de 168±17 kg, a los que se les asignó, de manera aleatoria, cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos: I ensilado con 50% banano y 50% ráquis; II ensilado con 75% banano y 25% ráquis; y III un grupo testigo con zacate Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum. Los animales recibieron, además, 1.1 kg de pasta de soya como fuente proteica y 50 g de una premezcla comercial de minerales y sal común. La prueba tuvo una duración de 120 días, más un tiempo de adaptación de 15, periodo en el que las dietas se ofrecieron a libertad. Los animales fueron pesados cada 30 días y se les llevó diariamente el control de consumo de alimento. Las mejores (P0.05 entre ellos. El consumo de alimento base húmeda (CABH no presentó diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre tratamientos; sin embargo, el consumo de alimento base seca (CABS fue mayor (P<0.05 en el tratamiento ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 comparado con el de 50:50 (6.433 vs. 4.308 kg. El consumo de materia seca/100 kg de peso vivo fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 75:25 (2.334 y 1.990, comparados con los del ensilado 50:50 (1.413. El consumo de proteína cruda en kg fue mayor (P<0.05 para los animales alimentados con zacate Taiwán. Porcentualmente, el consumo de proteína cruda fue mayor (P<0.05 en los animales que consumieron zacate Taiwán y ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50 (16.99 y 17.36 %. La mayor eficiencia alimenticia (P<0.05 la obtuvieron los animales que consumieron el ensilado de banano-ráquis 50:50. El análisis económico de este sistema de alimentación nos indica que se obtuvieron las mayores ganancias con el uso de los ensilados, siendo el mejor

  4. Rôle de la société civile pour ce qui est d'influencer les politiques de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rôle de la société civile pour ce qui est d'influencer les politiques de santé publique en faveur des femmes autochtones du Mexique. Au Mexique, les iniquités relatives à l'accès aux services de santé et aux services connexes sont sensiblement plus marquées chez les populations autochtones, et en particulier chez les ...

  5. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products That Contain Dang-Qui and Risk of Endometrial Cancer among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Tung; Lai, Jung-Nien; Tsai, Yueh-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. Methods All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. Results Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20–79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44–0.84). To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55–79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46–1.17). Conclusions Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20–79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment. PMID:25485843

  6. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  7. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Crystal-face growth rate: role of the neighbouring concentration; Vitesse de croissance d'une face cristalline: role de la concentration qui regne a son voisinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itti, R

    1967-07-01

    A study has been made of the phenomena occurring in the neighbourhood of a growing crystal-face, with the help of several methods based on interferometric observation. If the system is considered at a given moment, it is possible to express the growth rate of the crystal in two ways: 1) using the origin of the solute contributing to the growth, by application of Fick's law modified in certain cases by a correction factor involving the absolute value of the concentration near the crystal face. 2) directly, using the supersaturation in the crystal-face neighbourhood. On the other hand, if an attempt is made to take into account the changes in growth rate with time, it is seen that this rate is not dependent on diffusion phenomena, but that the convection currents in the solution play an important role. (author) [French] Les phenomenes qui ont lieu dans la solution au voisinage d'un cristal en voie de croissance ont ete etudies grace a plusieurs methodes d'observation interferometriques. Si l'on considere la preparation a un instant donne, il est possible d'exprimer la vitesse de croissance du cristal de deux manieres: 1) a partir de la provenance du solute necessaire a la croissance, par application de l'equation de Fick moyennant, dans certains cas, un facteur correctif faisant intervenir la valeur absolue de la concentration au voisinage de la face, 2) directement a partir de la sursaturation qui regne pres de la face. Par contre, si l'on essaie de rendre compte de l'evolution de la vitesse de croissance au cours du temps, on voit que celle-ci n'est pas commandee par les phenomenes de diffusion, mais que les courants de convection qui existent dons la solution jouent un role important. (auteur)

  9. Estudio Biomecanico de la Zancada. 7.52 Record de España de 60 MV de Jackson Quiñonez.

    OpenAIRE

    González Frutos, Pablo; Mallo Sainz, Javier; Veiga Fernandez, Santiago; Navarro Cabello, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Los resultados que a continuación se presentan hacen referencia al Record de España de 60 metros vallas (en adelante, mv) conseguido por el atleta Jackson Quiñonez (JQ) en la final del 44º Campeonato de España de pista cubierta - Valencia 08. Estos datos forman parte de un estudio global de todas las series de 60 mv y 60 metros lisos (ml) durante el 44º Campeonato de España y el 12th IAAF World Indoor Championship Valencia 2008, en las cuales se aplica una nueva metodología para la obtención ...

  10. Factores predominantes que determinan el clima organizacional de la I.E. José Abelardo Quiñones del distrito de Mala-Cañete

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina Díaz, Lenny Esther

    2016-01-01

    La tesis tiene por objetivo identificar los factores que determinan el clima organizacional de la I.E. José Abelardo Quiñones de Mala, Cañete. Para ello, se ha estudiado el marco teórico sobre la variable de estudio: el clima organizacional. En la investigación se utilizó la metodología de tipo cuantitativo, basada en el paradigma positivista. Además se aplicó un cuestionario adaptado a la realidad del estudio. Las encuestas aplicadas al personal de la institución fueron analizadas mediante e...

  11. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  12. «Neutre est le seul genre qui me convienne»: retoriche dell’androginia nell’opera di Claude Cahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nugara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rhetoric and discursive strategies through which surrealist artist and writer Clade Cahun elaborates forms of self-representations which, by subverting gender norms, reinvent non only femininity but humanity overall. The analysis will be carried out on the basis of Roland Barthes’ reflections on androgyny which he elaborated during his course on Neutre at the Collège de France. For Barthes, Neutre is a vector of symbolic change: « un mélange, un dosage, une dialectique, non de l’homme et de la femme (génitalité, mais du masculin et du féminin. Ou mieux encore: l’homme en qui il y a du féminin, la femme en qui il y a du masculin ». Neutre is whatever breaks the binary opposition between terms A and B by assuming the form of either “not A nor B”, or “A+B”. Neutre is therefore an attempt to elude the doxa and all immutable binary scheme of meaning through linguistic and rhetoric strategies such as epicene nouns and names, impersonals, a fluctuant use of gender forms, amphibology, irony, paradox, parallelism, antiphrasis.

  13. Dis-moi qui te cite et je saurai ce que tu vaux que mesure vraiment la bibliométrie ?

    CERN Document Server

    Pansu, Pascal; Beauvois, Jean-Léon

    2013-01-01

    Comme tous les travailleurs, les chercheurs ne peuvent échapper à l'évaluation. Celle-ci ne peut être conduite par eux-mêmes. De nombreuses questions se posent : qui doit les évaluer ? À quel rythme ? Et surtout, sur quelles bases ? Sur leur réputation, leurs interventions, leur implication dans la discipline, leur présence dans la littérature scientifique ? Mais alors quelle littérature ? Comment apprécier cette présence ? Par le nombre de textes publiés ? La diversité des revues ? Par l'écho qu'ont les textes dans la littérature ? La bibliométrie tend aujourd'hui à saturer l'évaluation. Elle est une réponse à quelques-unes de ces questions. Elle propose une forme d'évaluation comptable qu'on voudrait objective mais qui comporte de nombreuses limites et ambiguïtés. Ce livre présente quelques outils bibliométriques comme les fameux «facteur d'impact» et «h-index» et, à travers une analyse des pratiques mises en oeuvre, montre que l'objectivité n'est pas au rendez-vous et que...

  14. Quand les proverbes français explicitent l’humain par le biais pronominal (qui/on ou nominal (homme/femme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Banegas Saorín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous nous penchons ici sur les proverbes introduits par les pronoms et par des syntagmes nominaux pour déterminer dans quelle mesure la structure syntaxique joue sur la structure informative de ces énoncés qui acquièrent un sens conventionnel codé. Nous les rapprochons des énoncés génériques, sans perdre de vue les propriétés auxquelles satisfont la plupart des proverbes : généricité, schéma implicatif et montée hypo-hypéronymique. Comme la classe des proverbes n’est pas formellement homogène, nous aboutissons, d’une part, à l’établissement d’une sous-classe des proverbes dits pronominaux et, d’autre part, à une nouvelle typologie des proverbes, très proche de celle des phrases génériques qui fait consensus.

  15. Cœur elle y gît rouge (qui gît dans l’élégie ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Conort

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Si le recueil Cœur élégie rouge de James Sacré fait bien apparaître l’ombre d’une femme aimée et perdue, ne voir dans cette élégie qu’une dimension autobiographique serait réducteur, et il faut peut-être y entendre aussi, selon une approche réflexive, le poème qui échoue à restituer le monde, le végétal, les visages. De la sorte, l’élégie serait aussi le deuil de ce rêve, avec le constat de l’incompatibilité du poème et du monde, pour peu que le sujet lyrique s’abandonne à un aveu naïf de son amour. Le poème doit donc se reconstruire comme espérance, projet incessamment relancé d’une écriture par quoi la vie continue. L’élégie ne se contente plus de chanter la perte ni de méditer sur l’inadéquation de la langue, elle tire sa force d’un espoir qui renaît toujours et dont témoigne la prégnance de la métaphore végétale.

  16. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  17. Distillation of bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Buisson, M A.B.B.

    1845-06-23

    New and improved methods are described for the distillation of bituminous schistus and other bituminous substances, as well as for the purification, rectification, and preparation necessary for the employment of the productions obtained by such distillation for various useful purposes. This invention consists, first, in the arrangement and construction of furnace or apparatus for the distillation of schistus, and (any) other bituminous rocks. This furnace is made of circular brick-work, and is provided with the requisite number of fires placed round the circumference. The retort is of a conical or funnel shape, and when ready for use, has the appearance of one inverted cone being placed within a larger cone, in such a manner as to leave a space between the two cones for the reception of the schistus. Both cones are capable of being closed at their apexes, and their mouths, which are placed upwards, are connected together, and hermetically closed by a flat ring. The flame draft is caused to impinge against the lower portion of the outer cone and ascending, turns over the upper edge and descends within the inner cone to the mouth of the chimney, which is placed in the interior, and as low as may be convenient. A third cone is so placed within the inner cone as to cause the flame draft, in its descent, to bind against the surface of the retort.

  18. A method and apparatus for preparing the storage of noxious substances, in particular radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of radioactive substances. It deals with a method for storing a substance, in particular a noxious or radioactive substance, comprising trapping said substance in a solid substance by bombarding said solid substance with ions of the above substance, so that the latter reaches a certain concentration level in the solid substance. This is applicable to the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  19. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  20. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  1. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  2. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  3. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  4. Les Kurdes en Irak : une communauté linguistique qui protège son identité nationale

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nigar Ali

    2015-01-01

    La communauté linguistique kurde en Irak, autonome depuis 1991, voit aujourd’hui une situation de plurilinguisme important due à l’existence d’un grand nombre de réfugiés (plus de deux millions). D’autre part, malgré le statut officiel de la langue kurde en Irak, les Kurdes dans ce pays n’ont pas encore réussi à unifier une langue standard kurde ayant une même utilisation dans les systèmes éducatifs et les médias kurdes. Les Kurdes d’Irak, pour qui leur langue est largement considérée comme l...

  5. Inventaire des cavités souterraines abandonnées et cartographie des dangers qui leur sont liés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire ARNAL

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Un inventaire national des cavités souterraines abandonnées, des accidents de sol qui leur sont imputables et de leurs conséquences dommageables a été réalisé à l’échelle de 1/1 000 000 en 1993 et 1994 par le BRGM pour le ministère de l’Environnement (Direction de la Prévention des Pollutions et des Risques. Il a conduit à élaborer des documents cartographiques de synthèse et à définir des niveaux de dangers dont la localisation permettra de lancer des études plus détaillées en vue d’assurer la sécurité des personnes et des biens

  6. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  7. Process of treating carbonaceous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-12-16

    A process is described of removing halogens or halogen compounds (or both) from the products which form when carbonaceous substances are treated thermally in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of passing the reaction products at the same temperature with a substance able to fix halogens or acid halides through an apparatus included between the receiver and the heat exchanger, which contains, in a relatively restricted space, internal elements obliquely disposed in relation to the direction of the flow, stretched in this direction and constituted preferably of helicoidal passages.

  8. L’urbanisme qui vient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Matthey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Depuis moins d’une dizaine d’années, le double registre des valeurs et du récit de communication prend une importance croissante dans la conduite des projets urbains. C’est cette transformation de la production urbanistique, co-occurrente d’une transformation de la condition d’urbaniste, que discute cet article. Pour ce faire, il revient sur l’avènement d’un urbanisme de coordination consécutif à la généralisation de l’idéologie du projet urbain. Dans un deuxième temps, l’hypothèse d’une dématérialisation de l’urbanisme corrélatif à l’émergence d’un paradigme du mouvant est discutée. Enfin, l’émergence des valeurs et du récit dans la conduite de projet urbain, simultanément à un affaissement de la règle et de la regula, est envisagée du point de vue de la reconfiguration du champ de la pratique professionnelle qu’il occasionne. Mobilisant librement le matériau d’une recherche récente consacrée aux métiers du territoire, il montre que les transformations en cours ne s’effectuent pas sans accroc, contrairement à ce qu’en disent les apologistes du nouvel urbanisme.

  9. Bene qui latuit bene vixit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2016-01-01

    The contribution attempts to build up a strong, fact based argument against the idea that only states are relevant for the history of international law. Empires and companies have played a major part, but this is largely ignored by main stream conceptions of international law. The contribution al...... argues – perhaps to provoke the subject of our tribute – that the role of companies and empires have been much better understood by the conservative Edmund Burke than the by liberal J.S. Mill or the socialist Karl Marx....

  10. ¿Quién es el sujeto en la investigación educativa? / Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo argumento, en primer lugar, que la identidad de quien investiga incide no solo en su forma de investigar, sino también en los procesos de formación de sus estudiantes y, por ende, en la formación de las futuras investigadoras y los futuros investigadores educativos. En segundo lugar, señalo que las instituciones educativas, así como sus docentes, juegan un rol central en la construcción de identidades. En tercer lugar, enfatizo que de esta responsabilidad no se eximen quienes se dedican a la investigación educativa, por lo que les invito a reflexionar sobre: ¿Cuáles son nuestras responsabilidades en el proceso de construcción de identidades? ¿Quién es el sujeto de la educación? ¿Quién es el sujeto de la investigación educativa y en ella?¿Cuán inclusivas son nuestras nociones de sujeto educativo y del sujeto empírico?Mediante el desarrollo y análisis de interrogantes sobre temas como: la relación sujeto-objeto; el sujeto en la investigación educativa; el aporte de la subjetividad; la contribución de la fenomenología; entre otros, argumento que: a la autobiografía intelectual es un instrumento de gran potencialidad para comprender el tono y la dirección de un proceso investigativo y b centrar la atención en las personas, en su historia, sus relaciones sociales y su ambiente, como sujetos actuantes y no solo como objetos de estudio es un movimiento epistémico, político y ético, puesto que reconoce la acción del sujeto en el mundo y sobre este. Por último, apelo a que las investigadoras y los investigadores cualitativos no solo deben comprender quiénes son, sino que también deben hacerlo explícito puesto que hay un condicionamiento ético que lo demanda. AbstractIn this paper I argue, first, that the identity of the researcher has an impact not only in the way she/he invThis article explains, in the first place, that the identity of the researcher not only influences his way to do research, but

  11. L’expérience d’une patiente qui reçoit des soins pour la démence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christopher; Forbes, Rev Faye

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre « l’expérience vécue » de la démence de la bouche d’une personne atteinte de démence—Faye Forbes, ministre anglicane de 64 ans atteinte de la maladie d’Alzheimer, qui donne son point de vue sur comment vivre avec la démence—et utiliser cette information pour améliorer les soins et les résultats. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid entre janvier 2005 et février 2015, à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : dementia, caregiver, perspectives et quality of health care. Les articles qui s’adressaient aux médecins de famille ont été sélectionnés. Des revues pertinentes et des articles de recherche originaux ont été utilisés, le cas échéant, s’ils s’appliquaient aux personnes atteintes de démence et à leurs soignants. Message principal Plusieurs cadres de référence organisent les principales expériences décrites par les patients et leurs soignants. Nous avons utilisé une revue de la littérature qualitative pour fournir un cadre de référence résumant l’expérience de Faye, en fonction des thèmes suivants : tenter d’obtenir un diagnostic, accéder au soutien et aux services, besoins en matière d’information, prise en charge de la maladie, et communication et attitudes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent tenir compte de ces thèmes lorsqu’ils planifient la prise en charge des personnes atteintes de démence. Il importe de tenter de comprendre l’expérience et le point de vue des personnes atteintes de démence et de leurs soignants afin de pouvoir dispenser des soins optimaux. PMID:28115451

  12. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  13. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  14. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  15. Les déterminants internes qui évaluent la performance des banques islamiques : cas de la zone de Moyen Orient et Afrique du Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Dami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette recherche est d’étudier les déterminants internes qui évaluent la performance des 22 banques islamiques cotées en Bourse et ils ont appliqué la même norme comptable internationale dans la zone de Moyen Orient et Afrique du Nord en utilisant une analyse des indicateurs financiers tels que la rentabilité, la liquidité, la solvabilité et le risque de crédit, l’adéquation du capital, l’efficacité opérationnelle et l’efficacité d’allocation des ressources. Nous avons utilisé un modèle MCO avec une régression linéaire multiple comprenant de la variable dépendante (ROA ou ROE et de nombreuses variables indépendantes selon les données du panel. Les résultats empiriques indiquent que la liquidité, l’adéquation du capital, l’efficacité opérationnelle et l’efficacité d’allocation des ressources sont des déterminants significatifs dans notre étude. Par contre, les indicateurs de risque du crédit et la solvabilité ne sont pas significatifs pour évaluer la performance des banques islamiques au Moyen Orient et Afrique du Nord. Notre résultat est robust.

  16. L'électronique pour les débutants qui sèchent les cours mais soudent sans se brûler les doigts

    CERN Document Server

    Mallard, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    Par où commencer pour débuter en électronique ? Vais-je m'égarer en explorant l'internet ? Il regorge de schémas, mais sont-ils fiables ? Me faut-il un livre avec des montages simples ou plutôt un livre sur les composants ? Après trente ans de pratique, l'auteur de ce livre, resté l'éternel débutant qui réalisait lui-même son premier montage dès l'âge de dix ans, partage ici sa soif toujours vive d'apprendre. Fin pédagogue, il guide les débutants et répond aux questions que trop de livres laissent en suspens : "Quel type de fer à souder acheter ?"... "Un multimètre à 5 € peut-il suffire ?"... "Un oscilloscope est-il indispensable ?"... "Peut-on installer son montage dans une boîte à cigares ?"... Rémy Mallard démystifie l'électronique en n'utilisant que ce qu'il vous faut de théorie pour aborder joyeusement la pratique sans risque de faire de grosses bêtises. Vous apprendrez à identifier les composants et leur rôle (résistances, condensateurs, bobines, diodes, transistors, rela...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES An epidemiological perspective of substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-06

    Sep 6, 2002 ... advertising linking alcohol with the glamour of sport. This inculcates values that ... of substance use is a useful preventive strategy, hence the importance of ... substance use and associated factors (including age, gender,.

  18. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  19. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z # Search Form Controls Search The CDC submit Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Note: Javascript ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) , based ...

  1. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  2. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  3. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF DOPING SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN, A. Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    Athletes and non athletes weighlifters have tried to gain an unfairadvantage through the use doping substances since ancient times. Dopingsubstances although enhance sports performance, represent a risk to the healthof individuals and violate the sprit of competition. The use of prohibitedperformance enhancing drugs (PED’s) or methods to improve results incompetitive sports is referred as doping. Among the PED’s used areandrogenic-anabolic steroids (AASs), diuretics and masking agents, narkot...

  5. The administration of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, P.J.; Godfrey, B.E.; O'Brien, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief history is given of the evolution of a system to approve the licensing of doctors and dentists to use radioactive medicinal products in man. Currently, the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) is appointed by UK Health Ministers to advise them on the granting, renewal, suspension, revocation and variation of certificates. The type of information requested on the application form for a certificate is outlined. (UK)

  6. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  7. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  9. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  10. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, C.W.; Quirion, R.; Jensen, R.T.; Moody, T.W.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Chase, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125 I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  11. Method for determining immunochemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'connor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Drawing a method for detecting and measuring a predetermined specifically-bindable immunochemical substance in a liquid sample in a cuvette, comprising the steps of: (A) providing, in an immunoassay technique for the liquid sample in said cuvette, a component comprising a suspension of particles which may be agglutinated or insolubilized in relationship to the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance in the sample; and (B) determining the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance by measuring the electromagnetic radiation transmission properties of the sample using a calibrated radiation-measuring apparatus, said apparatus comprising: (1) a suitable electromagnetic radiation source capable of providing radiation at wavelengths equal to or less than the mean diameter of said particles; (2) means for concentrating and collimating radiation from the electromagnetic radiation source to form a beam; (3) means for filtering the beam to (I) eliminate radiation having wavelengths greater than the means diameter of the particles and (II) transmit radiation, which radiation has a range, whereby the upper wavelength is equal to or below the mean diameter of the particles, and the range is of at least about 100nm; (4) means for (I) positioning a sample-containing cuvette and for (II) allowing the filtered beam incident on the cuvette to be transmitted through the cuvette and sample, and for (III) receiving a portion of the filtered beam transmitted through the sample at two or more predetermined angles with respect to the beam; and (5) means for detecting and measuring the portion of the beam transmitted at a predetermined angle

  12. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Artavia, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author) [es

  13. National substance use patterns on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Wen Meng

    Full Text Available We examined openly shared substance-related tweets to estimate prevalent sentiment around substance use and identify popular substance use activities. Additionally, we investigated associations between substance-related tweets and business characteristics and demographics at the zip code level.A total of 79,848,992 tweets were collected from 48 states in the continental United States from April 2015-March 2016 through the Twitter API, of which 688,757 were identified as being related to substance use. We implemented a machine learning algorithm (maximum entropy text classifier to estimate sentiment score for each tweet. Zip code level summaries of substance use tweets were created and merged with the 2013 Zip Code Business Patterns and 2010 US Census Data.Quality control analyses with a random subset of tweets yielded excellent agreement rates between computer generated and manually generated labels: 97%, 88%, 86%, 75% for underage engagement in substance use, alcohol, drug, and smoking tweets, respectively. Overall, 34.1% of all substance-related tweets were classified as happy. Alcohol was the most frequently tweeted substance, followed by marijuana. Regression results suggested more convenience stores in a zip code were associated with higher percentages of tweets about alcohol. Larger zip code population size and higher percentages of African Americans and Hispanics were associated with fewer tweets about substance use and underage engagement. Zip code economic disadvantage was associated with fewer alcohol tweets but more drug tweets.The patterns in substance use mentions on Twitter differ by zip code economic and demographic characteristics. Online discussions have great potential to glorify and normalize risky behaviors. Health promotion and underage substance prevention efforts may include interactive social media campaigns to counter the social modeling of risky behaviors.

