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Sample records for subretinal neovascularisation due

  1. Transplantation of amniotic membrane to the subretinal space in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Scherfig, Erik; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of transplanted amniotic membrane (AM) on subretinal wound healing. Methods. Nine Danish Landrace pigs had surgical removal of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and mechanical damage of Bruch's membrane (BM) and served as a control group. 15 pigs additionally had...... is well tolerated in the subretinal space, causes only limited inflammation, and is covered with a monolayer of pigmented cells when in contact with the host RPE. Conclusions. AM modifies choroidal neovascularisation after BM damage and may serve as a basement membrane substitute for the RPE....

  2. Chronic pesticide exposure and consequential keratectasia & corneal neovascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shalini; Law, Atrayo; Law, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    Ocular toxicity as a consequence of chronic pesticide exposure is one of the health hazards caused due to extended exposure to pesticides. The cornea, due to its position as the outer ocular layer and its role in protecting the internal layers of the eye; is gravely affected by this xenobiotic insult to the eye, leading to ocular irritation and damage to normal vision. The deleterious effects of chronic pesticide exposure on the various corneal layers and the ocular risks involved therein, were explored by mimicking the on-field scenario. Cytological, histological and flowcytometric parameters were taken into consideration to determine the enhanced risk of corneal neovascularisation and keratectasia, specifically, keratoconus. Chronic exposure to pesticides leads to heightened ocular morbidity wherein there were visible pathophysiological changes to the ocular surface. The cornea was found to be adversely affected with visible protuberance in a cone-like shape, characteristic of keratoconus in a majority of the experimental animals. Further analyses revealed a detrimental impact on all the corneal layers and an amplified expression of inflammation markers such as TNF-α, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Additionally, it was found that post pesticide exposure, the corneal surface developed hypoxia, leading to a significant increase of angiogenesis promoting factors and consequential neovascularisation. Apart from ocular toxicity, chronic exposure to pesticides significantly increases the risks of keratectasia and corneal neovascularisation; disorders which lead to diminished vision and if untreated, blindness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of retinitis pigmentosa due to MERTK mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: results of a phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Nicola G; Abboud, Emad B; Nowilaty, Sawsan R; Alkuraya, Hisham; Alhommadi, Abdulrahman; Cai, Huimin; Hou, Rui; Deng, Wen-Tao; Boye, Sanford L; Almaghamsi, Abdulrahman; Al Saikhan, Fahad; Al-Dhibi, Hassan; Birch, David; Chung, Christopher; Colak, Dilek; LaVail, Matthew M; Vollrath, Douglas; Erger, Kirsten; Wang, Wenqiu; Conlon, Thomas; Zhang, Kang; Hauswirth, William; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2016-03-01

    MERTK is an essential component of the signaling network that controls phagocytosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the loss of which results in photoreceptor degeneration. Previous proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated the efficacy of gene therapy using human MERTK (hMERTK) packaged into adeno-associated virus (AAV2) in treating RCS rats and mice with MERTK deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of gene transfer via subretinal administration of rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK in subjects with MERTK-associated retinitis pigmentosa (RP). After a preclinical phase confirming the safety of the study vector in monkeys, six patients (aged 14 to 54, mean 33.3 years) with MERTK-related RP and baseline visual acuity (VA) ranging from 20/50 to improved visual acuity in the treated eye following surgery, although the improvement was lost by 2 years in two of these patients. Gene therapy for MERTK-related RP using careful subretinal injection of rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK is not associated with major side effects and may result in clinical improvement in a subset of patients.

  4. In vivo performance of photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Yossi; Goetz, George; Lavinsky, Daniel; Huie, Phil; Mathieson, Keith; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore; Manivanh, Richard; Harris, James; Palanker, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, in which camera-captured images are projected onto the retina using pulsed near-IR light. Each pixel in the subretinal implant directly converts pulsed light into local electric current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. 30 μm-thick implants with pixel sizes of 280, 140 and 70 μm were successfully implanted in the subretinal space of wild type (WT, Long-Evans) and degenerate (Royal College of Surgeons, RCS) rats. Optical Coherence Tomography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated normal retinal thickness and healthy vasculature above the implants upon 6 months follow-up. Stimulation with NIR pulses over the implant elicited robust visual evoked potentials (VEP) at safe irradiance levels. Thresholds increased with decreasing pulse duration and pixel size: with 10 ms pulses it went from 0.5 mW/mm2 on 280 μm pixels to 1.1 mW/mm2 on 140 μm pixels, to 2.1 mW/mm2 on 70 μm pixels. Latency of the implant-evoked VEP was at least 30 ms shorter than in response evoked by the visible light, due to lack of phototransduction. Like with the visible light stimulation in normal sighted animals, amplitude of the implant-induced VEP increased logarithmically with peak irradiance and pulse duration. It decreased with increasing frequency similar to the visible light response in the range of 2 - 10 Hz, but decreased slower than the visible light response at 20 - 40 Hz. Modular design of the photovoltaic arrays allows scalability to a large number of pixels, and combined with the ease of implantation, offers a promising approach to restoration of sight in patients blinded by retinal degenerative diseases.

  5. The immune response of stem cells in subretinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Bikun; Huang, Bing

    2015-09-14

    Stem cell transplantation is a potential curative treatment for degenerative diseases of the retina. Among cell injection sites, the subretinal space (SRS) is particularly advantageous as it is maintained as an immune privileged site by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Thus, the success of subretinal transplantation depends on maintenance of RPE integrity. Moreover, both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have negligible immunogenicity and in fact are immunosuppressive. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive drugs are not necessary for subretinal transplantation of stem cells if the blood-retinal barrier is not breached during surgery. The immunogenicity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) appears more complex, and requires careful study before clinical application. Despite low rates of graft rejection in animal models, survival rates for ESCs, MSCs, and iPSCs in retina are generally poor, possibly due to resident microglia activated by cell transplantation. To improve graft survival in SRS transplantation, damage to the blood-retinal barrier must be minimized using appropriate surgical techniques. In addition, agents that inhibit microglial activation may be required. Finally, immunosuppressants may be required, at least temporarily, until the blood-retinal barrier heals. We review surgical methods and drug regimens to enhance the likelihood of graft survival after SRS transplantation.

  6. Subretinal Implantation of Electrospun, Short Nanowire, and Smooth Poly(e-caprolactone) Scaffolds to the Subretinal Space of Porcine Eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A T; Tao, Shanwen; Smith, M

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds play an important adjunct role in transplantation of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to the subretinal space. Poly(e-Caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with different modifications were subretinally implanted in 28 porcine eyes and evaluated by multifocal electroretinography (mf...

  7. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Abd El Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1. EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  8. Iatrogenic subretinal injection of Ozurdex(®) implant and its effect on macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Smita Shriram; Manayath, George J; Saravanan, Veerappan; Narendran, Siddharth; Narendran, Venkatapathy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a rare case of subretinal lodgement of Ozurdex(®) implant (Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) and its effect on macular edema in a case of central retinal vein occlusion (RVO). A rare complication of subretinal lodgement of Ozurdex(®) implant without retinal perforation was encountered in a case of RVO with intractable macular edema. As associated retinal perforation was not noted, no intervention was done. The patient was regularly followed up at 1 month, and the effect on macular edema and intraocular pressure was analyzed. The corticosteroid pellets got disintegrated and totally absorbed with a subtle chorioretinal scar by the 3(rd) follow-up month without any intervention. Even though subretinal, it was capable of reducing macular edema by 181 microns at 1 month postinjection, and its effect started wearing off by 2 months. Subretinal lodgement of Ozurdex(®) implant is rare and preventable, yet a potential complication of intravitreal implants which is now in vogue. We speculate a too acute angle of injection or incomplete insertion of the drug delivery system applicator (DDS) away from the limbus or perhaps less refined previous DDS applicator to be a cause for subretinal delivery of the implant. The early disintegration of implant occurred due to breach in structural integrity that caused loss of controlled drug release and rapid absorption. It reduced macular edema up to 2 months without elevating intraocular pressure. A more widespread application of any technology always portends a more significant risk for complications, and an ophthalmologist should be aware of this potential risk. Though subretinal, corticosteroid implant was capable of reducing macular edema by 181 microns by 1 month and its effect wore off by 2 months.

  9. Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschner, Renate; Greppmaier, Udo; Kokelmann, Martin; Rudorf, Sandra; Rudorf, Ralf; Schleehauf, Sebastian; Wrobel, Walter G

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent developments and new treatments in ophthalmology there is nothing available to cure retinal degenerations like Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) yet. One of the most advanced approaches to treat people that have gone blind due to RP is to replace the function of the degenerated photoreceptors by a microelectronic neuroprosthetic device. Basically, this subretinal active implant transforms the incoming light into electric pulses to stimulate the remaining cells of the retina. The functional time of such devices is a crucial aspect. In this paper the laboratory and clinical reliability of the two active subretinal implants Alpha IMS and Alpha AMS is presented. Based on clinical data the median operating life of the Alpha AMS is estimated to be 3.3 years with a one-sided lower 75 % confidence level of 2.0 years. This data shows a significant improvement of the device lifetime compared to the previous device Alpha IMS which shows a median lifetime of 0.6 years with a lower confidence bound (75 %) of 0.5 years. The results are in good agreement with laboratory data from accelerated aging tests of the implant components, showing an estimated median lifetime for Alpha IMS components of 0.7 years compared to the improved lifetime of Alpha AMS of 4.7 years.

  10. Repeated subretinal surgery and removal of subretinal decalin is well tolerated - evidence from a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Klemp, Kristian; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg

    2017-01-01

    to examine the functional and morphological consequences of repeated subretinal manipulation. We hypothesized that PFCL in a porcine model can be injected in the subretinal space and removed with minimal effect on retinal structure and function. METHODS: The left eyes of ten healthy three-month-old female...... domestic pigs were included. Multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) were recorded before surgery. Following vitrectomy, a PFCL bleb (decalin) was injected subretinally using a 41G cannula. After 14 days the decalin was removed through a 41G cannula in combination with a 2 ml syringe and an intermediate...... flexible tube. Two weeks after removal, a control mfERG was recorded, the pigs were enucleated and sacrificed and eyes were examined histologically. All statistics were carried out with a paired t-test in SAS Enterprise Guide 7.1® (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). RESULTS: There was no significant...

  11. Cost of myopic patients with and without myopic choroidal neovascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, J M; Roura, M

    2016-06-01

    To study the costs associated with high myopia (HM) with choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) or without mCNV. Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, and multicentre study (HM and mCNV) conducted on adult patients. Annualised medical direct cost (MDC) from the perspective of the National Health System, the non-medical direct cost (nMDC) from the patient perspective, and productivity losses were calculated. A total of 137 mCNV and 48 HM patients were included (mean age [SD]: 55.1 [2.8] vs. 54.7 [13.8]; P=.2), with 80% women in both groups. The observation time (months) ranged from 17.9 (9.6) right eye (RE) and 20.0 (9.7), left eye (LE) in mCNV and 47.1 (21.5) RE/45.5 (20.7) LE in MM. A higher percentage of emergency room visits was observed in mCNV vs. HM patients (41.7 vs. 25%; P=.06) and retinal specialists (91.2 vs. 77.1%; P=.01). The MDC was higher in mCNV: € 1,985 (95% CI: 1772-2198) vs. € 356 (251-480) HM, P.4. The number of affected eyes, the follow-up time, and the mCNV were factors associated with direct costs. The impact on work productivity was higher in mCNV (quite/very concerned): 27.7 vs. 10.4% HM. The mCNV showed a significant association with activity impairment (OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 10.101-1.195). mCNV involves higher medical costs than HM. In addition, mCNV patients have a greater need of care and assistive devices, and greater impact of the disease in their work productivity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  13. Foveal function and thickness after verteporfin photodynamic therapy in central serous chorioretinopathy with hyperautofluorescent subretinal deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    : To assess the prognostic effect of subretinal deposits in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).......: To assess the prognostic effect of subretinal deposits in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)....

  14. Brilliant crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space following adjunctive intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic vitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastion, Mae-Lynn Catherine; Mustapha, Mushawiahti; Ho, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    To report a unique case of crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space in a Malay lady following inadvertent subretinal injection of ranibizumab prior to vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23093508

  15. Red wine polyphenol compounds favor neovascularisation through estrogen receptor α-independent mechanism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Chalopin

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenol compounds (RWPC exert paradoxical effects depending on the dose on post-ischemic neovascularisation. Low dose RWPC (0.2 mg/kg/day is pro-angiogenic, whereas high dose (20 mg/kg/day is anti-angiogenic. We recently reported that the endothelial effect of RWPC is mediated through the activation of a redox-sensitive pathway, mitochondrial biogenesis and the activation of α isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERα. Here, we investigated the implication of ERα on angiogenic properties of RWPC. Using ovariectomized mice lacking ERα treated with high dose of RWPC after hindlimb ischemia, we examined blood flow reperfusion, vascular density, nitric oxide (NO production, expression and activation of proteins involved in angiogenic process and muscle energy sensing network. As expected, high dose of RWPC treatment reduced both blood flow and vascular density in muscles of mice expressing ERα. These effects were associated with reduced NO production resulting from diminished activity of eNOS. In the absence of RWPC, ERα deficient mice showed a reduced neo-vascularisation associated with a decreased NO production. Surprisingly in mice lacking ERα, high dose of RWPC increased blood flow and capillary density in conjunction with increased NO pathway and production as well as VEGF expression. Of particular interest is the activation of Sirt-1, AMPKα and PGC-1α/β axis in ischemic hindlimb from both strains. Altogether, the results highlight a pro-angiogenic property of RWPC via an ERα-independent mechanism that is associated with an up-regulation of energy sensing network. This study brings a corner stone of a novel pathway for RWPC to correct cardiovascular diseases associated with failed neovascularisation.

  16. Subretinal Hemorrhage after Photodynamic Therapy for Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioma

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    Takayuki Baba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with a juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH in her left eye. Twelve months after the initial examination, the size of the hemangioma had increased and the exudation from the RCH involved the macula. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA had decreased from 0.8 to 0.3. A total of five intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB; 1.25 mg was given but the RCH did not respond. A photodynamic therapy (PDT was done using multiple laser spots to avoid damaging the optic nerve head. After the first PDT, the subfoveal fluid was reduced but not completely gone. One week after the second PDT, a massive subretinal hemorrhage developed. The subretinal hemorrhage was successfully displaced by injecting intraocular sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas. At the 3-year follow-up examination, no subretinal hemorrhage or fluid was observed at the macula and the BCVA remained at 0.05. Our case was resistant to the combination of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and PDT and had a rare massive subretinal hemorrhage. A further collection of RCH cases treated with anti-VEGF and PDT that would justify this treatment is necessary.

  17. Mutton fat-like subretinal precipitates associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

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    Hamabata, Kuniko; Hashizume, Kouhei; Ishikawa, Yohei; Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Machida, Shigeki; Kurosaka, Daijiro

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease presenting mutton fat like subretinal precipitates. Observational case report. A 52-year-old Japanese woman developed bilateral uvetis with serous retinal detachment and mutton fat like subretinal precipitates. According to Opthalmologic, auditory, and systemic examination, we diagnosed the patient with VKH disease. Inflamation was controlled by three time steroid therapy and subretinal fluid and precipitates decreased and disappeared. Subretinal granulomatous lesion may present a manifestation of VKH and mean long standing subretinal fluid and inflammation.

  18. Subretinal Glial Membranes in Eyes With Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Malia M; McLeod, D Scott; Bhutto, Imran A; Grebe, Rhonda; Duffy, Maeve; Lutty, Gerard A

    2017-03-01

    Müller cells create the external limiting membrane (ELM) by forming junctions with photoreceptor cells. This study evaluated the relationship between focal photoreceptors and RPE loss in geographic atrophy (GA) and Müller cell extension into the subretinal space. Human donor eyes with no retinal disease or geographic atrophy (GA) were fixed and the eye cups imaged. The retinal posterior pole was stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; astrocytes and activated Müller cells) and vimentin (Müller cells) while the submacular choroids were labeled with Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin lectin (blood vessels). Choroids and retinas were imaged using a Zeiss 710 confocal microscope. Additional eyes were cryopreserved or processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to better visualize the Müller cells. Vimentin staining of aged control retinas (n = 4) revealed a panretinal cobblestone-like ELM. While this pattern was also observed in the GA retinas (n = 7), each also had a distinct area in which vimentin+ and vimentin+/GFAP+ processes created a subretinal membrane. Subretinal glial membranes closely matched areas of RPE atrophy in the gross photos. Choroidal vascular loss was also evident in these atrophic areas. Smaller glial projections were noted, which correlated with drusen in gross photos. The presence of glia in the subretinal space was confirmed by TEM and cross cross-section immunohistochemistry. In eyes with GA, subretinal Müller cell membranes present in areas of RPE atrophy may be a Müller cell attempt to replace the ELM. These membranes could interfere with treatments such as stem cell therapy.

  19. Transfer characteristics of subretinal visual implants: corneally recorded implant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, K; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Braun, A; Gekeler, F; Greppmaier, U; Schatz, A; Stett, A; Strasser, T; Kitiratschky, V; Zrenner, E

    2016-10-01

    The subretinal Alpha IMS visual implant is a CE-approved medical device for restoration of visual functions in blind patients with end-stage outer retina degeneration. We present a method to test the function of the implant objectively in vivo using standard electroretinographic equipment and to assess the devices' parameter range for an optimal perception. Subretinal implant Alpha IMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) consists of 1500 photodiode-amplifier-electrode units and is implanted surgically into the subretinal space in blind retinitis pigmentosa patients. The voltages that regulate the amplifiers' sensitivity (V gl) and gain (V bias), related to the perception of contrast and brightness, respectively, are adjusted manually on a handheld power supply device. Corneally recorded implant responses (CRIR) to full-field illumination with long duration flashes in various implant settings for brightness gain (V bias) and amplifiers' sensitivity (V gl) are measured using electroretinographic setup with a Ganzfeld bowl in a protocol of increasing stimulus luminances up to 1000 cd/m2. CRIRs are a meaningful tool for assessing the transfer characteristic curves of the electronic implant in vivo monitoring the implants' voltage output as a function of log luminance in a sigmoidal shape. Changing the amplifiers' sensitivity (V gl) shifts the curve left or right along the log luminance axis. Adjustment of the gain (V bias) changes the maximal output. Contrast perception is only possible within the luminance range of the increasing slope of the function. The technical function of subretinal visual implants can be measured objectively using a standard electroretinographic setup. CRIRs help the patient to optimise the perception by adjusting the gain and luminance range of the device and are a useful tool for clinicians to objectively assess the function of subretinal visual implants in vivo.

