WorldWideScience

Sample records for subseabed biology program

  1. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Subseabed Disposal Program. Annual report, January-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbert, D.M. (ed.)

    1980-02-01

    This is the fifth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP), which was begun in June 1973. The program was initiated by Sandia Laboratories to explore the utility of stable, uniform, and relatively unproductive areas of the world as possible repositories for high-level nuclear wastes. The program, now international in scope, is currently focused on the stable submarine geologic formations under the deep oceans.

  3. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal.

  4. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides.

  5. Compilation of selected deep-sea biological data for the US subseabed disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) has compiled an extensive deep-sea biological data base to be used in calculating biological parameters of state and rate included in mathematical models of oceanographic transport of radionuclides. The data base is organized around a model deep-sea ecosystem which includes the following components: zooplankton, fish and other nekton, invertebrate benthic megafauna, benthic macrofauna, benthic meiofauna, heterotrophic microbiota, as well as suspended and sediment particulate organic carbon. Measurements of abundance and activity rates (e.g., respiration, production, sedimentation, etc.) reported in the international oceanographic literature are summarized in 23 tables. Included in these tables are the latitudinal position of the studies, as well as information describing sampling techniques and any special notes needed to better assess the data presented. This report has been prepared primarily as a resource document to be used in calculating parameter values for various modeling applications, and for preparing historical data reviews for other SDP reports. Depending on the intended use, these data will require further reduction and unit conversion.

  6. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  9. Global Biology Research Program: Program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

  10. Sub-Seabed Repository for Nuclear Waste - a Strategic Alternative - 13102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, Keith R. [Department of the Navy, 15 Turkey Foot Court, Darnestown, MD 20878 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    It was recognized at the outset of nuclear power generation in the 1950's that the waste products would require isolation away from humans for periods in excess of 10,000 years. After years studying alternatives, the DOE recommended pursuing the development of a SNF/HLW disposal facility within Yucca Mountain in the desert of Nevada. That recommendation became law with passage of the NWPAA, effectively stopping development of other approaches to the waste problem. In the face of political resistance from the state of Nevada, the 2010 decision to withdraw the license application for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain has delayed further the most mature option for safe, long-term disposal of SNF and HLW. It is time to revisit an alternative option, sub-seabed disposal within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which would permanently sequester waste out of the biosphere, and out of the reach of saboteurs or terrorists. A proposal is made for a full scale pilot project to demonstrate burying radioactive waste in stable, deep ocean sediments. While much of the scientific work on pelagic clays has been done to develop a sub-seabed waste sequestration capability, this proposal introduces technology from non-traditional sources such as riser-less ocean drilling and the Navy's Sound Surveillance System. The political decisions affecting the issue will come down to site selection and a thorough understanding of comparative risks. The sub-seabed sequestration of nuclear waste has the potential to provide a robust solution to a critical problem for this clean and reliable energy source. (authors)

  11. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  12. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  13. Predicting the impacts of CO2 leakage from subseabed storage: effects of metal accumulation and toxicity on the model benthic organism Ruditapes philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Jiménez-Tenorio, Natalia; Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; Blasco, Julián; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-10-21

    The urgent need to minimize the potential harm deriving from global climate change and ocean acidification has led governmental decision-makers and scientists to explore and study new strategies for reducing the levels of anthropogenic CO2. One of the mitigation measures proposed for reducing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is the capture and storage of this gas in subseabed geological formations; this proposal is generating considerable international interest. The main risk associated with this option is the leakage of retained CO2, which could cause serious environmental perturbations, particularly acidification, in marine ecosystems. The study reported is aimed at quantifying the effects of acidification derived from CO2 leakage on marine organisms. To this end, a lab-scale experiment involving direct release of CO2 through marine sediment was conducted using Ruditapes philippinarum as a model benthic organism. For 10 days bivalves were exposed to 3 sediment samples with different physicochemical characteristics and at pre-established pH conditions (8.0-6.1). End points measured were: survival, burrowing activity, histopathological lesions, and metal accumulation (Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in whole body. Correlations analyses indicated highly significant associations (P metal concentrations in tissues. Further research to understand and predict the biological and economic implications for coastal ecosystems deriving from acidification by CO2 leakages is urgently needed.

  14. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  15. Virginia Tech launches corporate partners program in biological sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Department of Biological Sciences in the university's College of Science, has launched a corporate partners program to foster collaboration between faculty, students and bio-science oriented corporations in the mid-Atlantic region. The so-named Biological Sciences Partners in Research and Education (BioSPIRE) program is designed to engage companies with an interest and capacity to impact education in the biological sciences.

  16. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.

  17. BioBlocks: Programming Protocols in Biology Made Easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Irimia, Jesús; Pau, Iván; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2017-07-21

    The methods to execute biological experiments are evolving. Affordable fluid handling robots and on-demand biology enterprises are making automating entire experiments a reality. Automation offers the benefit of high-throughput experimentation, rapid prototyping, and improved reproducibility of results. However, learning to automate and codify experiments is a difficult task as it requires programming expertise. Here, we present a web-based visual development environment called BioBlocks for describing experimental protocols in biology. It is based on Google's Blockly and Scratch, and requires little or no experience in computer programming to automate the execution of experiments. The experiments can be specified, saved, modified, and shared between multiple users in an easy manner. BioBlocks is open-source and can be customized to execute protocols on local robotic platforms or remotely, that is, in the cloud. It aims to serve as a de facto open standard for programming protocols in Biology.

  18. The Competence Based Curiculum of Biological Education's Undergraduate Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Subali, Bambang

    2005-01-01

    This is the review which dealed with the curiculum of, both an educational study program generally and biological study program as well. The review showed the importance to set the curiculum up and fit it with the competence based curiculum, since that curiculum has been applied by the user, thus, it needed to response respectively.The first step is, indeed, setting up the curiculum of educational study program, becoming the competence based curiculum. That curiculum setting up by two main st...

  19. Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project ECOLOGICAL STUDY 1998 Biological monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, L.; Haowen, Yin

    1998-01-01

    Suzhou Creek, flowing through the central parts of Shanghai, is heavy polluted by sewage, metals and organic micro pollutants. Due to the pollution, lower parts of the creek have virtually no life of fish or macro-invertebrates, and the other biological communities are totally disturbed. Even at upstream sections the flora and fauna suffer from pollution. During the last decade the contamination has been slightly reduced in the creek. A biological monitoring program was designed for the creek...

  20. Lex genetica: the law and ethics of programming biological code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dan L

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering now allow the design of programmable biological artifacts. Such programming may include usage constraints that will alter the balance of ownership and control for biotechnology products. Similar changes have been analyzed in the context of digital content management systems, and while this previous work is useful in analyzing issues related to biological programming, the latter technology presents new conceptual problems that require more comprehensive evaluation of the interplay between law and technologically embedded values. In particular, the ability to embed contractual terms in technological artifacts now requires a re-examination of disclosure and consent in transactions involving such artifacts.

  1. A Web interface generator for molecular biology programs in Unix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letondal, C

    2001-01-01

    Almost all users encounter problems using sequence analysis programs. Not only are they difficult to learn because of the parameters, syntax and semantic, but many are different. That is why we have developed a Web interface generator for more than 150 molecular biology command-line driven programs, including: phylogeny, gene prediction, alignment, RNA, DNA and protein analysis, motif discovery, structure analysis and database searching programs. The generator uses XML as a high-level description language of the legacy software parameters. Its aim is to provide users with the equivalent of a basic Unix environment, with program combination, customization and basic scripting through macro registration. The program has been used for three years by about 15000 users throughout the world; it has recently been installed on other sites and evaluated as a standard user interface for EMBOSS programs.

  2. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  3. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  4. StrateGene: object-oriented programming in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart, R E; Cash, H D; Moore, J F

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes some of the ways that object-oriented programming methodologies have been used to represent and manipulate biological information in a working application. When running on a Xerox 1100 series computer, StrateGene functions as a genetic engineering workstation for the management of information about cloning experiments. It represents biological molecules, enzymes, fragments, and methods as classes, subclasses, and members in a hierarchy of objects. These objects may have various attributes, which themselves can be defined and classified. The attributes and their values can be passed from the classes of objects down to the subclasses and members. The user can modify the objects and their attributes while using them. New knowledge and changes to the system can be incorporated relatively easily. The operations on the biological objects are associated with the objects themselves. This makes it easier to invoke them correctly and allows generic operations to be customized for the particular object.

  5. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  6. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  7. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  8. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  9. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  10. From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  11. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies William

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  12. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi; Thies, William

    2010-11-08

    Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  13. Fetal metabolic programming and epigenetic modifications: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Burgueño, Adriana L; Pirola, Carlos J

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the notion that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, both involving chromatin remodeling, contribute to fetal metabolic programming. We use a combination of gene-protein enrichment analysis resources along with functional annotations and protein interaction networks for an integrative approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying fetal metabolic programming. Systems biology approaches suggested that fetal adaptation to an impaired nutritional environment presumes profound changes in gene expression that involve regulation of tissue-specific patterns of methylated cytosine residues, modulation of the histone acetylation-deacetylation switch, cell differentiation, and stem cell pluripotency. The hypothalamus and the liver seem to be differently involved. In addition, new putative explanations have emerged about the question of whether in utero overnutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming in the same fashion as that of a maternal environment of undernutrition, suggesting that the mechanisms behind these two fetal nutritional imbalances are different. In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction is most likely to be associated with the induction of persistent changes in tissue structure and functionality. Conversely, a maternal obesogenic environment is most probably associated with metabolic reprogramming of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as future risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), fatty liver, and insulin (INS) resistance.

  14. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferman, S.L. (ed.)

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  16. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  17. International biological engagement programs facilitate Newcastle disease epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti J. Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV cause Newcastle disease (ND, one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs (BEP between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employees and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral

  18. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  19. Biology of Breast Cancer: A Predoctoral Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maihle, Nita

    1998-01-01

    .... To date, 16 trainees have matriculated into this new training program. Two trainees have successfully completed this training program and have left the Mayo Clinic to continue their training/careers in breast cancer research...

  20. Programming biological models in Python using PySB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    .... Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule‐based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models...

  1. National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats: Diplomacy and International Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    biological research; that basically biological weapons can be created in so many different facilities, legitimate facilities like the vaccine plant...From developing new strains of rice to address world hunger; for vaccines that prevent the spread of disease like H1N1, scientific knowledge can...anthrax scare . How do you account for that? Why do you say that has happened? Mr. VAN DIEPEN. Well, I think there is probably a complex of an- swers to

  2. Preparing Future Biology Faculty: An Advanced Professional Development Program for Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Stephanie A.; Miller, Amanda J.; Cromie, Meghan M.

    2014-01-01

    Formal professional development programs for biology graduate students interested in becoming faculty members have come far; however, programs that provide advanced teaching experience for seasoned graduate teaching assistants are scarce. We outline an advanced program that focuses on further training of graduate teaching assistants in pedagogy…

  3. Fetal metabolic programming and epigenetic modifications: a systems biology approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Burgueño, Adriana L; Pirola, Carlos J

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the notion that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, both involving chromatin remodeling, contribute to fetal metabolic programming...

  4. Student Performance in New High School Biology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, H

    1964-01-17

    Data on the effectiveness of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study course were obtained from several sources, including experimental use with 65,000 students. Any of the three versions of this biology course can be taught to average and above-average 10th-grade students. Achievement on the associated comprehensive test is more closely related to the ability and sex of the student, the salary of the teacher, the proportion of graduates of the school who go to college, the size of the class, and the adequacy of laboratory facilities than to the version of the course.

  5. Publications of the planetary biology program for 1975: A special bibliography. [on NASA programs and research projects on extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, K. A. (Compiler); Young, R. S. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The Planetary Biology Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the first and only integrated program to methodically investigate the planetary events which may have been responsible for, or related to, the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe. Research supported by this program is divided into the seven areas listed below: (1) chemical evolution, (2) organic geochemistry, (3) life detection, (4) biological adaptation, (5) bioinstrumentation, (6) planetary environments, and (7) origin of life. The arrangement of references in this bibliography follows the division of research described above. Articles are listed alphabetically by author under the research area with which they are most closely related. Only those publications which resulted from research supported by the Planetary Biology Program and which bear a 1975 publication date have been included. Abstracts and theses are not included because of the preliminary and abbreviated nature of the former and the frequent difficulty of obtaining the latter.

  6. Oral biology in middle age: a history of the University at Buffalo Oral Biology PhD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, F A

    2014-05-01

    In 1960, the first Department of Oral Biology in the United States dedicated to the conduct of research, graduate biomedical research education, and the provision of basic oral science education for the DDS curriculum was established at the University at Buffalo. In 1963, the Department organized the first PhD Program in Oral Biology in the United States. This PhD program has produced a large cadre of oral health researchers, many of whom have gone on to make major contributions to dental research and education. This article provides a brief history of the program, the context within which the program was organized and developed, and a description of some of the many faculty, students, and fellows associated with the program. Additionally, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of this program, a symposium, entitled "The Oral Microbiome, Immunity and Chronic Disease", was held on June 12-14, 2013, in Buffalo, New York. The proceedings are published online in Advances in Dental Research (2014, Vol. 26).

  7. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  8. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students†

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Dale L.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniq...

  9. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Training CBR-D Basic Engineering Core Course ( BECC ) Naval Training Center Great Lakes, IL Hospital Corpsman “A” School Naval Training Center Great Lakes...incorporation into CBR-D training. CBR-D courses that will be affected by the CPS ILE product include Basic Enlisted Common Core ( BECC ), Damage Control...Battledress Uniform BECC – Basic Engineering Core Course BES – Budget Estimate Submission BGAD – Blue Grass Army Depot BIDS – Biological Integrated

  10. Metropolitan Programs in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations; A Need and Attitude Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    To establish the feasibility of implementing applied biological and agricultural occupations programs in the metropolitan area of Chicago, four populations were surveyed by means of mailed questionnaires or interest inventories to determine: (1) the employment opportunities in the applied biological and agricultural industries, (2) the interests…

  11. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  12. BASIC Simulation Programs; Volumes I and II. Biology, Earth Science, Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    Computer programs which teach concepts and processes related to biology, earth science, and chemistry are presented. The seven biology problems deal with aspects of genetics, evolution and natural selection, gametogenesis, enzymes, photosynthesis, and the transport of material across a membrane. Four earth science problems concern climates, the…

  13. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GMAP: A program for mapping potential restriction sites. RE sites in ambiguous and non-ambiguous DNA sequence; Minimum number of silent mutations required for introducing a RE sites; Set theory for searching RE sites; Raghava and Sahni (1994) Biotechniques 16:1116 ...

  14. An Evaluation of a Biological Slide-Tutorial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gordon L.

    Described is an auto-tutorial slide program for zoology students. A self-paced system was devised for observing the subject matter covered in the twelve study units of a zoology course. The post-testing evaluation revealed that students with lower grade point averages achieved scores comparable with students of higher grade point averages.…

  15. KEMAMPUAN METAKOGNISI MAHASISWA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI FKIP UNIVERSITAS MATARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakila Pujiank

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims are (1 to analyse the metacognition abilities of biology student for each components of metacognition, (2 analyse the metacognition abilities for each class and (3 analyse the metacognition abilities generally. The subject is 204 students. Data were collected by metacognitive awareness inventory and analyse with descriptive qualitative. The results show that student metacognition abilities included into already developed category (72,93%. The metacognition ability for each class is 2013 (75,38%, 2011 (72,93%, 2012 (72,03% and 2010 (70,38%. Metacognition abilities for each component included already developed category (67,51%—77,55% except the debugging strategies included into developed very good category (88,92%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menganalisis kemampuan metakognisi mahasiswa pendidikan biologi pada setiap komponen metakognisi; (2 menganalisis kemampuan metakognisi mahasiswa setiap angkatan; (3 menganalisis kemampuan metakognisi mahasiswa secara keseluruhan. Subjek penelitian terdiri atas 204 mahasiswa. Data dikumpulkan melalui Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI dan dianalisis secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan metakognisi mahasiswa sudah berkembang baik (72,93%. Rata-rata skor kemampuan metakognisi setiap angkatan adalah 2013 (75,38%, 2011 (72,93%, 2012 (72,03% dan 2010 (70,38%. Kemampuan metakognisi mahasiswa untuk setiap komponen metakognisi dikategorikan sudah berkembang baik (67,51%—77,55%, kecuali pada kemampuan debugging strategies yang dikategorikan berkembang sangat baik (88,92%.

  16. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  17. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  18. Syllabus for an Associate Degree Program in Applied Marine Biology and Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tapan

    Included is a detailed outline of the content of each course required or offered as an elective in the associate degree program. With an 18 or 19 unit load each semester the program requires two years, and includes 64 hours at sea every semester. In addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and oceanography courses, there is a required course in…

  19. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  20. Implementation and evaluation of a training program as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eJohnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A training program for animal and human health professionals has been implemented in Azerbaijan through a joint agreement between the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Government of Azerbaijan. The training program is administered as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, and targets key employees in Azerbaijan’s disease surveillance system including physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, and laboratory personnel. Training is aimed at improving detection, diagnosis, and response to especially dangerous pathogens, although the techniques and methodologies can be applied to other pathogens and diseases of concern. Biosafety and biosecurity training is provided to all trainees within the program. Prior to 2014, a variety of international agencies and organizations provided training, which resulted in gaps related to lack of coordination of training materials and content. In 2014 a new training program was implemented in order to address those gaps. This paper provides an overview of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program training program in Azerbaijan, a description of how the program fits into existing national training infrastructure, and an evaluation of the new program’s effectiveness to date. Long-term sustainability of the program is also discussed.

  1. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  2. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  3. NASA's Space Biology Program Shows Signs of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Rachel

    1995-04-01

    Houston-At the first Life Sciences and Space Medicine Conference, held here from 3 to 5 April, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin made it clear that NASA's life sciences program is not exempt from his drive to reinvent the space agency. "We've got to do things differently to get to our goal" of making long-duration space travel a reality, he told the audience. He stressed "rigorous peer review," collaboration with investigators at the National Institutes of Health and in industry, and the development of commercial spin-offs. Once NASA's overhaul is complete, "life sciences will be the jewel in the crown," Goldin told Science. But as the meeting revealed, there are already some bright spots.

  4. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  5. Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes () and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Conclusions/Significance Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems. PMID:21850228

  6. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Beal

    Full Text Available The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry.To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50% and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks.Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  7. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  8. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  9. RADBIOMOD: A simple program for utilising biological modelling in radiotherapy plan evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joe H; Gehrke, Christopher; Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Gill, Suki; Wada, Morikatsu; Lim Joon, Daryl; Khoo, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plan evaluation is currently performed by assessing physical parameters, which has many limitations. Biological modelling can potentially allow plan evaluation that is more reflective of clinical outcomes, however further research is required into this field before it can be used clinically. A simple program, RADBIOMOD, has been developed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for Microsoft Excel that incorporates multiple different biological models for radiotherapy plan evaluation, including modified Poisson tumour control probability (TCP), modified Zaider-Minerbo TCP, Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), EUD-based TCP, EUD-based NTCP, and uncomplicated tumour control probability (UTCP). RADBIOMOD was compared to existing biological modelling calculators for 15 sample cases. Comparing RADBIOMOD to the existing biological modelling calculators, all models tested had mean absolute errors and root mean square errors less than 1%. RADBIOMOD produces results that are non-significantly different from existing biological modelling calculators for the models tested. It is hoped that this freely available, user-friendly program will aid future research into biological modelling. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Introducing a class of standardized and interchangeable parts utilizing programmed ribosomal frameshifts for synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Harland E; Friedt, Jenna R; Glaister, Graeme D; Kharey, Suneet K; Smith, Dustin D; Stinson, Zak K; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and the rational design of biological devices depend on the availability of standardized and interchangeable biological parts with diverse range of functions. Reliable access to different reading frames during translation has largely been overlooked as functionality for bioengineering applications. Here we report the construction and initial characterization of the first member of such a class of biological parts that conforms to the BioBrick Standard (RFC25), allowing its interchangeable use in biological devices. Using our standardized frameshifting signal consisting of a UUUAAAG slippery sequence, a 6 nt spacer and an engineered pseudoknot based on the infectious bronchitis virus pseudoknot PK401 embedded in a dual reporter construct, we confirm that the frameshifting activity is comparable to the previously published frequency despite the introduced sequence changes. The frameshifting activity is demonstrated using SDS-PAGE and fluorescence spectroscopy. Standardized programmable ribosomal frameshift parts with specific frameshifting frequencies will be of utility for applications such as double coding DNA sequences by expanding the codable space into the -1 frame. Programmed shifting into the -1 frame to bypass a stop codon allows labeling of a protein pool with a fixed stoichiometry of fusion protein, as well as the construction of multi-enzyme expression constructs with specific expression ratios. A detailed understanding of the structural basis of programmed frameshifting will provide the opportunities to rationally design frameshifting elements with a wide range of applications in synthetic biology, including signals that are regulated by small ligands.