  14. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-05-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  15. Humic Substances in waters for supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo Valero, Miller; Cruz Torres, Luis Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    The humic substances make part of the degradation products of the organic matter of the soil and they are incorporate to the superficial waters for the action of laundry that they carry out by the superficial waters. These substances have been recognized as precursors in the formation of the disinfections sub-products, with free chlorine in treatment of drinkable water plants. The disinfections sub-product and the compound organic halogens, they have been classified potentially in human as cancerigenic substances, and therefore the interest in knowing more about the precursors substances, mechanisms of formation of disinfections sub-products, national situation and methods to diminish their formation

  16. Refractory organic substances in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frimmel, F. H

    2002-01-01

    ... and its Quality Control in Fractions of Refractory Organic Substances and the Corresponding Original Water Samples 39 Introduction 39 Description of Analytical Methods 41 Sample Treatment 41 Fl...

  17. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, G

    1988-07-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  18. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  19. Organic substances of bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, V A; Pronina, M V

    1944-01-01

    Samples of Gdov (Estonia) and Volga (Russia) oil shales were oxidized by alkaline permanganate to study the distribution of carbon and the composition of the resulting oxidation products. Gdov shale was rather stable to oxidation and, after 42 hours 61.2 percent of the organic material remained unoxidized. Five hundred hours were required for complete oxidation, and the oxidation products consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, and succinic acids. The oxidation products from Volga shale consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, succinic, adipic, phthalic, benzenetricarboxylic, benzenetetracarboxylic, and benzenepentacarboxylic acids. The results indicated that Gdov shale is free of humic substances and is of sapropelic origin, while Volga shale is of sapropelic-humic origin.

  20. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Peer Substance Use and Homelessness Predicting Substance Abuse from Adolescence Through Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Toro, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were homeless at thebaseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age rang...

  2. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  3. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  4. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  5. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  6. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average age of first use was 12.6 ± 5.9 years. The prevalence of lifetime and current use of any substance was 88.0% and 64.3% respectively. Prior arrest, being sexually active and family drug use significantly (p<0.05) predicted lifetime use of any substance while being raised in a monogamous family was protective.

  7. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE AND CONTENT HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš SIROTIAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of thermal degradation of humic substances in soil samples exposed to increased temperature. To determine the basic properties of humic substances, humic and fulvic acids are used conventional fractionation chemical laboratory methods. To determine changes in the chemical structure, the method of use of FT-IR ATR spectroscopy technique.

  8. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  9. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  10. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  11. Perception of Nigerian healthcare professionals about substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Excess workload/stress of work was perceived as the most common reason for abusing drugs. Overall, substance abuse was perceived as a mental health problem. However, those that abuse substances more readily perceived it as a habit problem rather than a mental health challenge. Moreover, there was lower ...

  12. Physical harm due to chronic substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive

  13. Substance abuse: medical and slang terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith

    2005-03-01

    Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.

  14. Flask for highly radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The flask for highly radioactive substances described in this invention comprises a thick steel cylinder with leak proof closures at both ends and made up of several coaxial rings in rolled sheet steel, fitted into each other and welded to each other along their edges. The inner ring is preferably in sheet steel with a lining on its internal side, for instance a stainless steel lining. Likewise the outer ring is preferably in sheet steel with a covering on its outer side. The cylindrical body of the flask is welded by its lower end to a forged steel bottom and by its upper end to a forged steel ring. The bottom can also be made with several partitions. This forged steel ring has an inside peripheral shoulder and the upper end of the flask is closed in a leak proof manner by an initial forged steel plus resting on this shoulder and bolted to it and by a second plug bolted to the free end of this ring [fr

  15. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  16. Substance use and motivation: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcha, Rachael A; Polcin, Douglas L; Bond, Jason C; Lapp, William M; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    Motivation to change substance use behavior is an important component of the recovery process that has usually been studied at entry into treatment. Less studied, but equally important, is the measurement of motivation over time and the role motivation plays in subsequent substance use. The present study sought to examine longitudinal motivation toward sobriety among residents of sober living houses. Sober living residents (n = 167) were followed at 6-month intervals over an 18-month period and assessed for motivation and substance use outcomes at each study interview. Motivation was measured using the costs and benefits subscales of the Alcohol and Drug Consequences Questionnaire (ADCQ) and substance use outcomes included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol scale, ASI drug scale, and peak density of substance use (number of days of most use in a month). Participants reported higher benefits than costs of sobriety or cutting down substance use at every study time point. Using lagged generalized estimating equation models, the ADCQ costs predicted increased severity for alcohol, drugs, and peak density, whereas the benefits subscale predicted decreased drug and peak density. Longitudinal measurement of motivation can be a useful clinical tool to understand later substance use problems. Given the mixed findings from prior studies on the effects of baseline motivation, a shift toward examining longitudinal measures of motivation at proximal and temporal intervals is indicated.

  17. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  18. [Adolescent substance use and family problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbergier, André; Cardoso, Luciana Roberta Donola; Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes do

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs) and family problems among 965 adolescents from 50 public schools in two cities in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2007. The Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI) was used for data collection. Use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs was associated with a negative assessment of the family relationship, lack of monitoring/support, and psychoactive substance use by family members (p illicit drugs had more family problems than those who did not consume any substance (p illicit drugs (p illicit drug use.

  19. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  20. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  1. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data...... is derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems...

  2. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

  4. The structure of magnetic materials; La structure des substances magnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villain, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N. Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The paper deals with the prediction of the structure of magnetic materials below the critical point. The molecular field approximation is used: exchange interactions with unlimited range are assumed; the magnetic ions are supposed to form a Bravais lattice. The critical temperature T{sub c} is first calculated (section 1) without assuming any decomposition of the crystal into sublattices, and the magnetic structure at T{sub c} is given. It is next shown (section 2) that the essential features of this structure persist below T{sub c}, and the various possible cases are considered. It is possible that no decomposition into sublattices takes place, i.e. the magnetic structure and the nuclear structure have incommensurable periods. A detailed treatment is then given for the body-centered quadratic lattice (section 3) with interaction between first, second and third neighbours. Reprint of a paper published in Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 3/4, p. 303-309, 1959 [French] Ce travail a pour objet la prevision systematique de la structure des substances magnetiques au-dessous du point de transition et l'etude des differents cas qui peuvent se presenter lorsque les ions magnetiques forment un reseau de Bravais. On se place dans une approximation de champ moleculaire, mais on ne fait aucune restriction concernant la portee des interactions d'echange. Apres avoir determine (Section 1) la temperature critique et la structure magnetique a cette temperature sans supposer a priori l'existence d'une decomposition en sous-reseaux, on montre (Section 2) que cette structure reste stable en dessous de la temperature critique, et on etudie les divers cas possibles. Il peut arriver en particulier que la structure magnetique ait une periode incommensurable avec celle du reseau cristallin. L'example du reseau quadratique centre avec couplage entre premiers, seconds et troisiemes voisins (Section 3) fournit une bonne illustration de cette etude. Reproduction d'un article publie

  5. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    characteristics, factors influencing psychoactive substance use, impact on health status, motor cycle ... There is need for public awareness campaigns on road safety education and health .... sense of judgement, vision, emotional stability.

  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Locators Find treatment facilities and programs in the United States or U.S. Territories for mental and substance use ... Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and ... and Local Government Partnerships Suicide Prevention Trauma and ...

  7. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, B.T. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.; Homberg, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human)

  8. Summary reports on some ecotoxicologically hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on industrial waste water discharge into a public sewage system initiated a study in which the available knowlege on ecologically hazardous materials was compiled. The report contains information on polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitride, pentachlorophenol, and further toxic substances. (UT) [de

  9. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  10. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  11. Substance Use and Abuse in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa: Insights from Brain and. Behavioural ... and neuro-psychology, and human genetics to economics and mathematics. As such, it represents an active cohort of researchers and practitioners working in the area of substance use and abuse.

  12. Spiced: The Global Marketing of Psychoactive Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, John

    2016-01-01

    Graham hopes to expose marketing’s role in sustaining our addiction to sugar, tobacco, and other psychoactive substances and to then inspire a discussion of strategies for reining in that marketing. 

  13. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended.

  14. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender

  15. Apparatus for storing and processing fissionable substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, B.G.; Bogatyrev, V.K.; Vladykov, G.M.; Sviridenko, V.Y.

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for storing and processing fissionable substances in which there is provided a protective shield in the form of a layer of neutron absorbing material located in direct proximity to a vessel with a fissionable substance contained therein. The layer of neutron retarding material according to the present invention has alternating projections and depressions facing the layer of neutron-absorbing material. (author)

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  17. A Review of Plant Growth Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Agboola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth substances are compounds, either natural or synthetic that modifies or controls through physiological action, the growth and maturation of plants. If the compound is produced within the plant, it is called a plant hormone or phytohormone. In general, it is accepted that there are five major classes of plant hormones. They are Auxins (IAA, Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid. However, there are still many plant growth substances that cannot be grouped under these classes, though they also perform similar functions, inhibiting or promoting plant growth. These substances include Brassinosteroids (Brassins, Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Fusicoccin, Batasins, Strigolactones, Growth stimulants (e.g. Hymexazol and Pyripropanol, Defoliants (e.g. Calcium Cyanamide, Dimethipin. Researchers are still working on the biosynthetic pathways of some of these substances. Plant growth substances are very useful in agriculture in both low and high concentrations. They affect seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves and fruits, leaf formation, stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. Some synthetic regulators are also used as herbicides and pesticides. Therefore, attention should be paid to the production and synthesis of these substances so that they affect plants in a way that would favour yield.

  18. The natural history of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Hasin, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    Illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco use disorders contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Knowledge about the major elements of the natural history of substance use disorders (incidence, remission, persistence, and relapse) is crucial to a broader understanding of the course and outcomes of substance use disorders. Prospective cohort studies in nonclinical samples indicate that externalizing psychopathology in earlier life, including early disordered substance use, delinquency, and personality disorders, are related to substance use disorders later in life and chronic course. Externalizing psychopathology may be initiated by early adverse experiences, for example, childhood maltreatment and stressful life events. After controlling for confounders, 'age at first use' as a causal factor for alcohol use disorder later in life and the 'drug substitution' hypothesis are not supported in general population data. Future research should focus on elaborating the causal framework that leads to the development and persistence of severe substance use disorders, with an emphasis on identifying modifiable factors for intervention by policy makers or health professionals. More research is needed on the natural history of substance use disorders in low-income and middle-income countries.

  19. Restauración ecológica y paisajística del Arroyo de los Quiñones. San Sebastián de los Reyes, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peinado Albendea, Pedro

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the Arroyo (stream de los Quiñones (San Sebastián de los Reyes poses a problem whose solution consists in neutralizing the principal sources of its degradation. These sources are: waste water discharges, an urban solid waste dump, situated in the very bed of the stream, and the intensive aggregate extraction which made the stream itself disappear at various points. This article also deals with the recuperation of the surrounding wood in a natural and landscape-friendly way, which would facilitate the access and the walk along the sides of the stream. This would lead to the clearing of other areas of a high ecological value within this municipality.

    La restauración del Arroyo de los Quiñones (San Sebastián de los Reyes, Madrid plantea como problema resolver sus principales fuentes de degradación. Estas son los vertidos de aguas residuales, un vertedero de residuos sólidos urbanos ubicado en el cauce, y la intensiva extracción de áridos que ha llegado a hacer desaparecer el arroyo en diversas zonas. Posteriormente se plantea la recuperación del bosque ripario de una forma lo más natural paisajísticamente, facilitando el acceso y el paseo para des congestionar otras zonas de alto valor ecológico del término municipal.

  20. Various possible ways to express the toxicity of radioactive substances in relation with the involved practical problems; Diverses expressions possibles de la toxicite des substances radioactives en fonction des problemes pratiques poses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Vacca, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    proprietes radioactives. On peut donc etablir deux classifications toxicologiques, en fonction l'une du poids du radioelement, l'autre de son activite. Le plus frequemment les quantites maxima admissibles (QMA) dans l'organisme et les concentrations maxima admissibles (CMA) dans l'air et dans l'eau sont exprimees en microcuries par millilitre ({mu}c/ml), plus rarement en microgrammes par millilitre ({mu}g/ml). L'examen comparatif de ces tableaux de QMA et CMA fait apparaitre des differences importantes dans le classement des radioelements par ordre decroissant de toxicite. C'est ainsi que le plutonium et le radium qui se trouvent parmi les produits les plus toxiques lorsque l'activite est envisagee sont loin d'etre en tete des radioelements dangereux lorsque le poids est considere. Par contre, l'iode-131 et le manganese-56, par exemple, apparaissent parmi les corps les plus dangereux dans cette derniere eventualite. Cette double constatation correspond a deux aspects des problemes poses par la toxicite des radioelements. Si la classification par activite est presque exclusivement utilisee, cela tient a ce que les mesures toxicologiques sont basees sur les proprietes radioactives des radioelements. Elles seules permettent, en general, de detecter des traces aussi faibles de substances. Par contre, la toxicite liee a la contamination interne depend en premier lieu du metabolisme des radioelements, lequel est exclusivement fonction de leurs proprietes physico-chimiques. C'est donc la classification ponderale qui est la plus representative des dangers courus du fait d'inhalation ou d'ingestion de substances radioactives. Il en resulte que la toxicite relative des radioelements ne peut etre seulement basee sur la classification en fonction de l'activite et que la repartition des substances radioactives dans les differentes categories habituelles (tres dangereuses, moyennement dangereuses, faiblement dangereuses) devrait etre remaniee. (auteur)

  1. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data

  2. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in

  3. 21 CFR 1307.13 - Incidental manufacture of controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., manufactures a controlled substance as a result of the manufacture of a controlled substance or basic class of controlled substance for which he is registered and has been issued an individual manufacturing quota pursuant to part 1303 of this chapter (if such substance or class is listed in Schedule I or II) shall be...

  4. CHALLENGES IN IDENTIFYING THE NEW-GENERATION PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    SALKIM IŞLEK, Dilek; CENGIZ, Salih; RAYIMOĞLU, Gülten; ÇAVUŞ, Fatma; YÜKSELOĞLU, Emel Hülya

    2018-01-01

    A psychoactivesubstance is a substance that affects the central nervous system, alters brainfunctions, and leads to changes in perception, mood and behavior.Apart fromwell-known psychoactive substances, there are some substances callednew-generation psychoactive substances that have risen in recent years. Suchsubstances may be divided into 4 categories: Synthetic cannabinoids, cathinonederivatives, phenylethylamine derivatives, and others including tryptamines,piperazines, hallucinogenic mush...

  5. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  6. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  7. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  8. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rhee, D.S.; Wimmer, H.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.; Decambox, P.; Moulin, C.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Marquardt, C.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Dierckx, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.

    1992-09-01

    The aim of the present research programme is to study the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances in natural aquifer systems and hence to quantify the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration. Aquatic humic substances commonly found in all groundwaters in different concentrations have a strong tendency towards complexation with actinide ions. This is one of the major geochemical reactions but hitherto least quantified. Therefore, the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration is poorly understood. In the present research programme the complexation of actinide ions with humic substances will be described thermodynamically. This description will be based on a model being as simple as possible to allow an easy introduction of the resulting constants into geochemical modelling of the actinide migration. (orig.)

  9. Le comte qui était comtesse : un cas de gynandrie au tribunal de Vienne (1890 The Count who was a Countess: a Case of Gynandry in the Court of Vienna (1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pognant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Il s’agit d’une des premières expertises auprès des tribunaux de la Cour impériale conduite par Krafft-Ebing alors qu’il venait d’être nommé professeur de psychiatrie à Vienne. Il eut à mener cette expertise dans une affaire de mœurs à propos d’une jeune comtesse hongroise qui, selon lui, souffrait de gynandrie, ce qui l’aurait conduite à convoler en noces illégitimes avec une jeune fille en escroquant au passage son « beau-père ». Il sera notamment intéressant de voir comment Krafft-Ebing a orienté son expertise pour la faire coïncider avec la théorie qu’il avait élaborée à propos des psychopathies sexuelles (et notamment les degrés de l’homosexualité et comment il obtint l’acquittement de la jeune femme qui, d’ailleurs, passa le reste de sa vie dans la peau (et le pantalon d’un homme en se faisant appeler M. le Comte…This article is about one of the first expert testimonies presented to the tribunals of the imperial Court, conducted by Krafft-Ebing when he had just been named professor of psychiatry at Vienna. He was called in on a case involving a young Hungarian countess – in his view, suffering from gynandrism – charged with illegitimate marriage to a young woman and knowingly misrepresenting herself to her “father-in-law” in the process.  Of particular interest is the way Krafft-Ebing oriented his testimony, aligning it with the theory he had previously elaborated regarding sexual psychopathies (notably degrees of homosexuality. Of interest, too, is his role in the acquittal of the countess, who spent the rest of her life as a man (in body and dress, identifying himself as Monsieur le Comte…

  10. Screening for prenatal substance use: development of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonkers, Kimberly A; Gotman, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace; Forray, Ariadna; Howell, Heather B; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2010-10-01

    To report on the development of a questionnaire to screen for hazardous substance use in pregnant women and to compare the performance of the questionnaire with other drug and alcohol measures. Pregnant women were administered a modified TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-openers, Amnesia, K[C] Cut Down) questionnaire, the 4Ps Plus questionnaire, items from the Addiction Severity Index, and two questions about domestic violence (N=2,684). The sample was divided into "training" (n=1,610) and "validation" (n=1,074) subsamples. We applied recursive partitioning class analysis to the responses from individuals in the training subsample that resulted in a three-item Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale. We examined sensitivity, specificity, and the fit of logistic regression models in the validation subsample to compare the performance of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale with the modified TWEAK and various scoring algorithms of the 4Ps. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale is comprised of three informative questions that can be scored for high- or low-risk populations. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale algorithm for low-risk populations was mostly highly predictive of substance use in the validation subsample (Akaike's Information Criterion=579.75, Nagelkerke R=0.27) with high sensitivity (91%) and adequate specificity (67%). The high-risk algorithm had lower sensitivity (57%) but higher specificity (88%). The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale is simple and flexible with good sensitivity and specificity. The Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale can potentially detect a range of substances that may be abused. Clinicians need to further assess women with a positive screen to identify those who require treatment for alcohol or illicit substance use in pregnancy. III.

  11. Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest

  12. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    mothers continued to use substances throughout their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age (Chi-Square = 15.1(2), P alcohol and those with no substance exposure. The same children were more...... pregnancy, as well as their background, and to examine the effect substance use has on gestational age, birth weight, and the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth. A sample of 161 pregnant women and their 163 newborn children were included. The results indicate that the children whose...... vulnerable to the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth (Chi-Square = 51.7(2), P alcohol in utero were at a significant risk of being born with low birth weight (Chi-Square = 8.8(2), P

  13. Prosocial coping and substance use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechman, E A; Lowell, E S; Garrett, J

    1999-01-01

    In structured interviews of pregnant inner-city residents, 38 substance users reported more current liking of drugs and polysubstance use, disengagement coping, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and antisocial behavior than did 45 nonusers. During videotaped interviews, trained observers coded less warmth and less prosocial information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure, question asking) among users. Factor analysis of measures of coping and its concomitants yielded a three-factor (prosocial, antisocial, asocial) solution, with asocial and antisocial coping predominating among substance users. These results suggest that coping has emotional, social, and cognitive elements. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between a substance-using lifestyle and limited prosocial information exchange.