  20. Rod Outer Segment Development Influences AAV-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lolita; Ma, Shan; Cheng, Shun-Yun; Gao, Guangping; Punzo, Claudio

    2017-06-01

    Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the AAV transduction profile of PRs differs significantly between neonatal and adult mouse retinas after subretinal injection. This phenomenon may provide clues to identify host factors that influence the efficiency of AAV-mediated PR transduction. This study demonstrates that rod outer segments are critical modulators of efficient AAV-mediated rod transduction. During retinal development, rod transduction correlated temporally and spatially with the differentiation order of PRs when vectors were introduced subretinally but not when introduced intravitreally. All subretinally injected vectors had an initial preference to transduce cones in the absence of formed rod outer segments and then displayed a preference for rods as the cells matured, independently of the expression cassette or AAV serotype. Consistent with this observation, altered development of rod outer segments was associated with a strong reduction of rod transduction and an increase in the percentage of transduced cones by 2- to 2.8-fold. A similar increase of cone transduction was observed in the adult retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) retina compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that the loss of rod outer segments in diseased retinas could markedly affect gene transfer efficiency of AAV vectors by limiting the ability of AAVs to infect dying rods efficiently. This information could be

  1. Closure of the cribriform fascia: an efficient anatomical barrier against postoperative neovascularisation at the saphenofemoral junction? A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maeseneer, M. G.; Philipsen, T. E.; Vandenbroeck, C. P.; Lauwers, P. R.; Hendriks, J. M.; de Hert, S. G.; van Schil, P. E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neovascularisation at the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) ligation site in the groin may occur within one year after great saphenous vein (GSV) surgery. Several anatomical and prosthetic barrier techniques have been proposed to prevent this evolution. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study

  2. Enhanced VEGF signalling mediates cerebral neovascularisation via downregulation of guidance protein ROBO4 in a rat model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsaid, Mohammed; Coucha, Maha; Hafez, Sherif; Yasir, Abdul; Johnson, Maribeth H; Ergul, Adviye

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes promotes cerebral neovascularisation via increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) angiogenic signalling. Roundabout-4 (ROBO4) protein is an endogenous inhibitor of VEGF signalling that stabilises the vasculature. Yet, how diabetes affects ROBO4 function remains unknown. We hypothesised that increased VEGF signalling in diabetes decreases ROBO4 expression and function via binding of ROBO4 with VEGF-activated β3 integrin and that restoration of ROBO4 expression prevents/repairs cerebral neovascularisation in diabetes. ROBO4 protein expression in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rats) was examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ROBO4 was locally overexpressed in the brain and in primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs). GK rats were treated with SKLB1002, a selective VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) antagonist. Cerebrovascular neovascularisation indices were determined using a FITC vascular space-filling model. Immunoprecipitation was used to determine ROBO4-β3 integrin interaction. ROBO4 expression was significantly decreased in the cerebral vasculature as well as in BMVECs in diabetes (p signalling and increased vessel maturation. Inhibition of VEGF signalling using SKLB1002 increased ROBO4 expression (p signalling as treatment strategies for diabetes-induced cerebral neovascularisation.

  3. [Initial subretinal localization of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML5) recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, S; François, S; Urier, N; Genevieve, F; d'Hermies, F; Rachieru, P; Ifrah, N

    2001-10-13

    Reduced visual acuity in patients with acute leucemia can result from many causes including an ocular localization. A patient previously treated for acute myeloblastic leucemia-5 (AML5) developed bilateral vision impairment related to a subretinal localization of the leucemia. Meningeal and bone marrow relapse followed. The subretinal localization responded only to massive systemic steroid treatment. Although asymptomatic, ocular localizations are frequent in leucemia. Their prognostic impact depends on the ocular structure involved and on the chronology of onset--early or late in the leucemia course. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of ocular involvement remains unexplained but hyperleucocytosis at presentation may be a risk factor and would justify at least systematic specialized examinations and discussion of prophylactic treatment.

  4. Spontaneous resorption of sub-retinal cortical lens material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil S Gadkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of retained sub-retinal cortical material, which underwent spontaneous resorption. Patient presented with a left eye traumatic retinal detachment with a large retinal tear and posteriorly dislocated cataractous lens. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, silicone oil injection, and endolaser were performed. A good visual result was achieved. The report draws attention to this condition and highlights possible technique for minimizing risk of this complication in similar cases.

  5. Intravitreal dobesilate in the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation associated with age-related macular degeneration: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis; Azanza, Carlos; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-09-03

    This case report presents the effectiveness of intravitreal administration of dobesilate, a synthetic fibroblast growth factor inhibitor, in two patients showing neovascular age-related macular degeneration of the classic, and of the occult choroidal neovascularisation types, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the treatment induces the regression of both forms of this pathology, as assessed by spectral optical coherence tomography. Improvement of the lesions was accompanied of visual acuity improvement.

  6. Transplantation of allogenic anterior lens capsule to the subretinal space in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Wiencke, Anne Katrine; Scherfig, Erik

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the consequences of transplantation of a new basement membrane to the subretinal space (SRS) as a substitution of Bruch's membrane.......To investigate the consequences of transplantation of a new basement membrane to the subretinal space (SRS) as a substitution of Bruch's membrane....

  7. Choroidal neovascularisation on optical coherence tomography angiography in punctate inner choroidopathy and multifocal choroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Baynes, Kimberly M; Lowder, Careen Y; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2017-05-01

    To describe the findings seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis (MCP) complicated by choroidal neovascular membranes. This was an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, descriptive case series. 12 patients with PIC and MCP complicated by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) were included. Each patient underwent slit-lamp examination by a uveitis specialist followed by conventional spectral domain OCT imaging of the macula. OCTA images of the macula were then obtained. 12 patients were enrolled in the study, out of which 9 patients were followed longitudinally. CNV was identified in 11 of the 12 patients. In all patients where fluorescein angiography (FA) was inconclusive for presence of CNV, OCTA identified CNV. Various lesions on OCT suggestive of activity correlated with changes in the vascular structure of OCTA to confirm suspicion of clinical activity. In patients with PIC and MCP complicated by CNV, OCTA successfully identified underlying CNV. Given the difficulty of differentiating inflammatory lesions from early CNV on OCT and FA, OCTA may provide a valuable method of monitoring patients with posterior uveitis highly correlated with development of CNV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Angiopoietin 2 expression in the cornea and its control of corneal neovascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giulio; Giacomini, Chiara; Bignami, Fabio; Moi, Davide; Ranghetti, Anna; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi; Rama, Paolo; Mazzieri, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    To define proangiogenic angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) expression and role(s) in human and mouse vascularised corneas. Further, to evaluate the effect of ANG2 inhibition on corneal neovascularisation (CNV). CNV was induced in FVB mice by means of intrastromal suture placement. One group of animals was sacrificed 10 days later; corneas were immunostained for ANG2 and compared with (i) mouse non-vascularised corneas and (ii) human vascularised and non-vascularised corneas. A second group of CNV animals was treated systemically with an anti-ANG2 antibody. After 10 days, the corneas were whole-mounted, stained for CD31 and LYVE1 and lymphatic/blood vessels quantified. In another set of experiments, the corneal basal Bowman membrane was either (i) removed or (ii) left in place. After 2 or 10 days the corneas were removed and immunostained for collagen IV, ANG2, CD31, LYVE1, CD11b and MRC1 markers. In human beings and mice, ANG2 is expressed only in the epithelium, and, mildly, in the endothelium, of the avascular cornea. Instead, it is expressed in the epithelium, endothelium and stroma of vascularised corneas. Disruption of the Bowman membrane is associated with a significant increase of (i) ANG2 stromal expression and (ii) proangiogenic macrophage infiltration in the corneal stroma. Finally, blocking ANG2 significantly reduced hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. Balancing proper healing and good vision is crucial in the cornea, constantly exposed to potential injuries. In this paper, we suggest the existence of a mechanism regulating the onset of inflammation (and associated CNV) depending on injury severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Treatment of subretinal fluid associated with dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinskey, Nicholas D; Johnson, Mark W

    2013-11-01

    Dome-shaped macula is a recently described disorder seen in eyes with myopic posterior staphyloma. Vision loss may accompany sub-macular fluid accumulation, for which no effective treatment has been reported. The authors report the successful treatment of two female patients, aged 34 and 59 years, with chronic exudative macular detachment associated with dome-shaped macula. Symptoms of subretinal fluid had been present for at least 2 years in each case, and the fluid was refractory to multiple intravitreal bevacizumab injections in one eye. After a single session of half-fluence verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the submacular fluid resolved completely in each eye. In one eye, recurrent submacular fluid 2 years later responded partially to repeat photodynamic therapy and completely to focal laser photocoagulation. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:593-595.]. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Differential stimulation of the retina with subretinally injected exogenous neurotransmitter: A biomimetic alternative to electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Corey M.; Inayat, Samsoon; Troy, John B.; Saggere, Laxman

    2016-12-01

    Subretinal stimulation of the retina with neurotransmitters, the normal means of conveying visual information, is a potentially better alternative to electrical stimulation widely used in current retinal prostheses for treating blindness from photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Yet, no subretinal electrical or chemical stimulation study has stimulated the OFF and ON pathways differentially through inner retinal activation. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of differentially stimulating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through the inner nuclear layer of the retina with glutamate, a primary neurotransmitter chemical, in a biomimetic way. We show that controlled pulsatile delivery of glutamate into the subsurface of explanted wild-type rat retinas elicits highly localized simultaneous inhibitory and excitatory spike rate responses in OFF and ON RGCs. We also present the spatiotemporal characteristics of RGC responses to subretinally injected glutamate and the therapeutic stimulation parameters. Our findings could pave the way for future development of a neurotransmitter-based subretinal prosthesis offering more naturalistic vision and better visual acuity than electrical prostheses.

  11. The prognosis of cases with massive subretinal hemorrhage after photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Shingo; Naito, Takeshi; Takebayashi, Masaru; Sato, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose : To investigate cases with massive subretinal hemorrhage after photodynamic therapy(PDT). Subjects and Methods : We studied four cases(3 men and 1 woman, mean 80.5 yeas old) with massive subretinal hemorrhage after PDT about type of disease, spot size, period to the onset of hemorrhage, visual acuity (VA) before and after PDT. Results : Four cases consisted of one with age-related macula degeneration (AMD) and 3 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). The average spot size of P...

  12. Subretinal Fluid Drainage and Vitrectomy Are Helpful in Diagnosing and Treating Eyes with Advanced Coats' Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Imaizumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe forms of Coats’ disease are often associated with total retinal detachment, and a differential diagnosis from retinoblastoma is critically important. In such eyes, laser- and/or cryoablation is often ineffective or sometimes impossible to perform. We report a case of advanced Coats’ disease in which a rapid pathological examination of subretinal fluid was effective for the diagnosis, and external subretinal drainage combined with vitrectomy was effective in preserving the eye.

  13. Biocompatibility of brilliant blue G in a rat model of subretinal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akifumi; Hisatomi, Toshio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Kagimoto, Tadahisa; Mochizuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Yoshinobu; Kubota, Toshiaki; Hata, Yasuaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of brilliant blue G (BBG) compared with those of indocyanine green (ICG) and trypan blue (TB) in a rat model of subretinal injection. Retinal detachment was produced by subretinal injection of the dyes. The biocompatibility of BBG (0.25 mg/mL) was evaluated over 2 months and 2 weeks by ophthalmic examinations. The eyes were enucleated and analyzed by light, fluorescence, as well as transmission electron microscopy. Apoptotic cell death was detected by TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling. The results were compared with those for ICG (5 mg/mL) and TB (1 mg/mL). ICG caused retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell atrophy 2 weeks after subretinal injection. Apoptotic cell death was detected in the inner and outer nuclear layers and the RPE layer, especially the photoreceptors. TB caused less retinal degeneration, mainly in the area detached by the subretinal injection. BBG had no detectable toxic effects after 2 months and 2 weeks. Apoptotic cell death was detected in the ICG and TB groups, mainly in the photoreceptors. Subretinal injection of the dyes caused retinal cell degeneration at lower concentrations than those reported for intravitreous injection. However, subretinal injection of BBG at 0.25 mg/mL appeared to provide satisfactory biocompatibility.

  14. A Method for En Face OCT Imaging of Subretinal Fluid in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study is to report a method for en face imaging of subretinal fluid (SRF due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT. Methods. High density SDOCT imaging was performed at two visits in 4 subjects with neovascular AMD and one healthy subject. En face OCT images of a retinal layer anterior to the retinal pigment epithelium were generated. Validity, repeatability, and utility of the method were established. Results. En face OCT images generated by manual and automatic segmentation were nearly indistinguishable and displayed similar regions of SRF. En face OCT images displayed uniform intensities and similar retinal vascular patterns in a healthy subject, while the size and appearance of a hypopigmented fibrotic scar in an AMD subject were similar at 2 visits. In AMD subjects, dark regions on en face OCT images corresponded to reduced or absent light reflectance due to SRF. On en face OCT images, a decrease in SRF areas with treatment was demonstrated and this corresponded with a reduction in the central subfield retinal thickness. Conclusion. En face OCT imaging is a promising tool for visualization and monitoring of SRF area due to disease progression and treatment.

  15. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits as revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Rivero, Ernesto Blanco; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, Clark Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A

    2014-09-01

    To describe the microscopic structure of photoreceptors impacted by subretinal drusenoid deposits, also called pseudodrusen, an extracellular lesion associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Observational case series. We recruited 53 patients with AMD and 10 age-similar subjects who had normal retinal health. All subjects underwent color fundus photography, infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subretinal drusenoid deposits were classified by a 3-stage OCT-based grading system. Lesions and surrounding photoreceptors were examined by AOSLO. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were found in 26 eyes of 13 patients with AMD and imaged by AOSLO and spectral-domain OCT in 18 eyes (n = 342 lesions). Spectral-domain OCT showed subretinal drusenoid deposits as highly reflective material accumulated internal to the retinal pigment epithelium. AOSLO revealed that photoreceptor reflectivity was qualitatively reduced by stage 1 subretinal drusenoid deposits and was greatly reduced by stage 2. AOSLO presented a distinct structure in stage 3, a hyporeflective annulus consisting of deflected, degenerated or absent photoreceptors. A central core with a reflectivity superficially resembling photoreceptors is formed by the lesion material itself. A hyporeflective gap in the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on either side of this core shown in spectral-domain OCT corresponded to the hyporeflective annulus seen by AOSLO. AOSLO and multimodal imaging of subretinal drusenoid deposits indicate solid, space-filling lesions in the subretinal space. Associated retinal reflectivity changes are related to lesion stages and are consistent with perturbations to photoreceptors, as suggested by histology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role and therapeutic potential of vascular stem/progenitor cells in pathological neovascularisation during chronic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pras, Ester; Gallego, Javier; Coch, Laura; Mejias, Marc; Fernandez-Miranda, Gonzalo; Pardal, Ricardo; Bosch, Jaime; Mendez, Raul; Fernandez, Mercedes

    2017-07-01

    Pathological neovascularisation is intimately involved in portal hypertension (PH). Here, we determined the contribution of vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSPCs) to neovessel growth in PH and whether the RNA-binding protein cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein-4 (CPEB4) was behind the mechanism controlling VSPC function. To identify and monitor VSPCs in PH rats (portal vein-ligated), we used a combinatorial approach, including sphere-forming assay, assessment of self-renewal, 5-bromo-2'-desoxyuridine label retention technique, in vitro and in vivo stem/progenitor cell (SPC) differentiation and vasculogenic capability, cell sorting, as well as immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy expression analysis. We also determined the role of CPEB4 on VSPC proliferation using genetically engineered mouse models. We demonstrated the existence in the mesenteric vascular bed of VSPCs displaying capability to form cellular spheres in suspension culture, self-renewal ability, expression of molecules commonly found in SPCs, slow-cycling features, in addition to other cardinal properties exhibited by SPCs, like capacity to differentiate into endothelial cells and pericytes with remarkable vasculogenic activity. Such VSPCs showed, after PH induction, an early switch in proliferation, and differentiated in vivo into endothelial cells and pericytes, contributing, structurally and functionally, to abnormal neovessel formation. Quantification of VSPC-dependent neovessel formation in PH further illustrated the key role played by VSPCs. We also demonstrated that CPEB4 regulates the proliferation of the activated VSPC progeny upon PH induction. These findings demonstrate that VSPC-derived neovessel growth (ie, vasculogenesis) and angiogenesis cooperatively stimulate mesenteric neovascularisation in PH and identify VSPC and CPEB4 as potential therapeutic targets. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  18. Imported intraocular gnathostomiasis with subretinal tracks confirmed by western blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Ho; Kim, Moosang; Kim, Eung Suk; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yu, Seung-Young; Kwak, Hyung-Woo

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of intraocular gnathostomiasis diagnosed by western blot assay in a patient with subretinal tracks. A 15-year-old male patient complained of blurred vision in the right eye, lasting for 2 weeks. Eight months earlier, he had traveled to Vietnam for 1 week and ate raw wild boar meat and lobster. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and anterior chamber examination revealed no abnormalities. Fundus examination showed subretinal tracks in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography showed linear hyperfluorescence of the subretinal lesion observed on fundus in the right eye. Ultrasound examination revealed no abnormalities. Blood tests indicated mild eosinophilia (7.5%), and there was no abnormality found by systemic examinations. Two years later, the patient visited our department again for ophthalmologic evaluation. Visual acuity remained 20/20 in both eyes and the subretinal tracks in the right eye had not changed since the previous examination. Serologic examination was performed to provide a more accurate diagnosis, and the patient's serum reacted strongly to the Gnathostoma nipponicum antigen by western blot assay, which led to a diagnosis of intraocular gnathostomiasis. This is the first reported case of intraocular gnathostomiasis with subretinal tracks confirmed serologically using western blot in Korea.

  19. Valsalva-Related Subretinal Hemorrhage as a Presenting Symptom of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Subhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a case of Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage as a presenting symptom of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. The patient refrained from treatment against our best advice, and thus this is also a rare case of the natural course of an untreated PCV. Methods. Case report. Results. A 66-year-old female with a respiratory infection coughed intensely until exhaustion, after which she developed visual symptoms on the right eye. Primary care ophthalmologist examined the patient on the same day of the onset of symptoms and referred her to our tertiary medical retinal service for detailed retinal diagnosis including fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. The right eye had a large subretinal hemorrhage and pigment epithelium detachment in the lower temporal arcade with foveal involvement. Against our best advice, the patient refused treatment. In the following 9 months, the BCVA decreased from 68 to 55 ETDRS letters, the subretinal hemorrhage almost regressed, pigment epithelium detachments persisted, and macular edema, intraretinal cysts, and subretinal fibrosis developed. Conclusions. Although classic Valsalva retinopathy with preretinal hemorrhage in most cases can be managed by careful observation and no treatment, this case demonstrates that Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage needs different attention and approach.

  20. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal...... vessels appeared normal without signs of exudation, bleeding, or subretinal elevation. Eyes were harvested at 10-28 days. H&E consistently showed mild retinal vasculitis, depigmentation of the RPE, and marked mononuclear cell infiltrate in the choroid adjacent to the site of transplantation. Human...

  1. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal......-specific antibodies revealed donor cells in the subretinal space at 10-13 days and smaller numbers within the retina on days 12 and 13, with evidence suggesting a limited degree of morphological integration; however, no cells remained at 4 weeks. The strong mononuclear cell reaction and loss of donor cells indicate...

  2. Iatrogenic subretinal injection of Ozurdex® implant and its effect on macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Shriram Karandikar

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: A more widespread application of any technology always portends a more significant risk for complications, and an ophthalmologist should be aware of this potential risk. Though subretinal, corticosteroid implant was capable of reducing macular edema by 181 microns by 1 month and its effect wore off by 2 months.

  3. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Eric J; Randolph, John C; Rafieetary, Mohammad R; Charles, Steve; Calzada, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    To describe the spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of retained subretinal perfluoro-n-octane (SR-PFO) after vitreoretinal surgery. Consecutive patients referred for retained SR-PFO after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment were prospectively evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The clinical findings, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography images, and anatomical outcomes, were reviewed. Three consecutive patients presented to the vitreoretinal service with history of retinal detachment and pervious vitrectomy with intraoperative PFO. Subretinal PFO bubbles were observed on clinical examination and imaging studies, including spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Case 1 had subfoveal PFO removal and developed a postoperative choroidal neovascular membrane. Case 2 had multiple foci of SR-PFO after giant retinal tear repair. Case 3 had superotemporal SR-PFO that remained stable for several years without migration or other associated pathology. Subretinal PFO appears as a low-reflectance spherical mass, often with a pinpoint focus of hyperreflectance at the apex of the bubble. Optical coherence tomography details beneath subretinal PFO appear relatively hyperreflectant compared to adjacent tissue. Long-term observation revealed preferential absence of the outer retinal layers with no nerve fiber layer erosion, subretinal inflammatory precipitates, or proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Some evidence of retinal pigment epithelial disruption was observed but seemed to remain stable or improve with observation. The authors suggest management involving follow-up with close observation in SR-PFO unless present in the subfoveal region. Choroidal neovascular membrane can occur after SR-PFO removal and may be successfully managed with intravitreal bevacizumab.