  11. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  12. Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…

  13. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  14. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  15. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  16. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Object-Oriented NeuroSys: Parallel Programs for Simulating Large Networks of Biologically Accurate Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, P; Miller, P; Kim, J; Leese, T; Zabiyaka, Y

    2003-05-07

    Object-oriented NeuroSys (ooNeuroSys) is a collection of programs for simulating very large networks of biologically accurate neurons on distributed memory parallel computers. It includes two principle programs: ooNeuroSys, a parallel program for solving the large systems of ordinary differential equations arising from the interconnected neurons, and Neurondiz, a parallel program for visualizing the results of ooNeuroSys. Both programs are designed to be run on clusters and use the MPI library to obtain parallelism. ooNeuroSys also includes an easy-to-use Python interface. This interface allows neuroscientists to quickly develop and test complex neuron models. Both ooNeuroSys and Neurondiz have a design that allows for both high performance and relative ease of maintenance.

  18. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  19. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  20. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  1. Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

  2. Virginia Tech's Ph.D. program in Genetics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology highlighted in Nature Biotechnology magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The April edition of Nature Biotechnology has identified Virginia Tech's Interdisciplinary Ph.D. program in Genetics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (GBCB) as one of 11 selected programs in North America and 18 around the world offering courses in systems biology.

  3. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 2: Prototype utilization in the development of space biology hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Wood, H. J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to define the factors which space flight hardware developers and planners should consider when determining: (1) the number of hardware units required to support program; (2) design level of the units; and (3) most efficient means of utilization of the units. The analysis considered technology risk, maintainability, reliability, and safety design requirements for achieving the delivery of highest quality flight hardware. Relative cost impacts of the utilization of prototyping were identified. The development of Space Biology Initiative research hardware will involve intertwined hardware/software activities. Experience has shown that software development can be an expensive portion of a system design program. While software prototyping could imply the development of a significantly different end item, an operational system prototype must be considered to be a combination of software and hardware. Hundreds of factors were identified that could be considered in determining the quantity and types of prototypes that should be constructed. In developing the decision models, these factors were combined and reduced by approximately ten-to-one in order to develop a manageable structure based on the major determining factors. The Baseline SBI hardware list of Appendix D was examined and reviewed in detail; however, from the facts available it was impossible to identify the exact types and quantities of prototypes required for each of these items. Although the factors that must be considered could be enumerated for each of these pieces of equipment, the exact status and state of development of the equipment is variable and uncertain at this time.

  4. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation Biology Scholars Program (BSP to promote undergraduate education reform by 1 supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2 engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3 participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL to more than 270 participants (“scholars” from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER. To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010­–2014 scholars (n = 127 and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life

  5. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  6. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  7. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  8. Review of the algal biology program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Clifford J.; Sayre, Richard T.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Baxter, Ivan; Blaby, Ian K.; Brown, Judith K.; Carleton, Michael; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Dale, Taraka; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Downes, C. Meghan; Dutcher, Susan K.; Fox, David T.; Goodenough, Ursula; Jaworski, Jan; Holladay, Jonathan E.; Kramer, David M.; Koppisch, Andrew T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McCormick, Margaret; Molnár, István; Mott, John B.; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Polle, Juergen; Richardson, James W.; Sabarsky, Martin; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Stormo, Gary D.; Teshima, Munehiro; Twary, Scott N.; Unkefer, Pat J.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Olivares, José A.

    2017-03-01

    In 2010,when the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) consortiumbegan, littlewas known about themolecular basis of algal biomass or oil production. Very fewalgal genome sequenceswere available and efforts to identify the best-producing wild species through bioprospecting approaches had largely stalled after the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program. This lack of knowledge included how reduced carbon was partitioned into storage products like triglycerides or starch and the role played bymetabolite remodeling in the accumulation of energy-dense storage products. Furthermore, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering approaches to improve algal biomass and oil yields were in their infancy. Genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling were becoming less expensive, however; and the tools to annotate gene expression profiles under various growth and engineered conditions were just starting to be developed for algae. It was in this context that an integrated algal biology program was introduced in the NAABB to address the greatest constraints limiting algal biomass yield. This review describes the NAABB algal biology program, including hypotheses, research objectives, and strategies to move algal biology research into the twenty-first century and to realize the greatest potential of algae biomass systems to produce biofuels.

  9. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  10. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  11. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...) user fee program, and not policy issues. B. Industry Stakeholder Meetings The BPCI Act requires FDA to... criteria for design of a fair and adequate 351(k) user fee program. ] Review and discussion of FDA's...; Options for a User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications for...

  12. Master in oral biology program: A path to addressing the need for future dental educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergenson, Margaret A; Barritt, Laura C; O'Kane, Barbara J; Norton, Neil S

    2017-11-01

    In dental education, the anatomical sciences, which include gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and neuroanatomy, encompass an important component of the basic science curriculum. At Creighton University School of Dentistry, strength in anatomic science education has been coupled with a solid applicant pool to develop a novel Master of Science in Oral Biology, Anatomic Sciences track degree program. The program provides a heavy emphasis on developing teaching skills in predoctoral students as well as exposure to research processes to encourage the cohort to pursuing a career in academic dentistry. The individuals considered for this program are applicants for admission to the School of Dentistry that have not been accepted into the entering dental class for that year. The students undertake a two year curriculum, studying anatomic sciences with a special emphasis on teaching. The students also must complete a research project that requires a thesis. The students in the program are guaranteed acceptance to dental school upon successful completion of the program. After six years, the first ten students have received their Master of Science degrees and continued in dental school. The program is favorably viewed by the faculty and participating students. It is also considered successful by metrics. Nine of the ten graduates have said they would like to participate in academic dentistry in some capacity during their careers. Anat Sci Educ 10: 607-612. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director's Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  14. Promoting convergence: The integrated graduate program in physical and engineering biology at Yale University, a new model for graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Dorottya B; Mochrie, Simon G J; O'Hern, Corey S; Pollard, Thomas D; Regan, Lynne

    2016-11-12

    In 2008, we established the Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology (IGPPEB) at Yale University. Our goal was to create a comprehensive graduate program to train a new generation of scientists who possess a sophisticated understanding of biology and who are capable of applying physical and quantitative methodologies to solve biological problems. Here we describe the framework of the training program, report on its effectiveness, and also share the insights we gained during its development and implementation. The program features co-teaching by faculty with complementary specializations, student peer learning, and novel hands-on courses that facilitate the seamless blending of interdisciplinary research and teaching. It also incorporates enrichment activities to improve communication skills, engage students in science outreach, and foster a cohesive program cohort, all of which promote the development of transferable skills applicable in a variety of careers. The curriculum of the graduate program is integrated with the curricular requirements of several Ph.D.-granting home programs in the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Moreover, the wide-ranging recruiting activities of the IGPPEB serve to enhance the quality and diversity of students entering graduate school at Yale. We also discuss some of the challenges we encountered in establishing and optimizing the program, and describe the institution-level changes that were catalyzed by the introduction of the new graduate program. The goal of this article is to serve as both an inspiration and as a practical "how to" manual for those who seek to establish similar programs at their own institutions. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):537-549, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses.

  16. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dale L.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic “parts,” students construct a “reporter plasmid” expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a “sensor plasmid,” the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  17. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  18. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  20. Trichogramma pretiosum parasitism and dispersal capacity: a basis for developing biological control programs for soybean caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, R C O de Freitas; Parra, J R P; Bueno, A de Freitas

    2012-02-01

    In order to succeed in biological control programs, not only is it crucial to understand the number of natural enemies to be released but also on how many sites per area this releasing must be performed. These variables might differ deeply among egg parasitoid species and crops worked. Therefore, these trials were carried out to evaluate the parasitism (%) in eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Pseudoplusia includens after the release of different densities of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. Field dispersal was also studied, in order to determine appropriate recommendations for the release of this parasitoid in soybean fields. The regression analysis between parasitism (%) and densities of the parasitoid indicated a quadratic effect for both A. gemmatalis and P. includens. The maximum parasitism within 24 h after the release was reached with densities of 25.6 and 51.2 parasitoids per host egg, respectively, for the two pests. Parasitism of T. pretiosum in eggs of P. includens decreased linearly as the distance of the pest eggs from the parasitoid release sites increased. For P. includens, the mean radius of T. pretiosum action and the area of parasitoid dispersal in the soybean crop were 8.01 m and 85.18 m2, respectively. We conclude that for a successful biological control program of lepidopteran pests using T. pretiosum in soybean fields, a density of 25.6 parasitoids per host egg, divided into 117 sites per hectare, should be used.

  1. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  2. Promoting convergence: The integrated graduate program in physical and engineering biology at Yale University, a new model for graduate education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Dorottya B.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Pollard, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2008, we established the Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology (IGPPEB) at Yale University. Our goal was to create a comprehensive graduate program to train a new generation of scientists who possess a sophisticated understanding of biology and who are capable of applying physical and quantitative methodologies to solve biological problems. Here we describe the framework of the training program, report on its effectiveness, and also share the insights we gained during its development and implementation. The program features co‐teaching by faculty with complementary specializations, student peer learning, and novel hands‐on courses that facilitate the seamless blending of interdisciplinary research and teaching. It also incorporates enrichment activities to improve communication skills, engage students in science outreach, and foster a cohesive program cohort, all of which promote the development of transferable skills applicable in a variety of careers. The curriculum of the graduate program is integrated with the curricular requirements of several Ph.D.‐granting home programs in the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Moreover, the wide‐ranging recruiting activities of the IGPPEB serve to enhance the quality and diversity of students entering graduate school at Yale. We also discuss some of the challenges we encountered in establishing and optimizing the program, and describe the institution‐level changes that were catalyzed by the introduction of the new graduate program. The goal of this article is to serve as both an inspiration and as a practical “how to” manual for those who seek to establish similar programs at their own institutions. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):537–549, 2016. PMID:27292366

  3. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  4. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  5. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  6. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  7. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale L. Beach

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic “parts,” students construct a “reporter plasmid” expressing a reporter gene (GFP controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI. In combination with a “sensor plasmid,” the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey and end (post-survey of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05 for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe

  8. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  9. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  10. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  11. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  12. [THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENT OF A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT IN PROGRAMS FOR TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN THE AREA OF PARASITOLOGY FOR ACCREDITATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Andreeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the functional aspects of a biological component in programs for training specialists in the area of Parasitology for accreditation within the current enactments, including those on modernization of public health and additional professional education. The working program of the module "Fundamental Disciplines" has been used as an example to outline approaches to molding a medical parasitologist's capacity and readiness to solve professional tasks on the basis of knowledge of fundamental disciplines: biology, immunology, and medical geography. Education fundamentalization is shown to suggest more unsupervised work of a learner in the teaching process. The fundamental constituent of a biological component of the 'programs for training learners in the specialty of Parasitology for accreditation is shown in the interaction of all sections of this area with special and allied subjects.

  13. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  14. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  15. Transition-ready technologies and expertise from the Chemical and Biological National Security Program at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, P A; McBride, M T

    2006-02-22

    HSARPA has initiated a new Bioinformatics and Assay Development solicitation, BIAD2 (BAA 06-01), to address a number of technology gaps and requirements for biodetection (www.hsarpabaa.com). This solicitation will leverage the vast research and development capabilities of the private sector and academia in order to meet the needs of HSARPA and Homeland Security. In order to meet these requirements, this solicitation will: (1) Develop and validate actionable assays for the public and private sector; (2) Develop and validate new assays and novel assay methodologies to enhance existing detection systems and enable future detection platforms; (3) Develop next generation assays which are robust against novel, emerging and engineered threats; (4) Develop novel assays that detect low levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based viral threats in complex backgrounds; (5) Develop novel assays to characterize the viability, degree of virulence or toxicity, and countermeasure resistance of a biological agent; and (6) Develop new bioinformatics tools to support assay development and assay validation The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioassays and Signature Program (BSP) develops nationally-validated detection and identification assays to cover the full range of biological threat agents, starting from human, animal, and plant pathogens on the Select Agent list. The assays that have been co-developed by the CDC and the BSP are used internationally and represent the gold standard for molecular detection of select agent pathogens for the public health community. They are also used in the DHS environmental monitoring operations such as BioWatch and DHS National Security Special Events support. These reagents have been used to process and analyze more than 5 million samples and have delivered exceptional performance for the end users, with zero false positives since their deployment. Currently, highly-multiplexed nucleic acid assays that represent the &apos

  16. PlasmaDNA: a free, cross-platform plasmid manipulation program for molecular biology laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainy Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most molecular biology experiments, and the techniques associated with this field of study, involve a great deal of engineering in the form of molecular cloning. Like all forms of engineering, perfect information about the starting material is crucial for successful completion of design and strategies. Results We have generated a program that allows complete in silico simulation of the cloning experiment. Starting with a primary DNA sequence, PlasmaDNA looks for restriction sites, open reading frames, primer annealing sequences, and various common domains. The databases are easily expandable by the user to fit his most common cloning needs. PlasmaDNA can manage and graphically represent multiple sequences at the same time, and keeps in memory the overhangs at the end of the sequences if any. This means that it is possible to virtually digest fragments, to add the digestion products to the project, and to ligate together fragments with compatible ends to generate the new sequences. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR fragments can also be virtually generated using the primer database, automatically adding to the fragments any 5' extra sequences present in the primers. Conclusion PlasmaDNA is a program available both on Windows and Apple operating systems, designed to facilitate molecular cloning experiments by building a visual map of the DNA. It then allows the complete planning and simulation of the cloning experiment. It also automatically updates the new sequences generated in the process, which is an important help in practice. The capacity to maintain multiple sequences in the same file can also be used to archive the various steps and strategies involved in the cloning of each construct. The program is freely available for download without charge or restriction.

  17. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  18. On the implementation of the Biological Threat Reduction Program in the Republic of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuychiev, Laziz; Madaminov, Marifjon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the implementation of the Biological Threat Reduction Program (BTRP) of the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency in the Republic of Uzbekistan since 2004. Introduction The Biological Threat Reduction Program (BTRP) has been being implemented in the Republic of Uzbekistan since 2004 within the framework of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Government of the United States of America Concerning Cooperation in the Area of the Promotion of Defense Relations and the Prevention of Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction of 06.05.2001. Threat agent detection and response activities that target a list of especially dangerous pathogens are being carried out under the BTRP within the health care system of Uzbekistan. This presentation reviews some of the achievements of the program to date. Results BTRP, in partnership with the Government of Uzbekistan, has funded the establishment of five Regional Diagnostic Laboratories (RDL) and ten Epidemiological Support Units (ESU), operated by the Ministry of Health of Uzbekistan, which are intended to improve the diagnosis of quarantine and especially dangerous infections, and to ensure timely preventive and anti-epidemic measures. RDLs provide a high level of biosafety and biosecurity to conduct rapid laboratory diagnostics (PCR, ELISA) of especially dangerous infections. RDLs are equipped with up-to-date diagnostic laboratory equipment that conforms to internationals standards, as well as with all necessary consumables. Personnel of RDLs have been appropriately trained in epidemiology, clinical and diagnostic techniques for especially dangerous infections, including such state-of-the-art techniques as rapid PCR and ELISA diagnostics, as well as in work and equipment operation safety regulations. Epidemiological Support Units (ESU) have been established on the basis of the Especially Dangerous Infections Divisions of Oblast, city and Rayon Centers for State Sanitary

  19. Instructional Methods for Human Anatomy and Cell Biology in Nurse Anesthesia Graduate Programs: A Survey with a Focus on Regional Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    instructional techniques is warranted. INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS FOR HUMAN ANATOMY AND CELL BIOLOGY IN NURSE ANESTHESIA GRADUATE PROGRAMS: A SURVEY...FOR HUMAN ANATOMY AND CELL BIOLOGY IN NURSE ANESTHESIA GRADUATE PROGRAMS: A SURVEY WITH A FOCUS ON REGIONAL ANESTHESIA 6. AUTHOR(S) Adrienne Grant...DIOR, Ott 94 r~ Thesis Approval Form INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS FOR HUMAN ANATOMY AND CELL BIOLOGY IN NURSE ANESTHESIA GRADUATE PROGRAMS: A SURVEY WITH

  20. An introduction to simulation and visualization of biological systems at multiple scales: a summer training program for interdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Rajan; Coalson, Rob D; Ermentrout, G Bard; Madura, Jeffry D; Meirovitch, Hagai; Stiles, Joel R; Bahar, Ivet

    2006-01-01

    Advances in biomedical research require a new generation of researchers having a strong background in both the life and physical sciences and a knowledge of computational, mathematical, and engineering tools for tackling biological problems. The NIH-NSF Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Summer Institute at the University of Pittsburgh (BBSI @ Pitt; www.ccbb.pitt.edu/bbsi) is a multi-institutional 10-week summer program hosted by the University of Pittsburgh, Duquesne University, the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, and Carnegie Mellon University, and is one of nine Institutes throughout the nation currently participating in the NIH-NSF program. Each BBSI focuses on a different area; the BBSI @ Pitt, entitled "Simulation and Computer Visualization of Biological Systems at Multiple Scales", focuses on computational and mathematical approaches to understanding the complex machinery of molecular-to-cellular systems at three levels, namely, molecular, subcellular (microphysiological), and cellular. We present here an overview of the BBSI @ Pitt, the objectives and focus of the program, and a description of the didactic training activities that distinguish it from other traditional summer research programs. Furthermore, we also report several challenges that have been identified in implementing such an interdisciplinary program that brings together students from diverse academic programs for a limited period of time. These challenges notwithstanding, presenting an integrative view of molecular-to-system analytical models has introduced these students to the field of computational biology and has allowed them to make an informed decision regarding their future career prospects.

  1. Cost-benefit analysis for biological control programs that target insects pests of eucalypts in urban landscapes of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.D. Paine; J.G. Millar; L.M. Hanks; J. Gould; Q. Wang; K. Daane; D.L. Dahlsten; E.G. McPherson

    2015-01-01

    As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have targeted these pests....

  2. PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO): Effectiveness Monitoring Program seven-year status report 1998 through 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Henderson; Eric K. Archer; Boyd A Bouwes; Marc S. Coles-Ritchie; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2005-01-01

    The PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO) Effectiveness Monitoring Program was initiated in 1998 to provide a consistent framework for monitoring aquatic and riparian resources on most Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands within the Upper Columbia River Basin. This 7-year status report gives our funding sources, partners, and the public an overview of...