  14. Neural network application for illicit substances identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Wallace V.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Crispim, Verginia R.; Schirru, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Thermal neutron activation analysis is based on neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analysis and has been used in wide variety of fields, for examples, for inspection of checked airline baggage and for detection of buried land mines. In all of these applications, the detected γ-ray intensities from the elements present are used to estimate their concentrations. A study about application using a trained neutral network is presented to determine the presence of illicit substances, such as explosives and drugs, carried out in the luggages. The illicit substances emit characteristic detected γ-ray which are the fingerprint of each isotope. The fingerprint data-base of the gamma-ray spectrum of substances is obtained via Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code, MCNP, version 4B. It was possible to train the neural network to determine the presence of explosives and narcotics even hidden by several materials. (author)

  15. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Personality Traits of Substance Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotirmoy Roy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug taking behavior and drug dependence is a multi-factorial disorder. Personality is a very important determining factor of drug dependence. Objectives: To find out the possible relationship between personality traits and substance use disorders. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional and case-control study conducted in the department of Psychiatry of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and Central Drug Addiction Treatment Center, Dhaka for a period of one year (January 2005 to December 2005. From five hundred respondents, 250 had the history of substance use disorders selected as case, and equal number were age, sex, habitat and economic background matched controls were taken. Personality traits of both cases and control were measured by applying Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: Mean ± SD psychoticism (8.42±3 vs 4.33±1.8, Neuroticism (11.89±2.3 vs 9.83±2 were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cases than controls. It was found that psychoticism was 2.3 times and neurticism was 1.7 times higher in substance users than that of controls. There were no significant differences of mean distribution of extroversion and lie scales among the cases & controls. This study also revealed that, there was no significant relationship between personality traits and different variables related to substance use except that psychoticism was significantly higher in those substance users who had have positive history of troubles with law than those having no history of trouble with law (8.82±3.2 & 7.95±2.7 respectively. Conclusion: Personality traits may have an influence on persons with substance use disorder which detoriates quality of life. Key words: Drug dependence; Personality; Psychoticism; Neuroticism; Extraversion; Lie scale. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7056BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 76-81

  17. Global issues in volatile substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Gust, Steven W; MacLean, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of Substance Use & Misuse addresses the public health issue of volatile substance misuse (VSM), the inhalation of gases or vapors for psychoactive effects, assessing the similarities and differences in the products misused, patterns, prevalence, etiologies, and impacts of VSM by examining it through sociocultural epidemiology, neuroscience, and interventions research. The Canadian, US, and Australian guest editors contend that, when compared with other drugs used at a similar prevalence, VSM has attracted relatively little research effort. The authors and editors call for further research to develop evidence-based policies and comprehensive interventions that respect culture and context-specific knowledge.

  18. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  19. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuyun; Zhang Yongbao

    2005-01-01

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  20. Nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadasan, K.; Mukundan, M.K.; Antony, P.D.; Viswanathan Nair, P.G.; Perigreen, P.A.; Joseph, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The International Symposium on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, was held during 16-17 September 1993 by the Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) to review the progress of research in this area in India and elsewhere. The papers presented indicate that scientific productivity in this field is substantial and that some of the bioactive materials isolated from aquatic organisms have potential application in human health, nutrition and therapy. The symposium focussed attention on toxicants, nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms in general, and also on pollution of aquatic systems due to thermal effluents. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  1. Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers

    OpenAIRE

    Dündaröz, Ruşen; Ceylan, Süleyman; Denli, Metin; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Balım, Elvan; Özışık, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Eylül; 6(3) Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers Ruşen Dündaröz, Süleyman Ceylan, Metin Denli, Cengiz Han Açıkel, Elvan Balım, Tahir Özışık Abstract Glue sniffing is a frequent problem among teenagers. Various chemical substances, especially toluene and benzene, contained in the glues kave been reported to be hematotoxic. The hematological parameters of 44 healthy teenagers ~...

  2. Social dimensions of adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, I; Shepherd, J P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore in detail the relationship between various social aspects of young people's lives and substance use and differences in the degree of influence exerted by the different social factors as a function of age. Design, setting, participants. The study was a survey of pupils aged 11-16 in a stratified sample of five English schools. Data from 4516 participants were obtained in relation to their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and their contact with the police, perceived academic achievements and future expectations, religious beliefs, family structure, the importance of family versus peer opinions and suspension from school. Cumulative, age-specific preferences of substance misuse were compared. Logistic regression was used to rank the various risk factors. Substantial differences were found between substance users and non-users and the various risk factors being examined. For example, of those who had only been in trouble with the police, 18.8% used illegal drugs compared with 1.6% of those who had not had a police contact and who had no other risk factors. Many of these relationships were age-sensitive. For instance, the negative relationship between belief in God and illicit drug use became stronger as age increased (non-believers: y = 8.1886x - 9.16 R(2) = 0.9484; believers: y = 5.1514x - 8.08 R(2) = 0.9247). These results suggest that, within this sample of English adolescents, there was a strong relationship between substance use and the social factors examined. Although there were differences depending upon whether cigarette, alcohol or illicit drug use was being modelled, logistic regression indicated that the social factors could be ranked in the following order of importance: concurrent use of the second and third substances, having been in trouble with the police, perceived poor academic performance and low future academic expectations, a lack of religious belief, coming from a non-intact family, favouring peer over

  3. Determination of substances by radiothermometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.

    1976-01-01

    For determination, nitrogen is bubbled through a solution containing radioactive Kr, Xe, Rn or another aerogen in addition to the substance determined. A continuous or intermittent addition of the titrating solution results in the release of reaction heat, thus increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture, which releases a radioactive gas. Upon reaching the equivalence point, the cold titrating reagent cools the reaction mixture, thus reducing the radioactive substance release. The equivalence point lies at the point of intersection of the extended linear parts of the curve of the dependence of released radioactivity on the volume of the titrating solution added. (M.K.)

  4. Quels types de fraudes rencontrent les institutions financières qui travaillent avec des lettres de crédits, comment sont-elles traitées et quelles pourraient être les solutions pour les éliminer ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Pinheiro, Fabio; Fragnière, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Le but de ce travail est d’identifier les principaux problèmes qu’il existe dans le marché des Crédits documentaires et de trouver les améliorations qui peuvent être apportées sur le plan opérationnel, pour les banques, et sur les aspects légaux en général. Une des principales difficultés empêchant la Lettre de crédit d’être un moyen de paiement davantage sûr est la détection de faux documents, surtout pour les banques car elles sont responsables de les contrôler. De plus, certains clients ne...

  5. Femme, genre et politique en Grèce archaïque et classique. Autour d’Artémise d’Halicarnasse, l’amazone qui a existé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Sébillotte Cuchet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Le dossier regroupe divers travaux rédigés sur la thématique des rapports individu/cité déclinée sur l’axe de l’intégration dans une filiation politique naturalisante (notion de patris et dans une catégorie de sexe (homme/femme. Le manuscrit sur Artémise est un travail d’histoire sociale du culturel dans une démarche critique de genre. Hérodote raconte l’histoire de cette reine d’Halicarnasse en Carie qui, à la tête d’une flottille, tient tête aux Athéniens lors de la bataille de Salamine (...

  6. Territorialisation à distance par caméra vidéo : Perception de la vidéosurveillance au quartier des Pâquis à Genève

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Klauser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon two public opinion surveys conducted in Geneva in 2015 and 2016, the paper explores how video surveillance was lived and perceived by the residents of the monitored Pâquis area, as well as by the population at large. This study shows that the delegation of control to systems and individuals that are both spatially and socially detached from the monitored areas also results in a kind of `mental distance' that characterizes the relation between the monitored individuals and the system: People quickly forget about the cameras and withdraw from any conscious attempt to imagine what might be going on behind their back. The system thus gradually loses its relevance in people's everyday life. This, in turn, limits the symbolic power of the cameras to enduringly revitalize, and thus to properly re-territorialize, the monitored areas.

  7. Quelques remarques sur le projet d’une Histoire sociale des langues de France et les problèmes qui se sont posés lors de son élaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremnitz Georg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions de la genèse du projet – les voies nouvelles que la liste Cerquiglini a ouvertes pour la sociolinguistique – et le collectif de chercheurs qui s’en occupe. Les motivations du collectif : rééquilibrer les relations entre production et réception linguistiques, donc un problème de la pratique de la recherche depuis la linguistique et comparative ; dénationaliser les histoires de la communication, donc rediscuter les idéologies implicites de la recherche ; repenser les différences entre histoire de la langue et grammaire historique. Les choix que le collectif a effectués : il a fallu privilégier les périodes moderne et contemporaine sans négliger les antécédents. Tout en partant de la liste Cerquiglini il a fallu la dépasser à certains points. Il était surtout important d’intégrer dans cette présentation également des langues qui ne figurent pas dans la liste tout en ayant joué un rôle considérable dans le passé, parfois en ce moment. Le but de l’effort est une présentation générale de l’histoire de la communication en France. Ceci permet également de prévoir certaines évolutions de la communication, en France comme ailleurs.

  8. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey L. Ream

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  9. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023

  10. Australian athletes' knowledge of the WADA Prohibited Substances List and performance enhancing substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Rhonda; Grassmayr, Matthew; Macniven, Rona; Grunseit, Anne; Halaki, Mark; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-03-15

    This study investigated athlete knowledge of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited Substances List and the effects of four well-known performance enhancing substances (PES). A sample of 1925 elite and sub-elite athletes (mean age 20.6 years) completed a questionnaire about the banned status of 30 substances/methods and their knowledge of the effects of amphetamines, anabolic steroids, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Athletes showed limited understanding of the WADA Prohibited Substances List, scoring 32.2% correct, 36.3% incorrect, and 31.4% indicated they did not know the status of 30 substances. Responses of >50% correct were given for only eight substances/method: anabolic steroids, amphetamines, blood doping, erythropoietin, caffeine, vitamins/minerals, protein powders and iron. Athletes demonstrated moderate knowledge of the desired effects of the four PES (49% correct), but poor knowledge of their adverse effects (29% correct). Age, sex, ethnicity, professional/amateur status, and current competition level were significant predictors of the number of correct responses (r 2  = 0.16, p wide range of substances and PES. Better targeted drug education towards younger and non-professional athletes and evaluation of current anti-doping programs are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methane. [biosynthesis from manure or analogous substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducellier, G L.R.; Isman, M A

    1949-04-19

    CH/sub 4/ is produced by the fermentation of manure or analogous substances in a vat having a dome covering the vat, the lower edge of the dome being immersed in a liquid seal, and the dome being arranged to rise vertically in order to hold the CH/sub 4/ produced.

  12. [Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B

    2005-10-01

    Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.

  13. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced by Bacillus subtilis NB-6. (air flora isolate) ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. .... products contaminated with animal MRSA is very plausible ...

  14. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG KENYAN STREET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 50 (36 male and 14 female) street children currently in a remand home at Kabete in Nairobi, Kenya, were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire in order to estimate prevalence rates for use of selected substances. The lifetime prevalence rates of the drugs most commonly used were volatile ...

  15. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  16. Maternal Employment and Early Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…

  17. Hierarchy of controls applied to dangerous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Too often, measures to control workers’ exposure to dangerous substances are taken on an ‘ad-hoc’ basis. Existing processes, procedures and routines are taken for granted, and ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions are installed. In many cases, one relies on the use of personal protective equipment. This may lead

  18. Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the prevalence of substance abuse among female secondary school students in Anambra State. Design: This is a cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on smoking, use of sedatives and alcohol drinking habits from 725 ...

  19. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial...

  20. substances by Bacillus thuringiensis BAR 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR CHARLES O.NWUCHE;Prof. A. R. Popoola

    substances were achieved when the basal medium (3 g/L beef extract, 5g/L peptone and .... room temperature with constant agitation at 160 ... the culture medium was tested by a modification ... to 100oC for 2 min for enzyme inactivation.

  1. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, B.T. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.; Homberg, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical st...

  2. Apparatus for carbonizing bituminous substances, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguin, A G

    1921-06-24

    A process is disclosed of carbonizing bituminous substances such as coal, or shale, at a low temperature, the distinguishing feature being that during the gas-distillation period, the material is subjected to centrifugal action in a rotary drum or retort is distributed over the whole circumference of the drum and is at the same time compressed.

  3. Treatment of substance use disorders in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Melanie E; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Catalano, Lauren T

    2017-07-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials. There are few psychopharmacology outcomes studies. Most have examined use of antipsychotic medications to treat SUDs in schizophrenia. Several trials have yielded positive findings for naltrexone in reducing drinking compared to placebo in this population. Motivational and cognitive-behavioral interventions are associated with decreased substance use in several trials. Treatment for SUDs is feasible within a range of settings and acceptable to many individuals with schizophrenia. All individuals with schizophrenia should be offered brief or more extended psychosocial interventions that incorporate discussion of personal reasons to change and training in cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce use, cope with cravings and stress, and avoid relapse. Future research must include larger samples, longitudinal designs, and similar outcome measures across studies.

  4. Substance P in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallasch, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Using a combined method of reversed-phase, high-pressure liquid chromatography and RIA, the author was able to isolate the neuropephide substance P from human cerebrospinal fluid and to make a quantitative measurement. The rp-HPLC-RIA method was found to be superior to other methods. (MBC) [de

  5. Interaction of acetamiprid with extracellular polymeric substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important components of activated sludge and it plays an important role in removing pollutants. The interaction between EPS and organic pollutants is still little known. In the present study, the interaction of soluble/bound EPS with acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was ...

  6. Public perceptions of behavioral and substance addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold

    2017-02-01

    Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  8. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  9. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the

  10. [Profile of psychoactive substances consumption in workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bœuf-Cazou, Olivia; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Niezborala, Michel; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify profiles of psychoactive substances consumers among workers according to their professional characteristics. In 2006, 2213 workers participated in "Mode de Vie et Travail" (Drugs and Work) cross-sectional survey. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire concerning general and professional characteristics and the consumption of psychoactive substances (psychoactive drugs, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) during the professional medical visit. We identified consumer profiles with a hierarchical ascendant classification as statistical method. We underlined five profiles associated with psychoactive substance consumption: (1) alcohol consumers in the workplace were sales engineers satisfied with their employment, (2) alcohol consumers after their work were not satisfied with their lives, (3) cannabis consumers were men professionally satisfied but suffering from job insecurity, (4) smokers were workers with professional responsibilities under time pressure, and finally (5) poly-consumers had strong professional constraints. This study guides occupational physicians on psychoactive substances consumption among a worker population. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. A Study on Substance Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçim, Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine options to increase the supportive power of parents, teachers, school administrators, and counselors who directly interact with children and adolescents and have a fundamental responsibility to protect them from the risks of substance abuse and evaluate the effectiveness of associated training programs. The study design…

  12. An action plan for radioactive substances regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document sets out an action plan for the Agency's Radioactive Substances Regulation function. Our vision is to secure continuous improvement in the protection of the public and the environment from the harmful effects of radioactive substances. Radioactive Substances Regulation will work with others to realise this vision and contribute to the Agency's role in achieving sustainable development. We will also work to ensure that the Agency achieves its objectives in an efficient, consistent and integrated way. The main elements of our Action Plan are as follows: establishing indicators of sustainability and the means and methods of monitoring them; establishing performance indicators and a programme of targets and objectives to be achieved; establishing a database of all premises subject to RSA93 and to use it for work planning, resource targeting, and improvement to radioactive waste management; provision of systems of procedures and technical guidance to ensure nationally consistent and cost- effective regulation; establishing systems to audit the implementation of the procedures and guidance; ensuring quality of regulation by defining technical competencies of inspectors and the training programmes to secure them; an R and D programme targeted on improving radioactive waste management and radioactive substances regulation; and full and effective participation in development of national policy

  13. Sociodemographic and substance use correlates of repeated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Substance abuse affects above 50 million people worldwide. Abuse of legally ... use alcohol while 57% of the male and 10.8% of the female drug users ..... the contradictions of addiction. Behav and Brain Sc. 1996; 19: 561-74.

  14. Production of chemical substances in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboev, Kh.E.; Nazarov, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has signed Convention "On prohibition of chemical weapon application"and no chemical weapon (CHW) is produced on the territory of republic. However, the potential production of CHW by individual persons or groups can be organized, using available production and obtaining chemical substances from other countries. Chemical substances, which have strong damage effect, easily, can be synthesized in chemical laboratories. These are general toxic substances, as hydrocyanic acid acid, phosgene, mustard gas, lewisite, sarin and others. The similar chemical substances of industrial significance are produced in Tajikistan: ammonia, chlorine, explosives, caustic soda, carbamide, formaldehyde and others. For industrial needs and agriculture from other countries Tajikistan is receiving the following: sodium cyanide and potassium for gold-mining; mineral acids; pesticides and others. Besides, there are different deposits in Tajikistan, reprocessing of which gives an opportunity to obtain different chemical substances. What can be obtained from chemicals produced in Tajikistan? Chlorine - from this reagent the fluoride chlorine, phosgene COCl_2 and many other compounds are easily synthesized, which are CHW components. Obtained cyanic compounds for gold mining can be used as precursor for neuroparalytic action. A big amount of metallic aluminum is produced in the republic. The Al powder for rocket fuel can be obtained from it. Obtained from other countries pesticides are potential components for CHW creation. A strong control and account of pesticides use is necessary. It is extremely important to control materials, equipment and technologies which allow countries and separate groups to create weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The most important factor is goods identification. Firstly - inspection of external view, labeling, packing specifications, license availability and etc. Strong control of checklists is necessary according

  15. [Comorbidity of substance use with mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidaki, V; Maliori, M

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reviews the international literature about dual diagnosis, meaning patients who have simultaneously mental health problems and substance use disorders and discusses epidemiology, clinical characteristics, but primarily etiopathogenesis and different treatment models and interventions. The epidemiological data coming from large-scale studies in the general population in USA, Australia and UK demonstrate the close relationship between mental health problems and substance use disorders. Also, the results from Greek research projects support this close relationship, but their research designs have significant limitations. Multiple and high risks are common in this population, like violent or suicidal behavior, self-harm, physical problems, while they appear less responsive to treatment. Subsequently, different models for etiopathogenesis of dual diagnosis have been suggested: (a) Causal relationship: secondary substance use disorder is subsequent of primary mental illness (self-medication hypothesis, supersenstivity model) or vice versa (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use trigger or contribute to development of mental illness). (b) Third factor as the cause of both mental and substance use disorders (genetic factor, neuropathology, traumatic experience, personality characteristics, multiple factors). (c) Comorbidty is due to chance. (d) Each disorder mutually exacerbates the other, regardless the cause. Here, the relationship between alcohol and depression is discussed further as example. The ideas and the research-evidence which support each of these models are presented. Also there is an overview of different treatment models: (a) Consecutive treatment: mental health treatment and substance misuse treatment are provided consecutively. (b) Parallel treatments: the patient attends programs of both mental health and substance use services simultaneously. (c) Integrated treatment: the same clinical team addresses both mental health issues and substance

  16. Is it the music? Peer substance use as a mediator of the link between music preferences and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2010-06-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations.

  17. Social Cost of Substance Abuse in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapchik, Elena; Popovich, Larisa

    2014-09-01

    To summarize results of studies that estimate the social costs of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug abuse in Russia. The purpose of these studies was to inform policymakers about the real economic burden of risky behaviors and to provide conditions for evidence-based and well-informed decision making in this area. The cost-of-illness method was applied to estimate the social cost of substance abuse. The intangible cost was not included in estimation. A prevalence-based approach was applied to estimate the tangible cost. For the estimation of direct costs, a top-down method was used. Indirect costs were estimated using two methods: the human capital and the friction cost. In 2008, the social cost of substance abuse in Russia comprised 677.2 billion rubles if the friction cost method is applied and 1965.9 billion rubles if the human capital method is used. The social cost of substance abuse is defined to the greatest extent by alcohol consumption, comprising about 45% of the economic burden. Illicit drug use comprises about 30% of the economic burden and tobacco consumption 25%. The results of economic studies demonstrated that psychoactive substances impose a considerable economic burden on society. Analysis of the substance abuse social cost pattern shows that the main losses that society bears because of these behavioral risk factors fall outside the health care system and lay in other sectors of the economy such as social care, law enforcement, and productivity losses. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  19. Ingestion of caustic substances and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Celso Martins Mamede

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Caustic substances cause tissue destruction through liquefaction or coagulation reactions and the intensity of destruction depends on the type, concentration, time of contact and amount of the substance ingested. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the complications in patients who ingested caustic substances and correlate them with the amount of caustic soda ingested. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital, a referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 239 patients who ingested caustic soda. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The amount of granulated caustic substance ingested was measured as tablespoonfuls and the following complications were analyzed: esophagitis, esophageal stenosis and progression to cancer, fistulas, perforations, stomach lesions, brain abscesses, and death. Stenosis was classified as mild, moderate or severe according to the radiological findings. RESULTS: We observed an 89.3% incidence of esophagitis; 72.6% of the cases involved progression to stenosis and 1% died during the acute phase. Stenosis was mild in 17.6% of cases, moderate in 59.3% and severe in 23%. The incidence of stenosis was 80.8% in women and 62.5% in men. The incidence of stenosis was 46.9% in the group that ingested "fragments" and 93.6% in the group that ingested one or more tablespoonfuls of caustic substances. Among subjects who ingested one or more tablespoonfuls, 32.2% developed lesions of the stomach-duodenum, whereas the ingestion of "fragments" was not sufficient to induce these lesions. There was no correlation between the intensity of lesions of the esophagus and of the stomach. Progression to cancer of the esophagus occurred in 1.8% of cases, death during the chronic phase in 1.4%, perforations in 4.6%, fistulas in 0.9%, and brain abscesses in 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The complications were related to the amount of caustic soda ingested. Small amounts caused esophagitis or stenosis and large amounts increased the risk of fistulas, perforations and

  20. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  1. Substance use and treatment of substance use disorders in a community sample of transgender adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuroghlian, Alex S; Reisner, Sari L; White, Jaclyn M; Weiss, Roger D

    2015-07-01

    Transgender people have elevated substance use prevalence compared with the U.S. general population, however no studies have comprehensively examined the relationship of psychosocial risk factors to substance use and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment among both male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. Secondary data analysis of a 2013 community-based survey of transgender adults in Massachusetts (N=452) was conducted. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were fit to examine the relationship of four risk factor domains with SUD treatment history and recent substance use: (1) demographics; (2) gender-related characteristics; (3) mental health; (4) socio-structural factors. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Ten percent of the sample reported lifetime SUD treatment. Factors associated with significant increase in odds of lifetime SUD treatment alongside recent substance use (all pdiscrimination (aOR=1.90; 95% CI=1.22-2.95), unstable housing (aOR=1.80; 95% CI=1.21-2.67), and sex work (aOR=2.48; 95% CI=1.24-4.95). Substance use and SUD treatment among transgender adults are associated with demographic, gender-related, mental health, and socio-structural risk factors. Studies are warranted that identify SUD treatment barriers, and integrate SUD treatment with psychosocial and structural interventions for a diverse spectrum of transgender adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recherche d'une eventuelle implication des substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . English Abstract. This study was conducted to determine the presence or absence of psychoactive substances in the urine of 105 patients admitted to the emergency of Abidjan Heart Institute. Indeed, these substances have been described as ...