  4. HL-217, a new topical anti-angiogenic agent, inhibits retinal vascular leakage and pathogenic subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Geun-Hyeog [Research and Development Center, Hanlim Pharm. Co. Ltd., 1656-10, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Sook, E-mail: jskim@kiom.re.kr [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HL-217 is a new synthetic topical anti-angiogenic agent. • HL-217 attenuated subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice. • HL-217 blocked the binding of PDGF-BB to PDGFRβ. - Abstract: HL-217 is a new synthetic angiogenesis inhibitor. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action and efficacy of topical application of HL-217 on subretinal neovascularization in very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Vldlr{sup −/−}) mice. In three-week-old male Vldlr{sup −/−} mice, HL-217 (1.5 or 3 mg/ml) was administered twice per day for 4 weeks by topical eye drop instillation. Neovascular areas were then measured. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. The inhibitory effect of HL-217 on the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. The neovascular area in the Vldlr{sup −/−} mice was significantly reduced by HL-217. Additionally, HL-217 decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, HL-217 dose-dependently inhibited the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC{sub 50} = 38.9 ± 0.7 μM). These results suggest that HL-217 is a potent inhibitor of PDGF-BB. HL-217, when applied topically, is an effective inhibitor of subretinal neovascularization due to its ability to inhibit the pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-BB.

  5. A unique case of phaeohyphomycosis subretinal abscess in a patient with arthropathy and lung pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old former gold miner with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with steroids and methotrexate, presented to eye casualty with a painful right eye. Examination revealed an anterior uveitis and despite an initial response to topical steroids, the intraocular inflammation worsened with anterior and posterior uveitis development. Re-examination showed a white mass in the peripheral nasal retina initially suspected of being active Toxoplasmosis infection and anti-toxoplasmosis treatment commenced. After improvement and tapering of this treatment, the intraocular inflammation reoccurred. Cytopathological examination of a pars plana vitrectomy obtained vitreous sample that showed a non-diagnostic non-infectious chronic vitritis. The vitreoretinal surgeons elected to do a direct biopsy of the white subretinal mass in the peripheral nasal area. This revealed, quite unexpectedly, an abscess containing pigmented phaeohyphomycosis fungi. This case report documents the multidisciplinary approach that assisted in clinching a final diagnosis and the role of sub-retinal biopsy in this unprecedented scenario.

  6. Minimally invasive curved-micro-drainer (CMD) capable of innocuous drainage of subretinal fluid for the treatment of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghao; Lee, ChangYeol; Li, Cheng Guo; You, Yong Sung; Sung, Ho Lee; Jung, Hyungil

    2016-08-01

    Retinal detachment is a serious vision threatening disease. Current consensus for the treatment of retinal detachment is to reattach the retina onto the choroid layer by drainage of accumulated subretinal fluid. Although several surgical methods have been developed, no satisfactory visual outcome has been obtained without surgical complications such as unintended puncture and hemorrhage of the retina and choroid tissue. In this study, we developed a novel Curved-Micro-Drainer (CMD) for the innocuous drainage of subretinal fluid. It is a curved structure with a 15° beveled tip that is 5 mm in length, with an 80 μm inner diameter and a 100 μm outer diameter. This high inner-to-outer diameter ratio of CMD with a 100 μm outer diameter allows efficient drainage of highly viscous subretinal fluid in a minimally invasive manner. In addition, the curved structure precisely matches the spherical ocular structure, which facilitates the CMD insertion into the subretinal space without choroid tissue damage. We demonstrate that the optimized CMD allows for the innocuous drainage of the viscous subretinal fluid from the porcine eye, whereas the traditional hypodermic needle (31-gauge) induces severe retinal and choroid damage. CMD can overcome a critical safety issue and is a potential alternative to conventional surgical interventions for the innocuous drainage of subretinal fluid.

  7. Retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy – phenotypes of neovascularisation in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarenac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of loss of visual acuity in developed countries. Antagonists of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (anti-VEGF have been successfully used intravitreally in treating the neovascular form of this disease (nAMD and limiting vision loss. With the latest developments in multimodal imaging we can discern multiple types of neovascularization, some of which have an unusual course, despite treatment with anti-VEGF. Indocianine green angiography (ICGA and optical coherence tomography (OCT have been used to distinguish two special forms of nARMD, i.e., retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. RAP appears in 10–15 % of newly discovered nARMD, usually in older patients and is also known as type 3 neovascularisation, which starts intraretinally. It responds well to anti-VEGF. However, it requires closer monitoring, since in 75 % of patients it requires repeated treatment. In contrast, PCV evolves in the choroid and typically causes hemorrhagic exudative maculopathy, which is relatively unresponsive to anti-VEGF. It appears in 4–14 % of nAMD, and in somewhat younger patients. It requires a specifc approach to treatment, combining anti-VEGF with laser therapy, and close monitoring.Although PCV and RAP are less common forms of nARMD, we should use and properly interpret FA, ICGA and OCT in order to initiate recommended treatments and follow-up. Herewith we can lessen the adverse impact on the visual acuity and increase the quality of life of our patients.

  8. Extended vertical hemilaryngectomy and reconstruction with a neovascularised tracheal autograft for advanced unilateral laryngeal tumours: a learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Samuel C; Upile, Navdeep; Lau, Andrew; Lancaster, Jeffrey; Praveen, Prav; Rogers, Simon N; Shaw, Richard; Jones, Terence M

    2014-06-01

    Extended vertical hemilaryngectomy and reconstruction with a neovascularised tracheal autograft is a two-stage procedure for advanced unilateral tumours of the larynx. The purpose of this study was to review our early experience of this technique by reporting our clinical outcomes and highlighting some key learning points. Patients were identified from the Liverpool Head and Neck Cancer electronic database. Case notes were reviewed for demographic data, tumour stage, treatment, complications and outcomes. Eleven patients (all males) were identified. The mean age of the cohort was 58.2 years (range 37-78 years). The overall average follow-up period was 41.5 months (range 14 days-75 months). Of the 11 cases, 3 had completed stage 1 only. The most common complications following stage 1 procedure are related to the surgical neck wound (36% of cases). Of the remaining eight patients who completed the first two surgical stages, closure of tracheostomy stoma was possible in seven; all seven subsequently resumed a normal oral diet. All these patients have subsequently remained free of disease at latest follow-up. There were two cases of post-operative pneumonia and one case of radial forearm free-flap failure. In contrast, only one case of post-operative pneumonia was recorded following the stage 2 procedure. In total, three patients in this cohort were dead at follow-up. This technique has a role in the management of a select group of fit patients presenting with unilateral tumours of the glottis and who are otherwise destined for a total laryngectomy. Whilst the technique is complex, we have shown that its introduction is possible in a suitably specialised and motivated surgical unit.

  9. Analysis and follow-up of type 1 choroidal neovascularisation with optical coherence tomography-angiography after antiangiogenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas-Picazo, R; Cerdà-Ibáñez, M; Almor Palacios, I; Hervás Hernandis, J M; Ramón-Cosín, R; Ruiz Del Rio, N; Duch-Samper, A

    2017-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of type 1 choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) using two different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) devices sequentially during a standard protocol of three intravitreal injections of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). The study included 6 eyes with naïve neovascular ARMD. Macular OCT-A images were acquired using AngioPlex Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, USA) and DRI OCT Triton SS-OCT Angio (Topcon, Medical Systems, Inc. Oakland, NJ, USA). The macular OCT-A scan covered an area of 3×3mm. Distinct morphological patterns and quantifiable features of the neovascular membranes were studied on en face projection images, which were taken at different stages of the follow-up. Treatment response could be estimated using the OCT-A criteria of CNV activity. Higher activity scores before treatment resulted in a greater decrease in the membrane area. The estimated net decline in area ranged from 83.5% to 1.4%. The OCT-A performed one-week after treatment revealed the greatest area reductions. OCT-A provides new possibilities for the non-invasive assessment of features of neovascular networks and CNV structural morphology. Newly described activity criteria can also guide therapeutic decisions, and help in evaluating responses. Quantitative and qualitative information can be provided with this technique. However, further software development and future investigation are essential to define the role of this tool on a daily basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of shape and coating of a subretinal prosthesis on its integration with the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterwick, A; Huie, P; Jones, B W; Marc, R E; Marmor, M; Palanker, D

    2009-01-01

    Retinal stimulation with high spatial resolution requires close proximity of electrodes to target cells. This study examines the effects of material coatings and 3-dimensional geometries of subretinal prostheses on their integration with the retina. A trans-scleral implantation technique was developed to place microfabricated structures in the subretinal space of RCS rats. The effect of three coatings (silicon oxide, iridium oxide and parylene) and three geometries (flat, pillars and chambers) on the retinal integration was compared using passive implants. Retinal morphology was evaluated histologically 6 weeks after implantation. For 3-dimensional implants the retinal cell phenotype was also evaluated using Computational Molecular Phenotyping. Flat implants coated with parylene and iridium oxide were generally well tolerated in the subretinal space, inducing only a mild gliotic response. However, silicon-oxide coatings induced the formation of a significant fibrotic seal around the implants. Glial proliferation was observed at the base of the pillar electrode arrays and inside the chambers. The non-traumatic penetration of pillar tips into the retina provided uniform and stable proximity to the inner nuclear layer. Retinal cells migrated into chambers with apertures larger than 10 mum. Both pillars and chambers achieved better proximity to the inner retinal cells than flat implants. However, isolation of retinal cells inside the chamber arrays is likely to affect their long-term viability. Pillars demonstrated minimal alteration of the inner retinal architecture, and thus appear to be the most promising approach for maintaining close proximity between the retinal prosthetic electrodes and target neurons.

  11. Membrana neovascular sub-retineana justapapilar em paciente com papiledema e hipertensão intracraniana idiopática Juxtapapillary subretinal neovascular membrane in a patient with papilledema and idiopathic intracranial hyperthension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o caso de uma paciente de 41 anos, com diagnóstico da síndrome da hipertensão intracraniana idiopática (síndrome do pseudotumor cerebral que desenvolveu perda visual em um dos olhos decorrente de membrana neovascular sub-retiniana envolvendo a região macular. Apesar do tratamento clínico adequado e da realização de fenestração da bainha do nervo óptico com boa regressão do edema de papila não houve resolução da membrana neovascular sub-retiniana mesmo após três injeções intravítreas seqüenciais de bevacizumab. Chamamos a atenção para esta complicação incomum do papiledema, revisamos a literatura a este respeito e discutimos as possíveis causas, bem como a evolução mais comum e as modalidades de tratamento disponíveis para tratamento da membrana neovascular sub-retiniana em pacientes com a síndrome do pseudotumor cerebral.We report a 41-years-old woman with idiopathic intracranial hyperthension (psedotumor cerebri syndrome that presented with visual loss in one eye due to subretinal neovascular membrane involving the macular area. Despite the introduction of adequate medical treatment followed by optic nerve sheath fenestration that lead to optic disc edema regression there was no improvement in the subretinal neovascular membrane even after performing three sequential intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. We stress the importance of recognizing this uncommon complication of papilledema and review the literature regarding such an occurrence. We also discuss the possible causes for developing subretinal membrane in papilledema, its most common outcome and the treatment modalities available for managing subretinal neovascular membrane in patients with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome.

  12. Contrast Sensitivity With a Subretinal Prosthesis and Implications for Efficient Delivery of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Galambos, Ludwig; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the contrast sensitivity of a degenerate retina stimulated by a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, and assess the impact of low contrast sensitivity on transmission of visual information. Methods We measure ex vivo the full-field contrast sensitivity of healthy rat retina stimulated with white light, and the contrast sensitivity of degenerate rat retina stimulated with a subretinal prosthesis at frequencies exceeding flicker fusion (>20 Hz). Effects of eye movements on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity are simulated using a linear–nonlinear model of the retina. Results Retinal ganglion cells adapt to high frequency stimulation of constant intensity, and respond transiently to changes in illumination of the implant, exhibiting responses to ON-sets, OFF-sets, and both ON- and OFF-sets of light. The percentage of cells with an OFF response decreases with progression of the degeneration, indicating that OFF responses are likely mediated by photoreceptors. Prosthetic vision exhibits reduced contrast sensitivity and dynamic range, with 65% contrast changes required to elicit responses, as compared to the 3% (OFF) to 7% (ON) changes with visible light. The maximum number of action potentials elicited with prosthetic stimulation is at most half of its natural counterpart for the ON pathway. Our model predicts that for most visual scenes, contrast sensitivity of prosthetic vision is insufficient for triggering RGC activity by fixational eye movements. Conclusions Contrast sensitivity of prosthetic vision is 10 times lower than normal, and dynamic range is two times below natural. Low contrast sensitivity and lack of OFF responses hamper delivery of visual information via a subretinal prosthesis. PMID:26540657

  13. Subretinal Fibrosis in Stargardt’s Disease with Fundus Flavimaculatus and ABCA4 Gene Mutation

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    Settimio Rossi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on 4 patients affected by Stargardt’s disease (STGD with fundus flavimaculatus (FFM and ABCA4 gene mutation associated with subretinal fibrosis. Methods: Four patients with a diagnosis of STGD were clinically examined. All 4 cases underwent a full ophthalmologic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity measured by the Snellen visual chart, biomicroscopic examination, fundus examination, fundus photography, electroretinogram, microperimetry, optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. All patients were subsequently screened for ABCA4 gene mutations, identified by microarray genotyping and confirmed by conventional DNA sequencing of the relevant exons. Results: In all 4 patients, ophthalmologic exam showed areas of subretinal fibrosis in different retinal sectors. In only 1 case, these lesions were correlated to an ocular trauma as confirmed by biomicroscopic examination of the anterior segment that showed a nuclear cataract dislocated to the superior site and vitreous opacities along the lens capsule. The other patients reported a lifestyle characterized by competitive sport activities. The performed instrumental diagnostic investigations confirmed the diagnosis of STGD with FFM in all patients. Moreover, in all 4 affected individuals, mutations in the ABCA4 gene were found. Conclusions: Patients with the diagnosis of STGD associated with FFM can show atypical fundus findings. We report on 4 patients affected by STGD with ABCA4 gene mutation associated with subretinal fibrosis. Our findings suggest that this phenomenon can be accelerated by ocular trauma and also by ocular microtrauma caused by sport activities, highlighting that lifestyle can play a role in the onset of these lesions.

  14. Attenuation of EMT in RPE cells and subretinal fibrosis by an RAR-γ agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Orita, Tomoko; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yang; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kurakazu, Taishi; Noda, Takeshi; Yanai, Ryoji; Morishige, Naoyuki; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2015-07-01

    Subretinal fibrosis contributes to the loss of vision associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of AMD including the fibrotic reaction. We examined the role of retinoic acid receptor-γ (RAR-γ) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and other fibrosis-related processes in mouse RPE cells cultured in a type I collagen gel. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2)-induced collagen gel contraction mediated by the RPE cells was inhibited by the RAR-γ agonist R667 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Expression of the mesenchymal markers α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, the release of interleukin-6, and the phosphorylation of paxillin, mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK), Smad2, and AKT induced by TGF-β2 were also suppressed by the RAR-γ agonist. Furthermore, gelatin zymography and immunoblot analysis revealed that the TGF-β2-induced release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 from RPE cells was inhibited by R667, and the MMP inhibitor GM6001 attenuated TGF-β2-induced RPE cell contraction. Finally, immunohistofluorescence analysis with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein showed that R667 inhibited the development of subretinal fibrosis in a mouse model in vivo. Our results thus suggest that RAR-γ agonists may prove effective for the treatment of subretinal fibrosis associated with AMD. RAR-γ agonist R667 suppressed collagen gel contraction mediated by RPE cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in RPE cells was inhibited by RAR-γ agonist R667. RAR-γ agonist R667 inhibited fibrosis-related processes in RPE cells. RAR-γ agonists may attenuate AMD-associated fibrosis.

  15. Progenitor cells from the porcine neural retina express photoreceptor markers after transplantation to the subretinal space of allorecipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassen, Henry; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Zahir, Tasneem

    2007-01-01

    and rhodopsin. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed expression of the transcription factors Dach1, Hes1, Lhx2, Pax6, Six3, and Six6. Progenitor cells prelabeled with vital dyes survived as allografts in the subretinal space for up to 5 weeks (11 of 12 recipients) without exogenous...

  16. Comparison of electrically evoked cortical potential thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Naber, John F.; Ofer Ziv, R.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Kaplan, Henry J.; Enzmann, Volker

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold electrical charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of electrical evoked potentials (EEP) by delivering electrical stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following electrical stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 ± 7 nC (0.023 ± 0.016 mC cm-2) within the subretinal space and 150 ± 122 nC (0.375 ± 0.306 mC cm-2) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm-2, which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). Supported in part by The Charles D Kelman, MD

  17. Transscleral implantation and neurophysiological testing of subretinal polyimide film electrodes in the domestic pig in visual prosthesis development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Helmut G.; Schanze, Thomas; Brunner, Ursula; Sailer, Heiko; Wiesenack, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    Loss of photoreceptor function is responsible for a variety of blinding diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa. Advances in microtechnology have led to the development of electronic visual prostheses which are currently under investigation for the treatment of human blindness. The design of a subretinal prosthesis requires that the stimulation device should be implantable in the subretinal space of the eye. Current limitations in eye surgery have to be overcome to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and to determine basic stimulation parameters. Therefore, polyimide film-bound electrodes were implanted in the subretinal space in anaesthetized domestic pigs as a prelude to electrical stimulation in acute experiments. Eight eyes underwent surgery to demonstrate the transscleral implantability of the device. Four of the eight eyes were stimulated electrically. In these four animals the cranium was prepared for epidural recording of evoked visual cortex responses, and stimulation was performed with sequences of current impulses. All eight subretinal implantation procedures were carried out successfully with polyimide film electrodes and each electrode was implanted beneath the outer retina of the posterior pole of the operated eyes. Four eyes were used for neurophysiological testing, involving recordings of epidural cortical responses to light and electrical stimulation. A light stimulus response, which occurred 40 ms after stimulation, proved the integrity of the operated eye. The electrical stimuli occurred about 20 ms after the onset of stimulation. The stimulation threshold was approximately 100 µA. Both the threshold and the cortical responses depended on the correspondence between retinal stimulation and cortical recording sites and on the number of stimulation electrodes used simultaneously. The subretinal implantation of complex stimulation devices using the transscleral procedure with consecutive subretinal stimulation is feasible in acute

  18. Automated Identification and Quantification of Subretinal Fibrosis in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Polarization-Sensitive OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philipp; Sugita, Mitsuro; Deák, Gábor; Baumann, Bernhard; Zotter, Stefan; Pircher, Michael; Sacu, Stefan; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    To identify and quantify subretinal fibrosis in eyes with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Eyes of patients with subretinal fibrosis secondary to nAMD were included in this case series. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination to clearly identify advanced nAMD lesions with fibrosis. Examinations of PS-OCT were performed using a novel system with an integrated eye tracker. Areas of fibrosis in PS-OCT, automatically segmented using a custom-built algorithm, were compared with conventional imaging modalities including spectral-domain OCT, fluorescein angiography, and color fundus photography in their potential to visualize fibrosis in nAMD. Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients were included. In polarization-sensitive OCT B-scans, a distinct "column-like" pattern was observed in averaged axis orientation images. En face analysis provided a precise mapping of the fibrotic scar component. Fibrous tissue was selectively identified by PS-OCT based on birefringence in all lesions, whereas in SD-OCT, subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) could not be further classified into scar tissue, fibrovascular material, or other AMD-specific material. Based on simultaneous polarization analyses in PS-OCT, the level of RPE alteration could be evaluated as well, showing thinning and loss of RPE associated with subretinal fibrosis. Using PS-OCT, subretinal fibrosis can be identified as an intrinsically birefringent structure and can be segmented based solely on tissue-specific contrast. Polarization-sensitive OCT offers a unique method to identify clinically relevant components of SHRM (i.e., neovascular tissue versus fibrous tissue) and therefore allows for an optimized disease management and evaluation of therapeutic strategies.

  19. Toxicity profiles of subretinal indocyanine green, Brilliant Blue G, and triamcinolone acetonide: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    /ml and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) 13 mg/ml was injected subretinally in 12 vitrectomized pig eyes. At 6 weeks, retinas were examined by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiograpy, histopathology, and apoptosis assay. RESULTS: mfERG responses were significantly lower in ICG......-injected eyes than in healthy fellow eyes (p¿=¿0.039). The ratio between injected eyes and healthy fellow eyes was lower in the ICG group than in the BBG (p¿=¿0.009) and TA group (p¿=¿0.025). No difference between BBG and TA existed. All retinas were reattached, and fluorescein angiographies showed a window...