  3. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleper, Simone

    2017-02-01

    This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation. Their respective visions entailed different ecological philosophies as much as diverging sets of political ideologies regarding the global implementation of conservation. Within the IBP's Conservation Section, one group propagated a universal systems approach to conservation with a centralized, technocratic management of nature and society by an elite group of independent scientific experts. Within IUCN, a second group based their notion of environmental expert roles on a more descriptive and local ecology of resource mapping as practiced by UNESCO. When the IBP came to an end in 1974, both groups' ecological philosophies played into the scientific framework underlying the MAB's World Network or Biosphere Reserves. The article argues that it is impossible to understand the course of conservation within the MAB without studying the dynamics and discourses between the two underlying expert groups and their respective visions for reforming conservation.

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  5. Biological control program is being developed for brown marmorated stink bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB is an invasive, polyphagous pest that has been detected in 42 U.S. states. In 2010, it caused millions of dollars in crop damages to apple growers on the East Coast, where it arrived from Asia during the 1990s. In 2002, BMSB was reported in California; since then, it has been detected in 28 counties and is established in at least nine counties. Although this pest has not yet been found on commercial crops in the state, detections of BMSB in commercial orchards have been documented in Oregon and Washington. Proactive research in California has joined national efforts led by U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers to develop a classical biological control program for BMSB. A study is under way to determine potential non-target effects of a specialist egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, imported from Beijing, China, part of the home range of BMSB. In addition, the role of BMSB natural enemies residing in California is being assessed. A review of the recent research outlines the possible opportunities for reducing the threat BMSB poses to California.

  6. Assessment of the scientific-technological production in molecular biology in Brazil (1996-2007): the contribution of genomics programs

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Meneghini; Gamba,Estêvão C.

    2011-01-01

    Several genome sequencing programs were launched in Brazil by the end of the nineties and the early 2000s.The most important initiatives were supported by the ONSA program (http://watson.fapesp.br/onsa/Genoma3.htm) and aimed at gaining domain in genomic technology and bringing molecular biology to the state of art. Two mainsets of data were collected in the 1996-2007 period to evaluate the results of these genome programs: the scientific production (Scopus and Web of Science databases) and th...

  7. Biological monitoring and selected trends in environmental quality. [Use of National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL to identify documented environmental trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffern, J.S.; West, D.C.; Kemp, H.T.; Burgess, R.L.

    1976-10-01

    Under a contract with the President's Council on Environmental Quality, the National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL was used to identify documented environmental trends. Fish population trends were described for the Great Lakes and the Colorado River system. Trends in amphibian populations in the northeast were examined and correlated with acid precipitation. Increases in breeding success among large birds of prey were correlated with reductions in ambient levels of DDT and its residues. Geographic variation in PCB contamination was examined along with differences between aquatic and terrestrial contamination levels. Changes in air quality were documented, and their effects on plant viability were outlined. Trends in the biological effects of environmental deposition of lead were documented. Long-term changes in forest structure in the southeast were presented, and a general reduction in wildlife habitat, associated with land use practices, was documented for several areas in the US.

  8. The effect of temperature on the biology of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Phytoseiidae in applied biological control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Dameda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Phytoseiidae is a natural enemy of Tetranychus urticae Koch (TSSM, a common pest in several cultures, especially in greenhouses. This research aimed to know the biological parameters of a strain of P. macropilis from Vale do Taquari, State of Rio Grande do Sul, feeding on TSSM at different temperatures. The study was initiated with 30 eggs individualized in arenas under the temperature of 20, 25 and 30 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 10%. The average length (T of each generation decreased with the increase of temperature, ranging from 25.71 days at 20°C to 11.14 days at 30°C. The net reproductive rate (Ro ranged from 45.47 at 20°C to 18.25 at 30°C; the innate capacity for increase (rm was 0.15 at 20°C, reaching 0.26 at 30°C and the finite increase rate (λ ranged from 1.41 to 1.82 females day-1 at 20 and 30°C, respectively. In the present study, it was observed that the strain of the evaluated predatory mite from mild climate of South Brazil, might present a good performance to control TSSM when exposed to a temperature range between 20 and 30°C.

  9. A theoretical lens on a biology intensive orientation program: A study of self-efficacy and self-regulation of freshman biology majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Erin R.

    There is a national effort to increase the number of undergraduate students graduating in science, math, engineering, and technology (STEM) (National Science Foundation, 2007). The majority of students initially populating these STEM majors ultimately switch to and graduate from non-STEM majors (Seymour & Hewitt, 2000; Seymour, 2002). The source of attrition from STEM fields lies within the difficulty of concepts presented in freshman STEM introductory courses (Jensen & Moore, 2007, 2008, 2009; Seymour & Hewitt, 2000). These gateway courses are considered high-risk because nearly half of students enrolled in these courses receive either a "D" or "F" or completely withdraw from the course (Labov, 2004). Research shows that students who have uncalibrated self-efficacy and an attenuated self-regulated learning are unsuccessful in high-risk courses (Kitsantas et al., 2008; Ross, Green, Salisbury-Glennon, & Tollefson, 2006; Zimmerman, 2002). Traditional academic assistance, such as tutoring, learning to learn courses, and supplemental instruction, does not explicitly develop an undergraduate's self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as it specifically relates to the STEM domains (Cao & Nietfeld, 2007; Dembo & Seli, 2006; Ross et al., 2006; Simpson, Hind, Nist, Burrell, 1997). Some STEM departments have created academic interventions, such as one-credit seminars, orientation programs, and bridge programs, to directly address the needs of STEM majors (Belzer, 2003; Bonner, 2009; Chevalier, Chrisman, & Kelsey, 2001; Hutchison-Green, Follman, & Bodner, 2008; D. J. Minchella, Yazvac, C. W., Fodrea, R. A., Ball G., 2007; Reyes, Anderson-Rowland, & McCartney, 1998). This study focused on the effect of a biology-intensive orientation program on biology majors' self-efficacy and self-regulated learning. The study utilized approximately 300 undergraduate biology majors participating in a biology-intensive orientation that occurred on August 7-12, 2011, at a public state

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Joint Service Chemical and Biological Defense Program: FY 06-07 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    simulation capabilities, and limited medical research on radioprotectants . Various other radiological and nuclear defense efforts, including such systems...Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) threats in both warfighter and homeland security missions. In order to accomplish this mission, the CBDP works...provided implementing procedures for management of the CBDP. The Joint Requirements Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear defense

  12. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Biological Program 'Pulse-Check' Review - DRAFT REPORT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biological review for the three refuges of the North Mississippi Refuges Complex is presented. Review is based on an assessment of addressing goals and objectives...

  14. Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense Collaboration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    TMTI’s mission is to protect the warfighter from conventional or genetically engineered biological threats, known or emerging, by accelerating the...human and financial resources to improve collaboration and common practices with JSTO. b. Need to Collaborate or Felt Need In [6], John Kotter (A...biological threats, known or emerging, by accelerating the seamless discovery and development of broad-spectrum medical countermeasures through the use of

  15. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program.

  16. "No practical capabilities": American biological and chemical warfare programs during the Korean war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Conrad C

    2002-01-01

    Much controversy still surrounds accusations that American forces in the Far East during the Korean War used biological warfare against North Korea and China. An analysis of recently declassified documents reveals that, although the United States attempted to accelerate its development and acquisition of such weapons during that period, its efforts to create a viable biological warfare capability were unsuccessful. Plans to similarly expand chemical warfare stocks and capabilities were also frustrated. Technological difficulties, personnel shortages, bureaucratic battles between the armed services, and policy limitations combined to hold back advances in American chemical and biological warfare. In light of the recent fears of terrorist attacks with such weapons, this analysis highlights the great difficulties involved in developing, acquiring, and delivering such capabilities.

  17. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  18. Encouraging chemical biology / international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education; Chemical biology no susume / monbusho ni yoru kokusai gakujutsu koryu no suishin ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Described herein is encouraging chemical biology. Chemistry to elucidate fundamental elementary reactions involved in various phenomena and actual conditions of key molecules must be supported by physics for understanding behavior of electrons. The research themes attracting attention recently include sex pheromones of insects, photosynthesis, reactions involving antigens or antibodies, recognition of molecules, memorizing and leaning, and so on. Fundamentals of the life-related phenomena are being elucidated from structures of the related substances and reaction mechanisms involved by the NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses to determine structures of these substances and also by theoretical quantum chemistry to understand electron transfer phenomena within life-related molecules. Also described are international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education. Academic researches for the pursuit of truth are crossing the borders in nature. International exchange to promote information exchange and joint researches by researchers of different nationalities pursuing common themes is indispensable for scientific development. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the international academic exchange programs by providing subsidies for international academic researches, promoting international exchange projects at various institutions, such as national universities, inter-university organizations and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supporting scientific projects promoted by UNESCO. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Global biology - An interdisciplinary scientific research program at NASA, Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Colin, L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  20. Global Biology: An Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.; Colin, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  1. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  2. A Comparative Study of Compression Methods and the Development of CODEC Program of Biological Signal for Emergency Telemedicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, T.S.; Kim, J.S. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea); Lim, Y.H. [Visionite Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Yoo, S.K. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-05-01

    In an emergency telemedicine system such as the High-quality Multimedia based Real-time Emergency Telemedicine(HMRET) service, it is very important to examine the status of the patient continuously using the multimedia data including the biological signals(ECG, BP, Respiration, S{sub p}O{sub 2}) of the patient. In order to transmit these data real time through the communication means which have the limited transmission capacity, it is also necessary to compress the biological data besides other multimedia data. For this purpose, we investigate and compare the ECG compression techniques in the time domain and in the wavelet transform domain, and present an effective lossless compression method of the biological signals using JPEG Huffman table for an emergency telemedicine system. And, for the HMRET service, we developed the lossless compression and reconstruction program of the biological signals in MSVC++ 6.0 using DPCM method and JPEG Huffman table, and tested in an internet environment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have upon Graduation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of…

  4. Biology and Identification of Rays in the Chesapeake Bay. Sea Grant Program. Educational Series Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph W.; Merriner, J. V.

    This booklet provides a brief discussion of the anatomy and biology of rays in the Chesapeake Bay and a key to their identification. Descriptions of seven types of rays are also provided (with accompanying illustrations). These include electric rays, stingrays, butterfly rays, eagle rays, cownose rays, and manta rays. (JN)

  5. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Programs. Annual Report to Congress 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    leonard Wood, mo recruit training CBr-D naval training Center great lakes, il Basic engineering Core Course ( BeCC ), #a-651-0125 naval training Center great...Force BdU – Battledress Uniform BECC – Basic Engineering Core Course BEs – Budget Estimate submission BgAd – Blue grass Army depot Bids – Biological

  6. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  7. Harnessing QbD, Programming Languages, and Automation for Reproducible Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael I; Grant, Chris; Fell, Tim S

    2016-03-01

    Building robust manufacturing processes from biological components is a task that is highly complex and requires sophisticated tools to describe processes, inputs, and measurements and administrate management of knowledge, data, and materials. We argue that for bioengineering to fully access biological potential, it will require application of statistically designed experiments to derive detailed empirical models of underlying systems. This requires execution of large-scale structured experimentation for which laboratory automation is necessary. This requires development of expressive, high-level languages that allow reusability of protocols, characterization of their reliability, and a change in focus from implementation details to functional properties. We review recent developments in these areas and identify what we believe is an exciting trend that promises to revolutionize biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume 2: FY2001-2003 Performance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Chemical and Biological Defense Web Site at http://www.acq.osd.mil/cp under the reports section as an Adobe Acrobat (. pdf ) file. The information in this...therapeutic approaches in botulinum toxin and SEB intoxication . Select lead ricin inhibitor and prepare toxin- inhibitor crystals for x- ray... ethanol amine functionality and perform preliminary agent challenges. Focus solution based approaches on developing formulations using the best

  9. The Rollback of South Africa’s Chemical and Biological Warfare Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    chemical and biological warfare plant that received outside aid from South Africa. In assisting Rhodesia, South African researchers continued to...with South African involvement, planted anthrax spores in grain fed to cattle in guerrilla-held areas and caused an anthrax epidemic that struck...ricin and botulinum. Reportedly, they had acquired anthrax, Plague, cholera, E. coli, staph, necrotizing fasciitis , ricin, botulinum, gas gangrene, anti

  10. Biological Physics major as a means to stimulate an undergraduate physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert; Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to stress the cross-disciplinary nature of modern physics we added a Biological Physics major. Drawing from coursework in physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and related disciplines, it combines a broad curriculum with physical and mathematical rigor in preparation for careers in biophysics, medical physics, and biomedical engineering. Biological Physics offers a new path of studies to a large pool of life science students. We hope to grow our physics majors from 70-80 to more than 100 students and boost our graduation rate from the mid-teens to the mid-twenties. The new major brought about a revision of our sophomore curriculum to make room for modern topics without sidelining fundamentals. As a result, we split our 1-semester long Contemporary Physics course (4 cr hrs) into a year-long sequence Contemporary Physics Foundations and Contemporary Physics Frontiers (both 3 cr hrs). Foundations starts with relativity, then focuses on 4 quantum mechanics topics: wells, spin 1/2, oscillators, and hydrogen. Throughout the course applications are woven in whenever the opportunity arises, e.g. magnetism and NMR with spin 1/2. The following semester Frontiers explores scientific principles and technological advances that make quantum science and resulting technologies different from the large scale. Frontiers covers enabling techniques from atomic, molecular, condensed matter, and particle physics, as well as advances in nanotechnology, quantum optics, and biophysics.

  11. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  12. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  13. 2010 Department of Defense (DoD) Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    26 FW OT&E MBU-25/26 FW When integrated with antigravity (anti-G) equipment, the MBU-25 and MBU-26 each provide simultaneous CB protection and anti...Analysis of Materiel Approaches anti-G .............. Antigravity APB .................Acquisition Program Baseline APG

  14. Reformulating General Engineering and Biological Systems Engineering Programs at Virginia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Vinod K.; Wolfe, Mary Leigh; Wildman, Terry; Mallikarjunan, Kumar; Connor, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, a group of engineering and education faculty at Virginia Tech received a major curriculum reform and engineering education research grant under the department-level reform (DLR) program of the NSF. This DLR project laid the foundation of sponsored research in engineering education in the Department of Engineering Education. The DLR…

  15. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  16. Fetal Programming of Body Composition, Obesity, and Metabolic Function: The Role of Intrauterine Stress and Stress Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Entringer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological, clinical, physiological, cellular, and molecular evidence suggests that the origins of obesity and metabolic dysfunction can be traced back to intrauterine life and supports an important role for maternal nutrition prior to and during gestation in fetal programming. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms is an area of interest and intense investigation. In this perspectives paper we propose that in addition to maternal nutrition-related processes it may be important to concurrently consider the potential role of intrauterine stress and stress biology. We frame our arguments in the larger context of an evolutionary-developmental perspective that supports roles for both nutrition and stress as key environmental conditions driving natural selection and developmental plasticity. We suggest that intrauterine stress exposure may interact with the nutritional milieu, and that stress biology may represent an underlying mechanism mediating the effects of diverse intrauterine perturbations, including but not limited to maternal nutritional insults (undernutrition and overnutrition, on brain and peripheral targets of programming of body composition, energy balance homeostasis, and metabolic function. We discuss putative maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory candidate mechanisms that may underlie the long-term effects of intrauterine stress. We conclude with a commentary of the implications for future research and clinical practice.

  17. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  18. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) survey of radiation biology educators in U.S. and Canadian radiation oncology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Barry S; Held, Kathryn D; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P; Zeman, Elaine M

    2009-11-01

    To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  19. Implementation of an Education-Focused PhD Program in Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, James J.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Indiana University School of Medicine, in collaboration with the School of Education, admitted its first student to a newly approved PhD program in Anatomy and Cell Biology focusing on educational research rather than biomedical research. The goal of the program is twofold: (1) to provide students with extensive training in all of the…

  20. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...

  1. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  2. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have Upon Graduation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of clearly articulating the skills required. The results of these discussions highlight the critical importance of experimental, mathematical, and interpersonal skills including collaboration, teamwork, safety, and ethics. The groups also found experimental design, data interpretation and analysiand the ability to communicate findings to diverse audience to be essential skills. To aid in the development of appropriate assessments these skills are grouped into three categories, 1) Process of Science, 2) Communication and Comprehension of Science, and 3) Community of Practice Aspects of Science. Finally, the groups worked to align these competencies with the best practices in both teaching and in skills assessment. PMID:24019246

  3. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  4. The influence of interactive technology on student performance in an Oklahoma secondary Biology I program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltman, Vallery

    Over the last decade growth in technologies available to teach students and enhance curriculum has become an important consideration in the educational system. The profile of today's secondary students have also been found to be quite different than those of the past. Their learning styles and preferences are issues that should be addressed by educators. With the growth and availability of new technologies students are increasingly expecting to use these as learning tools in their classrooms. This study investigates how interactive technology may impact student performance. This study specifically focuses on the use of the Apple Ipad in 4 Biology I classrooms. This study used an experimental mixed method design to examine how using Ipads for learning impacted student achievement, motivation to learn, and learning strategies. Qualitatively the study examined observed student behaviors and student perceptions regarding the use of interactive technologies. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, 2-way ANOVAs, and qualitative analysis. Quantitatively the results revealed no significant difference between students who used the interactive technology to learn and those who did not. Qualitative data revealed behaviors indicative of being highly engaged with the subject matter and the development of critical thinking skills which may improve student performance. Student perceptions also revealed overall positive experiences with using interactive technology in the classroom. It is recommended that further studies be done to look at using interactive technologies for a longer period of time using multiple subjects areas. This would provide a more in-depth exploration of interactive technologies on student achievement.

  5. KEMAMPUAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY CALON GURU BIOLOGI PESERTA PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN PROFESIONAL GURU (PPG YANG BERLATAR BELAKANG BASIC SAINS PRA DAN POST WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Anwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan/mendeskripsikan kemampuan Subjek Spesifik Pedagogi mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang mengikuti program Pendidikan Profesional Guru (PPG angkatan 2012-2013 melalui pendekatan konsekutif.  Hasil sementara menunjukkan  bahwa Kemampuan Subject Specific Pedagogy mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang berlatar belakang Biologi murni program Basic Science masih minim, dapat dilihat dari hasil CoRes dan PaP-eRs buatan mereka sebelum mengikuti workshop. Setelah workshop semester I diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan peningkatan yang cukup baik.   This study aimed to describe / describes the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teachers who follow the Professional Teacher Education Program (PTEP 2012-2013 armed consecutive approach. Preliminary results indicate that the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teacher who belongs to the pure Biology Basic Science program is minimal, it can be seen from the cores and pap-ers made ​​them before the workshop. After the workshop the first half of the obtained results that showed a pretty good improvement.

  6. An "elite hacker": breast tumors exploit the normal microenvironment program to instruct their progression and biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Aaron; van't Veer, Laura J; Bissell, Mina J

    2012-01-01

    The year 2011 marked the 40 year anniversary of Richard Nixon signing the National Cancer Act, thus declaring the beginning of the "War on Cancer" in the United States. Whereas we have made tremendous progress toward understanding the genetics of tumors in the past four decades, and in developing enabling technology to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cancer at unprecedented resolution, it is only recently that the important role of the stromal microenvironment has been studied in detail. Cancer is a tissue-specific disease, and it is becoming clear that much of what we know about breast cancer progression parallels the biology of the normal breast differentiation, of which there is still much to learn. In particular, the normal breast and breast tumors share molecular, cellular, systemic and microenvironmental influences necessary for their progression. It is therefore enticing to consider a tumor to be a "rogue hacker"--one who exploits the weaknesses of a normal program for personal benefit. Understanding normal mammary gland biology and its "security vulnerabilities" may thus leave us better equipped to target breast cancer. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the heterotypic cellular and molecular interactions within the microenvironment of the developing mammary gland that are necessary for functional differentiation, provide evidence suggesting that similar biology--albeit imbalanced and exaggerated--is observed in breast cancer progression particularly during the transition from carcinoma in situ to invasive disease. Lastly we will present evidence suggesting that the multigene signatures currently used to model cancer heterogeneity and clinical outcome largely reflect signaling from a heterogeneous microenvironment-a recurring theme that could potentially be exploited therapeutically.