  3. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  4. Interpersonal guilt and substance use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Geoffrey W; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one's family, and they are also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation among college students. In total, 1865 college students completed a survey evaluating substance use and interpersonal guilt. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with nonregular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than nonregular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances.

  5. QUI CONSTRUEIX EL NOSTRE IMAGINARI URBÀ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mejías Cubero

    2013-12-01

    Com a producte d’això es proposa la utilització d’un model d’anàlisi de la imatge urbana basat en variables extretes del context urbà local i des del punt de vista del vianant. Es planteja especialment una visió de la imatge a partir de com ens movem dins l’espai, de com estan construïdes visualment les seves relacions formals i les vivències que la caracteritzen.

  6. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-15

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  7. Neutrino, la petite particule qui monte

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonneau, Cécile

    2006-01-01

    IN 1956, a very discrete particle was detected for the first time. 50 years latter, the neutrino became a true star for physics. In the whole world, resarchers display detectors always more fantastic to catch it, or even use it. Full lights on seven experiments which promise to bring to light finally the most mysterious particle of modern science (8 pages)

  8. Qui est pauvre en Republique tcheque?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1051 (2005), s. 30-41 ISSN 0590-0239 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : poverty * social policy * employment policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  9. Erri de Luca: non ora, non qui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Fabris

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential theme of Erri de Luca´s first novel is the conquest of word as a mean of communication with other people and, mainly, as a mean to make memory revive and to express one´s own feelings.

  10. Quis custodiet quem? (Who is in charge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senders, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of Artificial Intelligence into Nuclear Power Plant control rooms may have some unexpected and undersired psychological effects on the control room operators of the plant. These will arise from problems of 'interpersonal' relationships between Artificial Intelligences (AI) and Natural Intelligences (NI). Some of them will stem especially from a perception of loss of control over the work and the working environment. The discuss why perceptions of loss of control might arise, what some of the effects might be, and propose some ways of preventing their occurrence or overcoming their effects

  11. Correlates of psychoactive substance use among Nigerian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Oluyemi O Akanni; Ehigiator O Adayonfo

    2015-01-01

    Context: The abuse of psychoactive substances which is one of the most important global public health problems begins in adolescence. Adolescents usually start by abusing the gateway substances. They suffer social, economic, physical, and legal consequences on account of use of substances, and this is very worrisome because of the increasing prevalence of use. Aims: The aim was to identify the characteristics of adolescents that use gateway substances. This knowledge shall be utilized in prev...

  12. Maledetti Toscani de Curzio Malaparte ou d’un voyage au « pays » de ceux qui « cultivent l'herbe du ridicule » et la « mangent en salade »1

    OpenAIRE

    Rubat du Mérac, Marie-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Marie-Anne Rubat du Mérac se penche sur Maledetti toscani, où Malaparte décrit sa région natale et « ceux qui cultivent l’herbe du ridicule et la mangent en salade » : un livre impertinent qui joue avec la structure du récit de voyage, dans lequel les toscans, toujours prêts à rire, sont eux-mêmes vus par le regard ironique de l’auteur. Mais dans ces pages à la prose minutieusement travaillée, qui sont en fait un bel exercice de style où s’égrènent divers procédés du comique, il exerce aussi ...

  13. [The substance experience, a history of LSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews the recent knowledge on LSD stemming from various disciplines among which pharmacology, sociology and epidemiology. The d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a particularly powerful hallucinogenic substance. It produces distortions and hearing, visual and tactile hallucinations. Rarely used (only 1.7% of people aged 15-64 years old have tried it in their lifetime), this very powerful drug generates a strong apprehension within the general population, but the ethnographical studies show that its image seems rather good among illicit drug users. This representation relies both on the proper effects of this substance and also on the history of LSD very closely linked to the counterculture characteristic of the years 1960-1970. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  14. Emotional awareness in substance-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Solange; Bayard, Sophie; Paget, Virginie; Jouanne, Céline; Varescon, Isabelle; Edel, Yves; Detilleux, Michel

    2010-06-01

    We explored emotional awareness in substance-dependent patients and its relationships to self-reported alexithymia. Sixty-four outpatients with drug dependence or alcohol dependence were evaluated before the beginning of treatment with the Hamilton Depressive Scale and the Covi Anxiety Scale, and they completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). Subjects exhibited low levels of emotional awareness and TAS-20 scores were high. Both measures were not related to depressive and anxious symptomatology. This research is the first to provide LEAS results with substance-dependent patients and highlights their deficits in emotions' differentiation and complexity. The lack of a relationship between LEAS and TAS-20 is discussed from the methodological and theoretical points of view. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Miriam Loewenthal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified.

  16. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  17. [Psychoactive substance use during pregnancy: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, S; Thibaut, F

    2010-02-01

    All around the world, the potential consequences of the increasing use of psychoactive substances during pregnancy are a major public health concern. It is estimated that 20 to 30% of pregnant women use tobacco, 15% use alcohol, 3 to 10% use cannabis and 0.5 to 3% use cocaine. The estimation of tobacco consumption during pregnancy is better known as compared with alcohol and substance use prevalence during pregnancy, which remains under estimated or unknown. For example, in France, the prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use during pregnancy is unknown. In general, the prevalence of drug or alcohol use during pregnancy is estimated by extrapolating data from epidemiological studies conducted in the general population (in France or in other countries). However, drug or alcohol use in the general population may dramatically vary from one country to another. Even if some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries around the world, most of them were based on the mother's interview. In most cases, the mother did not report exactly the amount of drugs or alcohol used. Further studies measuring alcohol or substance use in the mother's blood, hair or in the newborn's meconium are needed. In addition, different methodologies have been used in the literature (different types of interview, with or without biological measurements; different subjects included (in- or out-pregnant women, psychiatric comorbidities or not, different economic status, etc). Despite these methodological biases, the prevalence of drug or alcohol use increases in pregnant women, and in most cases, several drugs are associated. Most of the studies have used structured or semi-structured interviews such as the addiction severity index (ASI) or the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) to assess alcohol or drug consumption. In addition, the identification of risk factors for substance or alcohol use during pregnancy would allow the early detection of

  18. Addiction and substance abuse in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Ethan O; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2008-11-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace, and outcomes have not appreciably changed. Although alcoholism and other forms of impairment, such as addiction to other substances and mental illness, impact anesthesiologists at rates similar to those in other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology, and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when comorbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt reentry into clinical practice.

  19. 77 FR 5848 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... October 7, 2011, 76 FR 62449, Johnson Matthey Inc., Custom Pharmaceuticals Department, 2003 Nolte Drive... substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substance for sale... registration of Johnson Matthey Inc. to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled substance is...

  20. The Impact of Religiousness on Substance Use and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Cajetan

    This longitudinal study evaluated the effect of religiousness on substance use and depression both currently and after six months. It also evaluated the association between religious coping on substance use and depression both currently and after six months. Results reveal no relationship between religiousness and current substance use. There was…

  1. Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health care service users in Cape Town. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... We assessed substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and HIV risk with items addressing injection drug use, blood-sharing rituals, and sexual ...

  2. Linking Substance Use and Problem Behavior across Three Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined patterns of between-generation continuity in substance use from generation 1 (G1) parents to generation 2 (G2) adolescents and from G2 adult substance use and G1 substance use to generation 3 (G3) problem behavior in childhood. Structural equation modeling of prospective, longitudinal data from 808 participants, their parents,…

  3. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11...

  4. Drug Use Patterns and Socio-Demographic Profiles of Substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse is a critical problem in Botswana, yet empirical evidence on substance users is limited. The current study sought to examine patterns of drug use and sociodemographic profiles of clients who sought treatment at a substance abuse treatment centre in Gaborone, Botswana. Findings showed clients' age ...

  5. Psychoactive substance use/abuse among students in Igbinedion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychoactive substance use/abuse among students in Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria-new challenges. E Uwadiae ... (NPF), National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) must be sufficiently informed that substances of abuse have gone beyond the conventional substances like alcohol, cannabis, cigarette etc.

  6. The symbolic language of substances and molecules: noise or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most substances are given names and formulae based upon knowledge of their molecules. However for substances most commonly met in elementary chemistry courses, especially inorganic substances, this is often not the case. The potential noise is amplified further when dealing with chemical reaction equations.

  7. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  8. Prevalence of Substance Use in a Rural Teenage Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wade H.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed all secondary school students (n=1,175) in rural county school system to assess prevalence rates of substance use for teenagers and their parents. Age, sex, and race were related to frequency and type of substance abuse. Lifestyle variables such as music preferences, sexual activity, and choice of friends also related to substance use.…

  9. Potential hazard by toxic substances in foods. Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhalt, B

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews various toxic substances found in foods. These toxic substances include not only natural occurring toxins but also bacterial food poisons, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and food additives. The potential hazard of each toxic substance is discussed. 74 references.

  10. How to approach substance identification in qualitative bioanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartstra, J; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal in qualitative analysis in the biosciences is tb demonstrate with acceptable probability that for an unknown constituent in a sample only one substance comes into consideration and that all other substances can be rejected. In the biosciences, identification of relevant substances

  11. Substance Use by Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    Substance use histories were obtained from 103 persons (16 to 63 years of age) with recent spinal cord injuries (SCI). Lifetime exposure to and current use of substances with abuse potential were substantially greater in this sample compared to a like-age national sample. Exposure to and recent use of substances with abuse potential was…

  12. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the

  13. Insulte, disqualification, persuasion et tropes communicationnels : à qui l’insulte profite-t-elle ? Insult, Disqualification, Persuasion and “Communicational Trope”: Who would benefit from insults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Bernard Barbeau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Partant d’une acception très large de l’argumentation, nous nous intéressons ici au lien entre insulte et persuasion afin de repenser la relation persuadeur / persuadé sous l’éclairage de celle d’insulteur / insulté. Cette conception fondamentalement interactionniste place au centre de l’analyse l’objet de persuasion et la (possibilité de satisfaction de l’acte, ainsi que toute la mise en scène, le décor et le public qui assiste à la représentation (pour reprendre la métaphore théâtrale de Goffman, sans négliger la dimension émotive de l’insulte. Insistant sur la dimension argumentative de l’insulte, nous tentons de montrer, à partir d’extraits de sites Internet d’évaluation de professionnels, que toute disqualification devant un tiers a comme visée de le persuader d’adhérer à la thèse implicite de la validité de la qualification péjorative, ce qui se manifeste, sur le plan perlocutoire, de deux manières : persuader de haïr (faire adhérer à la disqualification d’autrui et persuader d’agir (faire poser une action conséquente avec l’adhésion à la disqualification d’autrui.Starting from a very broad definition of argumentation, we are interested in the link between insult and persuasion, in order to rethink the persuader / persuaded relationship, under the light of the insulter / insulted relationship. This fundamentally interactionist concept analyses first and foremost the object of persuasion, and the (possibility of achievement of the action, as well as the staging, the set and the attending audience (to use again Goffman’s theatrical metaphor, without neglecting the emotional dimension, inherent to insult. We will attempt to demonstrate, based on excerpts taken from websites that enable users to post reviews of professionals, that any disqualification in the presence of third parties aims at persuading them to adhere to the implicit thesis supporting the validity of the

  14. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, D P

    1990-01-01

    After tobacco, marijuana is the most widely smoked substance in our society. Studies conducted within the past 15 years in animals, isolated tissues, and humans indicate that marijuana smoke can injure the lungs. Habitual smoking of marijuana has been shown to be associated with chronic respiratory tract symptoms, an increased frequency of acute bronchitic episodes, extensive tracheobronchial epithelial disease, and abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, key cell...

  15. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates ...

  16. Reforming Dutch substance abuse treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Gerard M; Schramade, Mark; Walburg, Jan A

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch substance abuse treatment system is in the middle of a major reorganization. The goal is to improve outcomes by redesigning all major primary treatment processes and by implementing a system of regular monitoring and feedback of clinical outcome data. The new program includes implementing standardized psychosocial behavior-oriented treatment modalities and a stepped-care patient placement algorithm in a core-shell organizational model. This article outlines the new program and presents its objectives, developmental stages, and current status.

  17. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the ...

  18. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always.

  19. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  20. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veen, Bas T H; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Verheij, Michel M M; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-02-01

    Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin. Dysregulations in the serotonin system are associated with alterations in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and mood disorders. After psilocybin administration cortisol levels spike and activate the executive control network, with subsequent increased control over emotional processes, and relief of negative thinking and persistent negative emotions. Preliminary data of ongoing alcohol and smoking addiction studies in humans shows promising effects of psilocybin administration on substance use. Importantly, psilocybin has a low risk of toxicity and dependence and can be used safely under controlled clinical conditions. Areas covered: This paper is a narrative review based on the search terms: psilocybin, substance use disorder, addiction, depression, serotonin. Literature on potential efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin in SUD is discussed. Expert commentary: Recent positive findings with psilocybin need confirmation in well-designed placebo controlled randomized trials employing a large sample size.

  1. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  2. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  3. Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Hjern, Anders; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2009-05-20

    Persons with schizophrenia are thought to be at increased risk of committing violent crime 4 to 6 times the level of general population individuals without this disorder. However, risk estimates vary substantially across studies, and considerable uncertainty exists as to what mediates this elevated risk. Despite this uncertainty, current guidelines recommend that violence risk assessment should be conducted for all patients with schizophrenia. To determine the risk of violent crime among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia and the role of substance abuse in mediating this risk. Longitudinal designs were used to link data from nationwide Swedish registers of hospital admissions and criminal convictions in 1973-2006. Risk of violent crime in patients after diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 8003) was compared with that among general population controls (n = 80 025). Potential confounders (age, sex, income, and marital and immigrant status) and mediators (substance abuse comorbidity) were measured at baseline. To study familial confounding, we also investigated risk of violence among unaffected siblings (n = 8123) of patients with schizophrenia. Information on treatment was not available. Violent crime (any criminal conviction for homicide, assault, robbery, arson, any sexual offense, illegal threats, or intimidation). In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substance abuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.9-5.0), whereas the risk increase was small in schizophrenia patients without substance abuse comorbidity (8.5% of whom had at least 1 violent offense; adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; Pgenetic or early environmental) confounding of the

  4. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  5. Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.

  6. A container for containing and protecting a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a container adapted to contain and protect a radio-active substance. That container comprises a heat sensitive device for automatically (and, preferably, sealingly) enclosing and protecting the radio-active substance, should room temperature reach a predetermined level. Thus, the radio-active substance cannot escape in case of fire. Preferably, a bolt is also provided, capable of being actuated at a temperature slightly above the temperature actuating the protective device so as to maintain the radioactive substance protected. This can be applied to containers containing a radio-active substance such as polonium 210 [fr

  7. SUBSTANCE ABUSE, DEPENDENCE AND THE WORKPLACE: A LITERATURE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smook, Breggie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and dependence among the employed have massive cost implications for South Africa. Employers are legally obliged to provide opportunities for the treatment of substance dependence before dismissal is considered. Problem areas are the following: inadequate identification of employees with substance-abuse problems, infrequent treatment referrals, and overlooking of substance abuse in the workplace. This article attempts to address these issues by providing an overview of literature dealing with the problem of substance abuse and dependence in the workplace. Addressing this problem calls for specialist intervention measures, which are discussed in the article.

  8. Trabajo no remunerado y reproductivo. ¿Quién debe de pagar la reproducción de la fuerza de trabajo de una nación?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Girón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el problema de ¿Quién debe de pagar el costo de la reproducción de la fuerza del trabajo de una nación? en relación a la ampliación de la participación de las mujeres en el mercado laboral y el desdibujamiento del Estado del Bienestar, de la cual surge la preocupación sobre el trabajo desempeñado por las mujeres en la unidad familiar. Además examina la búsqueda por contabilizar el trabajo no remunerado. A lo largo de las últimas cuatro décadas las crisis recurrentes han sido la consecución de frecuentes planes de estabilización, reestructuración y renegociaciones de los créditos con acreedores e inversionistas financieros institucionales en los mercados financieros. La orientación del gasto público al pago del servicio de la deuda y a los compromisos de los países con el exterior han ido mermando la capacidad del gasto público principalmente en cuanto al gasto social como el gasto en educación y el gasto en salud. Lo ha impactado en las políticas públicas. Un agradecimiento a Andrea Reyes, becaria del Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología (CONACYT, por la recopilación del material para este trabajo.

  9. Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When we compare the categories about alcohol, and substance-related disorders in DSM-IV and DSM-5, the new category, named addictive disorders is the most striking change. Only gambling disorder have been identified currently in this category. This may be the most remarkable change among the changes in the DSM-5. Because the expansion of the existing diagnostic criteria may cause the assessment of and lsquo;normal behavior' as a disorder. Additionally, withdrawal of caffeine and cannabis are defined in the DSM-5. Disorders collected under the title of substance-related disorders in the DSM-IV were collected under the name of substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5. Specific criterias for substance abuse and substance addiction have been combined into the name of "substance use disorders". In substance abuse, "experienced legal problems" criteria was removed and "a strong desire or urge or craving for substance use" criteria has been introduced. Henceforth, substance abuse is defined as a mild form of substance use disorders in the DSM-5. A change in the prevalence of substance use disorders should be investigated by the new researches.

  10. Epidemiology of Substance Use in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Wigderson, Sara; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A significant number of women of reproductive age in the U.S. use addictive substances. In 2012 more than 50% reported current use of alcohol, 20% used tobacco products, and approximately 13% used other drugs. Among women, use of these substances is associated with a number of significant medical, psychiatric, and social consequences, and the course of illness may progress more rapidly in women than men. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in women is 19.5% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, as most addictive substances cross the placenta and have deleterious effects on fetal development, substance use has additional potential adverse consequences for women of reproductive age who may become pregnant. Specific barriers to accessing effective substance use treatment exist for women. The prevalence of substance use and evidence of accelerated illness progression in women highlight the importance of universal substance use screening in women in primary care settings. PMID:24845483

  11. Acculturation factors and substance use among Asian American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Goebert, Deborah; Wallen, Judy

    2009-07-01

    In this study of 329 Cambodian, Chinese, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youth in Oakland, California, acculturation factors of individualism-collectivism and acculturative dissonance were examined as risk and protective factors for substance use. Results of structural equation modeling and bootstrapping revealed that peer substance use was a robust mediator between individualism and youth's self-reported substance use, particularly among Vietnamese and males. Peer substance use also significantly mediated the relation between collectivism and substance use for females. As such, there appears to be ethnic and gender group variations in the saliency of cultural/acculturation factors with respect to substance use. Implications for substance use prevention programs for ethnic and immigrant youth are discussed.

  12. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Mariana Harahap

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  13. Intersecting Identities and Substance Use Problems: Sexual Orientation, Gender, Race, and Lifetime Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Bradford, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research has documented that sexual minorities are at greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals. However, there are limited studies and mixed findings when investigating these health disparities among racial and ethnic minority samples. We used an intersectionality framework to examine disparities in lifetime substance use problems between heterosexual and sexual minority men and women and within sexual minority groups among a racially diverse sample. Method: A nonprobability sample of heterosexual (n = 1,091) and sexual minority (n = 1,465) patients from an urban community health center ranged in age from 18 to 72 years. Participants completed a brief patient survey and reported demographic information and history of lifetime substance use problems. Logistic regressions analyses were used to examine interactions between and among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Results: We found a significant three-way interaction among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Sexual minorities had a greater risk of self-reported lifetime substance use problems than heterosexuals, with nuanced gender and racial differences. Of greatest note, sexual minority women of color had greater risks than heterosexual women of color and than White sexual minority women. Sexual minority men of color did not differ in their risk when compared with heterosexual men of color, and they had lower risk than White sexual minority men. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an intersectionality framework is crucial to clearly identify lifetime substance use disparities between racially diverse sexual minority and heterosexual men and women. Future research, treatment, and policy should use intersectionality approaches when addressing substance use disparities. PMID:24411810

  14. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  15. Failure to get into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud

    2017-02-01

    Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioactive substances found on the contaminated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiba, T; Ohashi, S; Shibata, M; Mizube, T

    1954-01-01

    Radiochemical investigation of the substance collected from the surface of tuna fish which were brought back by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru was performed. Most of the radioactivity was found on the scales which could not be decontaminated by treating with H/sub 2/O; 80% of the activity was removed by washing the dried scales with 3N HCl. Paper chromatographic separation of the HCl fraction showed the presence of /sup 140/Ba, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 132/Te, and probably /sup 95/Zr, /sup 140/La, and rare earths.

  17. Management practices in substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, K John; Hoffman, Kim A; Quanbeck, Andrew; McCarty, Dennis

    2009-07-01

    Efforts to understand how to improve the delivery of substance abuse treatment have led to a recent call for studies on the "business of addiction treatment." This study adapts an innovative survey tool to collect baseline management practice data from 147 addiction treatment programs enrolled in the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment 200 project. Measures of "good" management practice were strongly associated with days to treatment admission. Management practice scores were weakly associated with revenues per employee but were not correlated with operating margins. Better management practices were more prevalent among programs with a higher number of competitors in their catchment area.