  20. BILATERAL SUBRETINAL FLUID AND RETINAL VASCULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Singh, Ramandeep; Kumar, Abiraj; Dogra, Mangat R; Gupta, Amod

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral retinopathy associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. History and clinical examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. We report a rare case of unilateral, followed by bilateral retinopathy, subretinal fluid, and vasculopathy in a young boy. History of missed measles vaccination, behavioral and neurologic symptoms, and electroencephalogram suggested a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography was performed to document changes in the retinal microstructure through the natural course of the disease. Within 8 weeks, the changes progressed to retinal atrophy in both eyes. The progressive course of retinitis associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be monitored on optical coherence tomography. Retinitis is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis rapidly progressive from the acute stage to the stage of atrophy, involving full thickness of the retina.

  1. Effects of Subretinal Gene Transfer at Different Time Points in a Mouse Model of Retinal Degeneration.

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    Xufeng Dai

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1 is necessary for photoreceptors to generate an important lipid component of their membranes. The absence of LPCAT1 results in early and rapid rod and cone degeneration. Retinal degeneration 11 (rd11 mice carry a mutation in the Lpcat1 gene, and are an excellent model of early-onset rapid retinal degeneration (RD. To date, no reports have documented gene therapy administration in the rd11 mouse model at different ages. In this study, the AAV8 (Y733F-smCBA-Lpcat1 vector was subretinally injected at postnatal day (P 10, 14, 18, or 22. Four months after injection, immunohistochemistry and analysis of retinal morphology showed that treatment at P10 rescued about 82% of the wild-type retinal thickness. However, the diffusion of the vector and the resulting rescue were limited to an area around the injection site that was only 31% of the total retinal area. Injection at P14 resulted in vector diffusion that covered approximately 84% of the retina, and we found that gene therapy was more effective against RD when exposure to light was limited before and after treatment. We observed long-term preservation of electroretinogram (ERG responses, and preservation of retinal structure, indicating that early treatment followed by limited light exposure can improve gene therapy effectiveness for the eyes of rd11 mice. Importantly, delayed treatment still partially preserved M-cones, but not S-cones, and M-cones in the rd11 retina appeared to have a longer window of opportunity for effective preservation with gene therapy. These results provide important information regarding the effects of subretinal gene therapy in the mouse model of LPCAT1-deficiency.

  2. Vitreous and subretinal fluid concentrations of orally administered dabigatran in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Verena C; Kluft, Cornelis; van Meurs, Jan C

    2016-11-01

    One of the factors that was shown to contribute to the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the coagulation factor thrombin. Therefore, a specific oral thrombin inhibitor such as dabigatran might be a possible therapeutic option. An oral drug has the advantage of patient-friendly prolonged administration in contrast to drugs that can only be applied during vitrectomy, on condition that the drug reaches the target site. We tested whether dabigatran reaches the vitreous and subretinal fluid (SRF) after a single oral dose of dabigatran. Twenty-eight patients with a retinal detachment received a single dose of 220 mg dabigatran etexilate 2-8 hr prior to surgery. During surgery, we took a blood sample and a vitreous or subretinal fluid sample. The concentration of dabigatran was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The dabigatran concentration between 2 and 9 hr after administration was higher in SRF than in vitreous (max 8.5 and 3.8 ng/ml). Corresponding plasma concentrations ranged from 15 to 225 ng/ml. There was a significant relationship between SRF levels and plasma levels (rs  = 0.68, p = 0.014); the levels in vitreous fluid showed no such relationship (rs  = 0.20, p = 0.48). In addition, we measured the vitreous concentration of a non-study patient using 150 mg dabigatran twice daily. The concentration was approximately 10 times higher than after a single dosage (25.8 ng/ml). We demonstrate that oral intake of dabigatran, a candidate drug to modulate PVR, results in potentially relevant intraocular concentrations. We suggest that repeated dosing may lead to higher concentrations, but this should be further explored. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Trans-Corneal Subretinal Injection in Mice and Its Effect on the Function and Morphology of the Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qi

    Full Text Available To introduce a practical method of subretinal injection in mice and evaluate injection-induced retinal detachment (RD and damage using a dynamic imaging system, electrophysiology, and histology.After full dilation of a 2-month-old C57BL/6J mouse pupil, the cornea near the limbus was punctured with a 30 ½-gague disposable beveled needle. A 33 ½-gauge blunt needle was inserted through the corneal perforation into the anterior chamber, avoiding the lens before going deeper into the vitreous cavity, and penetrating the inner retina to reach the subretinal space. The mice were divided into four groups: in group 1, about 80-100% of the retina was filled with subretinally injected solution; in group 2, approximately 50-70% of the retina was filled with injected solution; in group 3, the procedures were stopped before solution injection; and non-injected eyes were used as the negative control in group 4. An optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging system was used to monitor retinal reattachment during the first three days following the injections. Histological and functional changes were examined by light microscopy and electroretinography (ERG at five weeks post-injection.After a short-term training, a 70% success rate with 50% or more coverage (i.e., retinal blebs occupied 50% or more retinal area and filled with the injected solution with minimal injection-related damages can be achieved. Bleb formation was associated with retinal detachment (RD between the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer. Partial RD could be observed at post-injection day 1, and by day 2 most of the retina had reattached. At 5 weeks post-injection, compared to uninjected control group 4, the b-wave amplitudes of ERG decreased 22% in group 1, 16% in group 2, and 7% in group 3; the b-wave amplitudes were statistically different between the uninjected group and the groups with either 50-70% or 80-100% coverage. The subretinal injection-induced RD reattached

  4. Integration of Subretinal Suspension Transplants of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in a Large-Eyed Model of Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus-Reurer, Sandra; Bartuma, Hammurabi; Aronsson, Monica; Westman, Sofie; Lanner, Fredrik; André, Helder; Kvanta, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Subretinal suspension transplants of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells (hESC-RPE) have the capacity to form functional monolayers in naive eyes. We explore hESC-RPE integration when transplanted in suspension to a large-eyed model of geographic atrophy (GA). Derivation of hESC-RPE was performed in a xeno-free and defined manner. Subretinal bleb injection of PBS or sodium iodate (NaIO3) was used to induce a GA-like phenotype. Suspensions of hESC-RPE were transplanted to the subretinal space of naive or PBS-/NaIO3-treated rabbits using a transvitreal pars plana technique. Integration of hESC-RPE was monitored by multimodal real-time imaging and by immunohistochemistry. Subretinal blebs of PBS or NaIO3 caused different degrees of outer neuroretinal degeneration, RPE hyperautofluorescence, focal RPE loss, and choroidal atrophy; that is, hallmark characteristics of GA. In nonpretreated naive eyes, hESC-RPE integrated as subretinal monolayers with preserved overlying photoreceptors, yet not in areas with outer neuroretinal degeneration and native RPE loss. When transplanted to eyes with PBS-/NaIO3-induced degeneration, hESC-RPE failed to integrate. In a large-eyed preclinical model, subretinal suspension transplants of hESC-RPE did not integrate in areas with GA-like degeneration.

  5. REFRACTORY INTRARETINAL OR SUBRETINAL FLUID IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL RANIZUBIMAB: Functional and Structural Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianniou, Christina; Dirani, Ali; Jang, Liuna; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the visual acuity results of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and refractory fluid despite monthly treatment with ranibizumab, and to investigate differences between refractory subretinal fluid and intraretinal cystic changes. Retrospective chart review of consecutive treatment-refractory neovascular age-related macular degeneration, defined as persistent intraretinal or subretinal fluid despite monthly ranibizumab injections during 12 months or more. Data were evaluated for baseline characteristics, type and location of the refractory fluid, mean visual acuity change, number of injections, and the time point of first complete disappearance of all fluid on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Seventy-six eyes (74 patients, mean age, 76.8 years) were identified. The mean follow-up was 33.6 months (range, 12-73 months). The mean number of injections was 11.4 in the first year and 27.7 over follow-up. The refractory fluid was located subfoveally in 61.8%. In 27 eyes (35.5%), the fluid resolved after a mean of 21.8 months (range, 13-49 months). Mean visual acuity increased by 9.0, 7.9, and 7.9 letters by Month 12, Month 24, and Month 36, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed a higher risk for fibrosis (odds ratio, 3.30) or atrophy (odds ratio, 3.34) in patients with refractory cysts as compared with refractory subretinal fluid. Furthermore, refractory cysts showed a higher risk for a 10-letter visual acuity loss (P = 0.018). Fluid refractory to monthly treatment with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration still allowed for well-maintained visual improvement, even in subfoveal location. Late fluid resolution may occur. However, refractory cysts were associated with poorer anatomical and functional outcome than subretinal fluid.

  6. Behavior tests and immunohistochemical retinal response analyses in RCS rats with subretinal implantation of Okayama-University-type retinal prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alamusi; Matsuo, Toshihiko; HOSOYA, OSAMU; Tsutsui, Kimiko M.; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film as a prototype of retinal prosthesis, which we named Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis. The purposes of this study are to conduct behavior tests to assess vision in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats that underwent subretinal implantation of the dye-coupled film and to reveal retinal response to the dye-coupled film by immunohistochemistry. Polyethylene films were made of polyethylene powder at refined purity, and phot...

  7. Behavior tests and immunohistochemical retinal response analyses in RCS rats with subretinal implantation of Okayama-University-type retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamusi; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Hosoya, Osamu; Tsutsui, Kimiko M; Uchida, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film as a prototype of retinal prosthesis, which we named Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis. The purposes of this study are to conduct behavior tests to assess vision in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats that underwent subretinal implantation of the dye-coupled film and to reveal retinal response to the dye-coupled film by immunohistochemistry. Polyethylene films were made of polyethylene powder at refined purity, and photoelectric dyes were coupled to the film surface at higher density compared with the prototype. Either dye-coupled film or dye-uncoupled plain film used as a control was implanted subretinally from a scleral incision in both eyes of an RCS rat at 6 weeks of the age. Behavior tests 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after implantation were conducted by observing head turning or body turning in the direction consistent with clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of a black-and-white-striped drum around a transparent cage housed with the rat. After the behavior tests at 8 weeks, rats' eyes were enucleated to confirm subretinal implantation of the films and processed for immunohistochemistry. In the behavior tests, the number of head turnings consistent with the direction of the drum rotation was significantly larger in RCS rats with dye-coupled- compared with plain-film implantation [P < 0.05, repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), n = 7]. The number of apoptotic neurons was significantly smaller in eyes with dye-coupled- compared with plain-film implantation (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test, n = 6). In conclusion, subretinal implantation of photoelectric dye-coupled films restored vision in RCS rats and prevented the remaining retinal neurons from apoptosis.

  8. Experience With a Subretinal Cell-based Therapy in Patients With Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen C; Chang, Tom S; Samuel, Michael; Williamson, Paul; Willenbucher, Robert F; Malone, Terri

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of and clinical response to a single, subretinal dose of human umbilical tissue-derived cells (palucorcel [CNTO-2476]) in the eyes of adults aged ≥50 years with bilateral geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Phase 1/2a, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation, fellow-eye-controlled study. In the phase 1 portion, eyes were assigned to receive a single, subretinal dose of palucorcel (ranging from 6.0 × 104 to 5.6 × 105 viable cells). In the phase 2a portion, eyes were assigned to one of 2 palucorcel doses (6.0 × 104 or 3.0 × 105 cells) determined during the phase 1 portion. The intervention eye was the eye with worse baseline visual acuity. A total of 35 eligible subjects underwent at least a partial surgical procedure. Palucorcel was administered in 33 eyes. Overall, 17.1% (6/35) of subjects experienced retinal detachments and 37.1% (13/35) experienced retinal perforations. No episodes of immune rejection or tumor formation were observed. At 1 year, ≥10- and ≥15-letter gains in best-corrected visual acuity were observed in 34.5% (10/29) and 24.1% (7/29) of eyes receiving palucorcel, respectively, and in 3.3% (1/30; for both) of fellow eyes. The subretinal delivery procedure in this study was associated with a high rate of retinal perforations (n = 13) and retinal detachments (n = 6). When cells were sequestered in the subretinal space, palucorcel was well tolerated and may be associated with improvements in visual acuity. Larger randomized controlled studies are required to confirm these results. Future studies would require a modified surgical approach. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using of magnetic particles for fi xing of isolated cells in subretinal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Temnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study focuses on the development of the method of introduction of magnetic microparticles in the cytoplasm of HEK-293 cell line with their subsequent fixation under the retina of the eye.Materials and Methods. Magnetic particles (d = 2,8 mm were treated with pluronic and injected into the cytoplasm of HEK-293 cell line, expressing GFP. The surgery was made under general anesthesia. HEK-293 containing magnetic particles were injected into the subretinal space of rabbit eyes (eyes 96, 48 rabbits using original dosing device. In the experimental group (48 eyes, 24 rabbits we fixed episcleral magnetic implant to hold cells in local place. In the control group (48 eyes, 24 rabbit magnetic implant was not fixed. After the surgery all animals were examined using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy with photographic recording, ultrasound, computed tomography and morphological study in certain terms (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 day and 1 month.Results: The introduction of the magnetic particles into the cytoplasm of HEK 293 cell line has no effect on cell viability. HEK-293 containing magnetic particles remains in the place of injection during 21 days in rabbit eyes, where the magnetic implants were fixed (in control group during 3 days. Conclusions: Using of cells containing magnetic particles with fixation of the magnetic implant can be a promising method for cell therapy for the treatment of retinal diseases. 

  10. In vivo operation of the Boston 15-channel wireless subretinal visual prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Douglas B.; Doyle, Patrick; Kelly, Shawn K.; Gingerich, Marcus D.; Chen, Jinghua; Cogan, Stuart F.; Drohan, William A.; Mendoza, Oscar; Theogarajan, Luke; Wyatt, John; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2010-02-01

    This presentation concerns the engineering development of the Boston visual prosthesis for restoring useful vision to patients blind with degenerative retinal disease. A miniaturized, hermetically-encased, 15-channel wirelessly-operated retinal prosthetic was developed for implantation and pre-clinical studies in Yucatan mini-pig animal models. The prosthesis conforms to the eye and drives a microfabricated polyimide stimulating electrode array having sputtered iridium oxide electrodes. This array is implanted into the subretinal space using a specially-designed ab externo surgical technique; the bulk of the prosthesis is on the surface of the sclera. The implanted device includes a hermetic titanium case containing a 15-channel stimulator chip; secondary power/data receiving coils surround the cornea. Long-term in vitro pulse testing was also performed on the electrodes to ensure their stability over years of operation. Assemblies were first tested in vitro to verify wireless operation of the system in biological saline using a custom RF transmitter circuit and primary coils. Stimulation pulse strength, duration and frequency were programmed wirelessly using a computer with a custom graphical user interface. Operation of the retinal implant was verified in vivo in 3 minipigs for more than three months by measuring stimulus artifacts on the eye surface using contact lens electrodes.

  11. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel,I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD.

  12. VEGF(121)b, a new member of the VEGF(xxx)b family of VEGF-A splice isoforms, inhibits neovascularisation and tumour growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennel, E S; Varey, A H R; Churchill, A J; Wheatley, E R; Stewart, L; Mather, S; Bates, D O; Harper, S J

    2009-10-06

    The key mediator of new vessel formation in cancer and other diseases is VEGF-A. VEGF-A exists as alternatively spliced isoforms - the pro-angiogenic VEGF(xxx) family generated by exon 8 proximal splicing, and a sister family, termed VEGF(xxx)b, exemplified by VEGF(165)b, generated by distal splicing of exon 8. However, it is unknown whether this anti-angiogenic property of VEGF(165)b is a general property of the VEGF(xxx)b family of isoforms. The mRNA and protein expression of VEGF(121)b was studied in human tissue. The effect of VEGF(121)b was analysed by saturation binding to VEGF receptors, endothelial migration, apoptosis, xenograft tumour growth, pre-retinal neovascularisation and imaging of biodistribution in tumour-bearing mice with radioactive VEGF(121)b. The existence of VEGF(121)b was confirmed in normal human tissues. VEGF(121)b binds both VEGF receptors with similar affinity as other VEGF isoforms, but inhibits endothelial cell migration and is cytoprotective to endothelial cells through VEGFR-2 activation. Administration of VEGF(121)b normalised retinal vasculature by reducing both angiogenesis and ischaemia. VEGF(121)b reduced the growth of xenografted human colon tumours in association with reduced microvascular density, and an intravenous bolus of VEGF(121)b is taken up into colon tumour xenografts. Here we identify a second member of the family, VEGF(121)b, with similar properties to those of VEGF(165)b, and underline the importance of the six amino acids of exon 8b in the anti-angiogenic activity of the VEGF(xxx)b isoforms.

  13. Subretinal fluid in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis observed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ouyang

    Full Text Available To describe the clinical finding of subretinal fluid (SRF in the posterior pole by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT.Retrospective case series.Thirty-nine eyes from 38 patients with active OT [corrected]..Eyes with active OT which underwent SD-OCT were reviewed. SRFs in the posterior pole were further analyzed.Presence of SRF; its accompanying features, e.g. retinal necrosis, cystoid macular edema (CME, choroidal neovascularization (CNV; and longitudinal changes of SRF, including maximum height and total volume before and after treatment.SRF presented in 45.5% (or 15/33 of eyes with typical active OT and in 51.3% (or 20/39 of eyes with active OT. The mean maximum height and total volume of SRF were 161.0 (range: 23-478 µm and 0.47 (range: 0.005-4.12 mm3, respectively. For 12 eyes with SRF related to active retinal necrosis, SRF was observed with complete absorption after conventional anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. The mean duration for observation of SRF clearance was 33.8 (range: 7-84 days. The mean rate of SRF clearance was 0.0128 (range: 0.0002-0.0665 mm3/day.SRF (i.e., serous retinal detachment is a common feature in patients with active OT when SD-OCT is performed. The majority of SRF was associated with retinal necrosis and reacted well to conventional therapy, regardless of total fluid volume. However, SRF accompanying with CME or CNV responded less favorably or remained refractory to conventional or combined intravitreal treatment, even when the SRF was small in size.

  14. Implantation of stimulation electrodes in the subretinal space to demonstrate cortical responses in Yucatan minipig in the course of visual prosthesis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, H G; Gekeler, F; Schwahn, H; Jakob, W; Köhler, M; Schulmeyer, F; Marienhagen, J; Brunner, U; Framme, C

    2005-01-01

    During the course of the development of visual prostheses, subretinal stimulation films were implanted in micropigs in order to prove the feasibility of subretinal electrical stimulation with subsequent cortical response. One aim was to demonstrate that epidural recording of visual evoked potentials is possible in the micropig. Film-bound stimulation electrode arrays were placed in the subretinal space of micropigs. This enabled the retina to be stimulated subretinally. Since conventional visual evoked potential (VEP) measuring is virtually impossible in the pig from the neurosurgical point of view, epidural recording electrode arrays were positioned over the visual cortex as permanent electrodes. The feasibility of temporary implantation of film-bound stimulation electrode arrays was successfully demonstrated in the micropig model. On stimulation with monopolar voltage pulses (1000 to 3000 mV), reproducible epidural VEP measurements (5 to 10 micronV) were detected. The feasibility of subretinal stimulation of the retina was demonstrated in a retinal model that is similar to the human retina. This animal model therefore offers a suitable means of studying the tolerability of stimulation situations in the course of visual prosthesis development.