  7. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  8. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  9. Synthetic biology tools for programming gene expression without nutritional perturbations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R Scott; Gibney, Patrick A; Chandran, Sunil S; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Botstein, David

    2014-04-01

    A conditional gene expression system that is fast-acting, is tunable and achieves single-gene specificity was recently developed for yeast. A gene placed directly downstream of a modified GAL1 promoter containing six Zif268 binding sequences (with single nucleotide spacing) was shown to be selectively inducible in the presence of β-estradiol, so long as cells express the artificial transcription factor, Z3EV (a fusion of the Zif268 DNA binding domain, the ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor and viral protein 16). We show the strength of Z3EV-responsive promoters can be modified using straightforward design principles. By moving Zif268 binding sites toward the transcription start site, expression output can be nearly doubled. Despite the reported requirement of estrogen receptor dimerization for hormone-dependent activation, a single binding site suffices for target gene activation. Target gene expression levels correlate with promoter binding site copy number and we engineer a set of inducible promoter chassis with different input-output characteristics. Finally, the coupling between inducer identity and gene activation is flexible: the ligand specificity of Z3EV can be re-programmed to respond to a non-hormone small molecule with only five amino acid substitutions in the human estrogen receptor domain, which may prove useful for industrial applications.

  10. TINGKAT KEPUASAN LULUSAN TERHADAP PENYELENGGARAAN DAN MUTU LAYANAN, SERTA PERSEPSI PEMANGKU KEPENTINGAN TERHADAP KINERJA LULUSAN PROGRAM STUDI BIOLOGI FMIPA-UT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Sulistiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat kepuasan lulusan terhadap penyelenggaraan dan mutu layanan, serta persepsi pemangku kepentingan terhadap kinerja lulusan PS S-1 Biologi FMIPA-UT. Penelitian dilakukan pada 8 (delapan kota UPBJJ-UT yang memiliki lulusan dan teman sejawat dari program studi Biologi. Sampel lulusan yaitu seluruh lulusan Biologi 3 tahun kebelakang pada tahun 2010 hingga 2013 sejumlah 24 lulusan. Jumlah sampel dari lulusan, atasan lulusan, dan teman sejawat adalah sebanyak 71 responden. Pengumpulan data dilaksanakan dengan metode kuantitatif melalui pengisian kuesioner atau angket dan diperdalam dengan wawancara. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa penyelenggaraan program dan mutu layanan program studi umumnya sudah baik atau memuaskan bagi para lulusan. Namun demikian masih ada hal yang perlu ditingkatkan, yaitu adanya penambahan mata kuliah yang di-TTM-kan di setiap UPBJJ. Selain itu menurut persepsi pengguna lulusan, sikap dan kemampuan dan kinerja lulusan sudah baik, serta bersaing dengan perguruan tinggi lain.

  11. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  12. Effects of Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 on Joint Program Executive Office Chemical Biological Defense (JPEO-CBD) Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    under the guidance of the Army as the Executive Agent, to ensure that warfighters are properly prepared to respond to medical and non -medical CBD...JOINT PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE – CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE (JPEO-CBD) EFFECTIVENESS September 2016 By: Emily C. Whaley Advisors...reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite

  13. Gender Differences in Patients' Beliefs About Biological, Environmental, Behavioral, and Psychological Risk Factors in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are significant gender differences in the epidemiology and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, physiological aspects of CVDs, response to diagnostic tests or interventions, and prevalence or incidence of the associated risk factors. Considering the independent influence of gender on early dire consequences of such diseases, this study was conducted to investigate gender differences in patients' beliefs about biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychological risk factors in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Materials and Methods: This study has cross sectional design. The sample was composed of 775 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using clinical interview and patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test​​. To do the statistical analysis, SPSS version 20 was utilized. Results: As the results indicated, there was a significant difference between the beliefs of men and women about risk factors of heart disease (X2= 48.36; P

  14. Biological Defense Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    832. 10. "A Review: Antimicrobial Activity, Uses, and Mechanism of Action of Glutaraldehyde" S. P. Gorman, E. M. Scott, and A. D. Russell, J. Appl...which either do not exist or are not part of the BDRP. The outstanding safety record of the ongoing BDRP illustrates that the PDT &E activities of the...accordance with EPA-approved label directions. While general references are made in the EIS to the use of other antimicrobial pesticides for the

  15. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  16. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  17. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  18. 75 FR 76472 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009... called the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCI Act) that amends the PHS Act and...

  19. Program and Abstracts of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-15

    DOES NOT PHASE SHIFT THE and S.J. Tien. Neurocagnition Program. CUNY , City CIRCADIAN CLOCK OF OLD HAMSTERS. 0. Van College and Graduate School, NY...intake pattern than omnivores or carnivores. In addition it has a sophisticated system of retaining and, in a precise ciica- dian rhythm, recycling...biological rhythms. However, since most methods of period analysis were originally described for the detection of circa- dian rhythms, their applicability to

  20. Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linden, Carol D

    2001-01-01

    Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical...

  1. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  2. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  3. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  4. Master of Science (MSc) Program in Radiation Biology: An Interdepartmental Course Bridging the Gap between Radiation-Related Preclinical and Clinical Disciplines to Prepare Next-Generation Medical Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Kessel, Carmen; Wilkens, Jan J; Multhoff, Gabriele; Schmid, Thomas E; Vaupel, Peter; Trott, Klaus-Rüdiger; Berberat, Pascal; Atkinson, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Radiation biology is a highly interdisciplinary field at the interface of biology, physics, and medicine. It is characterized by rapid advances in biological and technical knowledge. The potential for using these advances to optimize medical care, radiation protection, and related fields can be exploited only with complementary activities to support the education of young academics. A small number of academic institutions have committed resources into radiation-related courses and curricula; however, few offer a comprehensive interdepartmental research and training program. At the Technical University of Munich (TUM), a full Master of Science (MSc) course in radiation biology has been established. This article describes the TUM MSc radiation biology program, discusses the scope of the field, the teaching goals, and the interdisciplinary curriculum. Detailed information on the full MSc program can be found continuously updated at www.radonc.med.tum.de/masterradiationbiology.

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  6. BIO-PROGRAMMING PROSPECTS OF JAVA: A COMPUTATIONAL MOVE TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GENES AND PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    KALPANA RAJA

    2011-01-01

    Java is a powerful object oriented programming language that dominates many other programming languages for more than a decade. It is well designed and available as many executable technologies for software development such as Java Swing, Java Beans, Java Applets, Java Web Start, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), Java Server Pages (JSP) and Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE). Beyond its usage in the IT sector, the language is prominent even in the new emerging fields including bioinformatics a...

  7. Implementation of a Regional Training Program on African Swine Fever As Part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program across the Caucasus Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco De Nardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF was implemented by Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland. Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease. Gaps in disease knowledge, legislation, and outbreak preparedness in each country were all addressed. Because ASF is a pathogen with bioterrorism potential and of great veterinary health importance that is responsible for major economic instability, the project team developed public outreach programs to train veterinarians in the partner countries to accurately and rapidly identify ASF activity and report it to international veterinary health agencies. The project implementers facilitated four regional meetings to develop this outreach program, which was later disseminated in each partner country. Partner country participants were trained as trainers to implement the outreach program in their respective countries. In this paper, we describe the development, execution, and evaluation of the ASF training and outreach program that reached more than 13,000 veterinarians, farmers, and hunters in the partner countries. Additionally, more than 120,000 booklets, flyers, leaflets, guidelines, and posters were distributed during the outreach campaign. Pre- and post-ASF knowledge exams were developed. The overall success of the project was demonstrated in that the principles of developing and conducting a public outreach program were established, and these foundational teachings can be applied within a single country or

  8. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  9. A High School-Collegiate Outreach Program in Chemistry and Biology Delivering Modern Technology in a Mobile Van

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craney, Chris; Mazzeo, April; Lord, Kaye

    1996-07-01

    During the past five years the nation's concern for science education has expanded from a discussion about the future supply of Ph.D. scientists and its impact on the nation's scientific competitiveness to the broader consideration of the science education available to all students. Efforts to improve science education have led many authors to suggest greater collaboration between high school science teachers and their college/university colleagues. This article reviews the experience and outcomes of the Teachers + Occidental = Partnership in Science (TOPS) van program operating in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area. The program emphasizes an extensive ongoing staff development, responsiveness to teachers' concerns, technical and on-site support, and sustained interaction between participants and program staff. Access to modern technology, including computer-driven instruments and commercial data analysis software, coupled with increased teacher content knowledge has led to empowerment of teachers and changes in student interest in science. Results of student and teacher questionnaires are reviewed.

  10. TP Atlas: integration and dissemination of advances in Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP)-structural biology project phase II in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayanagi, Takao; Miyamoto, Sei; Konno, Takeshi; Mizutani, Hisashi; Hirai, Tomohiro; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2012-09-01

    The Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan is the phase II of structural biology project (2007-2011) following the Protein 3000 Project (2002-2006) in Japan. While the phase I Protein 3000 Project put partial emphasis on the construction and maintenance of pipelines for structural analyses, the TPRP is dedicated to revealing the structures and functions of the targeted proteins that have great importance in both basic research and industrial applications. To pursue this objective, 35 Targeted Proteins (TP) Projects selected in the three areas of fundamental biology, medicine and pharmacology, and food and environment are tightly collaborated with 10 Advanced Technology (AT) Projects in the four fields of protein production, structural analyses, chemical library and screening, and information platform. Here, the outlines and achievements of the 35 TP Projects are summarized in the system named TP Atlas. Progress in the diversified areas is described in the modules of Graphical Summary, General Summary, Tabular Summary, and Structure Gallery of the TP Atlas in the standard and unified format. Advances in TP Projects owing to novel technologies stemmed from AT Projects and collaborative research among TP Projects are illustrated as a hallmark of the Program. The TP Atlas can be accessed at http://net.genes.nig.ac.jp/tpatlas/index_e.html .

  11. Research experiences and mentoring practices in selected east Asian graduate programs: predictors of research productivity among doctoral students in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynalvez, Ruby; Garza-Gongora, Claudia; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Hara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    Although doctoral mentors recognize the benefits of providing quality advisement and close guidance, those of sharing project management responsibilities with mentees are still not well recognized. We observed that mentees, who have the opportunity to co-manage projects, generate more written output. Here we examine the link between research productivity, doctoral mentoring practices (DMP), and doctoral research experiences (DRE) of mentees in programs in the non-West. Inspired by previous findings that early career productivity is a strong predictor of later productivity, we examine the research productivity of 210 molecular biology doctoral students in selected programs in Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan. Using principal component (PC) analysis, we derive two sets of PCs: one set from 15 DMP and another set from 16 DRE items. We model research productivity using Poisson and negative-binomial regression models with these sets as predictors. Our findings suggest a need to re-think extant practices and to allocate resources toward professional career development in training future scientists. We contend that doctoral science training must not only be an occasion for future scientists to learn scientific and technical skills, but it must also be the opportunity to experience, to acquire, and to hone research management skills. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Engaging high school students in systems biology through an e-internship program [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim E Crusio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the design and implementation of an e-internship program that BioScience Project offers high school students over the summer. Project topics are in the areas of behavioral neuroscience and brain disorders. All research, teaching, and communication is done online using open access databases and webtools, a learning management system, and Google apps. Students conduct all aspects of a research project from formulating a question to collecting and analyzing the data, to presenting their results in the form of a scientific poster. Results from a pilot study indicate that students are capable of comprehending and successfully completing such a project, and benefit both intellectually and professionally from participating in the e-internship program.

  13. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  14. High performance computing and communications Grand Challenges program: Computational structural biology. Final report, August 15, 1992--January 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, J.E.

    1997-10-02

    The Grand Challenge project consists of two elements: (1) a hierarchical methodology for 3D protein structure prediction; and (2) development of a parallel computing environment, the Protein Folding Workbench, for carrying out a variety of protein structure prediction/modeling computations. During the first three years of this project the author focused on the use of selected proteins from the Brookhaven Protein Data Base (PDB) of known structures to provide validation of the prediction algorithms and their software implementation, both serial and parallel. Two proteins in particular have been selected to provide the project with direct interaction with experimental molecular biology. A variety of site-specific mutagenesis experiments are performed on these two proteins to explore the many-to-one mapping characteristics of sequence to structure.

  15. Genetic Differentiation in Native and Introduced Populations of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Its Implications for Biological Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Sen; Jin, Meng-Jie; Ślipiński, Adam; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an effective biological control agent of Australian origin, which has been introduced worldwide to control mealybugs. Although successfully used for >100 yr, its introduction in a new area may cause environmental risks should the populations become invasive. In the present study, a population genetics method was used to make predictions of the invasive potential of C. montrouzieri. Our results showed a similar level of genetic diversity among all populations. No significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced populations was observed, while three populations from the native region were significantly divergent. The fact that genetic diversity was not reduced in introduced areas suggests that no bottleneck effect has occurred during introduction. To avoid rapid evolution of the introduced C. montrouzieri, the introduction records of each population should be clearly traced and introductions from multiple sources into the same area should be avoided. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  17. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  18. A user-friendly robotic sample preparation program for fully automated biological sample pipetting and dilution to benefit the regulated bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Ouyang, Zheng; Zeng, Jianing; Yuan, Long; Zheng, Naiyu; Jemal, Mohammed; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    Biological sample dilution is a rate-limiting step in bioanalytical sample preparation when the concentrations of samples are beyond standard curve ranges, especially when multiple dilution factors are needed in an analytical run. We have developed and validated a Microsoft Excel-based robotic sample preparation program (RSPP) that automatically transforms Watson worklist sample information (identification, sequence and dilution factor) to comma-separated value (CSV) files. The Freedom EVO liquid handler software imports and transforms the CSV files to executable worklists (.gwl files), allowing the robot to perform sample dilutions at variable dilution factors. The dynamic dilution range is 1- to 1000-fold and divided into three dilution steps: 1- to 10-, 11- to 100-, and 101- to 1000-fold. The whole process, including pipetting samples, diluting samples, and adding internal standard(s), is accomplished within 1 h for two racks of samples (96 samples/rack). This platform also supports online sample extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, protein precipitation, etc.) using 96 multichannel arms. This fully automated and validated sample dilution and preparation process has been applied to several drug development programs. The results demonstrate that application of the RSPP for fully automated sample processing is efficient and rugged. The RSPP not only saved more than 50% of the time in sample pipetting and dilution but also reduced human errors. The generated bioanalytical data are accurate and precise; therefore, this application can be used in regulated bioanalysis.

  19. [JSPS Asia and Africa scientific platform program development for the medicinal chemistry based on biologically active natural products in the subtropical zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoki; Morita, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the independent administrative institution the "Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS)" initiated the "Asia and Africa Science Platform Program", which is a new project aimed to create high potential research hubs in selected fields within the Asian and African region, while fostering the next generation of leading researchers. Another goal is to establish sustainable collaborative relationships among universities and research institutes in Japan and other Asian and African countries. In this project, we consider natural sources existing in partner countries to be the most important factor in the production of medicine. We will search for target compounds and analyze their structures by screening biologically active natural products. Additionally, we will design functional molecules and create process for retrieving a large supply of target compounds based on a bioprospecting strategy. Thailand, Indonesia, and India share the vision of enhancing collaborative efforts. By conducting this researche, we will focus on academic research that is necessary for the development of the pharmaceutical and medical products industry in partner countries. There are four selected research topics as followeds: 1) Development of New Antitumor Agents based on Marine Natural Products; 2) Development of New Anticoagulants and Anti-VEGF; 3) Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Development of Novel Diagnosis and Therapeutic Agents; and 4) Medicinal Chemistry on Biologically Active Natural Products from the Traditional Condiments and Medicines. The exchanges might take the form of joint research seminars. The first Medicinal Chemistry Seminar of the AA Scientific Platform Program was co-organized with the 23th Annual Research Conference on Pharmaceutical Sciences, Thailand at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, on December 14-15, 2006. The 2nd JSPS seminar was co-organized with the 1st Bioactive Natural Products from Marine

  20. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  1. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  2. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  3. Vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-programmed cell death-1 therapies are clinically and biologically distinct from vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsabal, Maiana; Marti, Aurélie; Jacquemin, Clément; Rambert, Jérôme; Thiolat, Denis; Dousset, Léa; Taieb, Alain; Dutriaux, Caroline; Prey, Sorilla; Boniface, Katia; Seneschal, Julien

    2017-05-01

    The use of anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 therapies in metastatic tumors is associated with cutaneous side effects including vitiligo-like lesions. We sought to characterize clinically and biologically vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies by studying a case series of 8 patients with metastatic tumors and 30 control subjects with vitiligo. Eight patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies with features of vitiligo-like lesions seen in our department were recruited. Clinical features and photographs were analyzed. For some patients, skin and blood samples were obtained. Results were compared with the vitiligo group. All patients developed lesions localized on photoexposed areas with a specific depigmentation pattern consisting of multiple flecked lesions without Koebner phenomenon. In contrast to vitiligo, patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies who developed vitiligo-like lesions did not report any personal or family histories of vitiligo, thyroiditis, or other autoimmune disorders. Analysis of blood and skin samples revealed increased C-X-C motif ligand 10 levels in serum of patients developing vitiligo-like lesions, associated with skin infiltration of CD8 T-cells expressing C-X-C motif receptor 3 and producing elevated levels of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-alfa. This cross-sectional study concerned a single center. Clinical and biological patterns of vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies differ from vitiligo, suggesting a different mechanism. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a Professional Development Program for Enhancing Chilean Biology Teachers' Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) and Their Perceptions About Using History of Science to Teach NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, José M.; Vergara, Claudia A.; Santibañez, David; Cofré, Hernán

    2016-05-01

    A number of authors have recognized the importance of understanding the nature of science (NOS) for scientific literacy. Different instructional strategies such as decontextualized, hands-on inquiry, and history of science (HOS) activities have been proposed for teaching NOS. This article seeks to understand the contribution of HOS in enhancing biology teachers' understanding of NOS, and their perceptions about using HOS to teach NOS. These teachers ( N = 8), enrolled in a professional development program in Chile are, according to the national curriculum, expected to teach NOS, but have no specific NOS and HOS training. Teachers' views of NOS were assessed using the VNOS-D+ questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of two modules about science instruction and NOS. Both the pre- and the post-test were accompanied by interviews, and in the second session we collected information about teachers' perceptions of which interventions had been more significant in changing their views on NOS. Finally, the teachers also had to prepare a lesson plan for teaching NOS that included HOS. Some of the most important study results were: significant improvements were observed in teachers' understanding of NOS, although they assigned different levels of importance to HOS in these improvements; and although the teachers improved their understanding of NOS, most had difficulties in planning lessons about NOS and articulating historical episodes that incorporated NOS. The relationship between teachers' improved understanding of NOS and their instructional NOS skills is also discussed.

  5. Biological Sciences Division 1991 Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    chloramphenicol acetyltransferase type III (CATIJI) genes in Thermus thermophilus. 3) To isolate more thermostable mutants of KNTase and mutants of CATII I...acidic, basic and neutral amino acids, respectively, are highly independent from each other and suggest that a mechanism for synergism is the

  6. GPSR: A Resource for Genomics Proteomics and Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPSR: A Resource for Genomics Proteomics and Systems Biology · Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods · Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular Biology · Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Prediction of ...