  18. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of biological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-08-01

    A Bowen cabbage sample was used as a reference material for the neutron activation studies, and the method was checked by the analysis of other biological substances (blood or serum etc.). For nondestructive measurements also some non-trace elements were determined in order to decide whether the activation analysis is a useful means for such measurements. The new activation analysis procedure was used for biomedical studies as, e.g., for trace element determination in body fluids, and for the analysis of inorganic components in air samples. (R.P.)

  20. Substances stimulating recovery for radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A; Yonezawa, M; Katoh, N [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1978-11-01

    A relationship between radiation injury and its recovery (intracellular recovery, intercellular recovery, or individual recovery) was discussed. In addition to histological researches in Japan, some substances (free radicals, endotoxin, vaccine, crude drugs, tissue extracts, blood platelet, etc.) stimulating recovery for radiation injury were introduced, and the progress of the study by the authors was summarized. Effects of a root of Panax ginseng (it is believed to accelerate segmentation of marrow cells, and synthesis of DNA and protein in rats and men), methods of its extracting and administration, its influences upon hemogram and organ weight in animal experiments, exclusion of side effects, period of administration, and purification of its effective components were reported.

  1. Extraction of substances assisted by ultrasound (UAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuola, Rocio; Vargas, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Different compounds present in vegetables with functional or technological properties, have gained great importance in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic markets. Efficient methods, economical and environment friendly are sought for the extraction of these substances. A literature review has been performanced of recent publications on different extraction methods and their comparison to the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) to assess their effectiveness and industrial viability. The ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) has been found to be more efficient than traditional mining methods, and cheaper and easier than non-traditional extraction methods such as microwave-assisted extraction, so it checks its industrial viability. (author) [es

  2. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  3. Substance Use among Sexual Minorities: Has it Actually Gotten Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J; Goodenow, Carol; Porta, Carolyn; Adjei, Jones; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2018-06-07

    Despite efforts to decrease substance use, rates among sexual minority youth (SMY) remain higher than among heterosexuals. Substance use is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in adulthood, and SMY's use of substances is related to poorer mental and emotional health. We sought to document the trends in substance use for a large sample of youth over 14 years with special attention to SMY. In addition, we tested whether there were disparities in substance use behaviors between SMY and heterosexual youth. Last, we examined changes in disparities over time in substance use among SMY. We analyzed data from 8 waves of the Massachusetts YRBS (N = 26,002, M age = 16), from 1999 to 2013, to investigate trends and disparities in current tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use for heterosexual youth and SMY. We used logistic regression interaction models to test whether these disparities have widened or narrowed for SMY, as compared to heterosexuals, over the span of 14 years. In absolute terms, substance use rates decreased for nearly all youth between 1999 and 2013. There were striking disparities in substance use between heterosexual youth and all sexual minority subgroups. These disparities in substance use narrowed among males but remained unchanged or worsened among females. Conclusions/Importance: Trends in substance use are changing over time, but not in the same ways for all sexual minority subgroups. Patterns are worsening for females. These findings suggest that we need to address the needs of LGB populations in novel ways.

  4. Substance Use among Medical Students in Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khanal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance use including tobacco and alcohol is the most important cause of preventable morbidity, disability, and premature mortality. The study aims to specify the prevalence and the pattern of use of different substance. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed amongst first year and final year students in four medical colleges in Kathmandu using self administered anonymous questionnaire.Data collectedfrom 446 students were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of substance use was found to be 60.3% among the medical students. Alcohol (57.6% was the substance most prevalently used followed by tobacco (27.58% and cannabis (12.8%. Mean age of first exposure was 17.94 (Confidence interval: 17.91-17.97. There was significant difference in the useof tobacco and cannabis amongst final year students than first year students. Male and female differed significantly in use of every substance except for benzodiazepine. Medical college, college and school were place of first exposure in 17.26%, 15.92% and 13.23% of the cases respectively. Family history was associated with substance use in medical students and was statistically significant (P<0.0001.Experimentation was the major reason for the use of most of the substances. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent in male medical students of both first and final year. Hence steps should be initiated early in school, college and medical college to prevent substance use. Keywords: alcohol, medical students, substance use, tobacco.

  5. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  6. Substance use risk profiles and associations with early substance use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity (i.e., revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale) would be related to the lifetime prevalence and age of onset of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and to polydrug use in early adolescence.

  7. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  8. Landfills as sinks for (hazardous) substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of waste regulations is to protect human health and the environment. This requires the removal from the material cycle of those materials that cannot be processed without harm. Policies to promote recycling hold a risk that pollutants are dispersed. Materials have an environmental impact during their entire life cycle from extraction through production, consumption and recycling to disposal. Essentially there are only two routes for pollutants that cannot be rendered harmless: storage in sinks or dispersion into the environment. Many sinks do not contain substances absolutely, but result in slow dispersion. Dispersion leads to exposure and impact to human health and the environment. It is therefore important to assess the impact of the release to the environment. Based on various sources this paper discusses important material flows and their potential impact. This is compared with the intentions and achievements of European environmental and resource policy. The polluter pays principle is being implemented in Europe, but lags behind implementation of waste management regulations. As long as producers are allowed to add hazardous substances to their products and don't take their products back, it is in society's best interest to carefully consider whether recycling or storage in a sink is the better solution. This requires further development of life-cycle assessment tools and harmonization of regulations. In many cases the sink is unavoidable. Landfills as sinks will be needed in the future. Fail-safe design and construction as well as sustainable management of landfills must be further developed.

  9. Aggression and substance abuse in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Nichols, C Matthew; Caldeira, Nathilee A; Sher, Leo; Dervic, Kanita; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to examine factors differentiating persons with bipolar disorder who did or did not have comorbid lifetime substance use disorders (SUD) at an index assessment. We also explored the chronology of onset of mood and SUD. We studied 146 subjects with DSM-defined bipolar disorder. Subgroups with and without lifetime SUD were compared on demographic and clinical measures. Substance abuse disorders in this bipolar sample were associated with male sex, impulsive-aggressive traits, comorbid conduct and Cluster B personality disorders, number of suicide attempts and earlier age at onset of a first mood episode. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, male sex and aggression and possibly earlier age at mood disorder onset were associated with SUD. In those with or without SUD, the first mood episode tended to be depressive and to precede the onset of SUD. In persons with bipolar disorder, an earlier age of onset and aggressive traits appear to be factors associated with later development of comorbid SUD.

  10. Espacios exclusivos y excluyentes: ¿Cómo y quién habita el espacio público? El Boulevard Naciones Unidas (Quito y La Boca (Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hopfgartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde finales del siglo XX, gobiernos locales de diferentes ciudades de América Latina implementan políticas urbanas de corte neoliberal. El objetivo es re-configurar ciudades económicamente productivas. Para ello, se busca el mejoramiento del factor de localización de estas a través de la atracción de visitantes e inversionistas. Con ello, se da el paso de una lógica de gobernanza urbano gerencial a “la ciudad empresarial”. Una de las implicaciones más significativas es el carácter selectivo que toman los espacios públicos. Concretamente, se los convierte en nuevas centralidades orientadas, fundamentalmente, al consumo de sectores de altos ingresos. Esto deriva en una producción del espacio público, que profundiza la polarización socio-económica y la configuración de ciudades fragmentadas y desiguales. Sin embargo, la producción de un determinado espacio se realiza tanto desde las políticas urbanas, como desde los actores del lugar. En este sentido, el espacio público es uno de los lugares en los cuales se materializa la tensión entre estas dos escalas. Tensión que se deriva a partir de la disputa por quien instalará los parámetros de cómo y quién podrá habitar y consumir el espacio público. En esta línea, el presente trabajo analiza la producción de espacios públicos en dos casos de estudios latinoamericanos: la construcción del Boulevard Naciones Unidas, en la ciudad de Quito, y la renovación urbana del barrio La Boca, en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

  11. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  12. Relationship of trauma exposure and substance abuse to self-reported violence among men and women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Brendan; Reiland, Sarah; Thorne, Chris; Cropsey, Karen L

    2014-05-01

    Past research showed a relationship between substance abuse and aggression and past trauma and aggression. The nature of the relationships between substance use, trauma, and aggression is inconclusive. The current research hypothesized greater aggression among those with a history of substance abuse and trauma compared with those without such a history and an additive relationship between substance abuse and trauma on aggression. Participants were 615 individuals in a substance abuse treatment program for individuals under criminal justice supervision. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and self-report measures. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the relationships among substance use, trauma, and aggression. Participants with a history of trauma and regular substance use reported the highest rates of homicidal ideation, problem behaviors, and person offenses. Participants in this group also reported greater desire for help managing their stress and tension, dealing with problems in their intimate relationships, developing healthier relationships in general, and learning prosocial approaches to express their feelings. Substance abusing participants who experienced trauma reported more externalizing behaviors and a greater desire for coping- and social-skills training than participants who abused substances but did not report a history of trauma. This suggests that participants in substance abuse treatment programs may have improved outcomes with the addition of components to address these issues.

  13. Substance use and abuse among patients with comorbid dysthymia and substance disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, S L; Westermeyer, J; Crosby, R D

    1998-11-01

    This study determines the substance use and abuse patterns among patients with comorbid substance-related disorder (SRD) and dysthymia in SRD-dysthymia as compared with patients with SRD only. Differences in use and abuse patterns could be useful for (a) understanding motivations for use, such as self-treatment, and (b) assisting clinicians to identify cases of dysthymia among SRD patients. Retrospective and current data were obtained regarding history of substance use and current SRD diagnoses. Two university medical centers with alcohol-drug programs located within departments of psychiatry were the settings. A total of 642 patients was assessed. of whom 39 had SRD-dysthymia and 308 had SRD only. Data on past usc were collected by a research associate using a questionnaire. Current SRD and dysthymia diagnoses were made by psychiatrists specializing in addiction. The patients with SRD-dysthymia and SRD only did not differ with regard to use of alcohol, tobacco, and benzodiazepines. The patients with SRD-dysthymia started caffeine use at an earlier age, had shorter "use careers" of cocaine, amphetamines, and opiates, and had fewer days of cocaine and cannabis use in the last year. They also had a lower rate of cannabis abuse/dependence. This study indicated that patients with dysthymia and SRD have exposure to most substances of abuse that is comparable to patients with SRD only. However, they selectively use certain substances less often than patients with SRD only. Early use of caffeine may reflect self-treatment for depressive symptoms among patients with SRD-dysthymia.

  14. Internet Addiction pada Remaja Pelaku Substance Abuse: Penyebab atau Akibat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Intan Nur Rahmawati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article to find out which variables are the causes and effects between substancial abuse and internet addiction through conceptual studies.Internet addiction and substance abuse are known to have correlation.But this becomes overlapping, which is the cause andthe result. The results of this conceptual study explain that adolescents who experience substance abuse will tend tobe the cause of increased prevalenceinternet addiction, because the use of addictive substances will determine how fast internet addiction develops. Conversely, adolescents who experience Internet addiction is not necessarily the cause of the emergence of substance abuse. It can be concluded that substance abuse is the cause of high levels of internet addiction in adolescents, likewisethe internet addiction has the potential to cause substance abuse

  15. Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and relationship to substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-09-01

    Although categorized as an impulse control disorder, kleptomania has many features in common with substance use disorders. This paper sought to examine the mounting evidence supporting the phenomenological, clinical, epidemiological, and biological links between kleptomania and substance addictions. A review of the literature examining family history, genetics, comorbid psychiatric conditions, neuroimaging, and phenomenology was utilized to examine the relationship of kleptomania to substance addiction. Kleptomania and substance addiction share common core qualities, including similar treatment successes, as well as etiologic and phenomenological similarities. Future research investigating the relationship between kleptomania and substance use disorders holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general. Research investigating kleptomania (and other behavioral addictions) and its relationship to substance addiction holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general.

  16. Metal homeostasis in Hypogymnia physodes is controlled by lichen substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-05-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the lichen substances produced by the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes control the intracellular uptake of divalent transition metals. Incubating lichen thalli with and without their natural content of lichen substances with metal solutions showed that the lichen substances of H. physodes selectively inhibit the uptake of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+), but not of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). Such behavior is ecologically beneficial, as ambient concentrations of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) in precipitation and bark are known to limit the abundance of H. physodes, whereas limiting effects of Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) have never been found. This suggests that increasing the Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) tolerance stimulated the evolution of lichen substances in H. physodes. The depsidone physodalic acid is apparently most effective at reducing Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) uptake among the seven lichen substances produced by H. physodes. Probably lichen substances play a general role in the metal homeostasis of lichens.

  17. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  18. Per and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posner, Stefan; Roos, Sandra; Brunn Poulsen, Pia

    This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances and their ......This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances...... and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information 2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1) 3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances...

  19. A new technique for radiolabelling of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Patt, J.T.; Patt, M.; Kupsch, H.; Steinbach, J. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    A new method of radiolabelling of humic substances (HS) in the aqueous phase has been developed. Radiolabelling with the short-lived positron-emitter {sup 18}F was carried out via diazonium coupling to electron-rich aromatic residues of the humic substances. Labelling yields of up to 75% were obtained after optimization of the synthetic procedure. Introductory experimental steps were performed for testing the labelling stability of the humic substances with ultrafiltration, electrophoretic and chromatographic methods. (orig.)

  20. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  1. Coordination of Care in Substance Abuse Treatment: An Interorganizational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, Suzanne Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The high cost of detoxification (detox) services and health risks associated with continued substance abuse make readmission to detox an important indicator of poor performance for substance abuse treatment systems. One major service gap in the continuum of care for substance use disorders associated with readmissions is not transitioning patients to rehabilitation after a detox service. This study examined the problem of detox readmissions from an interorganizational network perspective. The...

  2. A new technique for radiolabelling of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, K.; Patt, J.T.; Patt, M.; Kupsch, H.; Steinbach, J.

    2004-01-01

    A new method of radiolabelling of humic substances (HS) in the aqueous phase has been developed. Radiolabelling with the short-lived positron-emitter 18 F was carried out via diazonium coupling to electron-rich aromatic residues of the humic substances. Labelling yields of up to 75% were obtained after optimization of the synthetic procedure. Introductory experimental steps were performed for testing the labelling stability of the humic substances with ultrafiltration, electrophoretic and chromatographic methods. (orig.)

  3. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  4. Patterns of current and lifetime substance use in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, I L; Carr, V J; Carter, N T; Lewin, T J

    1998-01-01

    A structured interview and standardized rating scales were used to assess a sample of 194 outpatients with schizophrenia in a regional Australian mental health service for substance use, abuse, and dependence. Case manager assessments and urine drug screens were also used to determine substance use. Additional measurements included demographic information, history of criminal charges, symptom self-reports, personal hopefulness, and social support. The sample was predominantly male and showed relative instability in accommodations, and almost half had a history of criminal offenses, most frequently drug or alcohol related. The 6-month and lifetime prevalence of substance abuse or dependence was 26.8 and 59.8 percent, respectively, with alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines being the most commonly abused substances. Current users of alcohol comprised 77.3 percent and current users of other nonprescribed substances (excluding tobacco and caffeine) comprised 29.9 percent of the sample. Rates of tobacco and caffeine consumption were high. There was a moderate degree of concordance between case manager determinations of a substance-use problem and research diagnoses. Subjects with current or lifetime diagnoses of substance abuse/dependence were predominantly young, single males with higher rates of criminal charges; however, there was no evidence of increased rates of suicide attempts, hospital admissions, or daily doses of antipsychotic drugs in these groups compared with subjects with no past or current diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence. Subjects with a current diagnosis of substance use were younger at first treatment and currently more symptomatic than those with no past or current substance use diagnosis. The picture emerging from this study replicates the high rate of substance abuse in persons with schizophrenia reported in North American studies but differs from the latter in finding a slightly different pattern of substances abused (i.e., absence of

  5. Substance for thermoluminescent dosimetry of photon radiation in adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.Z.; Kandel', T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Substance composition for thermoluminescent photon dosimetry in adipose tissue is proposed which makes it possible to simplify dosimetric measurements and to improve their accuracy. The substance consists of powder-like thermoluminophor Li 2 B 4 O 7 (0.03%Mn) 48-52 mass % and bistriethylammonium dodecahydrododecaborane - 48-52 mass %. The above substance is equivalent in respect to dosimetry to adipose tissue within the 10 keV - 10 MeV energy range

  6. Trends in substance use admissions among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Cook, Ratna; Mallik, Eshita; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-08-22

    Substance abuse is a growing, but mostly silent, epidemic among older adults. We sought to analyze the trends in admissions for substance abuse treatment among older adults (aged 55 and older). Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) for period between 2000 and 2012 was used. The trends in admission for primary substances, demographic attributes, characteristics of substance abused and type of admission were analyzed. While total number of substance abuse treatment admissions between 2000 and 2012 changed slightly, proportion attributable to older adults increased from 3.4% to 7.0%. Substantial changes in the demographic, substance use pattern, and treatment characteristics for the older adult admissions were noted. Majority of the admissions were for alcohol as the primary substance. However there was a decreasing trend in this proportion (77% to 64%). The proportion of admissions for following primary substances showed increase: cocaine/crack, marijuana/hashish, heroin, non-prescription methadone, and other opiates and synthetics. Also, admissions for older adults increased between 2000 and 2012 for African Americans (21% to 28%), females (20% to 24%), high school graduates (63% to 75%), homeless (15% to 19%), unemployed (77% to 84%), and those with psychiatric problems (17% to 32%).The proportion of admissions with prior history of substance abuse treatment increased from 39% to 46% and there was an increase in the admissions where more than one problem substance was reported. Ambulatory setting continued to be the most frequent treatment setting, and individual (including self-referral) was the most common referral source. The use of medication assisted therapy remained low over the years (7% - 9%). The changing demographic and substance use pattern of older adults implies that a wide array of psychological, social, and physiological needs will arise. Integrated, multidisciplinary and tailored policies for prevention and treatment are necessary to

  7. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  8. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  9. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse for research...

  10. DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M.; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M.; Schuckit, Marc; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to retain the division into two main disorders (dependence and abuse), whether substance use disorder criteria should be added or removed, and whether an appropriate substance use disorder severity indicator could be identified. Specific issues included possible addition of withdrawal syndromes for several substances, alignment of nicotine criteria with those for other substances, addition of biomarkers, and inclusion of nonsubstance, behavioral addictions. This article presents the major issues and evidence considered by the work group, which included literature reviews and extensive new data analyses. The work group recommendations for DSM-5 revisions included combining abuse and dependence criteria into a single substance use disorder based on consistent findings from over 200,000 study participants, dropping legal problems and adding craving as criteria, adding cannabis and caffeine withdrawal syndromes, aligning tobacco use disorder criteria with other substance use disorders, and moving gambling disorders to the chapter formerly reserved for substance-related disorders. The proposed changes overcome many problems, while further studies will be needed to address issues for which less data were available. PMID:23903334

  11. Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwitchayanon, Prapaipit; Pukclai, Piyatida; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20.3 and 14.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate suggests that the substance may act as an allelopathic substance of H. sabdariffa.

  12. DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S; O'Brien, Charles P; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M; Schuckit, Marc; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-08-01

    Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to retain the division into two main disorders (dependence and abuse), whether substance use disorder criteria should be added or removed, and whether an appropriate substance use disorder severity indicator could be identified. Specific issues included possible addition of withdrawal syndromes for several substances, alignment of nicotine criteria with those for other substances, addition of biomarkers, and inclusion of nonsubstance, behavioral addictions.This article presents the major issues and evidence considered by the work group, which included literature reviews and extensive new data analyses. The work group recommendations for DSM-5 revisions included combining abuse and dependence criteria into a single substance use disorder based on consistent findings from over 200,000 study participants, dropping legal problems and adding craving as criteria, adding cannabis and caffeine withdrawal syndromes, aligning tobacco use disorder criteria with other substance use disorders, and moving gambling disorders to the chapter formerly reserved for substance-related disorders. The proposed changes overcome many problems, while further studies will be needed to address issues for which less data were available.

  13. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, D L; Little, E E

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  14. Getting boozy in books: substance use in adolescent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Phillips, James C

    2011-09-01

    Media effects research provides evidence for a link between adolescent exposure to media portrayals of substance use and usage. Exposure to media content that glamorizes and normalizes substance use carries potential public health risks. Though substance use has been examined in other media, such as film, television, and magazines, no research to date examines usage portrayals in adolescent novels. Given that adolescents do read, and given the potential impact of content on adolescent attitudes and behavior, this study provides a detailed analysis of the frequency and nature of substance use in the understudied area of novels. Substance use was examined in 40 best-selling adolescent novels on the New York Times Best Sellers list (time span June-July 2008). Substance use varied widely. Of the various types of substances, alcohol portrayals were most common. Almost all substance use was portrayed as having no consequences. Alcohol use was portrayed in similar frequencies in books aimed at younger, middle, and older adolescents, though illegal drug use was more likely to be found in books aimed at older ages. Our results suggest that the manner in which substance use is generally portrayed may encourage use among adolescents. Researchers, parents, and adolescents are encouraged to examine books as one potentially overlooked area of influence.

  15. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1% was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7% and theft (19.7%. Peers (40.9% were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17. Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences.