  15. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN VISUAL FUNCTION AND SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN NORMAL AND EARLY AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION EYES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna V; Clark, Mark E; Huisingh, Carrie E; Jackson, Gregory R; Zhang, Yuhua; McGwin, Gerald; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) identified by multimodal retinal imaging and visual function in older eyes with normal macular health or in the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-related macular degeneration status for each eye was defined according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 9-step classification system (normal = Step 1, early AMD = Steps 2-4) based on color fundus photographs. Visual functions measured were best-corrected photopic visual acuity, contrast and light sensitivity, mesopic visual acuity, low-luminance deficit, and rod-mediated dark adaptation. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were identified through multimodal imaging (color fundus photographs, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography). The sample included 1,202 eyes (958 eyes with normal health and 244 eyes with early AMD). In normal eyes, SDDs were not associated with any visual function evaluated. In eyes with early AMD, dark adaptation was markedly delayed in eyes with SDDs versus no SDD (a 4-minute delay on average), P = 0.0213. However, this association diminished after age adjustment, P = 0.2645. Other visual functions in early AMD eyes were not associated with SDDs. In a study specifically focused on eyes in normal macular health and in the earliest phases of AMD, early AMD eyes with SDDs have slower dark adaptation, largely attributable to the older ages of eyes with SDD; they did not exhibit deficits in other visual functions. Subretinal drusenoid deposits in older eyes in normal macular health are not associated with any visual functions evaluated.

  16. Subretinal injection of amyloid-β peptide accelerates RPE cell senescence and retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqi; Cao, Lining; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Linxinyu; Liu, Pei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Drusen are considered a hallmark characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In our previous study, we found that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, a component of drusen, induced the cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE; RPE cells) to enter senescence; however, its effects in vivo remain unknown. Thus, the present study was carried out to explore the in vivo effects of Aβ peptide on RPE cell senescence and senescence-associated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice received a subretinal injection of Aβ(1-42) peptide; on day 7 post-injection, the mice were anesthetized and subjected to whole-body perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) in PBS and the whole eyes were then enucleated. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography (ERG), and the morphological characteristics of the retina were examined by light and electron microscopy. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) was examined by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO). The expression of p16INK4a, a marker of cellular senescence, was examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The RPE-choroid was analyzed for cytokine expression by RT-PCR. In Aβ(1-42)-injected mice, scotopic ERG responses declined. Degenerative alterations, including the disruption of the inner segment (IS)/outer segment (OS) junction and extensive vacuolation and thickness of Bruch's membrane (BrM) were observed under a a light microscope. The accumulation of vacuoles and the loss of basal infoldings in the RPE were identified using an electron microscope. FAF and p16INK4a expression increased in Aβ(1-42)-injected mice. In addition, Aβ(1-42) upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 gene expression in the RPE-choroid. In conclusion, our results confirm the effects of Aβ(1-42) peptide on RPE senescence in vivo. The Aβ-injected mice developed AMD-like ocular pathology. It is thus suggested that RPE cell senescence is a potential mechanistic link between inflammation and retinal degeneration.

  17. Smoking and age related macular degeneration: the number of pack years of cigarette smoking is a major determinant of risk for both geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J C; Thurlby, D A; Shahid, H; Clayton, D G; Yates, J R W; Bradley, M; Moore, A T; Bird, A C

    2006-01-01

    Background/aims There is evidence that smoking is a risk factor for age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, not all studies have demonstrated this association and several key questions about the role of smoking in AMD have still to be determined. The aim of this study was to further investigate this relation for both choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and geographic atrophy (GA). Methods To investigate the relation between smoking and the risk of developing age related macular degeneration (AMD) in white people, 435 cases with end stage AMD were compared with 280 controls. All subjects had graded stereoscopic colour fundus photography and AMD was defined as the presence of GA or CNV. Smoking history was assessed using multiple parameters in a detailed questionnaire. Results Comparison of current and former smokers with non‐smokers was consistent with smoking being a risk factor for AMD but did not reach statistical significance. There was a strong association between AMD and pack years of cigarette smoking (p = 0.002), the odds ratio increasing with the amount smoked; for subjects with more than 40 pack years of smoking the odds ratio was 2.75 (95% CI 1.22 to 6.20) compared with non‐smokers. Both types of AMD showed a similar relation; smoking more than 40 pack years of cigarettes was associated with an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI 1.28 to 9.20) for GA and 2.49 (95% CI 1.06 to 5.82) for CNV. Stopping smoking was associated with reduced odds of AMD and the risk in those who had not smoked for over 20 years was comparable to non‐smokers. The risk profile was similar for males and females. Passive smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of AMD (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.40) in non‐smokers. Conclusions The authors have demonstrated a strong association between the risk of both GA and CNV and pack years of cigarette smoking. This provides support for a causal relation between smoking and AMD. They also show an increased risk for AMD

  18. "VACUOLE" SIGN ADJACENT TO RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL DEFECTS ON SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SUBRETINAL FIBRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Bindu; Kaur, Amardeep; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography features in central serous chorioretinopathy associated with subretinal fibrin. Retrospective observational case series of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy with subretinal fibrin imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients (19 males and 4 females), with mean age of 39.09 ± 5.8 years were included in the study. Subretinal fibrin clinically ranged from localized well-defined areas to extensive ill-defined areas. Along with the presence of subretinal hyperreflectivity (n = 23, 100%), corresponding to fibrin, spectral domain optical coherence tomography also revealed the presence of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) defects (n = 23, 100%) in all eyes with an adjacent well-defined hyporeflective vacuole. In 19 eyes wherein fundus fluorescein was performed, the RPE defects and vacuoles corresponded to the site of RPE leak. Serous pigment epithelial detachments (n = 18, 78.2%), multiple RPE defects in the same eye (n = 5), and multiple RPE defects in same pigment epithelial detachment (n = 1) were few other interesting features observed. The presence of a hyporeflective vacuole amid the hyperreflective fibrin adjacent to RPE defects probably indicates the site of constant fluid egress and is an important sign of disease activity especially in cases where fundus fluorescein angiography is not possible.

  19. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  20. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  1. Subretinal posterior pole injury induces selective proliferation of RPE cells in the periphery in in vivo studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan U; Prause, Michala

    2007-01-01

    transplantation (n= 4), or both (n= 1) in the left eye. RPE cell proliferation was assayed by injection of the thymidine analogue 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5-BrdU) at postoperative day 0 and 1. RPE cells in S-phase were identified by their incorporation of 5-BrdU, as detected by immunohistochemistry. The in vitro...... proliferation of primary RPE isolates from the peripheral and central retina was assayed by a colorimetric assay and by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. RESULTS: After subretinal surgery, in vivo incorporation of 5-BrdU was seen in peripheral RPE cells in 8 of 10 surgically treated eyes, but never in central RPE...... cells. This observation was true of both types of experimental surgery performed. In vitro, RPE isolates from the pre-equatorial region consistently yielded higher cell densities than did RPE cell isolates from more central parts of the epithelium. This was apparent through the three first passages...

  2. Subretinal transplantation of rat MSCs and erythropoietin gene modified rat MSCs for protecting and rescuing degenerative retina in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y; Cui, L; Qu, Z; Lu, L; Wang, F; Wu, Y; Zhang, J; Gao, F; Tian, H; Xu, L; Xu, G; Li, W; Jin, Y; Xu, G-T

    2013-11-01

    For degenerative retinal diseases, like the acquired form exemplified by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is currently no cure. This study was to explore a stem cell therapy and a stem cell based gene therapy for sodium iodate (SI)-induced retinal degeneration in rats. Three cell types, i.e., rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) alone, erythropoietin (EPO) gene modified rMSCs (EPO-rMSCs) or doxycycline (DOX) inducible EPO expression rMSCs (Tet-on EPO-rMSCs), were transplanted into the subretinal spaces of SI-treated rats. The rMSCs were prepared for transplantation after 3 to 5 passages or modified with EPO gene. During the 8 weeks after the transplantation, the rats treated with rMSCs alone or with two types of EPO-rMSCs were all monitored with fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and electroretinogram. The transplantation efficiency of donor cells was examined for their survival, integration and differentiation. Following the transplantation, labeled donor cells were observed in subretinal space and adopted RPE morphology. EPO concentration in vitreous and retina of SI-treated rats which were transplanted with EPO-rMSCs or Tet-on EPO-rMSCs was markedly increased, in parallel with the improvement of retinal morphology and function. These findings suggest that rMSCs transplantation could be a new therapy for degenerative retinal diseases since it can protect and rescue RPE and retinal neurons, while EPO gene modification to rMSCs could be an even better option.

  3. In vitro experiment to elucidate the mechanism of the 'soft shell technique' for preventing subretinal migration of perfluoro-octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Kei; Lu, Yongjie; Czanner, Gabriela; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Ho Ching; Hussain, Rumana; Sakamoto, Taiji; Shum, Ho Cheung; Wong, David

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) can migrate into subretinal space in detached and stiffened retina with open holes during vitreoretinal surgery. An innovative 'soft shell' technique was introduced to reduce the complication using hyaluronate (HA) to 'cover' the retinal hole. This study aims to study the effectiveness of this technique in vitro. Ex vivo porcine retina was mounted on a transwell insert. Beneath the retina was an aqueous solution. Two retinal holes were made using needle punctures. One of the two retinal holes was covered with HA. Perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) was added above the retina incrementally using a syringe pump. The height of PFO required to cause the migration of PFO through the retinal holes was measured. The 'pendant drop' method was carried out to measure the interfacial tensions between the PFO and aqueous, and between PFO and four different concentrations of HA solution. A statistically higher PFO level was required to cause the migration of PFO through the retinal hole with HA coating than without HA coating (Tobit regression with p<0.05). The use of HA was associated with 2.39-fold increase in hydrostatic pressure before the collapse of the PFO interface at the retinal holes. The interfacial tension between PFO and HA solution with concentrations of 0.05%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% were 54.2±0.6, 55.3±0.6, 59.5±1.5 and 68.3±1.3 mN/m, respectively (mean±SD). The interfacial tension between PFO and aqueous with 1% HA coating (68.3±1.3 mN/m) was significantly higher than that without (37.4±3.4 mN/m) (p<0.05). The interfacial tension between HA and PFO is higher than that between aqueous and PFO. This is a plausible physical explanation of how the 'soft shell' technique might work to prevent subretinal migration of PFCL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. COMPLETE SUBRETINAL FLUID DRAINAGE IS NOT NECESSARY DURING VITRECTOMY SURGERY FOR MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT WITH PERIPHERAL BREAKS: A Prospective, Nonrandomized Comparative Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Ying; Hong, Ling; Zhu, Li; Deng, Jun; Din, Qin; Huang, Zhijian; Zhou, Hezhen

    2017-03-01

    To compare clinical outcomes in eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments managed by surgical protocols, the result in either complete (CSFD) or partial subretinal fluid drainage (PSFD). Fifty-four eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with peripheral retinal breaks of 54 patients were assigned prospectively to one of the two surgical designs (PSFD or CSFD, 2:1) in a sequence. Patients were treated with 25-gauge plus vitrectomy, either CSFD (n = 18) or PSFD (n = 36), and 14% C3F8 was used for intraocular tamponade. Anatomical and visual outcomes as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications of the two groups were compared. The single-operation success rates were 16/18 (88.9%) and 33/36 (91.6%), respectively, for the CSFD and the PSFD groups (P = 1.00). The mean BCVA improvement (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) at the 6-month postoperative was not significantly different between the two groups (26.50 ± 15.43 in CSFD group vs. 22.64 ± 15.43 in PSFD group, P = 0.43). Partial subretinal fluid drainage procedure during vitrectomy for the repair of macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments revealed comparable results with CSFD in terms of anatomical and visual outcomes. Complete subretinal fluid drainage during vitrectomy seems to be unnecessary for all RRD reattachment surgical procedures.

  5. DYNAMISM OF DOT SUBRETINAL DRUSENOID DEPOSITS IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION DEMONSTRATED WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Godara, Pooja; Zhang, Tianjiao; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. A total of 269 solitary SDD were identified at baseline. Over 12.25 ± 1.18 months, all 35 Stage 1 SDD progressed to advanced stages. Eighteen (60%) Stage 2 lesions progressed to Stage 3 and 12 (40%) remained at Stage 2. Of 204 Stage 3 SDD, 12 (6.4%) disappeared and the rest remained. Twelve new SDD were identified, including 6 (50%) at Stage 1, 2 (16.7%) at Stage 2, and 4 (33.3%) at Stage 3. The mean percentage of the retina affected by dot SDD, measured by the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, increased in 5/6 eyes (from 2.31% to 5.08% in the most changed eye) and decreased slightly in 1/6 eye (from 10.67% to 10.54%). Dynamism, the absolute value of the areas affected by new and regressed lesions, ranged from 0.7% to 9.3%. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy reveals that dot SDD, like drusen, are dynamic.

  6. Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Johnson

    Full Text Available In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV, one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.

  7. Micro-Computed Tomography Detection of Gold Nanoparticle-Labelled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Rat Subretinal Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooi Ling Mok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used in many pre-clinical and clinical settings. Despite advances in molecular technology; the migration and homing activities of these cells in in vivo systems are not well understood. Labelling mesenchymal stem cells with gold nanoparticles has no cytotoxic effect and may offer suitable indications for stem cell tracking. Here, we report a simple protocol to label mesenchymal stem cells using 80 nm gold nanoparticles. Once the cells and particles were incubated together for 24 h, the labelled products were injected into the rat subretinal layer. Micro-computed tomography was then conducted on the 15th and 30th day post-injection to track the movement of these cells, as visualized by an area of hyperdensity from the coronal section images of the rat head. In addition, we confirmed the cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticles by the mesenchymal stem cells using transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to other methods, the current protocol provides a simple, less labour-intensive and more efficient labelling mechanism for real-time cell tracking. Finally, we discuss the potential manipulations of gold nanoparticles in stem cells for cell replacement and cancer therapy in ocular disorders or diseases.

  8. The Association Between Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits in Older Adults in Normal Macular Health and Incident Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Zarubina, Anna; Clark, Mark; Zhang, Yuhua; Curcio, Christine A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-02-01

    Subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) have been associated with the progression to late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether SDD in eyes in normal macular health increases risk for early AMD, this study examined the association between presence of SDD at baseline in a cohort of older adults in normal macular health and incident AMD 3 years later. Subjects enrolled in the Alabama Study on Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ALSTAR) were assessed for the presence of SDD using color fundus photos, infrared reflectance and fundus autofluorescence images, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes. The study sample included 799 eyes from 455 participants in normal macular health per grading of color fundus photographs using the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system. Age-related macular degeneration was defined as eyes having an AREDS grade ≥2 at the 3-year follow-up. Twenty-five percent of participants had SDD in one or both eyes at baseline. At follow-up visit, 11.9% of eyes in the sample developed AMD. Compared to eyes without SDD, those with SDD were 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-3.70) times more likely to have AMD at follow-up. After adjusting for age, C-reactive protein quartile, and family history of AMD, the association persisted. Results suggest that SDD in older eyes with normal macular health as defined by the AREDS scale is a risk factor for the development of early AMD. Older adults in seemingly normal macular health yet having SDD may warrant closer clinical monitoring for the possible onset of early AMD.

  9. Interleukin and growth factor levels in subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a case-control study.

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    Lukas J A G Ricker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD is a major cause of visual loss in developed countries. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, an eye-sight threatening complication of RRD surgery, resembles a wound-healing process with inflammation, scar tissue formation, and membrane contraction. This study was performed to determine the possible involvement of a wide range of cytokines in the future development of PVR, and to identify predictors of PVR and visual outcome. METHODOLOGY: A multiplex immunoassay was used for the simultaneous detection of 29 different cytokines in subretinal fluid samples from patients with primary RRD. Of 306 samples that were collected and stored in our BioBank between 2001 and 2008, 21 samples from patients who developed postoperative PVR were compared with 54 age-, sex-, and storage-time-matched RRD control patients who had an uncomplicated postoperative course during the overall follow-up period. FINDINGS: Levels of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, VEGF, and ICAM-1 were significantly higher (P0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that IL-3 (P = 0.001, IL-6 (P = 0.047, ICAM-1 (P = 0.010, and preoperative visual acuity (P = 0.026 were independent predictors of postoperative PVR. Linear regression analysis showed that ICAM-1 (P = 0.005 and preoperative logMAR visual acuity (P = 0.001 were predictive of final visual outcome after primary RRD repair. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that after RRD onset an exaggerated response of certain cytokines may predispose to PVR. Sampling at a time close to the onset of primary RRD may thus provide clues as to which biological events may initiate the development of PVR and, most importantly, may provide a means for therapeutic control.

  10. Subretinal delivery of erythropoietin alleviates the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced photoreceptor degeneration and visual functional impairments: an in vivo and ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Wang, Yue; Ma, Zhao; Wang, Liqiang; Qin, Limin; Wang, Lu; Huang, Yi Fei; Zhang, Shizhong

    2017-11-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group hereditary retinal disease that is characterized by photoreceptor degeneration. The present study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced photoreceptor degeneration. The MNU-administered mouse or normal control received a subretinal injection of EPO (at the dose of 10U). Twenty-four hours after EPO injection, the retinal EPO levels of experimental animals were quantified. Subsequently, the experimental animals were subjected to optokinetic tests, ERG examination, SD-OCT examination, histology assessment, and immunohistochemistry evaluation. The retinal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expression levels of several apoptotic factors were also quantified. The subretinal injection of EPO up-regulated the retinal EPO level in the retinas of MNU-administered mice. The optokinetic tests and ERG examination suggested the visual functional impairments in MNU-administered mice were ameliorated after EPO treatment. The SD-OCT and histological examination suggested the morphological devastations in MNU-administered mice were alleviated after EPO treatment. The cone photoreceptors in MNU-administered mice were protected from the MNU-induced detrimental effects. Moreover, the EPO treatment rectified the apoptotic abnormalities in MNU-administered mice, and enhanced the expression level of Foxo3, a critical mediator of autophagy. The EPO treatment also mitigated the MDA concentration and enhanced the retinal SOD activity, thereby counteracting the retinal oxidative stress in MNU administered mice. In ophthalmological practice, the subretinal delivery of EPO is a feasible therapeutic strategy to alleviate photoreceptor degeneration. These findings would enrich our pharmacological knowledge about EPO and shed light on the development of an effective therapy against RP.

  11. Clearance of apoptotic photoreceptors: elimination of apoptotic debris into the subretinal space and macrophage-mediated phagocytosis via phosphatidylserine receptor and integrin alphavbeta3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Tsutsumi, Chikako; Qiao, Hong; Enaida, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Kubota, Toshiaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Kura, Shinobu; Susin, Santos A; Kroemer, Guido

    2003-06-01

    The effective phagocytotic clearance of apoptotic debris is fundamental to the maintenance of neural tissues during apoptosis. Retinal photoreceptors undergo apoptosis after retinal detachment. Although their induction phase of apoptosis has been well discussed, their phagocytotic process remains quite unclear. We herein demonstrate that apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated from their physiological localization, the outer nuclear layer, to the subretinal space, and then phagocytosed by monocyte-derived macrophages. This could be shown by an ultrastructural and immunophenotypic analysis. Moreover, in chimera mice expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein in bone marrow-derived cells, the local infiltration of macrophages could be detected after retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. The local injection of an antibody blocking the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) or a peptide (GRGDSP)-blocking integrin alphavbeta3 revealed that phagocytotic clearance involves the PSR as well as integrin alphavbeta3 in vivo. Importantly, the level of blockade obtained with these reagents was different. Although anti-PSR increased the frequency of apoptotic cells that fail to bind to macrophages, GRGDSP prevented the engulfment (but not the recognition) of apoptotic photoreceptor cells by macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the mechanisms through which apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated via a directional process in the subretinal space.

  12. Subretinal Fluid Levels of Signal-Transduction Proteins and Apoptosis Molecules in Macula-Off Retinal Detachment Undergoing Scleral Buckle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Paolo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Borrelli, Enrico; Petti, Francesco; Aloia, Raffaella; Lamolinara, Alessia; Di Nicola, Marta; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate signal transduction and early apoptosis protein levels in subretinal fluid collected during scleral buckling surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Our aim was to assess both their relation with RRD features and their influence on the posttreatment outcome. Thirty-three eyes of 33 RRD patients scheduled for scleral buckle surgery were enrolled in the study. Undiluted subretinal fluid samples were collected during surgery and analyzed via magnetic bead-based immunoassay. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation at baseline and at each follow-up visit (months 1, 3, and 6). Moreover, both at baseline and at the postsurgery month 6 visit, the patients were tested by means of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in order to evaluate the average ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex thickness, as well as the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction status. Patients' clinical features (retinal detachment size, detachment duration, and occurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy) were associated with several early apoptotic factors (caspase-8, caspase-9, and B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2]-associated death promoter [BAD]). Furthermore, both early apoptosis factors (caspase-8, Bcl-2, and p53) and signal-transduction proteins (ERK 1/2) were found to influence the postsurgery month 3 OCT characteristics. Signal-transduction proteins and early apoptosis proteins are associated with different clinical features and postsurgery outcomes.