  7. Biological effects in limed forests; Biologiska effekter i kalkad skog. Aarsrapport 1998. Effektuppfoeljning av Skogsstyrelsens program foer kalkning och vitaliseringsgoedsling av skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik; Akselsson, Cecilia; Bengtsson, Roland; Bjelke, Ulf

    1999-10-01

    The Swedish Board of Forestry experimental work with liming and vitalising (nutrient compensation) of forest soil includes an extensive review program of the effects of this work. Results from the experimental work are presented in annual reports. This report gives an account of the review program carried out to indicate the results of the biological effects. The studies are performed within the Swedish Board of Forestry's large-scale experiments with the liming and vitalising fertilisation of forest soil. The report covers the time period, or parts of the period, from 1991 to 1998. The results in short are as follows: (1) Benthic invertebrate: The investigation revealed that a dose of 3 tonnes per hectare was insufficient to have a substantial effect on the fauna in acidified streams during the first seven years after treatment. An increase in the number of species and taxon or larger bio-diversity could not be confirmed. No indications of harmful effects on the fauna, caused by high lime concentrations, were found., (2) Benthic algae: Changes to benthic flora in streams after soil treatment was minimal. The total number of species increased slightly after lime treatment. At the same time the number of acid indicating species diminished. In other words, the decrease in acidity has improved the water quality. No negative effects, as a result of soil treatment were found., (3) Nutritional status in needles: The trees reacted quickly to the treatments. The soil treatment led to an increase in levels of calcium in the needles. Treatment using wood ash and the vitalising agent 'Skogvital' led to an increase in calcium and boron levels. Treatment using a mixture of wood ash and lime resulted in increased magnesium and manganese levels. Samples were taken one and three years respectively after treatment. A longer period of time is required to carry out a detailed evaluation of the nutritional status of the needles., and (4) Tree vitality: It is not

  8. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  9. Biological drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrán Suárez, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Póster Biological drugs include a wide range of medicinal products created by biological instead of chemical processes. Biological drugs can consist of proteins, nucleic acids or complex combinations of substances, or may be living entities such as cells and tissues. They are isolated from natural sources or are produced by biotechnology methods.

  10. Biological, oceanographic and meteorological data collected as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1946-01-01 to 1990-10-11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains physical, biological, chemical and meteorological data collected from various platforms by various organizations. Data were collected as...

  11. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  12. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  13. Biological post

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; N S Mohan Kumar; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as ?biological restoration.? This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of ?biological post? in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extra...

  14. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  15. Biological indicators of aquatic ecosystem stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, S. M

    2002-01-01

    ... biological measures into the bioassessment programs. Relying on chemical criteria alone for assessing the status of surface water integrity can inaccurately portray the biological and ecological condition of aquatic systems...

  16. Using the Movie Awakenings (1990 to Evaluate Learningin the Biology Degree Program at the UniversitatPompeu Fabra. Ten Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge PÉREZ SÁNCHEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper narrates the experience of using the movie Awakenings (1990 as an important basis for final assessment in a beginner’s course for biology students at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra. From the results obtained, both the evaluation of the course and the use of the film have been positive, supporting the use of commercial movies in university education.

  17. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  18. Life sciences payloads analyses and technical program planning studies. [project planning of space missions of space shuttles in aerospace medicine and space biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Contractural requirements, project planning, equipment specifications, and technical data for space shuttle biological experiment payloads are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) urine collection and processing on the space shuttle, (2) space processing of biochemical and biomedical materials, (3) mission simulations, and (4) biomedical equipment.

  19. Program and Abstracts of the National Meeting of the Society for Leukocyte Biology (25th) Held in Washington, DC on October 27-30, 1988. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Volume 44, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    type 1 (E13-), bovine respiratory ’vtz-l r si at syncytial sirus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) or (. 7e-~-- parainfluenza type 3 virs (P1...Annual Meeting Program POSTER SESSION I Friday, October 28th, 7:30 AM-9:3OAM GRANULOCYTE ACTIVATION Hemisphere Room 1. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION OF BOVINE ...NEUTROPHIL FUNCTIONS BY RECOMBINANT BOVINE INTERLEUKIN-l . P. Canning, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.D.A.,AmesTA

  20. Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOOK I REVIEW. Environmental Biology. Man and his Environment. M D Subhash Chandran ... logy and Field Biology (Harper Collins, 1990):. "The fragmentation of ecology into specialised subdisciplines with their ... momentous events of the decade like the Earth. Summit of 1992! Despite the need to revise and update.

  1. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  2. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,. UAS-GKVK Campus ... In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the ... study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule.

  3. Cat Island NWR Biological Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.

  4. Groundtruthing Notes and Miscellaneous Biological Datasets from Coral Ecosystems Surveys from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow water...

  5. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  6. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  7. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  8. Identification of potential participant scientists and development of procedures for a national inventory of selected biological monitoring programs: a mail questionnaire survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H.T.; Goff, F.G.; Ross, J.W.

    1978-03-01

    Procedural details of how the National Biological Monitoring Inventory was conducted are described. Results of a nationwide telephone campaign to identify principal investigators and also of a nationwide questionnaire mailing to the investigators identified are presented. On the basis of percentage of questionnaire returns (nearly 50 percent), the Inventory was judged to be successful. The communication procedures, guidelines, and formats developed may be useful to others engaged in this type of research.

  9. Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Engineering Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joshua B; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Gersbach, Charles A

    2017-06-21

    The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These tools have been critical for the expansion of synthetic biology techniques from prokaryotic and lower eukaryotic hosts to mammalian systems. Recent progress in the development of genome and epigenome editing tools and in the engineering of designer cells with programmable genetic circuits is expanding approaches to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease and to establish personalized theranostic strategies for next-generation medicines. This review summarizes the development of these enabling technologies and their application to transforming mammalian synthetic biology into a distinct field in research and medicine.

  10. Biological Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the direction of biologists or other scientists. Work Schedules Most biological technicians work full time and keep ... more efficient ways than are currently used. New applications of biotechnology may be the subject of research ...

  11. Biological indicators and biological indication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseloff, H.P.

    1982-02-01

    Pollutants in the environment cause more and more situations of burden for living beings. In certain organisms, i.e. in biological indicators, there is a correlation between the extent of the damage and the degree of the burden. That is why environmental burdens can be recognized and, in part, be quantitatively recorded. Depending of the choice of materials and the damage parameters the respective differentiated statements can be made. Compared to technical measuring stations biological indicators facilitate the assessment of situations of burden with the help of biological-ecological parameters.

  12. The Cotesia sesamiae story: insight into host-range evolution in a Hymenoptera parasitoid and implication for its use in biological control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L; Dupas, S; Branca, A; Herniou, E A; Clarke, C W; Capdevielle Dulac, C; Obonyo, J; Benoist, R; Gauthier, J; Calatayud, P A; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B P

    2017-12-01

    This review covers nearly 20 years of studies on the ecology, physiology and genetics of the Hymenoptera Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitoid of Lepidoptera that reduces populations of common maize borers in East and South Africa. The first part of the review presents studies based on sampling of C. sesamiae from maize crops in Kenya. From this agrosystem including one host plant and three main host borer species, studies revealed two genetically differentiated populations of C. sesamiae species adapted to their local host community, and showed that their differentiation involved the joint evolution of virulence genes and sensory mechanisms of host acceptance, reinforced by reproductive incompatibility due to Wolbachia infection status and natural inbreeding. In the second part, we consider the larger ecosystem of wild Poales plant species hosting many Lepidoptera stem borer species that are potential hosts for C. sesamiae. The hypothesis of other host-adapted C. sesamiae populations was investigated based on a large sampling of stem borer larvae on various Poales across sub-Saharan Africa. The sampling provided information on the respective contribution of local hosts, biogeography and Wolbachia in the genetic structure of C. sesamiae populations. Molecular evolution analyses highlighted that several bracovirus genes were under positive selection, some of them being under different selection pressure in C. sesamiae populations adapted to different hosts. This suggests that C. sesamiae host races result from co-evolution acting at the local scale on different bracovirus genes. The third part considers the mechanisms driving specialization. C. sesamiae host races are more or less host-specialized. This character is crucial for efficient and environmentally-safe use of natural enemies for biological control of pests. One method to get an insight in the evolutionary stability of host-parasite associations is to characterize the phylogenetic relationships between

  13. The effect of a county's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on end-of-course standard of learning tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry and World History and Geography II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Brenda L.

    The Commonwealth of Virginia requires high school students to receive a passing grade in core courses and a passing score on End-of-Course Standards of Learning (EOC SOL) tests to receive verified credits that lead to a Virginia high school diploma. These tests are believed to accurately reflect what students should know and be able to do in order to experience success in their endeavors beyond high school. For some students remediation is required to experience success on EOC SOL tests. This study sought to determine the effect of a County's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on EOC SOL tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry, and World History and Geography II. Specifically, the purpose of the study sought to determine the following: (a) If significant gains were made by students who attended the summer remediation program; (b) If significant gains were made by students who did not attend the summer remediation program; (c) If there were differences in gain scores of students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program; and (d) If there were differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to school site, gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. The results of the study indicate that students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program made significant gains. However, the gains for students who attended the summer remediation program were significantly greater than the gains made by students who did not attend. The study also found that there were no significant differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. There were significant differences in Algebra I gain scores related to school site. Recommendations for

  14. Meeting of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990. Programs and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    S.W. Yang, OR DARK PULSES DOES NOT PHASE SHIFT THE and S.J. Tien. Neurocognition Program. CUNY , City CIRCADIAN CLOCK OF OLD HAMSTERS. 0. Van College...it has a sophisticated system of retaining and, in a precise circa- dian rhythm, recycling highly digestible particles of caecal con- tents. The rabbit...most methods of period analysis were originally described for the detection of circa- dian rhythms, their applicability to ultradian rhythms (shorter

  15. Biological terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Gregory J; Talan, David A; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2008-03-01

    A biological terrorism event could have a large impact on the general population and health care system. The impact of an infectious disaster will most likely be great to emergency departments, and the collaboration between emergency and infectious disease specialists will be critical in developing an effective response. A bioterrorism event is a disaster that requires specific preparations beyond the usual medical disaster planning. An effective response would include attention to infection control issues and plans for large-scale vaccination or antimicrobial prophylaxis. This article addresses some general issues related to preparing an effective response to a biological terrorism event. It will also review organisms and toxins that could be used in biological terrorism, including clinical features, management, diagnostic testing, and infection control.

  16. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  17. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  18. Biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  19. Synthetic biology advancing clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, Marc; Fussenegger, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The 'omics' era, with its identification of genetic and protein components, has combined with systems biology, which provided insights into network structures, to set the stage for synthetic biology, an emerging interdisciplinary life science that uses engineering principles. By capitalizing on an iterative design cycle that involves molecular and computational biology tools to assemble functional designer devices from a comprehensive catalogue of standardized biological components with predictable functions, synthetic biology has significantly advanced our understanding of complex control dynamics that program living systems. Such insights, collected over the past decade, are priming a variety of synthetic biology-inspired biomedical applications that have the potential to revolutionize drug discovery and production technologies, as well as treatment strategies for infectious diseases and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  1. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  2. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Environmental Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Environmental Biology - Man and his Environment. M D Subhash Chandran. Book Review Volume ... Author Affiliations. M D Subhash Chandran1. Department of Botany, Dr Baliga College of Arts and Science, Kumta 581343, Karnataka, India.

  4. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  5. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  6. Challenges to Leadership: Responding to Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Challenges to Leadership : Responding to Biological Threats Paul Rosenzweig Center for Technology and National Security Policy...Challenges to Leadership : Responding to Biological Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... theory , two other components to any program to reduce the threat of a biological attack: limiting access to source materials and technology and

  7. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    the goal of revolutionizing the way biology curriculum is presented for K12 student worldwide. APPROACH To achieve this objective, we...will inform the iterative design of Foldit, and other educational games and activities, so that they provide students/players with optimal learning...Foldit’s use in education and for education research at the Center for Game Science generally. Another exciting development for the future is the

  8. Biological cages

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M. E.; NGUYEN, C; Beckham, R.; Larson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Restoring a stable anterior column is essential to achieve normal spinal biomechanics. A variety of mechanical spacers have been developed and advocated for both anterior and posterior approaches. The ability to radiographically assess the “biology” of bone incorporation in these mechanical (metal) spacers is an inherent limitation. The femoral ring allograft (FRA) and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) spacers have been developed as biological cages that permit restoration of the anter...

  9. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  10. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  11. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age (n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations (p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  13. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. McBurney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

  14. Embryogenomics: developmental biology meets genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, M S

    2001-12-01

    Fundamental questions in developmental biology are: what genes are expressed, where and when they are expressed, what is the level of expression and how are these programs changed by the functional and structural alteration of genes? These questions have been addressed by studying one gene at a time, but a new research field that handles many genes in parallel is emerging. The methodology is at the interface of large-scale genomics approaches and developmental biology. Genomics needs developmental biology because one of the goals of genomics--collection and analysis of all genes in an organism--cannot be completed without working on embryonic tissues in which many genes are uniquely expressed. However, developmental biology needs genomics--the high-throughput approaches of genomics generate information about genes and pathways that can give an integrated view of complex processes. This article discusses these new approaches and their applications to mammalian developmental biology.

  15. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  16. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in…

  17. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  18. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  19. Integrating chemical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Salom; Albert Mayfield; Tom McAvoy

    2011-01-01

    Research and management efforts to establish an effective biological control program against HWA has received significant support by the U.S. Forest Service over the past 17 years. Other federal and state agencies, universities, and private entities have also contributed to this overall research and management effort. Although a number of HWA-specific predator species...

  20. Gravity and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.

  1. Ecological Compatibility of GM Crops and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops pervade many modern cropping systems, and present challenges and opportunities for developing biologically-based pest management programs. Interactions between biological control agents (insect predators, parasitoids, and pathog...

  2. Biological services program, fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Continuing activities are reported on studies seeking to solve ecological problems associated with energy development, other types of land and water developments, and activities of a supporting nature. Specific projects include: coal; power plants; ecological systems and inventory; information transfer; coastal ecosystems and outer Continental Shelf development; and geothermal, oil shale and minerals. (PCS)

  3. Progress Report Abstracts. Oceanic Biology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    15 Cognit~ve Chauateki&cs o6 MaA~ne ManinaL R. J. Schusterman ..... .. .. ........................... 17 Ecotogica En eticA ad Deep Scatte...feeding patterns, and intra/interspecific social behaviors including aggressive interactions with humans, and (b) to develop the biotelemetry...Klimley, A.P. (in ms) Social organization of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, in the Gulf of California Ph.D. Dissertation. UCSD (SIO

  4. Training Program in Marine Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    ill of the protocols available. ather then resti ict themselves t3 ,e area. 1 hope that these s, gqestio! ire useful "o,- e future. Let me say again...ways preferrable, from a pedagogical point of view, than having all of us working on the same organism and succeeding at everything we did. After much...Isl. April-June 1989. Twelve students, from 7 institutions, chosen from a nationwide applicant pool were selected, and requestered at the faculty

  5. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Programming in biomolecular computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a top-down approach to biomolecular computation. In spite of widespread discussion about connections between biology and computation, one question seems notable by its absence: Where are the programs? We introduce a model of computation that is evidently programmable......, by programs reminiscent of low-level computer machine code; and at the same time biologically plausible: its functioning is defined by a single and relatively small set of chemical-like reaction rules. Further properties: the model is stored-program: programs are the same as data, so programs are not only...... in a strong sense: a universal algorithm exists, that is able to execute any program, and is not asymptotically inefficient. A prototype model has been implemented (for now in silico on a conventional computer). This work opens new perspectives on just how computation may be specified at the biological level....

  7. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna; Phatchareewan Khadsiri; Nisa Chawapun; Suwit Saekho; Ekkasit Tharavichitkul

    2017-01-01

      Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model...

  8. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-05

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. © 2014 Shekhar, Zhu, Mazutis, Sgro, Fai, and Podolski. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. DNA Barcoding Investigations Bring Biology to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how DNA barcoding investigations bring biology to life. Biologists recognize the power of DNA barcoding not just to teach biology through connections to the real world but also to immerse students in the exciting process of science. As an investigator in the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University in New…

  10. Athena: Modular CAM/CAD Software for Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Deepak; Bergmann, Frank T; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology is the engineering of cellular networks. It combines principles of engineering and the knowledge of biological networks to program the behavior of cells. Computational modeling techniques in conjunction with molecular biology techniques have been successful in constructing biological devices such as switches, oscillators, and gates. The ambition of synthetic biology is to construct complex systems from such fundamental devices, much in the same way electronic circuits are bu...

  11. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  12. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  13. Simulations of stochastic biological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayot, Fernand

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a two-part lecture that introduces stochastic modeling of biological systems. The first lecture uses biological examples to present the concept of cell-to-cell variability and makes the connection between the variability of single-cell measurements and concepts from statistical mechanics and probability theory. This section makes the point that for low copy number of a species, the usual differential equation formalism is no longer applicable and needs to be replaced by a probabilistic approach based on the so-called Master Equation. As an example, a simple model of gene transcription is discussed in detail, the different contributions to the relevant Master Equation are highlighted, and the equation itself is derived. The second lecture describes how, for more complex and biologically interesting applications, direct solution of the Master Equation becomes difficult. Gillespie's algorithm, which is used in most cases of biological interest, is then introduced as a practical alternative. The lecture delves into the crux of Gillespie's algorithm, which entails the drawing of two random numbers at each time step. It establishes the corresponding formalism, details the connection between chemical rate constants and Gillespie rates, and culminates in a description and explanation of a core MATLAB program for the transcriptional model considered in the first lecture. This core program, written for a single cell, is expanded by the students in the homework assignment to consider both transcription and translation.

  14. Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

  15. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  16. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  17. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  19. Programming in biomolecular computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a top-down approach to biomolecular computation. In spite of widespread discussion about connections between biology and computation, one question seems notable by its absence: Where are the programs? We identify a number of common features in programming that seem...... conspicuously absent from the literature on biomolecular computing; to partially redress this absence, we introduce a model of computation that is evidently programmable, by programs reminiscent of low-level computer machine code; and at the same time biologically plausible: its functioning is defined...... by a single and relatively small set of chemical-like reaction rules. Further properties: the model is stored-program: programs are the same as data, so programs are not only executable, but are also compilable and interpretable. It is universal: all computable functions can be computed (in natural ways...

  20. 9 CFR 106.1 - Biological products; exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXEMPTION FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS USED IN DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS OR UNDER DEPARTMENT CONTROL OR SUPERVISION § 106.1 Biological products... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products; exemption. 106.1...

  1. Integrated Modular Teaching of Human Biology for Primary Care Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Michael S.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of integrated modular teaching of the human biology component of the Health Associate Program at Johns Hopkins University, where the goal is to develop an understanding of the sciences as applied to primary care. Discussion covers the module sequence, the human biology faculty, goals of the human biology faculty, laboratory…

  2. 75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... development and implementation of the Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics... Doc No: 2010-21673] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee... announces a meeting of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal...

  3. Synthetic Biology-The Synthesis of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausländer, Simon; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic biology concerns the engineering of man-made living biomachines from standardized components that can perform predefined functions in a (self-)controlled manner. Different research strategies and interdisciplinary efforts are pursued to implement engineering principles to biology. The "top-down" strategy exploits nature's incredible diversity of existing, natural parts to construct synthetic compositions of genetic, metabolic, or signaling networks with predictable and controllable properties. This mainly application-driven approach results in living factories that produce drugs, biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals, and results in living pills that are based on engineered cells with the capacity to autonomously detect and treat disease states in vivo. In contrast, the "bottom-up" strategy seeks to be independent of existing living systems by designing biological systems from scratch and synthesizing artificial biological entities not found in nature. This more knowledge-driven approach investigates the reconstruction of minimal biological systems that are capable of performing basic biological phenomena, such as self-organization, self-replication, and self-sustainability. Moreover, the syntheses of artificial biological units, such as synthetic nucleotides or amino acids, and their implementation into polymers inside living cells currently set the boundaries between natural and artificial biological systems. In particular, the in vitro design, synthesis, and transfer of complete genomes into host cells point to the future of synthetic biology: the creation of designer cells with tailored desirable properties for biomedicine and biotechnology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Progress report on the regulatory cooperation program between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia. Final report of projects and other activities completed in 2008-2009 and plans for 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudak, S. F.; Sneve, M. K.; Kiselev, M.; Shandala, N. K.