  17. Women and substance abuse: gender, age, and cultural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.

  18. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  19. Neurotensin: A role in substance use disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Luca; Tiozzo Fasiolo, Laura; Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea C; Pomierny-Chamiolo, Lucyna; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tomasini, Maria C; Fuxe, Kjell; Filip, Malgorzata

    2016-02-01

    Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide originally identified in extracts of bovine hypothalamus. This peptide has a close anatomical and functional relationship with the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine system. Neural circuits containing neurotensin were originally proposed to play a role in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic agents. Additionally, neurotensin-containing pathways were demonstrated to mediate some of the rewarding and/or sensitizing properties of drugs of abuse.This review attempts to contribute to the understanding of the role of neurotensin and its receptors in drug abuse. In particular, we will summarize the potential relevance of neurotensin, its related compounds and neurotensin receptors in substance use disorders, with a focus on the preclinical research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  1. Inactivation of biological substances by local heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1982-09-01

    Mechanism of inactivation of biological substances caused by local heating was investigated. The effect of hot-zone formation by local heating on reaction of radicals was previously evaluated. The thermal increase in a hot zone due to low energy LET x-rays had little effect on reactibility of the radicals, but, in a hot zone caused by high energy LET x-rays, formed radicals seemed immediately react to active biological molecules to inactivate them. Direct thermal effect on biological molecules was analysed. Thermal increase in a hot zone may induce degenaration of biological molecules which seems to occur in a short time judged from the extension of a hot zone and the duration of high temperature.

  2. Extraction of scandium by organic substance melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.P.; Lobanov, F.I.; Zebreva, A.I.; Andreeva, N.N.; Manuilova, O.A.; Il'yukevich, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    Regularities of scandium extraction by the melts of octadecanicoic acid, n-carbonic acids of C 17 -C 20 commerical fraction and mixtures of tributylphosphate (TBP) with paraffin at (70+-1) deg C have been studied. The optimum conditions for scandium extraction in the melt of organic substances are determined. A scheme of the extraction by the melts of higher carbonic acids at ninitial metal concentrations of 10 -5 to 10 -3 mol/l has been suggested. The scandium compound has been isolated in solid form, its composition having been determined. The main advantages of extraction by melts are as follows: a possibility to attain high distribution coefficients, distinct separation of phases after extraction, the absence of emulsions, elimination of employing inflammable and toxic solvents, a possibility of rapid X-ray fluorescence determinatinon of scandium directly in solid extract

  3. Bioactive substances of the Techirghiol therapeutic mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Hoteteu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to characterize Techirghiol's sapropelic mud both by determining the organic and inorganic composition of the constituent phases and by isolating some compounds of humic substances. The distribution between the solid and liquid phases of the peloid of the Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+cations, PO43- anion, bioactive compounds of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate classes as well as the phosphatase activity of Techirghiol sapropelic mud are analyzed. The mud is fractionated using the pH and solvent polarity variation and is spectrophotometrically characterized based on absorption in the wavelength range 340-700 nm humic acids and fulvic acids differentiated on the basis of solubility and molecular mass.

  4. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  5. Accident = energy/toxic substance + misinformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, the ever-increasing complication of technology and management of industry, supplemented with a variety of information technology and communication skills, has made the modern safety professionals discover a new mechanism of accident occurrences. This mechanism is outstanding in that the integrity of energy and toxic substance utilized in the production processes can be effectively maintained and limited through improving and updating both the techniques and management of information and communications, and consequently, accidents are prevented from occurring, or once accidentally released, the consequences can be effectively mitigated. In light of the experience of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation (CGNPC), the importance of the new mechanism and its prospects for further application in nuclear industry are depicted through case studies

  6. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  7. Transport of nuclear substances in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faille, S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    CNSC Regulates all Nuclear-related facilities and activities including Uranium mines and mill;, uranium fuel fabrication and processing; nuclear power plants; nuclear substance processing; industrial and medical applications; nuclear research and education; transport; export/import control; security and safeguards and waste management facilities. Our mandate is to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and implement Canada's International commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and disseminate objective scientific, technical and regulatory information to the public. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1996 Edition, Revised and currently being revised to reflect the 2012 edition of the IAEA Regulations.

  8. Transport of nuclear substances in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faille, S.

    2015-01-01

    CNSC Regulates all Nuclear-related facilities and activities including Uranium mines and mill;, uranium fuel fabrication and processing; nuclear power plants; nuclear substance processing; industrial and medical applications; nuclear research and education; transport; export/import control; security and safeguards and waste management facilities. Our mandate is to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and implement Canada's International commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and disseminate objective scientific, technical and regulatory information to the public. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1996 Edition, Revised and currently being revised to reflect the 2012 edition of the IAEA Regulations.

  9. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emara, A E [National Center for radiation Research and Technology Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs.

  10. Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of citric acid towards drug substances in the solid state was examined using the beta-blocker carvedilol as a model compound. The reaction mixtures were analysed by LC-MS, the reaction products were isolated by preparative HPLC, and the structures were elucidated by microprobe NMR...... spectroscopy. Heating a mixture of solid carvedilol and solid citric acid monohydrate for 96h at 50 degrees C resulted in the formation of about 3% of a symmetrical ester as well as of a number of other reaction products in smaller amounts. Formation of the symmetrical ester was also observed at room...... temperature. At 70 degrees C, the amounts of three isomeric esters formed reached 6-8%. The minor reaction products were citric acid amides, O-acetylcarvedilol, and esters of itaconic acid....

  11. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  12. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  13. Toxic or dangerous substances present construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Alvarado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is the elaboration of a guide which could be used as a support and consultation concerning the topic of safety in the construction, specifically in the area of the use and managing of material and dangerous substances; considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of the common construction materials represent for the health. The gathered information is the result of the review of bibliographical material, the visits to public institutions at national level and to international offices which representation in our country, this way as a work of field and of study of the national market, among others. Besides important consult through the Internet checking many sites of interest with the finality of getting more updated information as possible, like that as the consultation to professionals and workers related to the construction area. (Author) [es

  14. A "refugee paradox" for substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    Few, if any, studies have systematically examined the link between nativity and substance use disorders (SUD) among refugees using national samples. As such, it remains uncertain if the "immigrant paradox" for substance use can be extended to include refugees in the United States. Employing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examine the lifetime prevalence of SUDs among refugees (n=428) in contrast with non-refugee immigrants (n=4955) and native-born Americans (n=29,267). We also examine the impact of gender and refugee duration on the relationship between nativity, refugee status, and SUDs. Refugees were between 3 and 6 times less likely than native-born Americans meet criteria for all SUDs examined, and significantly less likely than non-refugee immigrants to meet criteria for alcohol (AOR=0.44, 95% CI=0.41-0.47), cocaine (AOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.50-0.59), hallucinogen (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.58-0.74), and opioid/heroin (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.58-0.66) use disorders. The refugee-SUD link was significantly moderated by gender. Duration as a refugee was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorder and decreased risk of cannabis and illicit drug use disorders. Study findings provide evidence in support of a "refugee paradox" for SUDs among adults in the United States. Refugees are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to meet criteria for all SUDs examined and, albeit with weaker effects, significantly less likely than non-refugee immigrants to meet criteria for a variety of SUDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental risk limits for antifouling substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Vlaardingen, P. van

    2004-01-01

    In 1989, the EU restricted the use of tributyl-tin (TBT) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) decided for a world-wide ban on TBT in 2003. As a replacement for TBT, new antifouling agents are entering the market. Environmental risk limits (ERLs) are derived for substances that are used as TBT-substitutes, i.e. the compounds Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB. ERLs represent the potential risk of the substances to the ecosystem and are derived using data on (eco)toxicology and environmental chemistry. Only toxicity studies with endpoints related to population dynamics are taken into account. For Irgarol 1051 especially plants appear to be sensitive; the mode of action is inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. Despite the higher sensitivity of the plants, the calculated ERL for water based on plants only is higher than the ERL based on all data due to the lower variability in the plant only dataset. Because there is a mechanistic basis to state that plants are the most sensitive species, we propose to base the ERL for water on the plants only dataset. As dichlofluanid is highly unstable in the water phase, it is recommended to base the ERL on the metabolites formed and not on the parent compound. No toxicity data of the studied compounds for organisms living in sediments were found, the ERLs for sediment are derived with help of the equilibrium partitioning method. For dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil the ERL for soil is directly based on terrestrial data, for Irgarol 1051 and ziram the ERL for soil is derived using equilibrium partitioning. Except for Irgarol 1051, no information was encountered in the open literature on the environmental occurrence in The Netherlands of the chemicals studied. The measured concentrations for Irgarol 1051 are close to the derived ERL. For this compound it is concluded that the species composition and thereby ecosystem functioning cannot be considered as protected

  16. Environmental risk limits for antifouling substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Vlaardingen, P. van

    2004-03-10

    In 1989, the EU restricted the use of tributyl-tin (TBT) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) decided for a world-wide ban on TBT in 2003. As a replacement for TBT, new antifouling agents are entering the market. Environmental risk limits (ERLs) are derived for substances that are used as TBT-substitutes, i.e. the compounds Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB. ERLs represent the potential risk of the substances to the ecosystem and are derived using data on (eco)toxicology and environmental chemistry. Only toxicity studies with endpoints related to population dynamics are taken into account. For Irgarol 1051 especially plants appear to be sensitive; the mode of action is inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. Despite the higher sensitivity of the plants, the calculated ERL for water based on plants only is higher than the ERL based on all data due to the lower variability in the plant only dataset. Because there is a mechanistic basis to state that plants are the most sensitive species, we propose to base the ERL for water on the plants only dataset. As dichlofluanid is highly unstable in the water phase, it is recommended to base the ERL on the metabolites formed and not on the parent compound. No toxicity data of the studied compounds for organisms living in sediments were found, the ERLs for sediment are derived with help of the equilibrium partitioning method. For dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil the ERL for soil is directly based on terrestrial data, for Irgarol 1051 and ziram the ERL for soil is derived using equilibrium partitioning. Except for Irgarol 1051, no information was encountered in the open literature on the environmental occurrence in The Netherlands of the chemicals studied. The measured concentrations for Irgarol 1051 are close to the derived ERL. For this compound it is concluded that the species composition and thereby ecosystem functioning cannot be considered as protected.

  17. Emotion regulation and substance use frequency in women with substance dependence and borderline personality disorder receiving dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Seth R; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dysregulation such as BPD and substance dependence and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions.

  18. Substance Misuse in the Psychiatric Emergency Service; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse is frequently encountered in the psychiatric emergency service (PES and may take many forms, ranging from formal DSM-IV diagnoses to less obvious entities such as hazardous consumption. Detecting such patients using traditional screening instruments has proved problematic. We therefore undertook this study to more fully characterize substance misuse in the PES and to determine whether certain variables might help better screen these patients. We used a prospectively acquired database of over 18,000 visits made to four PESs during a 2-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. One of the variables acquired was a subjective rating by the nursing staff as to whether substance misuse was a contributing factor to the visit (graded as direct, indirect, or not at all. Substance misuse accounted for 21% of all diagnoses and alcohol was the most frequent substance used. Patients were divided into those with primary (PSM, comorbid (CSM or no substance misuse (NSM. Depressive disorders were the most frequent primary diagnoses in CSM, whereas personality and substance misuse disorders were frequent secondary diagnoses in PSM. Although many variables significantly differentiated the three groups, few were sufficiently detailed to be used as potential screening tools. Those situations that did have sufficient details included those with a previous history of substance misuse, substance misuse within 48 hours of the visit, and visits graded by the nursing staff as being directly and/or indirectly related to substance misuse. Variables related to substance misuse itself were the primary predictors of PSM and, less significantly, CSM. The nursing staff rating, although promising, was obtained in less than 30% of all visits, rendering its practical use difficult to assess.

  19. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  20. A Feminist Intervention That Hurt Women: Biological Differences, Ergonomics, and Occupational Health: Une intervention féministe qui a nui aux femmes: différences biologiques, égalité, ergonomie et santé au travail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Karen

    2017-11-01

    The University of Québec in Montréal has agreements with trade unions providing access to university resources. Researchers involved in this program worked in partnership with union women's and health and safety committees for more than twenty years. Not all studies succeeded in improving women's working conditions. One joint project involved observational studies of tasks done by health-care workers, complemented by interviews and questionnaires. We found that task assignments, movements, postures, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied by gender/sex and made recommendations for change. However, issues of pay equity, spending on health care, and contracting-out of "ancillary work" were salient. Researchers learned that in the absence of changes in power relationships in the workplace, women may be disadvantaged by denial as well as by exaggeration of female-male differences. Men may also be at risk when their gender is invisible. We suggest some feminist approaches to workplace solutions and some pathways for research. Résumé L'Université du Québec à Montréal a signé avec des centrales syndicales des ententes leur donnant un accès à des ressources universitaires. Des chercheures ont travaillé en partenariat avec des comités syndicaux de condition des femmes et de santé-sécurité au travail pendant plus de 25 ans, mais ce ne sont pas toutes les études qui ont abouti à des améliorations. Un projet concernait des observations du travail d'employé.e.s du secteur de la santé, dont les tâches, mouvements, et postures variaient selon le genre/sexe. Nous avons recommandé des transformations, mais des enjeux d'équité salariale, de coûts et de sous-traitance y ont fait obstacle. Les chercheures ont appris qu'en l'absence de transformation des rapports de pouvoir au travail, le déni des différences hommes-femmes, autant que leur exagération, peut désavantager les travailleuses (et les travailleurs). Nous suggérons des approches f

  1. How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, Eugene L; Hechtman, Lily; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Victor, Elizabeth C; Kollins, Scott H; Wells, Karen C; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Blonde, Andrew; Nguyen, Celeste; Ambriz, Lizeth; Nguyen, Jenny L

    2017-02-01

    Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21.7-26.7 years-old). SU persisters perceived SU positively affects emotional states and positive emotional effects outweigh negative effects. No ADHD group effects emerged. Qualitative analysis identified perceptions that cannabis enhanced positive mood for ADHD and LNCG SU persisters, and improved negative mood and ADHD for ADHD SU persisters. Perceptions about SU broadly and mood do not differentiate ADHD and non-ADHD SU persisters. However, perceptions that cannabis is therapeutic may inform ADHD-related risk for cannabis use.

  2. Substance Misuse and Substance use Disorders: Why do they Matter in Healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, A Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper first introduces important conceptual and practical distinctions among three key terms: substance "use," "misuse," and "disorders" (including addiction), and goes on to describe and quantify the important health and social problems associated with these terms. National survey data are presented to summarize the prevalence and varied costs associated with misuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescribed medications in the United States. With this as background, the paper then describes historical views, perspectives, and efforts to deal with substance misuse problems in the United States and discusses how basic, clinical, and health service research, combined with recent changes in healthcare legislation and financing, have set the stage for a more effective, comprehensive public health approach.

  3. Comparison of subjective wellbeing in substance users and the parents or partners of substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    There is growing interest in the impact of substance use on both the individual consumer's subjective wellbeing (SWB) and the reduced SWB of those closely connected to him or her. The study aimed to compare SWB among substance users ('consumers') and the parents or partners affected by another's substance use, and to evaluate the effect of counselling on changed SWB to 6 months. The study used longitudinal data from a not-for-profit treatment service based in Perth, Australia. Subjective wellbeing was assessed with the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) at baseline and 6 months. Data were compared to national norms (mean 75.97) with one sample t tests. Change in PWI scores was assessed with generalised linear mixed models, controlling for age, gender, group (consumers versus parents or partners), psychological distress (Kessler-10) and social connectedness (Lubben). Of 220 participants, 136 (62%) were consumers and 84 (38%) were parents or partners. At 6 months 123 (56%) were re-interviewed. At baseline, both consumers (mean 53.7) and parents or partners (mean 66.1) had significantly lower PWI scores than national norms. At 6 months, only the substance users' PWI scores remained significantly lower (mean 67.8). Subjective wellbeing significantly increased with time (β = 5.52; 95% confidence interval 3.15, 7.90), with no significant time by group interaction. Both groups showed significant decrements in SWB compared with the general population but with improvements over the study period. However, the lack of a control group prevents definitive assertions on causality for improved SWB. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Substance Misuse and Substance use Disorders: Why do they Matter in Healthcare?

    OpenAIRE

    MCLELLAN, A. THOMAS

    2017-01-01

    This paper first introduces important conceptual and practical distinctions among three key terms: substance “use,” “misuse,” and “disorders” (including addiction), and goes on to describe and quantify the important health and social problems associated with these terms. National survey data are presented to summarize the prevalence and varied costs associated with misuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescribed medications in the United States.

  5. The Spread of Substance Use and Delinquency between Adolescent Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…

  6. Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined substance use in adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood, during adolescence, or who were from intact families. Adolescence divorce group had greater overall drug involvement. Divorce had negative effect on boys but not on girls. Custodial parents' remarriage led to increased substance use among girls, decreased…

  7. Substance Abuse and the Workplace. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    According to the United States Department of Labor, 73% of drug users in 1997 were employed. Numerous studies, reports, and surveys suggest that substance abuse is having a negative effect on the workplace in terms of decreased productivity; increased accidents; absenteeism; turnover; and medical costs. However, workplace substance abuse is a…

  8. 75 FR 1812 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves... registration or re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw or coca leaves... such basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall under the authority...

  9. 76 FR 5827 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Phenylacetone (8501) II Coca Leaves (9040) II... re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw or coca leaves. As... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall under the authority of section...

  10. Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report follows an extensive survey of primary care physicians (N=400) about the problem of substance abuse in women over the age of 59. Research has shown that an individual who reaches the age of 21 without smoking, using drugs, or abusing alcohol is virtually never at risk to abuse these substances. The only exception occurs with mature…

  11. Process Evaluation in Corrections-Based Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, James L.; Hartmann, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that process evaluation is needed to validate prison-based substance abuse treatment effectiveness. Five groups--inmates, treatment staff, prison staff, prison administration, and the parole board--should be a part of this process evaluation. Discusses these five groups relative to three stages of development of substance abuse treatment in…

  12. Gender and Peer Influence on Substance Abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a survey research study which investigated gender and peer influence on substance abuse among undergraduates in Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. 513 undergraduates were purposively selected for the study. The researchers designed the instrument, Gender and Peer Influence on Substance Abuse ...

  13. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Client Motivation among Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard C.; Li, Li; Siegal, Harvey A.; DeLiberty, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of motivation in substance abusers' acceptance of treatment and its relation to treatment outcomes. Better motivation was consistently associated with severity of substance use. Motivation was not related to alcohol and drug use severity six months later. Severity associated with motivation at entry was not related to clients'…

  14. Interpersonal Contact and Attitudes toward Adolescents Who Abuse Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B.; Montgomery, LaTrice; Brubaker, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Only 7.6% of adolescents in need of substance abuse treatment actually receive it. Many adolescents are hesitant to seek treatment due to public stigma (i.e., negative attitudes and beliefs of the general public toward individuals who abuse substances). However, decades of research indicate that interpersonal contact with stigmatized groups helps…

  15. 75 FR 10312 - Importer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import Remifentanil for use in dosage form manufacturing. No comments or objections have been received. DEA has.... to import the basic class of controlled substance is consistent with the public interest, and with...

  16. 75 FR 64744 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled substance in schedule I or II are, and... this section to a bulk manufacturer of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, and prior to issuing... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Remifentanil (9739), a basic class of...

  17. 76 FR 77253 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled substance in schedule I or II are, and... this Section to a bulk manufacturer of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, and prior to issuing... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Remifentanil (9739), a basic class of...

  18. 76 FR 17967 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ...), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import Remifentanil for use in dosage form manufacturing. No comments or objections have been received. DEA has.... to import the basic class of controlled substance is consistent with the public interest, and with...

  19. 76 FR 30969 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... schedule II. The company plans to import Remifentanil in bulk for use in dosage- form manufacturing. Any... registration to import a basic class of any controlled substance in schedule I or II are, and will continue to... this Section to a bulk manufacturer of a controlled substance in schedule I or II, and prior to issuing...

  20. 76 FR 39127 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Remifentanil (9739) the basic class of controlled substance in schedule II. The company plans to utilize this facility to manufacture small quantities of the... primary manufacturing facility in West Deptford, New Jersey. The controlled substances manufactured in...

  1. 77 FR 5849 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Remifentanil (9739), the basic class of controlled substance in schedule II. The company plans to utilize this facility to manufacture small quantities of the... manufacturing facility in West Deptford, New Jersey. The controlled substances manufactured in bulk at this...

  2. The Evolution of an Online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…

  3. Substance use in adolescents with mental illness in Durban, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 ...

  4. 76 FR 81979 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...), the company presently manufactures a small amount of this controlled substance in bulk solely to conduct manufacturing internal process development. It is the company's intention that, when the... (1105) only, the company manufactures these controlled substances in bulk solely for distribution within...

  5. The prevalence of substance use and its associations amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the actual prevalence of substance abuse amongst high school students in this community and factors associated with substance use. In particular, the study evaluated the use of tik (crystal methamphetamine), a relatively new drug. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed amongst 12 secondary ...

  6. 48 CFR 245.7310-5 - Controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) to buy controlled substances as a medical practitioner, dealer... hallucinogenic drugs, shall be subject to the following special conditions: (a) Controlled Substances. Bids will... represents and warrants that it is registered under The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act...

  7. Association Between Substance Use and Gun-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-01-01

    Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Airport security check of medical substances used during patient repatriation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2012-09-16

    During airport security check of passenger luggage, hazardous items and substances are prohibited to be taken into the restricted safety zone of the airport and the aircraft. Among equipment of the medical staff escorting the patient, there are several devices and materials which are considered hazardous for security reasons. However, medical equipment and substances are indispensable for treating patients during the flight. The aim of the author was to present his experience obtained with the use of an instrument developed for testing liquids, aerosols and gels for security reasons. An instrument based on Raman spectroscopy was used for the identification of medical substances. The results confirmed that the instrument was able to recognize the tested medical substances. The non-destructive testing maintained sample integrity and asepsis. The data indicate that the instrument has a promising utility for the identification of medical substances. It seems important that during repatriation medical substances should be selected not only on the ground of their medical necessity, but their packaging should be also taken into consideration. It is necessary to perform more tests on different medical substances used in emergency care in order to make the database of medical substances stored in the library of instrument more complete.