  13. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

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    Boris V. Stanzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies.

  14. Post-implantation impedance spectroscopy of subretinal micro-electrode arrays, OCT imaging and numerical simulation: towards a more precise neuroprosthesis monitoring tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Pascale; Roux, Sébastien; Matonti, Frédéric; Dupont, Florent; Agache, Vincent; Chavane, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown that single-frequency impedance measurements could provide useful information about the distance between the neuroprosthesis and the retina. This work investigates the use of impedance spectroscopy in monitoring subretinal implantations of flexible micro-electrode arrays and focuses on determining what is governing impedance profiles. Approach. In this study, we use impedance spectroscopy together with optical coherence tomography imaging and numerical simulation to quantitatively evaluate the constituent elements of measured impedance. Main results. We show the existence of specific impedance spectrum profiles for retinal detection and retinal detachment that are in good agreement with numerical simulations. These simulations suggest that monopolar impedance is mainly influenced by the subretinal space. Numerical simulations also provide a quantitative prediction of the lateral spread of current density in the vicinity of the measuring contact as a function of retina-electrode distance. Significance. In general, our results point to the need for scanning a large frequency range for impedance measurements since capacitive and resistive regimes are strongly dependent on retina-electrode proximity. We believe that these results will contribute to a better understanding of electrical stimulation in neuroprostheses and ultimately improve their efficiency.

  15. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, Boris V.; Liu, Zengping; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Wongsawad, Warapat; Brinken, Ralf; Eter, Nicole; Corneo, Barbara; Holz, Frank G.; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Blenkinsop, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC) as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET) membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies. PMID:24511471

  16. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to acknowledge the excellence of these two scholars by a double Festschrift, "A due". Both have been working at the Music Department of the University of Copenhagen and have collaborated with The Royal Library on various projects. This publication contains contributions from 44 colleagues, who thus - in topics...

  17. Tissue plasminogen activator-assisted vitrectomy for submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration

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    Mustafa Gok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of vitrectomy combined with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA and factors affecting visual improvement in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with SMH secondary to nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The initial surgical procedure involved a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy, subretinal r-tPA application through a self-sealing inferior retinotomy, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for tamponade in all patients. The duration, size, and thickness of the hemorrhage and the pre- and post-operative visual acuity (VA using a Snellen chart were recorded. VA was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis. Results: The average duration and size of the SMH were 12.8 ± 18.2 days and 8.6 ± 5.3 disc areas, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months. A statistically significant visual improvement was found when comparing initial VA with postoperative best-corrected VA (BCVA and final BCVA (Wilcoxon rank test, P ≤ 0.01. There was no significant correlation between the size of the hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no statistically significant correlation between the initial VA and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no significant correlation between the duration of hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. The preoperative thickness of hemorrhage (747.5 ± 30 μm was not correlated with postoperative BCVA or final BCVA (Pearson's test. Conclusions: Vitrectomy combined with subretinal r-tPA injection and gas tamponade is an effective surgical intervention to preserve VA in selected patients with apparent SMH.

  18. Tropisms of AAV for subretinal delivery to the neonatal mouse retina and its application for in vivo rescue of developmental photoreceptor disorders.

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    Satoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adeno-associated virus (AAV is well established as a vehicle for in vivo gene transfer into the mammalian retina. This virus is promising not only for gene therapy of retinal diseases, but also for in vivo functional analysis of retinal genes. Previous reports have shown that AAV can infect various cell types in the developing mouse retina. However, AAV tropism in the developing retina has not yet been examined in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subretinally delivered seven AAV serotypes (AAV2/1, 2/2, 2/5, 2/8, 2/9, 2/10, and 2/11 of AAV-CAG-mCherry into P0 mouse retinas, and quantitatively evaluated the tropisms of each serotype by its infecting degree in retinal cells. After subretinal injection of AAV into postnatal day 0 (P0 mouse retinas, various retinal cell types were efficiently transduced with different AAVs. Photoreceptor cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/5. Retinal cells, except for bipolar and Müller glial cells, were efficiently transduced with AAV2/9. Horizontal and/or ganglion cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/8, AAV2/9 and AAV2/10. To confirm the usefulness of AAV-mediated gene transfer into the P0 mouse retina, we performed AAV-mediated rescue of the Cone-rod homeobox gene knockout (Crx KO mouse, which exhibits an outer segment formation defect, flat electroretinogram (ERG responses, and photoreceptor degeneration. We injected an AAV expressing Crx under the control of the Crx 2kb promoter into the neonatal Crx KO retina. We showed that AAV mediated-Crx expression significantly decreased the abnormalities of the Crx KO retina. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In the current study, we report suitable AAV tropisms for delivery into the developing mouse retina. Using AAV2/5 in photoreceptor cells, we demonstrated the possibility of gene replacement for the developmental disorder and subsequent degeneration of retinal photoreceptors caused by the absence of Crx.

  19. Tropisms of AAV for Subretinal Delivery to the Neonatal Mouse Retina and Its Application for In Vivo Rescue of Developmental Photoreceptor Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Sanuki, Rikako; Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is well established as a vehicle for in vivo gene transfer into the mammalian retina. This virus is promising not only for gene therapy of retinal diseases, but also for in vivo functional analysis of retinal genes. Previous reports have shown that AAV can infect various cell types in the developing mouse retina. However, AAV tropism in the developing retina has not yet been examined in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We subretinally delivered seven AAV serotypes (AAV2/1, 2/2, 2/5, 2/8, 2/9, 2/10, and 2/11) of AAV-CAG-mCherry into P0 mouse retinas, and quantitatively evaluated the tropisms of each serotype by its infecting degree in retinal cells. After subretinal injection of AAV into postnatal day 0 (P0) mouse retinas, various retinal cell types were efficiently transduced with different AAVs. Photoreceptor cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/5. Retinal cells, except for bipolar and Müller glial cells, were efficiently transduced with AAV2/9. Horizontal and/or ganglion cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/8, AAV2/9 and AAV2/10. To confirm the usefulness of AAV-mediated gene transfer into the P0 mouse retina, we performed AAV-mediated rescue of the Cone-rod homeobox gene knockout (Crx KO) mouse, which exhibits an outer segment formation defect, flat electroretinogram (ERG) responses, and photoreceptor degeneration. We injected an AAV expressing Crx under the control of the Crx 2kb promoter into the neonatal Crx KO retina. We showed that AAV mediated-Crx expression significantly decreased the abnormalities of the Crx KO retina. Conclusion/Significance In the current study, we report suitable AAV tropisms for delivery into the developing mouse retina. Using AAV2/5 in photoreceptor cells, we demonstrated the possibility of gene replacement for the developmental disorder and subsequent degeneration of retinal photoreceptors caused by the absence of Crx. PMID:23335994

  20. Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Schippert, Ruth; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Besch, Dorothea; Cottriall, Charles L; Edwards, Thomas L; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Kiel, Katja; Koitschev, Assen; Kühlewein, Laura; MacLaren, Robert E; Ramsden, James D; Roider, Johann; Rothermel, Albrecht; Sachs, Helmut; Schröder, Greta S; Tode, Jan; Troelenberg, Nicole; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy). Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01024803 and NCT02720640). Functional outcome measures included (1) screen-based standardized 2- or 4-alternative forced-choice (AFC) tests of light perception, light localization, grating detection (basic grating acuity (BaGA) test), and Landolt C-rings; (2) gray level discrimination; (3) performance during activities of daily living (ADL-table tasks). Results: Implant-mediated light perception was observed in 13/15 patients. During the observation period implant mediated localization of visual targets was possible in 13/15 patients. Correct grating detection was achieved for spatial frequencies of 0.1 cpd (cycles per degree) in 4/15; 0.33 cpd in 3/15; 0.66 cpd in 2/15; 1.0 cpd in 2/15 and 3.3 cpd in 1/15 patients. In two patients visual acuity (VA) assessed with Landolt C- rings was 20/546 and 20/1111. Of 6 possible gray levels on average 4.6 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD, n = 10) were discerned. Improvements (power ON vs. OFF) of ADL table tasks were measured in 13/15 patients. Overall, results were stable during the observation period. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 4 patients: 2 movements of the implant, readjusted in a second surgery; 4 conjunctival erosion/dehiscence, successfully treated; 1 pain event around the coil, successfully treated; 1 partial reduction of silicone oil tamponade leading to distorted vision (silicon oil successfully refilled). The majority of adverse events (AEs

  1. Interim Results of a Multicenter Trial with the New Electronic Subretinal Implant Alpha AMS in 15 Patients Blind from Inherited Retinal Degenerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Stingl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We assessed the safety and efficacy of a technically advanced subretinal electronic implant, RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS, in end stage retinal degeneration in an interim analysis of two ongoing prospective clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to describe the interim functional results (efficacy.Methods: The subretinal visual prosthesis RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany was implanted in 15 blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations at four study sites with a follow-up period of 12 months (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01024803 and NCT02720640. Functional outcome measures included (1 screen-based standardized 2- or 4-alternative forced-choice (AFC tests of light perception, light localization, grating detection (basic grating acuity (BaGA test, and Landolt C-rings; (2 gray level discrimination; (3 performance during activities of daily living (ADL-table tasks.Results: Implant-mediated light perception was observed in 13/15 patients. During the observation period implant mediated localization of visual targets was possible in 13/15 patients. Correct grating detection was achieved for spatial frequencies of 0.1 cpd (cycles per degree in 4/15; 0.33 cpd in 3/15; 0.66 cpd in 2/15; 1.0 cpd in 2/15 and 3.3 cpd in 1/15 patients. In two patients visual acuity (VA assessed with Landolt C- rings was 20/546 and 20/1111. Of 6 possible gray levels on average 4.6 ± 0.8 (mean ± SD, n = 10 were discerned. Improvements (power ON vs. OFF of ADL table tasks were measured in 13/15 patients. Overall, results were stable during the observation period. Serious adverse events (SAEs were reported in 4 patients: 2 movements of the implant, readjusted in a second surgery; 4 conjunctival erosion/dehiscence, successfully treated; 1 pain event around the coil, successfully treated; 1 partial reduction of silicone oil tamponade leading to distorted vision (silicon oil successfully refilled. The majority of adverse events

  2. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis of persistent subretinal fluid after scleral buckling surgery for macula-off retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiya, M; Malagola, R; Mariotti, C; Parisi, F; De Vico, U; Ganino, C; Grandinetti, F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive value of markers for persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) absorption and the influence of subfoveal fluid on visual outcome after scleral buckle (SB) surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study. We reviewed the medical records of 64 eyes of 64 patients who underwent SB surgery for macula-off RRD. Patients underwent clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before surgery, at 1 month and every 3 months postoperatively. The height and width of SRF bleb(s) were measured over time. Results Persistent SRF at 1 month was observed in 40 eyes (62.5%). SRF blebs were first detected 1.7±2.2 months postoperatively. In 29 cases that could be fully followed up, SRF blebs were completely absorbed 7.8±4.4 months postoperatively. Resolution of fluid was associated with an improvement of VA (P=0.003). Serial measurements of SRF bleb size showed that bleb width decreased significantly at all time points during the 12-month follow-up period (P0.05). The cut-off value of the bleb width-to-height ratio level for predicting bleb absorption at 6 months was 7, with 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Conclusions Visual improvement may occur with late resolution of residual subfoveal fluid. A bleb width-to-height ratio >7 indicates a higher risk of SRF to persist beyond 6 months after surgery. PMID:26139048

  3. Visual loss related to macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema in HIV-related optic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, David; Rabier, Valérie; Jallet, Ghislaine

    2012-01-01

    Optic nerve involvement may occur in various infectious diseases, but is rarely reported after infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report the atypical case of a 38-year-old patient in whom the presenting features of HIV infection were due to a bilateral optic neuropathy associ...

  4. Three-year follow-up after unilateral subretinal delivery of adeno-associated virus in patients with Leber congenital Amaurosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Maguire, Albert M; Rossi, Settimio; Pierce, Eric A; Melillo, Paolo; Marshall, Kathleen; Banfi, Sandro; Surace, Enrico M; Sun, Junwei; Acerra, Carmela; Wright, J Fraser; Wellman, Jennifer; High, Katherine A; Auricchio, Alberto; Bennett, Jean; Simonelli, Francesca

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to show the clinical data of long-term (3-year) follow-up of 5 patients affected by Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2) treated with a single unilateral injection of adeno-associated virus AAV2-hRPE65v2. Clinical trial. Five LCA2 patients with RPE65 gene mutations. After informed consent and confirmation of trial eligibility criteria, the eye with worse visual function was selected for subretinal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV2-hRPE65v2). Subjects were evaluated before and after surgery at designated follow-up visits (1, 2, 3, 14, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270, and 365 days, 1.5 years, and 3 years) by complete ophthalmic examination. Efficacy for each subject was monitored with best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic visual field, nystagmus testing, and pupillary light reflex. Best-corrected visual acuity, kinetic visual field, nystagmus testing, and pupillary light reflex. The data showed a statistically significant improvement of best-corrected visual acuity between baseline and 3 years after treatment in the treated eye (P<0.001). In all patients, an enlargement of the area of visual field was observed that remained stable until 3 years after injection (average values: baseline, 1058 deg(2) vs. 3 years after treatment, 4630 deg(2)) and a reduction of the nystagmus frequency compared with baseline at the 3-year time point. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was observed in the pupillary constriction of the treated eye (P<0.05) compared with the untreated eye in 3 patients at 1- and 3-year time points. No patients experienced serious adverse events related to the vector in the 3-year postinjection period. The long-term follow-up data (3 years) on the 5-patient Italian cohort involved in the LCA2 gene therapy clinical trial clearly showed a stability of improvement in visual and retinal function that had been achieved a few months after treatment. Longitudinal data analysis showed that the maximum improvement was

  5. Phase 2a Randomized Clinical Trial: Safety and Post Hoc Analysis of Subretinal rAAV.sFLT-1 for Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Ian J; Pierce, Cora M; Lai, Chooi-May; Magno, Aaron L; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A; French, Martyn A; McAllister, Ian L; Butler, Steve; Barone, Samuel B; Schwartz, Steven D; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a Phase 2a randomized controlled trial investigating the safety, and secondary endpoints of subretinal rAAV.sFLT-1 gene therapy in patients with active wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD). All patients (n=32), (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01494805), received ranibizumab injections at baseline and week 4, and thereafter according to prespecified criteria. Patients in the gene therapy group (n=21) received rAAV.sFLT-1 (1×10(11)vg). All patients were assessed every 4weeks to the week 52 primary endpoint. Ocular adverse events (AEs) in the rAAV.sFLT-1 group were mainly procedure related and self-resolved. All 11 phakic patients in the rAAV.sFLT-1 group showed progression of cataract following vitrectomy. No systemic safety signals were observed and none of the serious AEs were associated with rAAV.sFLT-1. AAV2 capsid was not detected and rAAV.sFLT-1 DNA was detected transiently in the tears of 13 patients. ELISPOT analysis did not identify any notable changes in T-cell response. In the rAAV.sFLT-1 group 12 patients had neutralizing antibodies (nAb) to AAV2. There was no change in sFLT-1 levels in bodily fluids. In the rAAV.sFLT-1 group, Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) improved by a median of 1.0 (IQR: -3.0 to 9.0) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters from baseline compared to a median of -5.0 (IQR: -17.5 to 1.0) ETDRS letters change in the control group. Twelve (57%) patients in the rAAV.sFLT-1 group maintained or improved vision compared to 4 (36%) in the control group. The median number of ranibizumab retreatments was 2.0 (IQR: 1.0 to 6.0) for the gene therapy group compared to 4.0 (IQR: 3.5 to 4.0) for the control group. Interpretation rAAV.sFLT-1 combined with the option for co-treatment appears to be a safe and promising approach to the treatment of wAMD. National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (AP1010405), Lions Eye Institute, Perth Australia, Avalanche Biotechnologies, Menlo Pk, CA, USA

  6. Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid: a prospective pilot study of eight consecutive cases Retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano: um estudo piloto prospectivo de oito casos consecutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an alternative surgical technique for the management of retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B using transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. METHODS: In a prospective, interventional study, eight consecutive patients with retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B underwent transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. Transconjunctival external drainage of subretinal fluid was achieved by using a 29 gauge needle placed in the subretinal space under indirect ophthalmoscopic monitoring. Active suction was performed (500 mmHg vacuum using a vitrectomy line coupled to the needle. After retinal reattachment, cryotherapy was applied to the scleral region corresponding to the area of the retinal break(s. RESULTS: In all cases there was retinal attachment at the end of surgery. Retinal redetachment occurred in four pseudophakic patients who then underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The four phakic patients maintained retinal attachment during follow-up (13-20 months. CONCLUSION: Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid represents a useful, faster, and cheaper alternative to scleral buckling for retinal detachments with no or minimal proliferative retinopathy in phakic patients and, unlike scleral buckling, is not associated with induced myopia.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica alternativa para o tratamento de descolamento da retina sem ou com mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B usando uma retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano. MÉTODOS: Prospectivo estudo intervencional, com oito pacientes consecutivos com descolamento da retina com nenhum ou mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B que foram submetidos a retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa ativa do fluido sub

  7. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3 Vector Delivered by Subretinal Injection in CNGA3 Mutant Achromatopsia Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gootwine, Elisha; Ofri, Ron; Banin, Eyal; Obolensky, Alexey; Averbukh, Edward; Ezra-Elia, Raaya; Ross, Maya; Honig, Hen; Rosov, Alexander; Yamin, Esther; Ye, Guo-Jie; Knop, David R; Robinson, Paulette M; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Shearman, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation (AGTC) is developing a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGA3 gene designated AGTC-402 (rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3) for the treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity, and absence of color discrimination. The results are herein reported of a study evaluating safety and efficacy of AGTC-402 in CNGA3-deficient sheep. Thirteen day-blind sheep divided into three groups of four or five animals each received a subretinal injection of an AAV vector expressing a CNGA3 gene in a volume of 500 μL in the right eye. Two groups (n = 9) received either a lower or higher dose of the AGTC-402 vector, and one efficacy control group (n = 4) received a vector similar in design to one previously shown to rescue cone photoreceptor responses in the day-blind sheep model (rAAV5-PR2.1-hCNGA3). The left eye of each animal received a subretinal injection of 500 μL of vehicle (n = 4) or was untreated (n = 9). Subretinal injections were generally well tolerated and not associated with systemic toxicity. Most animals had mild to moderate conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, and subconjunctival hemorrhage immediately after surgery that generally resolved by postoperative day 7. Two animals treated with the higher dose of AGTC-402 and three of the efficacy control group animals had microscopic findings of outer retinal atrophy with or without inflammatory cells in the retina and choroid that were procedural and/or test-article related. All vector-treated eyes showed improved cone-mediated electroretinography responses with no change in rod-mediated electroretinography responses. Behavioral maze testing under photopic conditions showed significantly improved navigation times and reduced numbers of obstacle collisions in all vector-treated eyes compared to their contralateral control eyes or pre-dose results in the

  8. A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Catey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled

  9. Long-Term Follow-Up of Intravitreal Ranibizumab for the Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenith H.Y. Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is an uncommon benign osseous intraocular tumor that typically affects young adult women. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is one of the complications that can develop in eyes with choroidal osteoma. We present a case of CNV secondary to choroidal osteoma treated with intravitreal ranibizumab. A 57-year-old lady presented with painless loss of vision with a right-eye visual acuity of 20/800. Fundus examination showed a well-demarcated yellowish peripapillary choroidal osteoma with associated retinal and subretinal hemorrhage due to CNV. Three intravitreal ranibizumab injections at monthly intervals were given and her visual acuity improved to 20/30 following treatment. After 1.2 years of follow-up, the right eye visual acuity was maintained at 20/30 with no evidence of CNV recurrence. Our findings suggest that intravitreal ranibizumab may be an effective therapeutic option for treating CNV secondary to choroidal osteoma.