    2011-06-15

    This report sets out the progress made in the projects and related activities carried out in the period 2008 - 2009 within the Regulatory Cooperation Program between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia. The progress described follows directly from previous work carried out within the Regulatory Cooperation Program, as set out in earlier NRPA reports and in accordance with the Norwegian Government's Plan of Action to improve nuclear and radiation safety in Northwest Russia. The work was carried out by specialists of the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, with support from other Russian organisations and specialists as well as experts from the NRPA. Five main projects are described, each of which has contributed to the improvement of regulatory supervision by the FMBA over the sites operated by SevRAO in the Northwest of Russia, including the Sites for Temporary Storage at Andreyev Bay and Gremikha, and the Regional Centre for Waste Conditioning and Long-term Storage at Saida Bay. The main activities of interest include recovery and secure the safe condition of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from inadequate storage facilities and ensuring their continued future safe storage. The topics covered by these projects include: Control of Occupational Exposure and Optimisation During Hazardous Operations through the Development of Databases on Radiation Situation and Individual Occupational Exposure (DOSEMAP). The software for a mapping database of radiation situation parameters at SevRAO Facilities has been developed. A computer scheme of workshops in new Complex facilities for the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management, the design of which is already available, has been developed. The software for the database on individual doses to the SevRAO workers has also been developed. Two draft guidance documents have been prepared: 'Application of the database on the radiation

  5. Human Ecology: A Perspective for Biology Education. Monograph Series II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This monograph provides a framework for biology teachers who are rethinking and redesigning their programs. The major focus is on the human ecology perspective in biology programs. The first chapter attempts to define and clarify human ecology through historical review. The second chapter provides support, based on a survey of citizens…

  6. Program and abstracts of the 25. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Programa e resumos da 25. Reuniao anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology.In this meeting it was also discussed the following subjects: biotechnology, metabolism, enzymes, proteins, immunology, drugs and others related topics.

  7. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, May 23, 2005 - November 11, 2006 (NODC Accession 0038513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from May 23, 2005 to November 11, 2006....

  8. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, January 17, 2005 - January 16, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from January 17, 2005 to January 16,...

  9. 33. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Program and abstracts; 33. Reuniao anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular. Programa e resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Use of radioisotopes and radiation in biology is reported, including metabolism, receptors, cell proliferation, disease diagnosis and disease vectors. Biosynthesis, qualitative chemical analysis and biological pathways are studied by radioassay, nuclear magnetic resonance, spectroscopy, tracer techniques, radionuclide kinetics and labelled compounds (eg. carbon 14, carbon 13, sulfur 35, phosphorus 32, phosphorus 33, tritium compounds). In vivo and in vitro studies are presented. Several aspects related to animals (e.g. rats, mice and habits), plants and microorganisms are reported.

  10. 32. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Program and abstracts; 32. Reuniao anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular. Programa e Resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Use of radioisotopes and radiation in biology is reported, including metabolism, receptors, cell proliferation, melanomas and disease vectors. Biosynthesis, qualitative chemical analysis and biological pathways are studied by radioassay, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, tracer techniques, radionuclide kinetics and labelled compounds (eg. carbon 14, carbon 13, sulfur 35, phosphorus 32, phosphorus 33, tritium compounds). In vivo and in vitro studies are presented. Several aspects related to animals (e.g. rats, mice and habits), plants and microorganisms are reported. (MAC)

  11. Integrative Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [New York University School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2015-02-27

    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive and negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.

  12. Models for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  13. Computational Biology: A Strategic Initiative LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barksy, D; Colvin, M

    2002-02-07

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative LDRD project was to establish at LLNL a new core capability in computational biology, combining laboratory strengths in high performance computing, molecular biology, and computational chemistry and physics. As described in this report, this project has been very successful in achieving this goal. This success is demonstrated by the large number of referred publications, invited talks, and follow-on research grants that have resulted from this project. Additionally, this project has helped build connections to internal and external collaborators and funding agencies that will be critical to the long-term vitality of LLNL programs in computational biology. Most importantly, this project has helped establish on-going research groups in the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, the Physics and Applied Technology Directorate, and the Computation Directorate. These groups include three laboratory staff members originally hired as post-doctoral researchers for this strategic initiative.

  14. Receipt and Inspection of Chemical - Biological (CB) Materiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Biological (CB) Materiel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...DTIC), AD No.: This TOP supersedes TOP 08-2-500 Receipt Inspection of Chemical - Biological (CB) Materiel, dated 1 July 1984. Marginal notations...TERMS chemical, biological , receipt inspection, Chemical- Biological materiel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. [System biology and synthetic biology modify drug discovery and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiech, Jacques; Ranjeva, Raoul; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2012-02-01

    Life Sciences are built on observations. Right now, a more systemic approach allowing to integrate the different organizational levels in Biology is emerging. Such an approach uses a set of technologies and strategies allowing to build models that appear to be more and more predictive (omics, bioinformatics, integrative biology, computational biology…). Those models accelerate the rational development of new therapies avoiding an engineering based only on trials and errors. This approach both holistic and predictive radically modifies the discovery and development modalities used today in health industries. Moreover, because of the apparition of new jobs at the interface of disciplines, of private and public sectors and of life sciences and engineering sciences, this implies to rethink the training programs in both their contents and their pedagogical tools. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  16. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...

  17. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  18. Marine mammals: evolutionary biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berta, Annalisa; Sumich, James L; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology provides a comprehensive and current assessment of the diversity, evolution, and biology of marine mammals, while highlighting the latest tools and techniques for their study...

  19. Systems biology approaches in aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The concept of mechanism in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    The concept of mechanism in biology has three distinct meanings. It may refer to a philosophical thesis about the nature of life and biology ('mechanicism'), to the internal workings of a machine-like structure ('machine mechanism'), or to the causal explanation of a particular phenomenon ('causal mechanism'). In this paper I trace the conceptual evolution of 'mechanism' in the history of biology, and I examine how the three meanings of this term have come to be featured in the philosophy of biology, situating the new 'mechanismic program' in this context. I argue that the leading advocates of the mechanismic program (i.e., Craver, Darden, Bechtel, etc.) inadvertently conflate the different senses of 'mechanism'. Specifically, they all inappropriately endow causal mechanisms with the ontic status of machine mechanisms, and this invariably results in problematic accounts of the role played by mechanism-talk in scientific practice. I suggest that for effective analyses of the concept of mechanism, causal mechanisms need to be distinguished from machine mechanisms, and the new mechanismic program in the philosophy of biology needs to be demarcated from the traditional concerns of mechanistic biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 31. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Program and abstracts; 31. Reuniao anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular. Programa e resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Utilization of radioisotopes and radiation in biology is reported, including metabolism, receptors, cell proliferation, melanomas, disease vectors (Schistosomiasis, Malaria). Biosynthesis, qualitative chemical analysis and biological pathways are studied by radioassay, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, tracer techniques, radionuclide kinetics and labelled compounds (eg. carbon 14, carbon 13, sulfur 35, phosphorus 32, phosphorus 33, tritium compounds). In vivo and in vitro studies are presented. Several aspects related to animals (e.g. rats, mice and habits), plants and microorganisms are reported. Genetic mapping, polymerase chain reaction, genetic diversity, DNA hybridization, DNA sequencing are studied as well.

  2. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN CLINICAL BIOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERODIAGNOSIS), (*FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUES , IDENTIFICATION, BACTERIA, VIRUSES, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM, NUCLEI( BIOLOGY ), ANTIGEN ANTIBODY REACTIONS, BLOOD GROUPS, ERYTHROCYTES, TOXOPLASMA, IMMUNOLOGY, BELGIUM.

  3. Catfish Biology and Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Rex A; Elaswad, Ahmed

    2017-11-06

    This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female × blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed. Recent advances in catfish culture elements, including environment, management, nutrition, feeding, disease control, culture systems, genetic improvement programs, transgenics, and the application of genome-based approaches in catfish production and welfare, are reviewed. The current status, needs, and future projections are discussed, as well as genetically modified organism developments that are changing the futur Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 6 is February 15, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  5. Report of the Interagency biological methods workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtz, Martin E.; Muir, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey hosted the Interagency Biological Methods Workshop in Reston, Virginia, during June 22-23, 1993. The purposes of the workshop were to (1) promote better communication among Federal agencies that are using or developing biological methods in water-quality assessment programs for streams and rivers, and (2) facilitate the sharing of data and interagency collaboration. The workshop was attended by 45 biologists representing numerous Federal agencies and programs, and a few regional and State programs that were selected to provide additional perspectives. The focus of the workshop was community assessment methods for fish, invertebrates, and algae; physical habitat characterization; and chemical analyses of biological tissues. Charts comparing program objectives, design features, and sampling methods were compiled from materials that were provided by participating agencies prior to the workshop and formed the basis for small workgroup discussions. Participants noted that differences in methods among programs were often necessitated by differences in program objectives. However, participants agreed that where programs have identified similar data needs, the use of common methods is beneficial. Opportunities discussed for improving data compatibility and information sharing included (1) modifying existing methods, (2) adding parameters, (3) improving access to data through shared databases (potentially with common database structures), and (4) future collaborative efforts that range from research on selected protocol questions to followup meetings and continued discussions.

  6. Synthetic biology: putting synthesis into biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself--encompassing many branches of science and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery--a self-replicating organism--is being pursued at this moment. The aim of this article is to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture.

  7. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  8. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  9. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  10. Catalysis and biocatalysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    This final report presents a summary of research activities and accomplishments for the Catalysis and Biocatalysis Program, which was renamed the Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program, currently of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD), Office of Industrial Technologies of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Program was formerly under the Division of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) until the DOE reorganization in April, 1990. The goals of the BCTR Program are consistent with the initial ECUT goals, but represent an increased effort toward advances in chemical and biological technology transfer. In addition, the transition reflects a need for the BCTR Program to assume a greater R&D role in chemical catalysis as well as a need to position itself for a more encompassing involvement in a broader range of biological and chemical technology research. The mission of the AICD is to create a balanced Program of high risk, long-term, directed interdisciplinary research and development that will improve energy efficiency and enhance fuel flexibility in the industrial sector. Under AICD, the DOE Catalysis and Biocatalysis Program sponsors research and development in furthering industrial biotechnology applications and promotes the integrated participation of universities, industrial companies, and government research laboratories.

  11. Neutrons in biology - a perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    After almost a decade of uncertainty, the field of neutrons in biology is set to embark on an era of stability and renewed vitality. As detailed in this volume, methodologies have been refined, new tools are now being added to the array, the two largest reactor sources have long term programs in place, and spoliation sources are making an impact. By way of introduction, it is pertinent to reflect on the origins of the field and to highlight some aspects that have influenced the progress of the field. In an increasingly competitive environment, it is extremely important that the future capitalize on the substantial investment made over the last two to three decades.

  12. Physical, chemical, biological, geophysical, and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Chukchi Sea in support of the Chukchi Sea Environmental Studies Program (CSESP) from 2007 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0124308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was collected as part of the Chukchi Sea Environmental Studies Program (CSESP), a multi-year, interdisciplinary ecological study focused on areas in...

  13. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  15. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  16. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  17. Biological feasibility of measles eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Because of the success of global measles control programs, the World Health Organization (WHO), along with its partner agencies, is once again considering the possibility of setting a target date for measles eradication. Measles would be the fourth viral agent to be eradicated joining the successful programs to eradicate smallpox and rinderpest virus, and the continuing effort to eradicate polio virus. A description of the recent progress toward measles eradication was recently published as a supplement in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (15 July, 2011, 204 (Suppl. 1)) and the reader is referred to this document for a detailed summary of the global status of measles control. This review will focus on the biologic and virologic aspects of measles eradication. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Biological tracer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  19. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  1. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  2. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf R. Koford; John B. Dunning; Christine A. Ribic; Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary....

  3. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-06-20

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.

  4. Separating biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technique utilizing electric field to promote biological cell separation from suspending medium in zero gravity increases speed, reduces sedimentation, and improves efficiency of separation in normal gravity.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  6. Mental Retardation: Construction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Federally funded construction programs for the retarded included are the following: 12 research centers in which biological, medical, social, and behavioral research is conducted to investigate the causes and prevention of mental retardation; 18 university-affiliated facilities for inter-disciplinary training of professional and technical…

  7. National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    replacement business analyst to continue working on business and system requirements for HapLogic Phase III ! 100f2l National Marrow Donor Program® NOOOO...NOOOO 14-1 0-1-0204 IID.I. Task 3: Expand Immuno - biology Research QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response

  8. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  9. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Evolutionary Biology Today - The Domain of Evolutionary Biology. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  11. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Aroylhydrazones, Metal complexes, Biological activity, TGA, Electrical conductivity. INTRODUCTION. Hydrazones constitute an important class of compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. They are known to possess a wide range of biological applications. The acid hydrazides have ...

  12. Biologics and biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Palak K; King, Caleb R; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs are large, complex glycoprotein molecules produced in living organisms. Revolutionary treatments for many conditions, biologics used in dermatology will face patent expiration, opening opportunities for competitive versions. Biologic drugs are so complex such that it is impossible to reproduce them exactly. Biosimilars are designed to be highly similar, though not identical, to the innovator product. Because biosimilars are not exact replicates of innovator biologics, guidelines have suggested that biosimilars should be considered as unique therapeutic interventions, requiring unique names and physician notification prior to substitution. However, because biologics can never be replicated exactly, even innovator biologics have inherent batch-to-batch variability; when the second batch of innovator products were released, physicians began prescribing non-identical variants of biologics to their patients, accepting the possibility of variation in clinical effects. Unlike the variants in innovator products, biosimilars will provide clinical trial data demonstrating similar clinical effects, though there will always be some degree of uncertainty in how much clinical impact will be result from the variation in both innovator and biosimilar products. How biosimilars are approved and how we use biosimilars will need to balance considerations of cost and development time with the possibility of variation in biological response.

  13. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  14. Biological dose estimation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to this effect was found in at least 3 cases using biological dosimetric criteria, proving the ... The classification system described by Savage3 was used to determine the ... TABLE I. DISTANCE FROM RADIATION SOURCE, DETAILS OF CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL. DOSE ESTIMATIONS.

  15. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology. © 2017 American

  16. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  17. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled......, and mechanical biological stabilization (MBS), which first composts the waste for drying prior to extraction of a large RDF fraction. Only a small fraction is landfilled. The latter technology is also referred to as biodrying. Within each of the two main technologies, a range of variations is available depending...

  18. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  19. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  20. Ecology as a Primary Discipline of the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovbjerg, Richard V.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of ecology with other disciplines within the biological sciences. Points out the dangers of neglecting a holistic ecological viewpoint. Discusses the place of ecology in undergraduate programs. (EB)

  1. Thirty years of Biology & Philosophy: philosophy of which biology?

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeu, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Which domains of biology do philosophers of biology primarily study? The fact that philosophy of biology has been dominated by an interest for evolutionary biology is widely admitted, but it has not been strictly demonstrated. Here I analyse the topics of all the papers published in Biology & Philosophy, just as the journal celebrates its thirtieth anniversary. I then compare the distribution of biological topics in Biology & Philosophy with that of the scientific jour...

  2. Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM...blocked by the addition of Pim inhibitors. These results suggest that the Pim protein kinase can regulate stromal cell biology to modulate epithelial

  3. Biological Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce Global Biothreats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    States’ public health systems. Improving the world’s health systems will have multiple positive impacts , including reducing the number of people that...program for pro- jects that advance BEP objectives. Global Cooperation to develop bio- safety and pathogen security stan- dards that are consistent with...Abbreviations AG Australia Group BEP Biosecurity Engagement Program BSL Biosafety level BWC Biological Weapons Convention BWC-ISU Biological Weapons

  4. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  5. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  6. 78 FR 63170 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... implementation of the Biological and Environmental Research Program. ] Tentative Agenda Topics Report From the... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  7. 78 FR 34088 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... implementation of the Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  8. 77 FR 28368 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Update from the Office of Biological and... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  9. 77 FR 55200 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... implementation of the Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  10. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the…

  11. Systems biology in animal sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te, M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R. F.; Smits, M A

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes and animal traits are not yet frequently used. This paper aims to explain what systems biology is and which areas of animal sciences could benefit from systems biology approaches. Systems biology aim...

  12. Physics in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneppen, Kim; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2005-08-01

    Tools developed by statistical physicists are of increasing importance in the analysis of complex biological systems. Physics in Molecular Biology discusses how physics can be used in modeling life. It begins by summarizing important biological concepts, emphasizing how they differ from the systems normally studied in physics. A variety of topics, ranging from the properties of single molecules to the dynamics of macro-evolution, are studied in terms of simple mathematical models. The main focus of the book is on genes and proteins and how they build systems that compute and respond. The discussion develops from simple to complex systems, and from small-scale to large-scale phenomena. This book will inspire advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics to approach biological subjects from a physicist's point of view. It is self-contained, requiring no background knowledge of biology, and only familiarity with basic concepts from physics, such as forces, energy, and entropy. Introduces important biological concepts from a physicist's point of view - no background knowledge of biology is required A wide range of subjects are studied using simple mathematical models; exercises are included Discussion develops from simple to complex phenomena and from small scale to large scale interactions

  13. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. UC Merced Center for Computational Biology Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, Michael; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2010-11-30

    Final report for the UC Merced Center for Computational Biology. The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) was established to support multidisciplinary scientific research and academic programs in computational biology at the new University of California campus in Merced. In 2003, the growing gap between biology research and education was documented in a report from the National Academy of Sciences, Bio2010 Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. We believed that a new type of biological sciences undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasized biological concepts and considered biology as an information science would have a dramatic impact in enabling the transformation of biology. UC Merced as newest UC campus and the first new U.S. research university of the 21st century was ideally suited to adopt an alternate strategy - to create a new Biological Sciences majors and graduate group that incorporated the strong computational and mathematical vision articulated in the Bio2010 report. CCB aimed to leverage this strong commitment at UC Merced to develop a new educational program based on the principle of biology as a quantitative, model-driven science. Also we expected that the center would be enable the dissemination of computational biology course materials to other university and feeder institutions, and foster research projects that exemplify a mathematical and computations-based approach to the life sciences. As this report describes, the CCB has been successful in achieving these goals, and multidisciplinary computational biology is now an integral part of UC Merced undergraduate, graduate and research programs in the life sciences. The CCB began in fall 2004 with the aid of an award from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Genomes to Life program of support for the development of research and educational infrastructure in the modern biological sciences. This report to DOE describes the research and academic programs

  15. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  16. DATABASES DEVELOPED IN INDIA FOR BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Yadav

    2017-09-01

    databases have also helped in development of novel data mining methods, prediction strategies and data driven application software or web servers. In this article, we give an overview of biological databases developed in India and their impact on data driven research in biology. We also provide some suggestions for planning training programs in biological data science for making transitions to big data revolution in biology by combining advanced techniques like Deep Learning with biological big data.

  17. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  18. Strange Bedfellows; Physical and Biological Oceanographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    When I started graduate study at Scripps in 1947, both the text, "The Oceans", and the curriculum - all students took the introductory courses in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology - conspired to create awareness of the interactions among these fields. In their preface, the authors spoke of the book as "an aid to the beginner and specialist alike in the coordination of the various fields of oceanography." Harald Sverdrup, perhaps the best known physical oceanographer of his day, introduced us to the interdisciplinary organization, ICES, wrote an important paper (1953) on "the vernal blooming of phytoplankton", and together with fishery biologist O.E.Sette, launched the world renowned CalCOFI program. Another noted physical oceanographer, Henry Stommel, 1949, teamed up with biologist Gordon Riley in a major study of the quantitative ecology of plankton. At the time, physical and biological oceanographers often seemed to be engaged in the same mission. The curriculum format, with its four basic courses, spread to most other graduate programs in oceanography, but the forces of specialization also spread. While the biological oceanographers have always seen the need to understand the milieu within which their creatures function, the physicists often seemed to chafe against wasting their time on squishy subjects like biology when there were so many more important and fascinating things to study. Interactions were further complicated by the confusion between "biological oceanography" and "marine biology", and by the status of "fishery biology" which was often disdained by oceanographers of all stripes. I propose to discuss the evolution of the relationship among these fields during the 60 years since "The Oceans" was first published, concluding with the present marriage of convenience, or at least amicable co-habitation, forced by the widespread concern over the threat of global warming and the need to understand its consequences. It has become clear that

  19. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  20. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  1. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  2. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  3. Biological Monitoring Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Biological Monitoring Team (BMT) was a pilot project focused on addressing NWRS inventory and monitoring needs in Regions 3 and 5. The BMT was a precursor to the...