  9. Prevalence and Types of Drugs and Substance Abuse as Expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also revealed that the above drugs and substances were the most used and abused. While snuffs and marijuana were the least abused substances. Based on the findings some counselling implications were highlighted and recommendations made.. The Nigerian Journal of Guidance Counselling Vol. 10 (1) 2005: pp ...

  10. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  11. Postpartum Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    National survey data suggest that new mothers have high prevalences of alcohol and illicit drug use. Depression correlates with substance use, and new mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) may be at high risk for substance use. Understanding postpartum substance use and its relationship to PPD can inform future research and intervention. A literature search was conducted resulting in 12 studies published from 1999–2012 examining postpartum alcohol use, drug use, or combined postpartum depression and substance use. Postpartum alcohol (prevalence range 30.1%−49%) and drug use (4.5%–8.5%) were lower than use among not pregnant, not postpartum women (41.5%–57.5%; 7.6%–10.6%, respectively) but higher than use among pregnant women (5.4%–11.6%; 3.7%–4.3%, respectively). Correlates of postpartum problem drinking were being unemployed, unmarried, and a cigarette smoker. Prevalence of drug use was highest among white new mothers, followed by Blacks and Hispanics, but Black new mothers appeared at greater risk of drug use. No identified studies examined correlates of postpartum drug use beyond race/ethnicity. Postpartum depressive symptoms were prevalent among postpartum substance users and those with a substance use history (19.7%–46%). The postpartum period is a critical time. Prevalent substance use and the scarcity of studies warrant research to identify means to reduce maternal substance use. PMID:23879459

  12. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  13. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  15. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  16. Causal pathways between substance use disorders and personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.

    2005-01-01

    A high co-occurrence between personality and substance use disorders suggests causal relationships between these conditions. Most empirical evidence strongly supports causal pathways in which (pathological) personality traits contribute to the development of a substance use disorder (i.e., primary

  17. Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

  18. Homophily and assimilation among sportactive adolescent substance users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, M; Steglich, Ch.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the co-evolution of social networks and substance use behaviour of adolescents and address the problem of separating the effects of homophily and assimilation. Adolescents who prefer friends with the same substance-use behaviour exhibit the homophily principle. Adolescents who adapt their

  19. Substance abuse in outpatients attending rural and urban health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya. ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. Design: A ... Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted.

  20. Representing Energy. I. Representing a Substance Ontology for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, verbal and graphical representations of energy articulate models in which energy is conceptualized as a quasimaterial substance, a stimulus, or a vertical location. We argue that a substance ontology for energy is particularly productive in developing…

  1. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  2. 75 FR 32506 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... of controlled substances listed in schedule II: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. No comments or... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cody Laboratories, Inc...

  3. 77 FR 5846 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate... substances that are manufactured from opium, raw, and poppy straw concentrate. Comments and requests for... and with United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect...

  4. 76 FR 17967 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Raw Opium (9600) II Concentrate of Poppy Straw... substances that are manufactured from raw opium, poppy straw, and concentrate of poppy straw. No comments or... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cody Laboratories, Inc...

  5. General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected.

  6. Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment admission (“other female teen admissions”). Note that TEDS is a census of all admissions to treatment facilities reported to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by State substance abuse agencies. IN BRIEF X X Between 2007 and 2010, about 57,000 ...

  7. Clinical Supervision of Substance Abuse Counselors: Current and Preferred Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreth, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national survey of substance abuse counselors (N=134) to learn their current and preferred supervision practices. Results suggests that substance abuse counselor are receiving supervision similar to other counselors. No preference was indicated for the sex of the supervisor, nor for the 12-step recovery experience. Counselors did…

  8. The prevalence and factors affecting psychoactive substance use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychoactive substance use is a proliferating public health and social problem leading to negative multi-dimensional impact especially among young people. This study was done to determine the prevalence and factors predisposing to psychoactive substance use among undergraduates in University of Uyo, ...

  9. Pattern of psychoactive substance use in the northern region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of psychoactive substance use in the northern region of Nigeria. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of psychoactive substance use among inmates at Kiru Rehabilitation Centre, Kano in the North Central Region of Nigeria, to determine the extent of ...

  10. Prevalence of substance use and association with psychiatric illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of substance use among inpatients of a Psychiatric Hospital in Uyo, Nigeria, to determine the association with onset of psychiatric illness. A total of 124 inpatients admitted into a Psychiatric Unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were assessed for substance ...

  11. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent's peers' parents and an adolescent's substance use. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home. Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Main Exposure Authoritative vs neglectful parenting style of adolescent's parents and adolescent's friends' parents and adolescent substance use. ...

  12. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  13. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  14. Demographic Variables and Recreational Substance Use Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. Robert; Davis, Jaime L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined relationship between demographic variables and recreational substance use in college students (N=832). Results revealed that persons using certain recreational substances differed significantly from nonusers. Marijuana users differed from nonusers on parental income, high school grade point average, and political orientation. No…

  15. Examining the Interface between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.

  16. Joint Solutions to Substance Abuse: Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and Local Government Labor-Management Committee, Washington, DC.

    This short booklet is a joint expression by public sector labor and management that recognizes that neither side has all the answers to the problems of employee substance abuse and that both share a common concern for a successful outcome. The booklet summarizes the dimension of substance abuse in today's workplace; and it tries to encourage…

  17. Predicting incentives to change among adolescents with substance abuse disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Carolyn; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2004-05-01

    While interest in understanding the incentives to change among individuals with substance abuse disorders is growing, little is known about incentives among adolescents with substance abuse disorders who are participating in formal services. The present research assesses the degree and nature of motivation and treatment readiness among adolescents admitted to substance abuse services, and whether such factors vary across significant subgroups of youth based on their social, legal, or clinical profiles. Data are based on interviews with 249 youth between 12 and 18 years of age who have been admitted to either inpatient, residential, or outpatient substance abuse treatment. Measures are adapted from an instrument developed to assess multiple domains of motivation to change (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, treatment readiness). Results suggest that the incentive to change among adolescents with substance-abusing behavior is modest at best, regardless of dimension. Nonetheless, ethnicity, type of substance use, and psychopathology significantly predict incentives to change, though the predictors depend on which dimension is considered. The most robust predictor of incentives is the severity of negative consequences associated with youth's substance use--the greater the severity, the greater the incentives. Findings underscore the need to examine the utility and dimensionality of incentive for treatment planning, while at the same time, they identify factors that treatment planners can consider as they seek ways to enhance incentives and help adolescents with substance use disorders attain positive outcomes.

  18. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  19. Qui représente qui ? Choix organisationnels, identités sociales et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    16 sept. 2006 ... recherche effectué au Sud-Cameroun depuis trois ans. .... secteur forestier sont passées par exemple en moins d'une décennie de 10 milliards de .... 1974, la Loi forestière n° 81/13 du 27 novembre 1981, et de nombreux pas-.

  20. Substance Use Stigma: Reliability and validity of a theory-based scale for substance-using populations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laramie R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Copenhaver, Michael M.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders consistently rank among the most stigmatized conditions worldwide. Thus, substance use stigma fosters health inequities among persons with substance use disorders and remains a key barrier to successful screening and treatment efforts. Current efforts to measure substance use stigma are limited. This study aims to advance measurement efforts by drawing on stigma theory to develop and evaluate the Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale (SU-SMS). The SU-SMS was designed to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized substance use stigma mechanisms among persons with current and past substance use disorders, and distinguish between key stigma sources most likely to impact this target population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional evaluation of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the SU-SMS across two independent samples with diverse substance use and treatment histories. Results Findings support the structural and construct validity of the SU-SMS, suggesting the scale was able to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma as distinct stigma experiences. It also further differentiated between two distinct stigma sources (family and healthcare providers). Analysis of these mechanisms and psychosocial metrics suggests that the scale is also associated with other health-related outcomes. Furthermore, the SU-SMS demonstrated high levels of internal reliability and generalizability across two independent samples of persons with diverse substance use disorders and treatment histories. Conclusion The SU-SMS may serve as a valuable tool for better understanding the processes through which substance use stigma serves to undermine key health behaviors and outcomes among persons with substance use disorders. PMID:26972790

  1. Article Commentary: Prenatal Substance Use: Exploring Assumptions of Maternal Unfitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishka Terplan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing knowledge and understanding of addiction as a chronic relapsing medical condition, individuals with substance use disorders (SUD continue to experience stigmatization. Pregnant women who use substances suffer additional stigma as their use has the potential to cause fetal harm, calling into question their maternal fitness and often leading to punitive responses. Punishing pregnant women denies the integral interconnectedness of the maternal-fetal dyad. Linking substance use with maternal unfitness is not supported by the balance of the scientific evidence regarding the actual harms associated with substance use during pregnancy. Such linkage adversely impacts maternal, child, and family health by deterring pregnant women from seeking both obstetrical care and SUD treatment. Pregnant women who use substances deserve compassion and care, not pariah-status and punishment.

  2. The ISS dangerous substances classification and labelling database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Prospero Fanghella, P.; Izzo, P.; Morassi, E.

    2008-01-01

    The database contains information about the substances marketed in the European Union at present. About 8000 out of 100000 substances on the market are listed in Annex I (Directive 67/548/EC), the published list of substances with a harmonised classification and labelling. For each entry the database gives the following details: name, CAS number, EC number, classification, labelling, specific concentration limits, reference to the last amended EU and national law. There is also a section where the legislative frame is reported together with the EU Directives and the corresponding national implementation decrees. In addition to searching a substance by name/part of the name or identifying numbers the query can be done by symbols, R and S phrases, substance categories [it

  3. A method for sorting irradiated substances according to their color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Baldwin.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method for isolating quartz, quartzit, glass or silicate-containing substances with known contents of aluminium. That nondestructive method comprises the step of exposing said substances to an ionizing radiation for a sufficient duration and with a sufficent intensity for developing the various colors typical of the substances containing aluminium ions. Depending on the ions associated with the aluminiums ions, the intensity of each of the developed colors corresponds to the amount of aluminium contained in the crystals. In this way, aluminium-free quartz, quartzit, glass or silicate-containing substances can be isolated if they exist in a mixture containing portions of said substances each of which has a known uniform aluminium content [fr

  4. Health Reform for Communities: Financing Substance Abuse Services. Recommendations from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing not only substance use, but also the economic, health, and social costs associated with substance abuse. This document examines how health care reform can preserve and enhance community substance abuse services. The cost effectiveness of funding substance abuse prevention…

  5. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have... designating (for all listed PFAS chemical substances) processing as a significant new use. EPA is also... 40 CFR 721.9582 for PFAS chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have completed the...

  6. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  7. Use of psychoactive substances in students at a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Luci da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of psychoactive substances by the student population has been the object of various studies in Brazil. Objective: To determine the prevalence of substance use among students. Methods: Quantitative study with a closed questionnaire based on standardized assessment instruments was developed. It consists of questions related to types of psychoactive substance use, abuse, frequency and duration of use, self-criticism regarding the use, consequences of use in relation to health, and misdemeanors committed under the influence of psychoactive substances. The sample included the participation of 268 students. A total of 183 (68.3% questionnaires were analyzed, and only those with positive result for substance abuse at some point in life, the remainder, 85 (31% questionnaires, had negative responses to psychoactive substances. Results: Students’ responses to the two years surveyed indicated that the first psychoactive substance used was alcohol (77.9%, followed by tobacco use (10.9%, and marijuana (7.6%. Of the students surveyed, 145 (79.2% answered that still make use of psychoactive substances, and the current frequency of use varies from one or more times per week. When asked about the possibility of being or becoming drug addicts, 169 (92.3% responded that they are not or will not become dependent. Conclusion: The results indicate the high rate of substance use among college students surveyed, and point to their contradiction to consider such psychoactive substances harmful to their health.

  8. The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzandt, Joseph David

    The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason

  9. Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding

  10. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    .... FDA-2013-N-1525] List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug... proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy compounding and preparing to develop a list of... Formulary monograph, if a monograph exists, and the United States Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy...

  11. Substance use, substance use disorders, and comorbidity patterns in a representative sample of incarcerated male Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; van den Brink, Wim; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) among incarcerated boys, and comorbidity patterns and the relationship between SUDs and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of SUDs and other psychiatric disorders was

  12. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  13. Screening of chemical substances ; Application of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, USES 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gingnagel P; Vermeire TG; ACT

    1995-01-01

    Priority setting is a sequential process and can be regarded a first step in the risk management of substances. It is used to extract, from the many thousands of substances, those that are expected to be the most riskful to man and the environment and therefore deserve the highest attention from

  14. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  15. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, N; Dey, M; Eich-Höchli, D; Foster, S; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-06-01

    Functional and mental health impairments that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience may be exacerbated by regular substance use and co-morbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). This may be especially true during young adulthood, which represents a critical stage of life associated with increased substance use and associated problems. However, previous studies investigating the association between ADHD and substance use and SUD have demonstrated inconsistent results, probably due to methodological limitations (e.g., small and non-representative samples). Thus, the relationship of ADHD with substance use and related disorders remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ADHD and both the use of licit and illicit substances and the presence of SUD in a large, representative sample of young men. The sample included 5677 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.23 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed using the adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). The association between ADHD and substance use and SUD was assessed for alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs, while controlling for socio-demographic variables and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depression (MD) and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD)). Men with ADHD were more likely to report having used nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs at some time in their life, but not alcohol. ADHD was positively associated with early initiation of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use, the risky use of these substances, and the presence of alcohol use disorders, and nicotine and cannabis dependence. Additionally, our analyses revealed that these patterns are also highly associated with ASPD. After adjusting for this disorder, the association between ADHD and licit and illicit substance use and the presence of SUDs was reduced, but remained significant. Our findings

  16. When acute-stage psychosis and substance use co-occur: differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, C L; Samet, S; Hasin, D S

    2000-09-01

    Substances such as alcohol, cocaine, amphetamine, and cannabis can produce psychotic reactions in individuals who are otherwise free of serious mental illness. However, persons with primary psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, who use these substances often present for treatment with signs and symptoms similar to those whose psychosis resulted from the use of drugs alone. While it is often difficult to distinguish substance-induced from primary psychoses, especially early in the course of treatment, this differential diagnosis has important implications for treatment planning. To help clinicians distinguish these two types of presentations, the authors first review the types of psychotic symptoms that can co-occur with substance use. They discuss the prevalence and patterns of substance use that have been found in patients with schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders and review the negative outcomes associated with substance use in this population. The prevalence of and types of symptoms and problems associated with psychotic symptoms that occur as a result of substance use alone are also reviewed. The authors describe assessment procedures for differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders. They stress the importance of accurately establishing the temporal relationship between the substance use and the onset and continuation of psychotic symptoms in making a differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of being familiar with the types of psychological symptoms that can occur with specific substances. The authors review the utility and limitations of a number of diagnostic instruments for assessing patients with co-occurring psychosis and substance use problems, including The Addiction Severity Index, The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and diagnostic interviews such as the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM. They then discuss the

  17. La concurrence des experts. Ou qui a le droit de dire ce qu’est la “traite des blanches” dans l’Allemagne de Weimar Competition Among Experts. Or who has the Right to say what Constitutes “White Slavery” in Weimar Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Majerus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A travers une polémique qui éclate en 1929 dans le milieu associatif et social juif de la république de Weimar, cet article s’intéresse à la problématique de la constitution de l’expertise. A l’époque, différents acteurs s’opposent, chacun prétendant avoir la légitimité de “dire la vérité” à propos de la traite des blan­ches en Allemagne. Le “champ de la connaissance”, composé d’auteurs issus des sciences humaines comme Max Kreutzberger, s’oppose au “champ de l’ex­périence”, composé de personnes qui travaillent dans des associations juives et qui essayent d’établir un lien entre traite, prostitution et combat moral. Cette po­lémique constitue un cas d’étude révélateur des tensions qui naissent lors de la construction d’un savoir social sur la prostitution dans l’entre-deux-guerres.Through a polemic which broke out in 1929 in the Jewish associative and social medium of the Weimar Republic, this article looks into the problematic of establishing expertise. At the time, various contending actors each claimed to have legitimacy, “to know the truth” about white slavery in Germany. The “field of savants”, composed of authors issuing from the human sciences - like Max Kreutzberger, were opposed by the “the experimental field”, composed of people working in Jewish associations that tried to establish a bond between slavery, prostitution and moral combat. This polemic is a revealing case study of the tensions which arose in the development of social knowledge on prostitution in the inter-war period.

  18. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: Complexation of actinides with humic substances. 1. progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.; Rhee, D.S.; Wimmer, H.; Decambox, P.; Mauchien, P.; Moulin, C.; Moulin, V.; Tits, J.; Marquardt, C.; Riegel, J.; Sattelberger, P.; Herrmann, G.; Trautmann, N.; Diercks, A.; Vancluysen, J.; Maes, A.; Bidoglio, G.; Righetto, L.

    1992-02-01

    The aim of the present research programme is to study the complexation behaviour of actinide ions with humic substances in natural aquifer systems and hence to quantify the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration. Aquatic humic substances commonly found in all groundwaters in different concentrations have a strong tendency towards complexation with actinide ions. This is one of the major geochemical reactions but hitherto least quantified. Therefore, the effect of humic substances on the actinide migration is poorly understood. In the present research programme the complexation of actinide ions with humic substances will be described thermodynamically. This description will be based on a model being as simple as possible to allow an easy introduction of the resulting constants into geochemical modelling of the actinide migration. This programme is a continuation of the activities of the COCO group in the second phase of the CEC-MIRAGE project. (orig.)

  19. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  20. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  1. Substance Of Library: Knowledge In Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan S. Keseroğlu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is based on seeking an answer to the question what the primal substance of the library, its arch is. While considering the prehistoric situation of “knowledge” emerging as an answer to that question and the production of knowledge and its transfer to next generations by primitive (legend based groups in prehistoric times, the hypothesis of the work is that knowledge existed in prehistoric times and its prior and main owners and controllers were magicians. Scientific development covers the phases of magic, religion and mind. During prehistoric times of magic there was no writing but knowledge reflecting characteristics of scientific disciplines of nowadays and especially important developments in the field of classification are to be observed. Besides, in prehistoric times the meaning of magic covers the concept of knowledge and the meaning of magician covers the concept of the one who knows, who is wise. The other way, it would be impossible to explain the rush production tablets with the invention of writing.

  2. Monitoring programme. Radioactive substances - report for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring of radioactive substances in the vicinity of nuclear sites in the United Kingdom by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, acts as an independent check on the operator's returns, on the environmental impact of radioactive waste disposal at authorised sites and on radiation doses to critical groups of the public. In 1994 the programme included the analysis of 160 effluent samples, the analysis of low-level solid radioactive waste destined for the British Nuclear Fuels site at Drigg, and the analysis of a total of 290 environmental samples and direct monitoring at over 150 locations. The materials monitored are those that might result in exposure of the public to radiation by non-food pathways and complements monitoring by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. Radiation exposures by these pathways which may have been incurred in 1994 are similar to those in previous years and, in all cases, fall substantially below the International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended principal dose limit of 1mSv per year. (UK)

  3. Radioactive substances monitoring programme. Report for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Substances Act 1993 provides for controls to be exercised over the use and keeping of radioactive materials and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive wastes. The Environment Agency (the Agency) has been responsible for administration and enforcement of the Act in England and Wales since its formation on 1 April 1996. Prior to this date the work was undertaken by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP). In support of its regulatory functions HMIP commissioned independent monitoring. This report presents the results from monitoring undertaken in 1995. The 1995 HMIP programme required operators of certain sites to provide samples of their liquid effluents for independent radiochemical analysis. The results provide checks on site operators' returns and insights into their quality assurance (QA) procedures and analytical techniques. The analyses were undertaken by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC) at its laboratories in Teddington, Middlesex. The programme also included checks on solid low level radioactive waste destined for land disposal at the site operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg in Cumbria. (author)

  4. Sampling for radionuclides and other trace substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Various problems with the environment and an energy crisis have resulted in considerable emphasis on the analysis and understanding of natural systems. The present generation of ecological models suffers greatly from a lack of attention to use of accurate and efficient sampling methods in obtaining the data on which these models are based. Improving ecological sampling requires first of all that the objectives be clearly defined, since different schemes are required for sampling for totals, for changes over time and space, to determine hazards, or for estimating parameters in models. The frequency distributions of most ecological contaminants are not normal, but seem instead to follow a skewed distribution. Coefficients of variation appear to be relatively constant and typical values may range from 0.1 to 1.0 depending on the substance and circumstances. These typical values may be very useful in designing a sampling plan, either for fixed relative variance, or in terms of the sensitivity of a comparison. Several classes of sampling methods are available for particular kinds of objectives. The notion of optimal sampling for parameter estimates is new to ecology, but may possibly be adapted from work done in industrial experimentation to provide a rationale for sampling in time

  5. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): Sampling ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a large group of manufactured compounds used in a variety of industries, such as aerospace, automotive, textiles, and electronics, and are used in some food packaging and firefighting materials. For example, they may be used to make products more resistant to stains, grease and water. In the environment, some PFAS break down very slowly, if at all, allowing bioaccumulation (concentration) to occur in humans and wildlife. Some have been found to be toxic to laboratory animals, producing reproductive, developmental, and systemic effects in laboratory tests. EPA's methods for analyzing PFAS in environmental media are in various stages of development. This technical brief summarizes the work being done to develop robust analytical methods for groundwater, surface water, wastewater, and solids, including soils, sediments, and biosolids. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) methods for analyzing PFAS in environmental media are in various stages of development. EPA is working to develop robust analytical methods for groundwater, surface water, wastewater, and solids, including soils, sediments, and biosolids.