  10. Urticaria due to antihistamines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez Morillas, L; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, P; Reaño Martos, M; Sanz, M L; Laguna Martínez, J J

    2011-01-01

    .... We report a patient with urticaria due to ingestion of ebastine and fexofenadine. Skin prick tests, patch tests, and basophil activation tests with the implicated drugs and antihistamines from other families were negative...

  11. Neovascularisation of the ovary post ligation of ovarian vessels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viable ovarian tissues noticed on histology were evidence of revascularization suggestive of newer invasion of blood vessels from the ovarian attachment from the retroperitoneal tissues and likely from the subcutaneous supplies. Consequently, it is not advisable to neuter a bitch by ligation of the ovarian vessels ...

  12. Enhanced Detection of Sub-Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Layer Deposits in Human and Murine Tissue: Imaging Zinc as a Biomarker for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, Frederik J G M; McPherson, Scott W; Roehrich, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the apparent paradoxical role of zinc in the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been limited by the lack of animal models for its detection in sub-retinal epithelial deposits (drusen), a definitive early hallmark of AMD. In-vitro studies using Zinpyr-1 showed drusen contained high levels of zinc, but the probe was not suitable for in-vivo studies. This study compares Zinpyr-1 to ZPP1, a new fluorescein-based probe for zinc, to assess the potential of ZPP1 for in-vivo detection of zinc in drusen. Flat mounts of human sub-RPE tissue using the probes were analyzed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flat mounts of sub-RPE tissue from mice deficient in superoxide dismutase isoform-1 (CuZn-SOD-KO) or isoform-2 (Mn-SOD-RPE-KO) were analyzed with sub-RPE deposits confirmed by histology. Drusen are detected in greater numbers and intensity with ZPP1 compared to Zinpyr-1. Using ZPP1, drusen was detected in a sample from a 46-year old human donor without ocular history, suggesting that ZPP1 might be sensitive enough to detect drusen at an early stage. With CuZn-SOD KO mice, ZPP1 detected sub-RPE deposits at 10 months of age, whereas Zinpyr-1 required 14 months. Detection of sub-RPE deposits by ZPP1 was greatly enhanced compared to Zinpyr-1. This enhanced sensitivity will allow for more insightful analysis of zinc in AMD using human specimens and mouse models. This could result in the development of a sensitive in-vivo probe to enhance research on the role zinc in drusen formation and the early clinical diagnosis of AMD.

  13. A randomised, double-masked, controlled study of the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab versus ranibizumab in the treatment of macular oedema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: MARVEL Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Raja; Panchal, Bhavik; Das, Taraprasad; Chhablani, Jay; Jalali, Subhadra; Ali, M Hasnat

    2015-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) compared with ranibizumab (IVR) in the treatment of macular oedema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). In this prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial, 75 participants with macular oedema due to BRVO received intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab after 1:1 block randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the difference in mean changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included mean change in central retinal thickness (CRT), the proportion of patients improving by >15 letters and the proportion of patients developing neovascularisation. Participants received either IVR (n=37) or IVB (n=38). The mean BCVA at baseline was 52.8±14.4 letters (20/80) and 56.1±10.0 letters (20/80) (p=0.24) in the ranibizumab and bevacizumab groups, respectively. At 6 months, the mean gains in BCVA were +18.1 letters (pnic.in/ CTRI/2012/01/003120. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  15. Death due to asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffer, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  16. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  17. [Onychomycoses due to molds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Credit where due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Keratitis due to Acanthamoeba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irezábal, Julio; Martínez, Inés; Isasa, Patricia; Barrón, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    Free-living amebae appertaining to the genus Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Balamuthia are the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. These amebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil, air and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, although they only occasionally cause disease. Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and often fatal disease of the central nervous system, and amebic keratitis, a painful disease of the eyes. Keratitis usually follows a chronic course due to the delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The clear increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis in the last 20 years is related to the use and deficient maintenance of contact lenses, and to swimming while wearing them. The expected incidence is one case per 30,000 contact lens wearers per year, with 88% of cases occurring in persons wearing hydrogel lenses. This review presents information on the morphology, life-cycle and epidemiology of Acanthamoeba, as well as on diagnostic procedures (culture), appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and prevention measures.

  20. Poisoning due to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Cage, Sarah A; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2005-01-01

    current') ensues which, if it is sufficiently large and/or long, lowers the action potential threshold and causes repetitive firing; this may be the mechanism causing paraesthesiae. At high pyrethroid concentrations, the sodium tail current may be sufficiently great to prevent further action potential generation and 'conduction block' ensues. Only low pyrethroid concentrations are necessary to modify sensory neurone function. Type II pyrethroids also decrease chloride currents through voltage-dependent chloride channels and this action probably contributes the most to the features of poisoning with type II pyrethroids. At relatively high concentrations, pyrethroids can also act on GABA-gated chloride channels, which may be responsible for the seizures seen with severe type II poisoning. Despite their extensive world-wide use, there are relatively few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. Less than ten deaths have been reported from ingestion or following occupational exposure. Occupationally, the main route of pyrethroid absorption is through the skin. Inhalation is much less important but increases when pyrethroids are used in confined spaces. The main adverse effect of dermal exposure is paraesthesiae, presumably due to hyperactivity of cutaneous sensory nerve fibres. The face is affected most commonly and the paraesthesiae are exacerbated by sensory stimulation such as heat, sunlight, scratching, sweating or the application of water. Pyrethroid ingestion gives rise within minutes to a sore throat, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. There may be mouth ulceration, increased secretions and/or dysphagia. Systemic effects occur 4-48 hours after exposure. Dizziness, headache and fatigue are common, and palpitations, chest tightness and blurred vision less frequent. Coma and convulsions are the principal life-threatening features. Most patients recover within 6 days, although there were seven fatalities among 573 cases in one series and one among 48 cases in another

  1. Photodynamic therapy for treatment subretinal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, Sergey E.; Budzinskaja, Maria V.; Kiseleva, Tatyana N.; Balatskaya, Natalia V.; Gurova, Irina V.; Loschenov, Viktor B.; Shevchik, Sergey A.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.

    2007-07-01

    This work are devoted our experience with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with > for patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). 18 patients with subfoveal CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 24 patients with subfoveal CNV in pathological myopia (PM) and 4 patients with subfoveal CNV associated with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed. CNV was 100% classic in all study patients. Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmologic examinations, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed before treatment and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after treatment; were used to evaluate the results of photodynamic therapy with > (0.02% solution of mixture sulfonated aluminium phtalocyanine 0.05 mg/kg, intravenously). A diode laser (>, Inc, Moscow) was used operating in the range of 675 nm. Need for retreatment was based on fluorescein angiographic evidence of leakage at 3-month follow-up intervals. At 3, 6, 9 month 26 (56.5%) patients had significant improvement in the mean visual acuity. At the end of the 12-month minimal fluorescein leakage from choroidal neovascularization was seen in 12 (26.1%) patients and the mean visual acuity was slightly worse than 0.2 which was not statistically significant as compared with the baseline visual acuity. Patients with fluorescein leakage from CNV underwent repeated PDT with >. 3D-mode ultrasound shown the decreasing thickness of chorioretinal complex in CNV area. Photodynamic therapy with > can safely reduce the risk of severe vision loss in patients with predominantly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD, PM and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.

  2. Unusual ocular presentation of acute toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerson, D; Aaberg, T M; Reeser, F; Meredith, T A

    1977-01-01

    Four patients with toxoplasmosis are reported with unusual presenting ocular lesions. One patient had an active lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve as well as focal toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis at the macula. A second patient had a pale optic nerve in association with the classical chorioretinal scars of toxoplasmosis. The third patient had toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis of the macula with subretinal neovascularisation. The fourth patient had a branch artery occlusion complicating acute retinitis. Images PMID:588525

  3. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  4. Endocarditis due to Chryseobacterium meningosepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomb K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a gram negative rod widely distributed in nature. It is known to cause meningitis in neonates and premature infants. Adult infections are not common and are usually nosocomially acquired. We report an unusual case of native valve endocarditis in a 58-year-old man due to this organism. A high degree of suspicion and correct identification and sensitivity testing is required to diagnose infections by this rare isolate.

  5. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. APPENDICULAR INVAGINATION DUE TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Kruh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invagination of the vermiform appendix is a very rare occurrence. We summarize epidemiologic and etiologic factors, types of classification, symtomatology, diagnostic features and treatment.Patients and treatment. The authors present 49-years old female with long-standing abdominal pains, who came in our hospital due to acute exacerbation with sever abdominal pain. Because of progressive symptoms and sensitivity in the right-lower abdominal quadrant a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. An anomaly of cecum and the absence of appendix vermiformis have forced us to proceed with laparotomy in McBurnay point. After cecotomy an invaginated gangrenous appendix was found. The histological examination revealed endometriosis.Conclusions. By presenting this extremely rare pathology we also want to emphasize the important role of diagnostic laparoscopy in front of acute abdomen.

  8. Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Abulfazl; Talebi, Yashar

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is the scourge of human beings. Pulmonary complications in patients who have undergone operation are common (20-30% of cases) and there are no suitable tools and ways to predict these complications. During a period of 10 years, from March 1998 to February 2007, 200 patients (150 male and 50 female) underwent Esophagectomy due to esophageal carcinoma in thoracic surgery ward retrospectively. Complications include the length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Patients' risk factors include age, preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, stage of the disease and preoperative spirometry condition. WE GROUPED OUR PATIENTS INTO THREE CATEGORIES: Normal (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted), mildly impaired (FEV1 65% to 79% predicted), more severely impaired (FEV1 atelectasia in 160 patients (80%). 24 patients needed chest-tube insertion. 20 patients (10%) developed ARDS. 14 patients (7%) developed chylothorax. 20 patients (10%) of patients died during their postoperative hospital stay. 30 patients (15%) required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours. We reviewed a number of preoperative clinical variables to determine whether they contributed to postoperative pulmonary complications as well as other outcomes. In general, age, impaired pulmonary function especially in those patients with FEV1 less than 65% predicted was associated with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). In fact pulmonary complications rate after Esophagectomy are high and there was associated mortality and morbidity.

  9. Transient hypofibrinogenemia due to allopurinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin ZQ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ZhiQiang Yin,1,* JiaLi Xu,2,* YongQiang Li,3,* JiPing Xia,1 Dan Luo1 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study reports a case of an 80-year-old male who suffered from drug eruption due to oral allopurinol for the treatment of gout. This patient complained of widespread erythema and maculopapule with itch, and small quantities of purplish-red rash with diffused distribution on four limbs were noted. After he was hospitalized, the area with purpuric rash increased in size, and hypofibrinogenemia was found. After treatment with intravenous infusion of fibrinogen and cryoprecipitate, and continued treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone, the skin rash gradually went away. This is the first report of purpura and hypofibrinogenemia induced by allopurinol and the pathophysiology underlying this reaction remained unknown. Keywords: purpura, fibrinogen, drug eruption, gout

  10. [Organ alterations due to aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Aging defined as progressive organ dysfunction which makes keeping homeostasis more difficult starts at the age of 30-40. However, due to difficulties with the distinction between aging and disease processes, changes previously believed to be caused by aging are often recognized as the effect of pathologies when new data is presented. According to current knowledge, cardio-vascular aging includes decreased elasticity of main arteries, decreased ability of left ventricule to relaxate, diminished function of sino-atrial node and decreased effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation. Aging in the respiratory system is attributed to increased size of alveoli and alveolar ducts (which easier collapse), a decrease in the gase exchange area, a decrease in respiratory volumes (both static and dynamic) and a severe decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. In aging kidneys both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration are decreased. As the result of tubular alterations the kidney ability to conserve and dilute urine, and its capability to regulate the pH and serum sodium level diminish. Less dramatic changes are seen in the gastrointestinal tract. According to available data, high prevalence of gastric atrophy and hypochlorhydria are a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Also, constipation is attributed much more to sedative life style and diet than to aging itself. In summary, none of the presented alterations is severe enough to cause the disease, but all of them increase the risk of pathology and thus pave the way for the disease even in healthy elderly subjects.

  11. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  12. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakata, Yukari; Fukuda, Kouki; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Nakano, Yuki; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Yamaji, Hidetaka; Shiraga, Fumio; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031) and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit). With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA). At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048). The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]), eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012). For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a possible treatment option.

  13. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this requirement...

  14. SD-OCT findings in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M

    2016-01-01

    To examine patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to characterise and locate the PCV lesions. A series of 15 eyes of 10 patients diagnosed with PCV were examined. All eyes were imaged with macular SD-OCT. SD-OCT cross-sectional scan findings included atypical and typical pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs). Polyps and neovascularisation were located above Bruch membrane. All 15 eyes (100%) showed sub-retinal fluid (SRF) in association with PEDs. These SD-OCT findings located the vascular lesions of PCV in the sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) space, and strongly suggest that PCV is a variant of type 1 neovascularization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Pacemaker Lead Endocarditis Due to Trichosporon Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Pratap Chandra; Purohit, Bharat Vijay; Agrawal, Binod; Reddy, Krupal; Nutankavala, Lavanya; Narreddy, Suneetha; Reddy, Mallikkarjun; Abu Salim, Md

    2015-04-01

    Pacemaker-related fungal endocarditis is an uncommon and unexpected complication. It is associated with high mortality rates. Due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, negative blood culture and delays in obtaining appropriate imaging studies; late diagnosis is common with fungal endocarditis. Hereby we are reporting a rare case of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to Trichosporon species. In literature we did not find any case of pacemaker-related endocarditis due to Trichosporon species.

  16. Due Diligence and "Reasonable Man," Offshore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bill Maurer

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of an international crackdown against preferential tax regimes, Caribbean tax havens and other jurisdictions have adopted "due diligence" procedures to manage financial and reputational risk...

  17. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  18. Characterization of subretinal fluid leakage in central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Sander, Birgit; Larsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine which category of hydrodynamic phenomena the smokestack in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) most likely belongs to: leakage by diffusion or bulk flow....

  19. Results of laser treatment for sub-retinal neovascular membranes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... an average power of 390 mW. Low intensity, longer duration. spotS are advised to avoid haemorrhage.2 The spot size was. 400 ).Lm except for 2 patients who were treated with 100 ).Lm. The intention was to overlap the shots, although, on reviewing the angiograms, some turned out to be in a grid panern.

  20. Results of laser treatment for sub-retinal neovascular membranes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was carried out to determine the results of laser treatment for choroidal neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration in 92 patients in whom fluorescein angiography was performed for this condition over a 7-year period. Twenty-nine of these patients, treated with the argon laser, were ...

  1. Results of laser treatment for sub-retinal neovascular membranes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... A retrospective study was carried out to determine the results of laser treatment for choroidal neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration in 92 patients in whom fluorescein angiography was performed for this condition over a 7-year period. Twenty-nine of these patients, treated with the ...

  2. The effect of subretinal viscoelastics on the porcine retinal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Fischer; Ejstrup, Rasmus; Svahn, Thøger Frøsig

    2012-01-01

    pharmaceutical therapy is needed, and can only be tested in a suitable animal model. The porcine model is promising and the mfERG is well validated in this model. RD was induced in 18 pigs by vitrectomy and healon injection of various concentrations. Preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively eight animals were...... examined by mfERG. The major component P1 was analyzed statistically. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and bilateral color fundus photography (FP) were performed. Selected animals underwent high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Examination by ophthalmoscopy and FP showed that the RDs remained detached...... makes the porcine model unsuitable for examining adjuvant pharmaceutical RD treatment. Future studies should focus on foveated primates....

  3. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as provided...

  4. Peritoneal tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nebreda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.

  5. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ISSN 1597-6343. Numerical Solutions of Some Parametric Effects Due to Electromagnetic Wave. Scattering by an Infinite Circular Cylinder. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE. TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SCATTERING BY AN INFINITE. CIRCULAR CYLINDER. *1 Suleiman A. B. and 1 ...

  6. Unwanted effects due to cosmetics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnuch, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmetics are a heterogeneous group of products, consisting of products abundantly used as shampoos or cleansing agents on the one hand, and of products not so frequently used as those applied for decorative purposes such as nail cosmetics. Due to a differing frequency of use and due to differing

  7. Obstructive anuria due to blood clot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anjali; Nanda, Smiti; Singhal, Savita Rani; Gupta, Anshu

    2008-10-01

    An unusual case of anuria due to the obstruction caused by blood clot following repair of ruptured uterus is presented. Although the blood clot usually dissolves, the awareness of this complication is important to avoid the unnecessary procedures.

  8. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gmail.com. MS received 1 October 2013; ... Apparently, collisions among the reactant atoms can overcome this electron-electron ... Therefore, its existence is not due to some interpretational issues arising exclusively from the crude Drude model.

  9. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  10. Eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Júnior

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported one case of eumycotic mycetoma due to Madurella grisea (black grains occurred on the right foot of the patient studied. The structure, microscopic morphology and therapeutic evolution are also studied and reported.

  11. Cutaneous human myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suite, M; Polson, K

    2007-10-01

    This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands.

  12. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  13. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  14. Systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bernal, Silvia; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Martínez, Francisco Javier García; Ginarte, Manuel; Rodríguez-Granados, María Teresa; Toribio, Jaime

    2011-10-01

    Systemic photosensitivity due to the intake of plants or herbal compounds is a rare phenomenon. Goji berries are widely used as a well-being and anti-aging remedy. In spite of this, only a few adverse reactions and no cases of photosensitivity have been reported to date. A 53-year-old male consulted due to a pruriginous eruption located on sun-exposed areas of 2 weeks of duration. He had been taking Goji berries and infusions of cat's claw herb for 5 and 3 months, respectively. Minimal erythema dose for UVB (MED-UVB) was diminished when the patient was taking these products, and became normal when they were withdrawn. Photoprovocation tests with Goji berries and cat's claw were performed. MED-UVB decreased after the intake of Goji berries, and was normal with cat's claw. We report the first case of systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  16. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  17. Cytology of Pericardial Effusion due to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeraki Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant pericardial effusion occurs in one tenth of all cancers. It is a very serious disorder that is mainly a secondary process due to metastasis because primary neoplasms of the pericardium such as mesotheliomas, sarcomas being exceedingly rare.

  18. Prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of lymphatic complications due to onchocerciasis infection in 38 endemic rural communities in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. Using standard parasitological and clinical methods of diagnosis, 7,144 consenting individuals aged 5 years and above were examined for ...

  19. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting - The Effect of Tropospheric Weather Conditions on VHF and UHF Radio Paths Over the Sea. Salil David Gunashekar D R Siddle E M Warrington. General Article Volume 11 ...

  20. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  1. Dysphagia due to diffuseidiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier's disease isa form of degenerative arthritiswith unique spinal and extra spinal manifestations. Dysphagia due to DISH is uncommon but when present DISH should be suspected. Surgical decompression can relieve some of the symptoms. We report a case of a 60 ...

  2. COMMENTARY Confronting Maternal Mortality Due to Postpartum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Confronting Maternal Mortality Due to Postpartum Hemorrhage and. Unsafe Abortion: A Call for Commitment. Joseph Karanja. 1, 2. , Projestine Muganyizi. 3 ... towards achieving. Millennium. Development Goal (MDG) 5 at a Regional. Experts' Summit. During the weeklong conference convened to explore the myriad factors.

  3. Extension of a theorem due to Ramanujan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A. Rakha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to establish an extension of a theorem due to Ramanujan. The result is obtained with the help of two terminating results for the series $_3F_{2}$ very recently obtained by Rakha et al. A few interesting special cases are also given.