  4. Biology of spiders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foelix, Rainer F

    2011-01-01

    "One of the only books to treat the whole spider, from its behavior and physiology to its neurobiology and reproductive characteristics, Biology of Spiders is considered a classic in spider literature...

  5. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  6. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  7. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  8. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  9. Teaching evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tidon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Biology integrates several disciplines of Biology in a complex and interactive manner, where a deep understanding of the subject demands knowledge in diverse areas. Since this knowledge is often inaccessible to the majority of specialized professionals, including the teachers, we present some reflections in order to stimulate discussions aimed at the improvement of the conditions of education in this area. We examine the profile of evolutionary teaching in Brazil, based on questionnaires distributed to teachers in Secondary Education in the Federal District, on data provided by the "National Institute for Educational Studies and Research", and on information collected from teachers working in various regions of this country. Issues related to biological misconceptions, curriculum and didactic material are discussed, and some proposals are presented with the objective of aiding discussions aimed at the improvement of the teaching of evolutionary biology.

  10. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  11. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  12. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems theory is concerned with identifying and characterizing common design elements that are observed across diverse natural, technological and social complex systems. Systems biology, a more holistic approach to study molecules and cells in biology, has advanced rapidly in the past two decades. However, not much appreciation has been granted to the realization that the human cell is an exemplary complex system. Here, I outline general design principles identified in many complex s...

  14. Graphs in molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcon Seth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Graph theoretical concepts are useful for the description and analysis of interactions and relationships in biological systems. We give a brief introduction into some of the concepts and their areas of application in molecular biology. We discuss software that is available through the Bioconductor project and present a simple example application to the integration of a protein-protein interaction and a co-expression network.

  15. Ratiometric biological nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate M; Campbell, Colin J

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of intracellular analytes has been key in understanding cellular processes and function, and the use of biological nanosensors has revealed the spatial and temporal variation in their concentrations. In particular, ratiometric nanosensors allow quantitative measurements of analyte concentrations. The present review focuses on the recent advances in ratiometric intracellular biological nanosensors, with an emphasis on their utility in measuring analytes that are important in cell function.

  16. WinPSSP : a revamp of the computer program PSSP and its performance solving the crystal structures of small organic compounds and solids of biological and pharmaceutical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagola, Silvina; Polymeros, Alekos; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    The direct-space methods softwarePowder Structure Solution Program(PSSP) [Pagola & Stephens (2010).J. Appl. Cryst.43, 370–376] has been migrated to the Windows OS and the code has been optimized for fast runs.WinPSSPis a user-friendly graphical user interface that allows the input of preliminary crystal structure information, integrated intensities of the reflections and FWHM, the definition of structural parameters and a simulated annealing schedule, and the visualization of the calculated and experimental diffraction data overlaid for each individual solution. The solutions are reported as filename.cif files, which can be used to analyze packing motifs and chemical bonding, and to input the atomic coordinates into the Rietveld analysis softwareGSAS. WinPSSPperformance in straightforward crystal structure determinations has been evaluated using 18 molecular solids with 6–20 degrees of freedom. The free-distribution program as well as multimedia tutorials can be accessed at http://users.uoi.gr/nkourkou/winpssp/.

  17. Biological warfare in a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffey, R; Tegnell, A; Elgh, F

    2002-08-01

    There are some early examples of biological warfare (BW), but in modern times it was used first for sabotage by Germany during WWI. Development of biological weapons on a military significant scale was initiated in several countries in the period between the world wars. During WWII, several countries had active programs such as the USA, UK, Canada, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union. It was only Japan that on a fairly large scale used BW. The US program continued until 1969, when President Nixon took a decision to end it in connection with signing the BTWC. The Soviet Union had also continued its program after the war, and this was enhanced after signing the BTWC: in the 1980s the program consisted of around fifty facilities and involved around 60,000 people. The Soviet Union produced and maintained a large stockpile of BW-agents. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, and due to pressure from USA and UK, President Yeltsin issued a decree in 1992 banning continued offensive BW activity. However, there are still concerns of residual activity in Russia. Another program of concern is the Iraqi BW-program. After 10 years of UN inspections that were stopped in 1998, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the BW program. There was also a covert BW-program in South Africa that was terminated around 1993. There have also been a number of allegations of alleged use or possession. In addition, there are indications that 10-12 states are now trying to acquire BW, and this assessment is based on intelligence information, mainly from the USA. For example Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan and Libya. Another aspect is the strong driving force of technology developments to promote this type of program, opening new risks for future potential military misuse.

  18. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2012-01-01

    of Regulatory Affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the opening session of the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 2-4 June 2010 in Seoul, Republic......The 11th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) provides our first impressions of the REACH and ECHA programs. We intend to give a more thorough account of what these important programs actually mean in later editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission. Under the heading...

  19. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  20. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... and highly important field. What biological products does FDA regulate? The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ( ...

  1. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  2. Adventures in human population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  3. Biological process linkage networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikla Dotan-Cohen

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN.We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods.Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

  4. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  5. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  6. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  7. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  8. Information Complexity and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  9. Contra biology: a polemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P J

    1994-12-01

    The philosophical basis of the prevalent biological model of psychiatry is examined critically, with particular reference to the reductionism inherent in such an approach. The pharmacological response initiated by the biological approach is then considered, and the perfidious nature of the complicity between psychiatry and the pharmacological/industrial nexus drawn out. Biological psychiatry is then situated within the prevailing political and economic ideology of the 1990s, and the move towards more community-based psychiatry examined from this perspective. Finally, the stresses necessitated by the incompatibility of many nursing models with the biological paradigm are addressed. This is, as the title suggests, a deliberately polemical and provocative paper, which is offered to stimulate debate both on the future of psychiatric/mental health nursing as a soundly theory-based speciality, and also on the uncritical acceptance of the biological paradigm. Wholesale adoption of this paradigm is considered to be inimical to many of the values notionally espoused by nursing, as well as posing dangers in the larger social field, in terms of the culturally acceptable notions of how we define ourselves, and how such definitions affect our conceptions of freedom, free will and agency.

  10. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Service relative to a proposed biological control program for Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The... biological control program. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and Plant Health...

  11. Biological AMS at Uppsala University: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.salehpour@angstrom.uu.s [Ion Physics, Angstroem Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Goeran [Ion Physics, Angstroem Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In January 2007 a new research program was initiated at Uppsala University focusing on the biological applications of AMS. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron Tandem accelerator to study biological samples. With Microdosing applications in mind, a variety of measurements have been performed on human blood, plasma and urine that have been labeled with a {sup 14}C-labeled pharmaceutical drug covering a concentration range, spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, by studying small sample amounts and low concentrations, we have demonstrated sensitivity in the hundred zeptomole range for a small pharmaceutical substance in human blood. Another application of interest, based on the enhanced {sup 14}C activity from the cold war bomb-peak, is dating of DNA molecules providing fundamental data for the regenerative medicine and stem cell research community. We show data on a sensitive carrier method for measuring the isotopic ratio of small biological sample in the few mugC range.

  12. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  13. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  14. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  15. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  16. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  17. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...... for the recording of exposure information in clinical practice, as well as the critical steps involved in the transfer of exposure data to various pharmacovigilance databases. EXPERT OPINION: The existing systems ensure the traceability of biologicals down to the manufacturer within pharmacy records, but do...

  18. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  19. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  1. Evaluation of biological rhythms in elderly cancer patients. A complementary translational research within the frame of the trans-hospital pilot program of oncogeriatrics launched at CHC-Liège.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focan, C; Warzée, E; Sondag, C; Guillaume, T

    2013-04-01

    Thanks to the sponsoring of Belgian Cancer Plan, we have launched a trans-hospital project of oncogeriatrics implying any concerned actors from medical (oncology, geriatrics, various specialties) and paramedical staffs (nurses, physiotherapists, ergotherapists, dieteticians, social workers, psychologists…). We aim to recruit 300 consecutive patients aged over 70 and presenting with a new diagnosed cancer. They will benefit from both detailed Comprehensive Geriatrical (CGA) and Oncological (COA) assessments. A multidisciplinary concertation will try to define for each patient an individualized treatment planning taking into account CGA, CGO, co-morbidities, predictive indexes of chemotherapy toxicity (MAX2, i.e.). Detailed records will be obtained in collaboration with the data-management staff. Furthermore, a complementary translational research will include patients for a simple evaluation of their circadian rhythmicities through cortisol titration at 8a.m. and 4p.m. and actometry recordings of the rest-activity rhythms. Future steps could be developed aiming at the restoration of circadian structure disturbances with revalidation (physical exercise, tai-chi, yoga) and resynchronization (melatonin, hydrocortisone, bright light…) programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutron structural biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  3. The Biological Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  4. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  5. Presenting and exploring biological pathways with PathVisio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanspers Kristina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological pathways are a useful abstraction of biological concepts, and software tools to deal with pathway diagrams can help biological research. PathVisio is a new visualization tool for biological pathways that mimics the popular GenMAPP tool with a completely new Java implementation that allows better integration with other open source projects. The GenMAPP MAPP file format is replaced by GPML, a new XML file format that provides seamless exchange of graphical pathway information among multiple programs. Results PathVisio can be combined with other bioinformatics tools to open up three possible uses: visual compilation of biological knowledge, interpretation of high-throughput expression datasets, and computational augmentation of pathways with interaction information. PathVisio is open source software and available at http://www.pathvisio.org. Conclusion PathVisio is a graphical editor for biological pathways, with flexibility and ease of use as primary goals.

  6. Current Trends in Biology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wivagg, Daniel E.; Moore, Randy

    1987-01-01

    This newsletter reports on the status of biology education in the United States. It states that biology has entered its "golden age" because of the emergence of biotechnology, ecology, agricultural productivity, and human biology as major societal issues. This report discusses the status of the informal national curriculum of biology, involving…

  7. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes

  8. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  9. Agent-based modelling in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E

    2016-11-30

    Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour. Agent-based modelling aims to tackle this problem, offering a framework in which to simulate such systems and explore cellular design rules. In this article, I review the use of agent-based models in synthetic biology, outline the available computational tools, and provide details on recently engineered biological systems that are amenable to this approach. I further highlight the challenges facing this methodology and some of the potential future directions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  11. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  12. Biological system interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G; Adomian, G E; Bellman, R E

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of cellular population growth, interconnected subsystems of the body, blood flow, and numerous other complex biological systems problems involves nonlinearities and generally randomness as well. Such problems have been dealt with by mathematical methods often changing the actual model to make it tractable. The method presented in this paper (and referenced works) allows much more physically realistic solutions.

  13. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  14. Systems biology and medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology,. Aruna Asaf ... simple laws. As a result, the most obvious strat- egy for understanding complex natural systems in general was to reduce the system into smaller, sim- pler, and .... networked organization of biological system would emerge ...

  15. Entropy in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy in Biology. Jayant B Udgaonkar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0061-0066. Author Affiliations.

  16. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  17. Cryptochromes and Biological Clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Cryptochromes and Biological Clocks. V R Bhagwat. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 36-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/09/0036-0048. Keywords.

  18. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi studies and teaches evolutionary ' genetics and population ecology at the Jawaharlal. Nehru Centre for Advanced. Scientific Research,. Bangalore. His current research interests are in life- history, evolution, the evolutionary genetics of biological clocks, the evolution of ecological specialization dynamics. He.

  19. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  20. The Biology of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  1. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Evolutionary Biology Today - What do Evolutionary Biologists do? Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Biophysics and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2010-03-13

    Biophysics at the systems level, as distinct from molecular biophysics, acquired its most famous paradigm in the work of Hodgkin and Huxley, who integrated their equations for the nerve impulse in 1952. Their approach has since been extended to other organs of the body, notably including the heart. The modern field of computational biology has expanded rapidly during the first decade of the twenty-first century and, through its contribution to what is now called systems biology, it is set to revise many of the fundamental principles of biology, including the relations between genotypes and phenotypes. Evolutionary theory, in particular, will require re-assessment. To succeed in this, computational and systems biology will need to develop the theoretical framework required to deal with multilevel interactions. While computational power is necessary, and is forthcoming, it is not sufficient. We will also require mathematical insight, perhaps of a nature we have not yet identified. This article is therefore also a challenge to mathematicians to develop such insights.

  3. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  4. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kleiber scaling in the previous paragraph has the growth in Q kept smaller in spite of the high power dependence on R in eq. (1). 4. Conclusions. The arguments that have been advanced so far by pre- vious authors swing to extremes at either end. Thus, the rich variety and diversity in biology, including of scaling exponents ...

  5. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  6. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  7. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  8. Doublethink in Biological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Donald D.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  9. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  10. Permanent foresty plots: a potentially valuable teaching resource in undergraduate biology porgrams for the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Valles; C.M.S. Carrington

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent proposal to change the way that biology is taught and learned in undergraduate biology programs in the USA so that students develop a better understanding of science and the natural world. Here, we use this new, recommended teaching– learning framework to assert that permanent forestry plots could be a valuable tool to help develop biology...

  11. Survey of Biology Capstone Courses in American and Canadian Higher Education: Requirement, Content, and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Capstone experiences have high educational impact with various approaches available for biology. However, no information exists regarding the pervasiveness of capstone courses in Canadian and American biology programs. This study surveyed the prevalence and character of biology capstone courses in the USA and Canada. The survey included a majority…

  12. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  13. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  14. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  15. Molecular Programming with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Erik

    2009-05-01

    Information can be stored in molecules and processed by molecular reactions. Molecular information processing is at the heart of all biological systems; might it soon also be at the heart of non-biological synthetic chemical systems? Perhaps yes. One technological approach comes from DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing, where DNA is used as a non-biological informational polymer that can be rationally designed to create a rich class of molecular systems -- for example, DNA molecules that self-assemble precisely, that fold into complex nanoscale objects, that act as mechanical actuators and molecular motors, and that make decisions based on digital and analog logic. I will argue that to fully exploit their design potential, we will need to invent programming languages for specifying the behavior of information-based molecular systems, to create theoretical tools for understanding and analyzing the behavior of molecular programs, to develop compilers that automate the design of molecules with the desired behaviors, and to expand experimental techniques so that the implementation and debugging of complex molecular systems becomes as commonplace and practical as computer programming.

  16. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  17. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  18. Statistical concepts in biology and health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Huma; Javaid, Aisha; Rehman, Rehana; Hussain, Zahir

    2014-01-01

    In view of its applied aspects, Statistics serves as a separate mathematical science. In that respect, biostatistics is the application of statistical concepts and methods in biology, public health and medicine. One major task of medical biostatistics is to understand why a disease occurs in certain area and why that disease does not occur in other areas. In general, the advantages for properly applying statistics for a country are to keep the detailed information of people in a country. However, there must in mind be the other face of the task remembering not to adapt these surveys and limited data with entirety for quick applications that might be less advantageous. Some of the programs are much expensive and time consuming and people may feel not comfortable conveying their personal information just for the sake of applying a so called organized procedure. In such conditions, one must consider the moral values as well. Another quite unfortunate fact is that a statistical data can be misused for personal needs of a presenter. There must be ways to eradicate such customs at the governmental level. Basic and higher courses, certificate courses, diploma programs, degree programs, and other opportunities for students can be well organized and can be utilized in various employment areas in industry, government, life sciences, computer science, medicine, public health, education, teaching, research, and survey research. Statisticians, hence, are very important people for establishing various schemes, programs, institutions and organizations in medical and biological sectors.

  19. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  20. Oligodendrocytes: biology and pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Bradl, Monika; Lassmann, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the end product of a cell lineage which has to undergo a complex and precisely timed program of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and myelination to finally produce the insulating sheath of axons. Due to this complex differentiation program, and due to their unique metabolism/physiology, oligodendrocytes count among the most vulnerable cells of the CNS. In this review, we first describe the diffe...

  1. The molecular biology capstone assessment: a concept assessment for upper-division molecular biology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A; Wood, William B; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in novel scenarios. Targeted at graduating students, the MBCA consists of 18 multiple-true/false (T/F) questions. Each question consists of a narrative stem followed by four T/F statements, which allows a more detailed assessment of student understanding than the traditional multiple-choice format. Questions were iteratively developed with extensive faculty and student feedback, including validation through faculty reviews and response validation through student interviews. The final assessment was taken online by 504 students in upper-division courses at seven institutions. Data from this administration indicate that the MBCA has acceptable levels of internal reliability (α=0.80) and test-retest stability (r=0.93). Students achieved a wide range of scores with a 67% overall average. Performance results suggest that students have an incomplete understanding of many molecular biology concepts and continue to hold incorrect conceptions previously documented among introductory-level students. By pinpointing areas of conceptual difficulty, the MBCA can provide faculty members with guidance for improving undergraduate biology programs. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Systems biology in animal sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, H; Te Pas, M F W; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F; Smits, M A

    2011-05-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes and animal traits are not yet frequently used. This paper aims to explain what systems biology is and which areas of animal sciences could benefit from systems biology approaches. Systems biology aims to understand whole biological systems working as a unit, rather than investigating their individual components. Therefore, systems biology can be considered a holistic approach, as opposed to reductionism. The recently developed 'omics' technologies enable biological sciences to characterize the molecular components of life with ever increasing speed, yielding vast amounts of data. However, biological functions do not follow from the simple addition of the properties of system components, but rather arise from the dynamic interactions of these components. Systems biology combines statistics, bioinformatics and mathematical modeling to integrate and analyze large amounts of data in order to extract a better understanding of the biology from these huge data sets and to predict the behavior of biological systems. A 'system' approach and mathematical modeling in biological sciences are not new in itself, as they were used in biochemistry, physiology and genetics long before the name systems biology was coined. However, the present combination of mass biological data and of computational and modeling tools is unprecedented and truly represents a major paradigm shift in biology. Significant advances have been made using systems biology approaches, especially in the field of bacterial and eukaryotic cells and in human medicine. Similarly, progress is being made with 'system approaches' in animal sciences, providing exciting opportunities to predict and modulate animal traits.

  3. Final report ASTC Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithson, T.

    1996-03-15

    The specific goals of the ASTC program were: to pilot and administer a year round program to engage and support ethnic minority and women students to enter the pre-college teaching profession; and to develop the ASTC program across California on all twenty CSU campuses. The initial goal of piloting a year round program to engage and support ethnic or underrepresented science students to enter the teaching profession was put in place at CSUS in the Fall of 1993, with the recruitment of students to enter the program in the Spring of 1993. Three students were selected to enter the program, one male Latino, one female Latina and one Caucasian female. The areas of study of these students was respectively biology, physics and geology. All of the students were within two years or less of completing their degree requirements. During the first semester of the program the authors worked on the portion of the model dealing with student participation in the schools with a mentor teacher. The idea being the students would spend a minimum of six hours a week in the classroom of the mentor teacher working with them and their students. In addition the students were assigned to a faculty mentor within their discipline, a person whom they could go to for help and support in their academic efforts. The report discusses what was learned.