  6. Pyrethroid as a Substance of Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a 22-year-old Hispanic male with a history of bipolar disorder and methamphetamine dependence who was admitted after presenting with suicidal ideations by slashing his throat with a machete. The patient had been smoking and inhaling “processed” pyrethroid for about eight weeks as an inexpensive methamphetamine substitute. He reported experiencing a “rush” similar to methamphetamine after using pyrethroid from liquid insecticide that had been heated (electrocuted or sprayed on hot metal sheets until it crystallized. The patient presented with no significant physical markings or findings but claimed to have his suicidal ideations precipitated by concerns of ill effects of pyrethroid on his health. He also had positive urine drug screen for methamphetamine, which he admitted to using on the day of admission. We conclude that it is important for physicians to maintain a high level of suspicion for alternate and uncommon substances of abuse as well as risks for suicidal tendencies in these patients.

  7. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  8. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  9. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  10. Le volcan Cayambe (Equateur: son activité au cours des 5000 dernières années et les menaces qui en résultent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des produits récents émis par les dômes dacitiques qui constituent la partie sommitale du volcan Cayambe, situé à 60 km au NE de Quito, révèle quatre unités volcaniques comprenant des coulées pyroclastiques à blocs et cendres, des déferlantes et des lahars associés. La plus jeune de ces unités a été émise vers 360 ans BP. Par ailleurs, l’étude des dépôts d’une tourbière du Cayambe met en évidence 23 niveaux de retombées (cendres et lapilli émis au cours de 3 grands cycles d’activité, de 7 à 10 siècles de durée, depuis 4 000 ans. Le dernier de ces cycles, auquel peuvent être rattachées les quatre phases de coulées pyroclastiques, n’est peut-être pas terminé, comme le suggère une petite éruption intervenue en 1785-1786. Ces résultats donnent un éclairage nouveau sur les menaces que ce volcan, fortement englacé, fait peser sur les populations vivant à son pied. EL VOLCÁN CAYAMBE (ECUADOR: SU ACTIVIDAD DESDE LOS ÚLTIMOS 5 000 AÑOS Y LAS AMENAZAS CORRESPONDIENTES. El estudio de los productos recientes emitidos por los domos dacíticos que forman la cumbre del volcán Cayambe, ubicado a 60 km al noreste de Quito, revela cuatro unidades de flujos piroclásticos de bloques y ceniza, oleadas y lahares asociados. La unidad más reciente fue emitida alrededor de 360 BP. Además, el estudio de los depósitos de una turbera del Cayambe muestra 23 niveles de caídas (cenizas y lapilli, que corresponden a tres ciclos de actividad, de 7 a 10 siglos de duración cada uno, durante los 4 000 últimos años. El último ciclo, que incluye las cuatro unidades de flujos piroclásticos mencionadas, puede no haber terminado todavía, como lo sugiere la pequeña erupción ocurrida en 1785-1786. Estos resultados enfatizan el peligro que este volcán, cubierto por un espeso casquete glaciar, puede representar para las poblaciones y las infraestructuras establecidas en sus alrededores. CAYAMBE VOLCANO (ECUADOR: ERUPTIVE

  11. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation in E-learning 2.0: Confirmatory Factor Model | Facteurs qui influencent la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage 2.0 : modèle de facteur confirmative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-04-01

    éterminants environnementaux jouent un rôle clé pour modeler la maîtrise de soi dans le processus d’apprentissage. Cet article rapporte une étude sur les influences de l’environnement de cyberapprentissage 2.0 sur la maîtrise de soi. L’étude a cerné les facteurs qui, dans un tel environnement, influencent la maîtrise de soi et déterminent les relations entre les facteurs et la maîtrise de soi. Un modèle théorique de catégorisation des facteurs de réussite pour l’apprentissage autogéré a été proposé pour ce type d’environnement. Un questionnaire a été conçu selon ce modèle et plus de deux cent cinquante élèves en téléapprentissage à Beijing et à Hong Kong y ont répondu. À l’aide d’une technique de modélisation par équation structurelle, les relations entre les facteurs environnementaux et l’autogestion ont été analysées. Les résultats statistiques ont démontré que plusieurs facteurs affectent l’autogestion dans l’environnement de cyberapprentissage 2.0. Ceux-ci comprennent la qualité du système, la qualité de l’information, la qualité du service et la satisfaction de l’usager.

  12. The existing state of sewage sludge containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Makoto; Hisaoka, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive substances were discharged over a wide range from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a result, in sewer system, especially in the combined sewer system that jointly collects rainwater and sewage, radioactive substances accumulated on the surface of urban areas were transferred together with rainwater to sewage plants and accumulated there. In the process of further treatment, radioactive substances were transferred to and concentrated in sewage sludge, and a high concentration of radioactive substances were detected in incineration ash. For this reason, some sewage plants still continuously store dewatered sludge, incinerator ash, etc. This paper introduces the current state of waste treatment from the published data from each local government in Tohoku and Kanto districts. As for the sewer, which is essential as a lifeline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, together with the Japan Sewage Works Association, established 'Investigative Commission on Radioactive Substance Countermeasures in Sewerage System.' This group grasped the damage situation due to radioactive substances, and summarized the measures to be taken by sewage managers, such as the storage method for sewage sludge containing radioactive substances as well as the method for the volume reduction of sewage sludge. (O.A.)

  13. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  15. Attention problems in childhood and adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, Cédric; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Fombonne, Eric; Michel, Grégory; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Melchior, Maria

    2013-12-01

    To assess the link between childhood attention problems (AP) and substance use 18 years later. This cohort study was conducted in a community sample of 1103 French youths followed from 1991 to 2009. Exposures and covariates were childhood behavioral problems (based on parental report at baseline), early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity. Outcome measures were regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use (based on youth reports at follow-up). Individuals with high levels of childhood AP had higher rates of substance use (regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use). However, when taking into account other childhood behavioral problems, early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity, childhood AP were related only to regular tobacco smoking and lifetime cocaine use. Early cannabis exposure was the strongest risk factor for all substance use problems. This longitudinal community-based study shows that, except for tobacco and cocaine, the association between childhood AP and substance use is confounded by a range of early risk factors. Early cannabis exposure plays a central role in later substance use. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  17. Metal homeostasis in Hypogymnia physodes is controlled by lichen substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the lichen substances produced by the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes control the intracellular uptake of divalent transition metals. Incubating lichen thalli with and without their natural content of lichen substances with metal solutions showed that the lichen substances of H. physodes selectively inhibit the uptake of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ , but not of Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ . Such behavior is ecologically beneficial, as ambient concentrations of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ in precipitation and bark are known to limit the abundance of H. physodes, whereas limiting effects of Fe 2+ or Zn 2+ have never been found. This suggests that increasing the Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ tolerance stimulated the evolution of lichen substances in H. physodes. The depsidone physodalic acid is apparently most effective at reducing Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ uptake among the seven lichen substances produced by H. physodes. Probably lichen substances play a general role in the metal homeostasis of lichens. - Lichen substances in Hypogymnia physodes specifically reduce the uptake of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ , but not Fe 2+ or Zn 2+

  18. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-11-03

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  19. Security and health protection during the transport of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.; Bobic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of this work describes the legal regulations which regulate the conditions and method of the transport of hazardous substances, necessary documentation for storage, forwarding and transport. Hazardous substances are defined and classified according to the ADR. The necessary security measures which are taken for the transport of particular types of hazardous substances are mentioned. Marking and labeling of vehicles for the transport of hazardous substances (plates and lists of hazards), packing and marking of packaging is important. The safety measures which are taken at the filling stations of combustible liquids as well as places specially organized for filling, prohibitions and limitations and necessary transport documentation are mentioned. It is visible from the above mentioned that the activity of the whole security chain is necessary and depends on the good knowledge of basic characteristics and features of substances. All the participants in the security chain have to be familiar with and consistently obey the legal regulations. The manufacturer must know the features of the hazardous substance, supervisory services must be acquainted with the threat and potential danger. The hauler and intervention forces must, in case of accidents and damage, be familiar with the emergency procedures in case of accidents and act properly regarding the threatening dangerous substance.(author)

  20. Understanding the Diverse Needs of Children whose Parents Abuse Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

  1. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  2. Treating patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Roger D

    2004-12-01

    Although bipolar disorder is the Axis I psychiatric disorder associated with the highest rate of co-occurring substance use disorders, little research has focused on treatments specifically designed for these patients. The author and his colleagues have developed and studied Integrated Group Therapy (IGT) for this population. This paper describes common themes that have emerged in carrying out IGT for patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence. These include the strong emphasis on depression, as opposed to mania; the predominance of hopelessness; specific patterns of medication noncompliance; and the implications of patients' labeling their substance use as self-medication. Therapeutic aspects involved in addressing these themes are discussed.

  3. The preservation of substance P by lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRIVOY, W A

    1957-09-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) potentiated the response of guinea-pig ileum to substance P but not to histamine. It also inhibited the disappearance of substance P when incubated with guinea-pig brain extract but not when incubated with chymotrypsin. Eserine, morphine, mescaline, chlorpromazine, ergometrine, strychnine and 2 bromo-LSD did not have this effect. Oxytocin was not destroyed by brain extract. The inhibition of the destruction of substance P by LSD could be antagonized by 2 bromo-LSD. This effect of LSD may have some relation to its pharmacological actions.

  4. Pathways from acculturation stress to substance use among latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel Lee; Smokowski, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the link between acculturation stress and substance use among Latino adolescents. In-home interviews were completed with the participants at four time-points between 2005 and 2007. Path analysis was completed using longitudinal data from 286 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona (65% foreign-born). Results indicate that acculturation stress influences family and friend relationships, which in turn affect adolescent mental health problems, and finally, substance use. Key mediators in the pathway from acculturation stress to substance use were parent-adolescent conflict, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Implications for practice and research have been discussed here.

  5. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  6. Aquatic Humic Substances: Relationship Between Origin and Complexing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guadarrama, María de Jesús; Armienta-Hernández, Ma Aurora; Rosa, André H

    2018-05-01

    Aiming to determine the relationship between source and complexing capacity, humic substances obtained from three sites (Sorocaba and Itapanhau Brasilian rivers, and Xochimilco Lake in Mexico) were studied. Copper, manganese, zinc and arsenic complexing capacity were determined for the three substances under various pH conditions. Results showed similar complexing capacity for the three elements depending on the chemistry of each one and on the physico-chemical conditions. Speciation diagrams showed that these conditions affect both, the humic substances, and the transition metals and arsenic.

  7. Effect of new disinfectant substances on pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majtan, V.

    1998-01-01

    The anti-bacterial effect of 13 new commercially manufactured disinfectant substances on P. aeruginosa strain was studied. The substances tested represent 9 quaternary ammonium salts QAT and 4 combined QAT with other ingredients. The antimicrobial efficacy was characterised by influencing the growth and reproduction of bacterial cells expressed either by MIC and ED 50 as well as and ED 50 , as well as by the inhibition of incorporation rate of incorporation rate of [ 14 C] adenine and [ 14 C] leucine. The method of inhibition of [ 14 C] precursors is suitable as one from possible evaluation criterion on anti-bacterial efficacy of synthetic disinfectant substances. (authors)

  8. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.

  9. Yoga and substance use disorders: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Varshney, Mohit

    2017-02-01

    Yoga has been utilized for promotion of health and alleviating distress. It has also been used as a therapeutic measure in the field of mental health, including substance use disorders. This narrative review discusses the literature pertaining to use of yoga in the treatment of substance use disorders. The evidence base especially with regards to randomized trials is presented. The possible mechanisms how yoga might be helpful in the treatment of substance use disorders are explored. Subsequently, implications of yoga in clinical practice are elaborated, followed by examination of the issues in interpretation of the literature of published yoga related studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronheim, S.; Sheppard, M.C.; Pimstone, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  11. Substance Use among Youth with Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Parental incarceration impacts millions of children in the U.S. and has important consequences for youths’ adjustment. Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including substance abuse problems. Using data from a statewide survey of youth behavior, the effect of both present and past parental incarceration on youths’ report of their substance use behaviors was examined. Both present and past parental incarceration was significantly associated with use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drugs, as well as substance abuse and dependence. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:29170570

  12. Socio-demographic factors and substance use in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances

  13. Kinetic and diffusion evaporation of substances on sublimation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I.G.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion-kinetic model of sublimation of substances in vacuum determining fields of the evaporation according to temperature - kinetic and diffusion is performed. The model is experimentally confirmed in the tests with benzoic acid and naphthalene, by calculation of the rate of Zn, Co, V, W sublimation and the value of coefficient of evaporation α. The model provides an explanation for derivation of low values of evaporation coefficient α, to 10 -10 , for easy to fusible substances, and α=1 for substances with high temperature of fusion [ru

  14. Frequency of substance abuse among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet

    2013-12-01

    Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life without closest relatives, banishment and various types of war and post-war trauma. To determine the frequency of substance abuse among adolescents; Identify potentially relevant biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents; To explore adolescents attitudes towards drug use; Examine the general level of knowledge of adolescents about drugs and their effects. The study was conducted on randomized sample of 502 students in two primary and three secondary schools in Sarajevo and Gracanica. To study used survey method. Survey instrument was a self-made questionnaire with the research variables. The obtained data were processed by a computer and statistically correlated. The study is of combined, retrospective, prospective and transversal type. To the question "How many times have you consumed cannabis in the last 30 days" about 6% of the respondents have tried once or twice, while 1.5% use it daily, ecstasy have tried one or two times 2.25%, while 0.5% have daily use. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that students at schools in Sarajevo consumed drugs 50% more than the children in Gracanica. Analyzing the age at which the subjects consumed the drug for the first time, we came to the conclusion that in the third year of high school only 8% of adolescents have tried any drugs before they turned 15 years. This percentage among eighth graders is about three times higher. Presented research results clearly suggest a strong contamination of the living

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sorption behaviour of perfluoroalkyl substances in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), was studied in six soils with contrasting characteristics, especially in the organic carbon content. Sorption isotherms were obtained by equilibrating the soil samples with 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl2 solutions spiked with increasing concentrations of the target PFAS. The sorption reversibility of PFASs was also tested for some of the samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify the target PFASs in the solutions. Both the Freundlich and linear models were appropriate to describe the sorption behaviour of PFASs in soils, and enabled us to derive solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) for each compound in each soil. Kd values increased from 19 to 295 mL g(-1) for PFOS, from 2.2 to 38 mL g(-1) for PFOA and from 0.4 to 6.8 mL g(-1) for PFBS, and were positively correlated with the organic carbon content of the soil. KOC values obtained from the correlations were 710, 96 and 17 mL g(-1) for PFOS, PFOA and PFBS, respectively. Whereas Kd values decreased in the sequence PFOS>PFOA>PFBS, desorption yields were lower than 13% for PFOS, from 24 to 58% for PFOA, and from 32 to 60% for PFBS. This shows that the physicochemical characteristics of PFASs, basically their hydrophobicity, controlled their sorption behaviour in soils, with PFOS being the most irreversibly sorbed PFAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances and beta cell deficient diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Baqiyyah; Innes, Karen E; Long, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic hydrocarbons shown to preserve pancreatic islet cell viability and reduce islet cell hypoxia and apoptosis. We investigated the relationship of serum PFAS with diabetes, and whether this varied by diabetes type. 6,460 individuals with and 60,439 without diabetes from the C8 Health Project, were categorized into three groups: type 1 (n=820), type 2 (n=4,291), or uncategorized diabetes (n=1,349, missing data on diabetes type or diabetes based on blood sugar at study entry). Four PFAS were investigated: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA). PFAS levels were significantly lower in those with diabetes, and lowest in those with type 1 diabetes. In age and sex adjusted analyses, ORs (CI) for type 1, type 2, and uncategorized diabetes compared to no diabetes were 0.59 (0.54-0.64), 0.74 (0.71-0.77), 0.84 (0.78-0.90), respectively for PFHxS; 0.69 (0.65-0.74), 0.87 (0.89-0.91), 0.92 (0.88-0.97), respectively for PFOA; 0.65 (0.61-0.70), 0.86 (0.82-0.90), 0.93 (0.86-1.03), respectively for PFOS; and 0.65 (0.57-0.74), 0.94 (0.88-1.00), 0.95 (0.85-1.06), respectively for PFNA. Further adjustment for eGFR and other covariates did not eliminate these inverse associations. PFAS levels were negatively associated with diabetes. This inverse relationship was strongest for type 1 diabetes, suggesting the relationship with serum PFAS may vary with the severity of islet cell deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative attributions towards people with substance use disorders in South Africa: Variation across substances and by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorsdahl Katherine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has examined attitudes towards people who use substances in low and middle income countries (LMIC. Therefore, the present study examined the attributions made by the general South African population about people who use substances and whether these attributions differ by the type of substance being used, the gender of the person using the substance, or the characteristics of the person making the attribution. Method A convenience sample of 868 members of the general public was obtained through street-intercept methods. One of 8 vignettes portraying alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine or heroin, with either a male or female as the protagonist was presented to each respondent. Respondents’ attitudes towards the specific cases were investigated. Results Respondents held equally negative views of the presented substances, with the exception of the cannabis vignette which was considered significantly less “dangerous” than the alcohol vignette. Respondents were more likely to offer “help” to women who use alcohol, but more likely to suggest “coercion into treatment” for men. Individuals who scored higher on the ASSIST were more likely to hold negative attitudes towards substance users and black African respondents were more likely to offer help to individuals who use substances. Conclusion The stigma associated with substance use in South Africa is high and not necessarily dependent on the drug of choice. However, a range of factors, including gender of the substance user, and ethnicity of the rater, may impact on stigma. Interventions designed to strengthen mental health literacy and gender-focused anti-stigma campaigns may have the potential to increase treatment seeking behaviour.

  19. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for 125 I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells

  20. Substance Abuse in Addicts Referred to Public and Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhodaei M.* MSc,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Drug addiction is a mental, social, and economic problem that comes from abnormal and illicit consumption of substances such as alcohol, opium, hashish, and etc., making the addict psychologically and physiologically dependent to those substances. This study was designed and performed to evaluate the pattern of drug abuse change in the addicts visiting addiction treatment centers of Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This retrospective descriptive research was performed on 4066 persons referred to addiction treatment and harm reduction therapy centers, monitored by Kashan University of Medical Sciences, during 2004 to 2008. After coding, data were entered into the SPSS 16 software. Chi-square and one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings The main reasons of the tendency to drugs were not having fun (72.5%, family problems (55% and not having knowledge (22.7%. The use of opium was the highest in all the years while the crack was used by 7.1% of drug addicts in 2004 and increased to 76% in 2007. 92.8% of drug abuses were through fumigation, 33.7% through injection, 48% orally and 8.6% through inhalants. Conclusion Youths are the most vulnerable age group to drug addiction. Easy access to illegal drugs, wrong friends, and curiosity are of the significant factors spreading drug addiction.

  1. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  2. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Shevtsova, J; Gladkowa, N D; Gelikonov, V M; Gonchukov, S A; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2008-01-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients

  3. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The sale or gift of an alcoholic beverage to a person under 21 years of age, except where allowed by... by the Presidio Trust when under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance to a degree that...

  4. Help-seeking by substance dependants presenting to healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benzodiazepine, ecstasy, cocaine and inhalant dependency at general practitioners, private psychiatrists, treatment centres and non-prescribing therapists was compared. Different patterns of help seeking for substance dependence from the various professional groups were detected. Regarding alcohol dependence ...

  5. 75 FR 69705 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... re-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw, and coca leaves. As... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall under the authority of section...

  6. 76 FR 14688 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-registration to import crude opium, poppy straw, concentrate of poppy straw or coca leaves. As explained in the... controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall under the authority of section 1002(a)(2)(B) of...

  7. 75 FR 65658 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ..., and coca leaves. As explained in the Correction to Notice of Application pertaining to Rhodes... DEA to manufacture such basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall...

  8. 76 FR 35241 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ..., and coca leaves. As explained in the Correction to Notice of Application pertaining to Rhodes... DEA to manufacture such basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedule I or II, which fall...

  9. Stigma, treatment beliefs, and substance abuse treatment use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with individuals who need help tending to deny or hide their condition for fear ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, U. S. A,. 2004. 19. Strauss ... Community based organizations for substance users in Cape Town,.

  10. 75 FR 69462 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... 36683), Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg, Virginia 23805, made... registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. to import the basic class of controlled substance is..., conventions, or protocols in effect on [[Page 69463

  11. Why Do Adolescents Use Substances (Drugs/Alcohol)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Zigmond A.

    1986-01-01

    Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)

  12. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress, peer relationships and frequency of family meals.7,8,9,10 Amongst ... students with the fewest peer interaction problems.12 Furthermore, the ..... substance use among street children in a local government area of Nigeria: Drug and.

  13. 75 FR 64745 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... classes of controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse for...

  14. 76 FR 66994 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical kits...

  15. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana... ingredients (APIs) for distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company...

  16. 75 FR 1814 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse for research...

  17. 75 FR 53720 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I Nabilone (7379) II... controlled substances in bulk for distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana...

  18. 75 FR 14187 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I...-clinical, laboratory-based research only. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...

  19. 75 FR 6062 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... controlled substances listed in schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Cocaine (9041) I The Institute will manufacture small quantities of cocaine and marihuana...

  20. 76 FR 5829 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana.... In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...