  4. Question answering for biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  6. [Cell biology and cosmetology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T

    1991-01-01

    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  7. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  8. Melanins are Biological Diamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Venger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the physical, chemical, biological properties, the significance and the role in Nature of melanin pigments are considered. Very long time these pigments were considered as metabolism garbage in the living organisms. The comparison of the only same results and facts from the huge masses of the science information with main principles of the new science paradigm – the Theory of Torsion Fields and the Theory of Physical Vacuum – allow to change the view on the true invention, the biological role and the functions of Melanins in Nature. Many theoretical and experimental facts specify on the active participation of melanins in the energyand-informative processes and their first degree role on the all evolution stages of living organisms: from the chemical evolution to the brain and consciousness functions. In the sense Melanins are the most precious substance for the living organisms, true their Diamonds.

  9. Biological significance of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerre, P.; Andreesen, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    Until a few years ago, selenium was exclusively thought of as a toxic substance which was applied mainly in the optical and electrical industries. By now, many biological reactions have been detected which cannot take place without the catalytic effect of selenium. The majority of these processes was found and clarified in microorganisms; however, the anticarcinogenic properties of this trace element may well have some significance for man in future.

  10. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  11. Plankton Production Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    had largely completed our analysis of the historic O2 data, we learned of the introduction to the field of the STOX sensor (Switchable Trace amount...population dynamics (growth rate, production, mortality) of copepod nauplii in the field or captured water columns (mesocosms). Since biology...Methods, 7, 371-381, 2009. 4 Sazhina, L.I. Keys to the Nauplii of 86 Common Marine Pelagic Copepods [new English title] Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 238

  12. Types of biological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Monteiro, Ashma D; Ganapathy, Sachit

    2017-06-01

    Identification and description of variables used in any study is a necessary component in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on the type of variables that are involved in the study. In this short article, we introduce the different types of biological variables. A researcher has to be familiar with the type of variable he/she is dealing with in his/her research to decide about appropriate graphs/diagrams, summary measures and statistical analysis.

  13. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  14. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  15. Neutron structural biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We investigated design concepts of neutron scattering capabilities for structural biology at spallation sources. This included the analysis of design parameters for protein crystallography as well as membrane diffraction instruments. These instruments are designed to be general user facilities and will be used by scientists from industry, universities, and other national laboratories.

  16. The Value of Biologics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    American Health & Drug Benefits™ has reached out to a health and drug benefit decision maker to open a dialogue on the benefits coverage implications surrounding the high cost of biologic drugs. We asked Dr. Gary Owens to discuss with us how payors are turning data points, demographic trends, and pharmacologic discoveries into formularies and benefit designs that balance the demands of cost, quality, and access to care. With a decade of experience chairing the Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committe...

  17. Biologics for tendon repair☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  18. Interface Biology of Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Implants are widely used in various clinical disciplines to replace or stabilize organs. The challenge for the future is to apply implant materials to specifically control the biology of the surrounding tissue for repair and regeneration. This field of research is highly interdisciplinary and combines scientists from technical and life sciences disciplines. To successfully apply materials for regenerative processes in the body, the understanding of the mechanisms at the interface between cells or tissues and the artificial material is of critical importance. The research focuses on stem cells, design of material surfaces, and mechanisms of cell adhesion. For the third time around 200 scientists met in Rostock, Germany for the international symposium “Interface Biology of Implants.” The aim of the symposium is to promote the interdisciplinary dialogue between the scientists from the different disciplines to develop smart implants for medical use. In addition, researchers from basic sciences, notably cell biology presented new findings concerning mechanisms of cell adhesion to stimulate research in the applied field of implant technology. PMID:19690468

  19. Evolutionary biology redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a novel, enlightened concept for determining the mechanism of evolution. It is based on homeostasis, which distinguishes life from non-life and as such is the universal mechanism for the evolution of all living organisms. This view of evolution is logical, mechanistic, non-scalar, predictive, testable, and falsifiable, and it illuminates the epistemological relationships between physics and biology, ontogeny and phylogeny, development and aging, ultimate and proximate causation, health and disease. In addition to validating Haeckel's biogenetic law and Lamarckian epigenetics, reflecting the enabling value of the cellular approach, this perspective also expresses the evolutionary process at the cell-molecular level, since the mechanism of cell communication itself is universal in biology, in keeping with a Kuhnian paradigm shift. This approach may even elucidate the nature and evolution of consciousness as a manifestation of the cellular continuum from unicellular to multicellular life. We need such a functional genomic mechanism for the process of evolution if we are to make progress in biology and medicine. Like Copernican heliocentrism, a cellular approach to evolution may fundamentally change humankind's perceptions about our place in the universe.

  20. Efficient, sparse biological network determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papachristodoulou Antonis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the interaction topology of biological systems is a topic that currently attracts significant research interest. Typical models for such systems take the form of differential equations that involve polynomial and rational functions. Such nonlinear models make the problem of determining the connectivity of biochemical networks from time-series experimental data much harder. The use of linear dynamics and linearization techniques that have been proposed in the past can circumvent this, but the general problem of developing efficient algorithms for models that provide more accurate system descriptions remains open. Results We present a network determination algorithm that can treat model descriptions with polynomial and rational functions and which does not make use of linearization. For this purpose, we make use of the observation that biochemical networks are in general 'sparse' and minimize the 1-norm of the decision variables (sum of weighted network connections while constraints keep the error between data and the network dynamics small. The emphasis of our methodology is on determining the interconnection topology rather than the specific reaction constants and it takes into account the necessary properties that a chemical reaction network should have – something that techniques based on linearization can not. The problem can be formulated as a Linear Program, a convex optimization problem, for which efficient algorithms are available that can treat large data sets efficiently and uncertainties in data or model parameters. Conclusion The presented methodology is able to predict with accuracy and efficiency the connectivity structure of a chemical reaction network with mass action kinetics and of a gene regulatory network from simulation data even if the dynamics of these systems are non-polynomial (rational and uncertainties in the data are taken into account. It also produces a network structure that can

  1. Efficient, sparse biological network determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Elias; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2009-02-23

    Determining the interaction topology of biological systems is a topic that currently attracts significant research interest. Typical models for such systems take the form of differential equations that involve polynomial and rational functions. Such nonlinear models make the problem of determining the connectivity of biochemical networks from time-series experimental data much harder. The use of linear dynamics and linearization techniques that have been proposed in the past can circumvent this, but the general problem of developing efficient algorithms for models that provide more accurate system descriptions remains open. We present a network determination algorithm that can treat model descriptions with polynomial and rational functions and which does not make use of linearization. For this purpose, we make use of the observation that biochemical networks are in general 'sparse' and minimize the 1-norm of the decision variables (sum of weighted network connections) while constraints keep the error between data and the network dynamics small. The emphasis of our methodology is on determining the interconnection topology rather than the specific reaction constants and it takes into account the necessary properties that a chemical reaction network should have - something that techniques based on linearization can not. The problem can be formulated as a Linear Program, a convex optimization problem, for which efficient algorithms are available that can treat large data sets efficiently and uncertainties in data or model parameters. The presented methodology is able to predict with accuracy and efficiency the connectivity structure of a chemical reaction network with mass action kinetics and of a gene regulatory network from simulation data even if the dynamics of these systems are non-polynomial (rational) and uncertainties in the data are taken into account. It also produces a network structure that can explain the real experimental data of L. lactis and is similar

  2. From language to nature: The semiotic metaphor in biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus; Hoffmeyer, Jesper Normann

    1991-01-01

    of a program, written in a formal language in the computer. Other versions of the semiotic or "nature-as-language" metaphor uses other formal or informal aspects of language to comprehend the specific structural relations in nature as explored by molecular and evolutionary biology. This intuitively appealing......The development of form in living organisms continues to challenge biological research. The concept of biological information encoded in the genetic program that controls development forms a major part of the semiotic metaphor in biology. Development is here seen in analogy to an execution...... be of considerable value, not only heuristically, but in order to comprehend the irreducible nature of living organisms. In arguing for a semiotic perspective on living nature, it makes a marked difference whether the departure is made from the tradition of F. de Saussure´s structural linguistics or from...

  3. Biological surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  4. Relações entre teoria e prática na formação de professores: investigando práticas sociais em disciplina acadêmica de um curso nas ciências biológicas Relationships between theory and practice in teacher education: investigating social practices in an academic discipline in a biology teaching program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Menezes Viana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa voltada para o estudo de processos de construção das relações entre teoria e prática na formação de professores. A investigação ocorreu em uma disciplina acadêmica de um curso de Licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas. A disciplina era oferecida em um Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, abordando o ensino de saúde na educação básica a partir do conteúdo específico de Patologia. Investigamos aspectos das práticas sociais em diferentes atividades da disciplina e buscamos caracterizar conhecimentos mobilizados. Empregamos um desenho naturalista, utilizando métodos de pesquisa qualitativa. As análises partem de modelos de formação docente discutidos na literatura. Os resultados indicam que as relações entre teoria e prática variavam de acordo com o tipo de atividade desenvolvida. Apesar de certa predominância do conhecimento biológico, observamos iniciativas da professora que evidenciam preocupação com conhecimentos educacionais, do contexto escolar e do aluno.In this study, we analyze processes of construction of relationships between theory and practice in teacher education. The investigation took place in a content-specific methods course in a biology-teaching program. The course was offered in a Biological Sciences Institute, addressing health teaching in elementary education. We investigated aspects of social practices in different activities of the discipline and sought to characterize the knowledge addressed. We adopted a qualitative approach with a naturalistic design. The analyses were initially based on models of teacher education discussed in the literature. Results indicate that the relationship between theory and practice varied according to the activity developed. Despite the prevalence of biological knowledge, we identified evidence of the professor's concern with educational and contextual knowledge, as well as with knowledge about students.

  5. Pseudo-periodic partitions of biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lugang; Jin, Renchao; Kok, Poh-Lin; Wan, Honghui

    2004-02-12

    Algorithm development for finding typical patterns in sequences, especially multiple pseudo-repeats (pseudo-periodic regions), is at the core of many problems arising in biological sequence and structure analysis. In fact, one of the most significant features of biological sequences is their high quasi-repetitiveness. Variation in the quasi-repetitiveness of genomic and proteomic texts demonstrates the presence and density of different biologically important information. It is very important to develop sensitive automatic computational methods for the identification of pseudo-periodic regions of sequences through which we can infer, describe and understand biological properties, and seek precise molecular details of biological structures, dynamics, interactions and evolution. We develop a novel, powerful computational tool for partitioning a sequence to pseudo-periodic regions. The pseudo-periodic partition is defined as a partition, which intuitively has the minimal bias to some perfect-periodic partition of the sequence based on the evolutionary distance. We devise a quadratic time and space algorithm for detecting a pseudo-periodic partition for a given sequence, which actually corresponds to the shortest path in the main diagonal of the directed (acyclic) weighted graph constructed by the Smith-Waterman self-alignment of the sequence. We use several typical examples to demonstrate the utilization of our algorithm and software system in detecting functional or structural domains and regions of proteins. A big advantage of our software program is that there is a parameter, the granularity factor, associated with it and we can freely choose a biological sequence family as a training set to determine the best parameter. In general, we choose all repeats (including many pseudo-repeats) in the SWISS-PROT amino acid sequence database as a typical training set. We show that the granularity factor is 0.52 and the average agreement accuracy of pseudo-periodic partitions

  6. Neglect of Biological Rhythms in High School Biology Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Andrew; Nelson, Julie Ann

    1979-01-01

    This article developed from a survey of the five most popular biology texts which promote the theory of invariant homeostasis rather than biological rhythms. The popular fad of "birthdate biorhythms" is discussed in relation to providing education on biological rhythms and its legitimacy to the public. (SA)

  7. Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) - Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Caron, Allison

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters - LED (BRIC-LED) is a biological research system that is being designed to complement the capabilities of the existing BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Unit (PDFU) for the Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) Program. A diverse range of organisms can be supported, including plant seedlings, callus cultures, Caenorhabditis elegans, microbes, and others. In the event of a launch scrub, the entire assembly can be replaced with an identical back-up unit containing freshly loaded specimens.

  8. Regulating Cancer Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT There is an urgent need to develop both new approaches to the treatment of prostate cancer. Analysis of human prostate...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  9. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  10. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  11. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    Providing a detailed account of the biology and ecology of wetland plants as well as applications of wetland plant science, this book presents a synthesis of studies and reviews from biology, plant...

  12. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  13. Improving the academic performance of university biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Latasha Shireen

    Studies indicated that teaching styles and learning styles of students play a very important role in the academic success of students. A lack of knowledge about teaching styles and learning styles often complicates the challenge of learning and, therefore, affects the academic achievement of students. The research site at a college had a retention rate of 70% of its biology majors and needed to improve the retention rate of the biology program. The purpose of this study was to improve the academic performance of university biology students through a multicomponent program, the Student Retention Engagement Program. The 3 components included students and teachers understanding students' learning styles, teachers acquiring knowledge of learner-based teaching methodology, and peer mentoring. In the implementation of this applied dissertation, the researcher sought to increase the grade point averages of 100 Biology 103 students from 2.25 to at least an overall 2.50 out of a 4.00 point grade point average scale. After implementation of the intervention strategies. the overall retention ratc of biology majors was also targeted to improve from 70% to at least 75%. The focus of the dissertation was on the outcomes associated with implementing successful teaching and learning strategies with the biology students. In 1 component of the Student Retention Engagement Program, biology teachers learned to identify their preferred teaching styles through a teaching perspectives inventory administered during a professional development program. A training program focused on utilizing teaching strategies for specific student learning styles was implemented. Another component involved training and using upper class peer mentors. The supervisors of the Office of Retention selected upper class participants who held a 3.0 or higher grade point average. A learning style inventory was administered to the upper class peer mentors and participating students. The results helped to identify

  14. Teaching Cell Biology in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francele de Abreu Carlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic concepts of cell biology are essential for scientific literacy. However, because many aspects of cell theory and cell functioning are quite abstract, students experience difficulties understanding them. In this study, we investigated whether diverse teaching resources such as the use of replicas of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope, visualization of cells using an optical microscope, construction of three-dimensional cell models, and reading of a comic book about cells could mitigate the difficulties encountered when teaching cell biology to 8th-grade primary school students. The results suggest that these didactic activities improve students’ ability to learn concrete concepts about cell biology, such as the composition of living beings, growth, and cicatrization. Also, the development of skills was observed, as, for example, the notion of cell size. However, no significant improvements were observed in students’ ability to learn about abstract topics, such as the structures of subcellular organelles and their functions. These results suggest that many students in this age have not yet concluded Piaget’s concrete operational stage, indicating that the concepts required for the significant learning of abstract subjects need to be explored more thoroughly in the process of designing programs that introduce primary school students to cell biology.

  15. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  16. Institute for Multiscale Modeling of Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulaitis, Michael E; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand; Lenhoff, Abraham

    2009-12-26

    The Institute for Multiscale Modeling of Biological Interactions (IMMBI) has two primary goals: Foster interdisciplinary collaborations among faculty and their research laboratories that will lead to novel applications of multiscale simulation and modeling methods in the biological sciences and engineering; and Building on the unique biophysical/biology-based engineering foundations of the participating faculty, train scientists and engineers to apply computational methods that collectively span multiple time and length scales of biological organization. The success of IMMBI will be defined by the following: Size and quality of the applicant pool for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellows; Academic performance; Quality of the pre-doctoral and post-doctoral research; Impact of the research broadly and to the DOE (ASCR program) mission; Distinction of the next career step for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral fellows; and Faculty collaborations that result from IMMBI activities. Specific details about accomplishments during the three years of DOE support for IMMBI have been documented in Annual Progress Reports (April 2005, June 2006, and March 2007) and a Report for a National Academy of Sciences Review (October 2005) that were submitted to DOE on the dates indicated. An overview of these accomplishments is provided.

  17. Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

  18. Data warehousing in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, C; Kowalski-Saunders, P; Brusic, V

    2000-05-01

    In the business and healthcare sectors data warehousing has provided effective solutions for information usage and knowledge discovery from databases. However, data warehousing applications in the biological research and development (R&D) sector are lagging far behind. The fuzziness and complexity of biological data represent a major challenge in data warehousing for molecular biology. By combining experiences in other domains with our findings from building a model database, we have defined the requirements for data warehousing in molecular biology.

  19. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  20. Building biological foundries for next-generation synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ran; Yuan, YongBo; Zhao, HuiMin

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that takes top-down approaches to understand and engineer biological systems through design-build-test cycles. A number of advances in this relatively young field have greatly accelerated such engineering cycles. Specifically, various innovative tools were developed for in silico biosystems design, DNA de novo synthesis and assembly, construct verification, as well as metabolite analysis, which have laid a solid foundation for building biological foundries for rapid prototyping of improved or novel biosystems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art technologies for synthetic biology and discusses the challenges to establish such biological foundries.

  1. On the search for design principles in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    The search for basic concepts and underlying principles was at the core of the systems approach to science and technology. This approach was somehow abandoned in mainstream biology after its initial proposal, due to the rise and success of molecular biology. This situation has changed. The accumulated knowledge of decades of molecular studies in combination with new technological advances, while further highlighting the intricacies of natural systems, is also bringing back the quest-for-principles research program. Here, I present two lessons that I derived from my own quest: the importance of studying biological information processing to identify common principles in seemingly unrelated contexts and the adequacy of using known design principles at one level of biological organization as a valuable tool to help recognizing principles at an alternative one. These and additional lessons should contribute to the ultimate goal of establishing principles able to integrate the many scales of biological complexity.

  2. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  3. Biology at Berkeley

    OpenAIRE

    Trow, Martin A

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the reorganization of biology at Berkeley, begun in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and now well along. Key to the initiation of change was the appointment of a Chancellor and Vice-chancellor who were committed to the changes, and the enlistment of outstanding biologists already at Berkeley to design the reform and carry it through. The paper raises the following questions: what led to the momentous changes in this leading research university; what actually happen...

  4. Introduction to Biological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    dZ ∂P ∂t = gPZ − µNP − dPP (5) ∂Z ∂t = αgPZ − dZZ (6) This model (the Lotka- Volterra equations ) gives a solution with cycles that have a con...P which can be viewed as the integral over some range (s1− > s2) of species and over weight. We then presume that transfers into and out of the...resulting black-boxes can be represented as functions just of the integrated values and attempt to parameterize those. 2 Basic biological models

  5. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  6. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  7. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  8. Elements in biological AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  9. [The biologization of ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics.

  10. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  11. Photonic structures in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukusic, Pete; Sambles, J. Roy

    2003-08-01

    Millions of years before we began to manipulate the flow of light using synthetic structures, biological systems were using nanometre-scale architectures to produce striking optical effects. An astonishing variety of natural photonic structures exists: a species of Brittlestar uses photonic elements composed of calcite to collect light, Morpho butterflies use multiple layers of cuticle and air to produce their striking blue colour and some insects use arrays of elements, known as nipple arrays, to reduce reflectivity in their compound eyes. Natural photonic structures are providing inspiration for technological applications.

  12. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  13. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  14. Opportunities in Biological Sciences Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Charles A.

    This book offers a panoramic view of the diversity of careers which the future may offer to those trained in the biological sciences. It discusses the scope and organization of the biological sciences, focusing on the various specialties such as microbiology, genetics, entomology, ecology, wildlife biology, and the biomedical sciences such as…

  15. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H. J.; Breeveld, F. J.; Stijnis, C.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria

  16. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  17. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  18. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  19. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    Modern biology is characterized by rapid change. The development of new tools and the results derived from their application to various biological systems require significant shifts in our concepts and the strategies that are adopted to analyze and elucidate mechanisms. In parallel with exciting new scientific developments our organizational structure and programmatic emphases have altered. These changes and developments have enabled the life sciences at LBL to be better positioned to create and respond to new opportunities. The work summarized in this annual report reflects a vital multifaceted research program that is in the vanguard of the areas represented. We are committed to justifying the confidence expressed by LBL through the new mission statement and reorganizational changes designed to give greater prominence to the life sciences.

  20. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.