  4. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rumund, Anouke; Verrips, Aad; Verhagen, Wim I M

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  5. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouke van Rumund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  6. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  7. [Gait disorders due to neurological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Snijders, A.H.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gait disorders are seen frequently and often have a neurological cause. The clinical management of patients presenting with a gait disorder is often complicated due to the large number of diseases that can cause a gait disorder and to the difficulties in interpreting a specific gait disorder

  8. Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guillain-Barre's syndrome (GBS) or inflammatory/post-infectious acute polyradiculoneuropathy is due to demyelination of nerves, causing a progressive paresis or paralysis. It usually begins in the legs and sometimes goes up to the respiratory muscles and cranial nerves. The exact mechanism of GBS occurrance is still ...

  9. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  10. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  11. Abdominal injury due to child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R

    Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation.

  12. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 3. Chemical reaction due to stronger Ramachandran interaction. Andrew Das ... Arulsamy1. Condensed Matter Group, Institute of Interdisciplinary Science, No. 24, level-4, Block C, Lorong Bahagia, Pandamaran, 42000 Port Klang, Selangor DE, Malaysia ...

  13. Aggradation in rivers due to overloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Van der Sande, J.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of aggradation in a river due to overloading is tackled with a mathematical model consisting of a set of one-dimensional (in space) basic equations in which the water motion is assumed to be quasi-steady and the sediment transport is determined by local conditions. Analytical solutions

  14. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Rumund, A. van; Verrips, A.; Verhagen, W.I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  15. Timing shifts due to NIF beam repointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J

    2007-08-15

    Repointing a NIF beam to hit a target position off target chamber center (TCC) will introduce a timing shift due to changes in the light pathlength. This shift could be important for target experiment requirements even for targets placed at TCC, since beam timing test shots will place beams up to 15 mm off TCC in order to spatially separate them on foil targets. In particular, timing errors due to beam repointing need to be considered against the 30 ps RMS timing requirement. Since the repointing process will keep the beam passing through a fixed point in the final optics assembly (the conversion crystal) by tip/tilt adjustments of two turning mirrors (LM5 and LM7), the problem naturally divides into two parts: Timing offsets past the conversion crystal due to target positioning changes, and timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal due to turning mirror adjustments. Timing offsets past the conversion crystal can be significant, but are trivial to calculate exactly; however, an exact calculation of timing offsets behind the fixed point on the conversion crystal would require a three-dimensional optomechanical raytrace model to be developed for every beamline, and this would be difficult and expensive. In this memo, I estimate the magnitude of timing offsets due to pathlength changes behind the conversion crystal by analysis of a worst-case model. I conclude that these timing offsets are insignificant compared with the current allocation in the 30 ps RMS timing requirement, and that more detailed raytrace modeling of individual beams is not necessary.

  16. Sciatica due to pelvic hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocaman Umit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sciatica is defined as pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. The most common reason of sciatica is radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia. Other causes can be congenital, acquired, infectious, neoplastic, or inflammatory. The piriformis syndrome is another cause. The pain starts in an insidious manner when the cause of sciatica is an extraspinal tumor. It is intermittent at first but a constant and progressive pain that does not decrease with position or rest gradually develops in all patients. The possibility of an intraabdominal or pelvic mass should always be considered and the relevant tests requested when the cause of the sciatica cannot be explained. We present an 83-year-old male who presented with non-traumatic and non-vascular lumbosacral plexopathy due to a large hematoma in the left adductor muscle following the use of warfarin sodium.

  17. [Rhabdomyolysis due to muscle enzyme deficiencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Rojas, R; López Jiménez, V; Martín Reyes, G; Torres Rueda, A; Frutos Sanz, M A

    2009-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by injure of skeletal muscle with the release of intracellular constituents into the circulation. Acute renal failure is a common complication and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The most common aetiology is traumatisms, muscle compressions and extreme exertions. Most commonly, the cause of rhabdomyolysis is evident from the careful clinical history. Nevertheless, when the precipitant is not obvious the diagnosis is difficult and a raised clinical suspicion is required. We should investigate used medication or drugs, infections, electrolyte abnormalities and a number of inherited enzyme deficiencies, in which cases the muscle is unable to use available energy. We report two clinical cases of acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis by metabolic myopathies due to a carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency on the one hand and by myophosphorylase deficiency on the other. We describe their clinical features and progress.

  18. Dose due to {sup 40}K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: edmundoej@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dose due to {sup 40}K has been estimated. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements in nature, being approximately 2% of the Earth's crust. Potassium has three isotopes {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K and {sup 41}K, two are stable while {sup 40}K is radioactive with a half life of 1.2x10{sup 9} years; there is 0.0117% {sup 40}K-to-K ratio. Potassium plays an important role in plants, animals and humans growth and reproduction. Due to the fact that K is an essential element for humans, {sup 40}K is the most abundant radioisotope in human body. In order to keep good health conditions K must be intake at daily basis trough food and beverages, however when K in ingested above the requirements produce adverse health effects in persons with renal, cardiac and hypertension problems or suffering diabetes. In 89.3% {sup 40}K decays to {sup 40}C through {beta}-decay, in 10.3% decays through electronic capture and emitting 1.46 MeV {gamma}-ray. K is abundant in soil, construction materials, sand thus {gamma}-rays produced during {sup 40}K decay contribute to external dose. For K in the body practically all {sup 40}K decaying energy is absorbed by the body; thus {sup 40}K contributes to total dose in humans and it is important to evaluate its contribution. In this work a set of {sup 40}K sources were prepared using different amounts of KCl salt, a {gamma}-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) was characterized to standardized the sources in order to evaluate the dose due to {sup 40}K. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters the dose due to {sup 40}K was measured and related to the amount of {sup 40}K {gamma}-ray activity. (Author)

  19. Cyclic universe due to phantom and quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen

    2014-01-01

    We explore a cyclic universe due to phantom and quintessence fields. We find that, in every cycle of the evolution of the universe, the phantom dominates the cosmic early history and quintessence dominates the cosmic far future. In this model of universe, there are infinite cycles of expansion and contraction. Different from the inflationary universe, the corresponding cosmic space-time is geodesically complete and quantum stable. But similar to the Cyclic Model, the flatness problem, the hor...

  20. Mandibular osteonecrosis due to bisphosphonate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şalvarcı, Ahmet; Altınay, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    Due to their efficient osteoclastic inhibitor effect in bone metabolism and antiangiogenic activity, bisphosphonates are widely used in many cancer diseases particularly in prostate cancers with bone metastasis, lung cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma, as well as in systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, Paget disease and osteogenesis imperfect for the last 13 years. Prostate cancer is a common cancer in males and it is the leading cause of bone metastasis. Mandibular metastasis is rarely encountered during the course of prostate cancer. Mandibular osteonecrosis as well has begun to be observed along with the availability of more efficient and stronger formulations developed following the use of bisphosphonates. Zolendronic acid, which has been used also by our patient, has widely come into practice as a 3(rd) generation bisphosphonate. Because of prostate cancer and widespread bone metastases, our patient has been receiving zolendronic acid with maximum androgen blockage for 4 years. Tomography of the patient, who has undergone intensive treatment because of submandibular abscess, demonstrated extensive osteonecrosis in the fovea sublingual region of the mandible corpus. In large series, although, mandibular osteonecrosis was widely seen due to bisphosphonate use for the metastases of lung and breast cancers, this rate was between 9.6% and 11% for prostate cancer within the series. Although our patient had no mandibular metastasis before, mandibular necrosis was observed due to long-term bisphosphonate use. We are going to present our patient who had this rare complication with his clinical picture.

  1. Estimating Viscoelastic Deformation Due to Seasonal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have been making summer-­-time geodetic measurements in south central Alaska for decades to estimate the rate at which a continental-­-ocean terrane is accreting to the North American continent. Southern Alaska has big earthquakes every century and large, rapidly changing glaciers. In the last decade, primarily as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory project, continuous GPS measurements have recorded the response of sites such as the near-­-coastal geodetic site, AB35 to competing processes: uplift and movement to the northwest due to tectonic forces and the response of the solid Earth to seasonal and longer-­-term changes in the cryosphere (snow and ice) surrounding the site. Which process causes the largest displacements of the site? Figure 1 (Blewitt, Nevada Geodetic Lab, 2015) shows the Northward, Eastward, and Upward motion of AB35 between 2007 and 2015. The site is moving rapidly to the north and west reflecting the tectonic convergence of site toward interior Alaska but there is small wiggle on the North component reflecting seasonal displacements of the site associated with snow loading and unloading. However, the Up component, shows a large seasonal signal due to snow loading in the winter (down) and ice and snow melting in the warmer months (site goes up). Between 2007 and the present, the site position is slowly moving upward, due to tectonic forcing but probably associated with longer-­- term ice melting as well. We are using the CIG finite element modeling (FEM) program Pylith to estimate the surface displacements and stresses associated with seasonal loading changes (top figure and Figure 2 far right) for water year 2012, 2011.8 - 2012.8) and the longer-­-term retreat of the surrounding glaciers.

  2. Acute kidney injury due to decompression illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea; Jamboti, Jagadish; Waring, Andrew; Banham, Neil; Ferrari, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Decompression illness is a rare but serious complication of diving caused by intravascular or extravascular gas bubble formation. We report the first case of acute kidney injury in a 27-year-old diver following three rapid ascents. He presented with transient neurological symptoms and abdominal pain followed by rapidly progressive acute kidney injury (creatinine peak 1210 µmol/L) due to arterial air emboli. He received supportive care and 100% oxygen followed by hyperbaric therapy and recovered fully. Arterial air emboli caused by rapid decompression can affect multiple organs including the kidneys. Early transfer to a hyperbaric unit is important as complications may present delayed. PMID:25852912

  3. Acute Renal Failure Due To Ethyleneglycol Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ihsan Ates

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet, water-soluble substance from the group of dihydric alcohols. As a result of taking ethylene-containing material for suicide purpose or as an accident, serious metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression and oliguric acute renal failure occur. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce mortality at a significant level. We present a case with severe metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure due to ethylene glycol intoxication after drinking antifreeze accidentally. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 67-69

  4. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  5. Hyperekplexia and trismus due to brainstem encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, M.; Humphrey, P.; Tedman, B.; Steiger, M.

    1998-01-01

    The brainstem is said to be the generator of pathological startle responses due to reticular reflex myoclonus or hyperekplexia. A patient with facial weakness, nystagmus, and pyramidal tract signs had generalised reflex spasms in response to auditory, visual and tactile stimuli which clinically and neurophysiologically resembled hyperekplexia. The case is unusual because as well as hyperekplexia, the patient's initial presentation was with an equally rare manifestation of brainstem pathology—brainstem mediated trismus. The causes of brainstem trismus and exaggerated startle responses are discussed with respect to their underlying mechanisms. 

 PMID:9667574

  6. Accidental ligature strangulation due to electric grinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Mahabalesh; Shetty, B Suresh

    2006-04-01

    A young girl was accidentally strangled when her chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by most Indian women) was caught in a moving electrical grinder. She was taken to the nearest hospital where she died within the next 9h, remaining unconscious throughout the hospital stay. Accidental strangulation of this kind due to household devices or machinery is extremely uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported. The findings are presented.

  7. Multicystic encephalomalacia due to fetal viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyen, K R; Lingam, S; Butterfill, A M; Marshall, W C; Dobbing, C J; Lee, D S

    1981-09-01

    Two children, aged 2 weeks and 2 months, with multicystic encephalomalacia aer described. Although computerized tomography (CT) scan was used for the diagnosis, the value of the simple method of transillumination is stressed. The mother of one child had mumps with meningitis at 26 weeks' gestation. The other child had an echovirus 11 isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and herpesvirus hominis (HVH) from the skin at 8 weeks. We speculate that the changes in the brains of these babies may be due to the respective viruses causing a fetal encephalitis.

  8. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess. PMID:22053166

  9. Rhabdomyolysis due to Multiple Wasp Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp sting is a relatively common arthropod assault, but is sometimes fatal because of anaphylaxis. Rhabdomyolysis is a serious condition, with destruction of striated muscles, and can be induced by various causes such as drugs, heart attacks, CRASH syndrome, and viper bites. Mass envenomation by multiple wasp stings can also cause rhabdomyolysis followed by acute renal failure, although it is extremely rare. We herein report a case who had an anaphylaxis-like reaction and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings.

  10. Operating limitations due to low gas temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, R.; Ghiselli, W.; Spinazze, M.

    1995-12-31

    A number of projects concerning continental links for the transport of treated natural gas over long distance, both on and offshore, have been implemented during the last few years or are currently being implemented. The long trunklines in North America and subsea trunklines planned or already in operation in the North Sea, are outstanding examples of such long distance transmission of gas in large diameter pipelines operated at high pressure. The development of such network has paid special attention to the effects that low temperature resulting from the transportation process may imply in terms of pipe structural integrity and environmental impact. Scope of this paper is to discuss operating limitations due to low gas temperature. New project scenarios are presented in a brief introduction. The fluido-thermo-dynamic background for the development of low temperatures are outlined. Finally some topics relevant to structural integrity are discussed in particular such as the pipe steel behaviour at low temperature, the prediction techniques of the ice bulb growth around the pipe, the interactions of the cold line with the soil and the consequences due to the differential compliancy of the pipeline towards points of fixity (in-line valves/tees or fixed plants). 30 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Severe Hyponatremia due to Phlegmonous Trismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with dysphagia and trismus associated with lower jaw inflammation due to phlegmon who developed severe hyponatremia from water intoxication due to excessive water intake after diaphoresis caused by abnormally hot weather. A 63-year-old woman presented with severe swelling of the floor of the mouth and trismus. As she had spasms and numbness of the extremities and restlessness and water intoxication caused by excessive water intake was suspected, she was hospitalized for the treatment of inflammation and electrolyte disorder. Although swelling of the floor of the mouth subsided over time after antimicrobial therapy, vomiting, diarrhea, and numbness of the extremities continued. On day 5 of hospitalization, severe vomiting and diarrhea recurred, and serum sodium levels decreased to 108 mEq/L. Decrease in water intake is essential in the treatment of hyponatremia. However, in patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea who can swallow only liquids because of hot weather and eating disorder, the risk of sodium depletion is high. It is important to restore electrolyte balance and fluid volume through supplementation with sodium, chlorine, potassium, and glucose among others, the reduction of intravenous fluid volume, and diuresis in order to correct the sodium level slowly.

  12. Severe Hyponatremia due to Phlegmonous Trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Tomio; Ohkubo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient with dysphagia and trismus associated with lower jaw inflammation due to phlegmon who developed severe hyponatremia from water intoxication due to excessive water intake after diaphoresis caused by abnormally hot weather. A 63-year-old woman presented with severe swelling of the floor of the mouth and trismus. As she had spasms and numbness of the extremities and restlessness and water intoxication caused by excessive water intake was suspected, she was hospitalized for the treatment of inflammation and electrolyte disorder. Although swelling of the floor of the mouth subsided over time after antimicrobial therapy, vomiting, diarrhea, and numbness of the extremities continued. On day 5 of hospitalization, severe vomiting and diarrhea recurred, and serum sodium levels decreased to 108 mEq/L. Decrease in water intake is essential in the treatment of hyponatremia. However, in patients with severe vomiting and diarrhea who can swallow only liquids because of hot weather and eating disorder, the risk of sodium depletion is high. It is important to restore electrolyte balance and fluid volume through supplementation with sodium, chlorine, potassium, and glucose among others, the reduction of intravenous fluid volume, and diuresis in order to correct the sodium level slowly.

  13. Cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Nakajo, Junko; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin

    2011-05-01

    To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL). A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs. Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 cases and C4/5 in 16 cases. Distance of anterior slippage was 2 to 5 mm (average 2.9 mm) in flexion position. Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) was 11 to 15 mm (average 12.8 mm) in flexion position and 11 to 18 mm (average 14.6 mm) in extension position; 11 cases were reducible and 11 cases were irreducible in extension position. Myelograms demonstrated compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position. Compression of spinal cord was not demonstrated in flexion position. C5-7 lordosis angle was lower than control. C5-7 range of motion (ROM) was reduced compared to controls. These alterations were statistically significant. DSL occurs in the mid-cervical spine. Lower cervical spine demonstrated restricted ROM and lower lordosis angle. Pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy due to DSL is compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position and not by reduced SAC in flexion position.

  14. Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatty Ravitasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cheilitis is a common problem of unknown etiology. A possible cause of cheilitis is contact allergy. Drugs, lipsticks, sunblock and toothpaste are the most common implicated allergens. Allergic contact cheilitis is a chronic superficial inflammatory disorder of the vermilion borders characterized by desquamation due to delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Purpose: We report a management of Allergic contact cheilitis due to lipsticks. Case: A 21-year-old woman had a history of atopic allergy to eggs, milk, and chicken presented with sore, dry, fissured, scaled and sometimes bleeding lip, over a 3-month period after application of a lipstick. Her symptoms persisted despite treatments with hydrocortisone cream. The patient provided a detailed history and underwent physical examination and patch tests to cosmetic components and patch test to her own lipstick. The patient had strongly-positive result to the tested lipstick. A diagnosis of allergic contact cheilitis was made based on the history and clinical findings. Case management: Patient was advised to avoid wearing lipstick. To relieve symptoms, treatment was initiated with combined topical corticosteroid, antibiotic, and moisturizer. Conclusion: Contact allergy patients should be tested for both cosmetic component series and their own lipsticks to exclude exfolliative cheilitis, infection, or light actinic cheilitis as causal agents.

  15. Drift due to viscous vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  16. Lead Poisoning Due to Herbal Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambial, Shailja; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sharma, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    Lead ranks as one of the most serious environmental poisons all over the world amongst toxic heavy metals with no known biological function useful for the human body. A case of lead toxicity due to consumption of herbal medicine is being discussed. The case presented with gastrointestinal complaints and history of intake of herbal medicines for diabetes control for past 8 months. The analysis of the powdered herbal medicine procured from ayurveda practitioner was found to have high content of lead responsible for the lead toxicity. The patient is under regular followup. He has improved symptomatically on chelating therapy and blood lead levels have gradually improved. Regular awareness programs should be conducted in the population regarding possible exposure through home made herbal remedies so that general public can be made aware of the dangerous side effects of lead and other heavy metals on health.

  17. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    with it have been carried out. In this device, an asymmetry of friction dependence on an applied force appears, resulting in rectification of rotary motion, In experiments, our setup is observed to rotate only in one direction, which is in accordance with given theoretical arguments, Despite the setup being...... three dimensional, the ratchet rotary motion is proved to be described by one dynamical equation. This kind of motion is a result of the interplay of friction and inertia. We also consider a case with viscous friction, which is irrelevant to this gadget, but it can be a possible mechanism of rotary......A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...

  18. Animal personality due to social niche specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmüller, Ralph; Taborsky, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The existence of 'animal personality', i.e. consistent individual differences in behaviour across time and contexts, is an evolutionary puzzle that has recently generated considerable research interest. Although social factors are generally considered to be important, it is as yet unclear how they might select for personality. Drawing from ecological niche theory, we explore how social conflict and alternative social options can be key factors in the evolution and development of consistent individual differences in behaviour. We discuss how animal personality research might benefit from insights into the study of alternative tactics and illustrate how selection can favour behavioural diversification and consistency due to fitness benefits resulting from conflict reduction among social partners. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychotic symptoms due to topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Oğuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate is an antiepileptic drug prescribed in the treatment of numerous psychiatric disorders and in epilepsy. Topiramate exerts its antiepileptic effect through different mechanisms, such as by the blockage of sodium channels, increasing GABAergic neurotransmission, antagonizing excitatory amino acid receptors (glutamate or blocking calcium channels. Its prescription in psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years and psychotic symptom development due to the usage of topiramate has been observed in some studies. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the patient for psychotic symptoms while using topiramate. This article presents a case of a 37-year-old woman who developed depression, anxiety and auditory hallucinations during the treatment with 150 mg of topiramate. After stopping topiramate, 5 mg of olanzapine bid was started and the symptoms gradually decreased and finally disappeared.

  20. Changes in vergence dynamics due to repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Kapoula, Zoï

    2011-08-15

    Vergence insufficiency is frequent in many populations including children with vertigo in the absence of measurable vestibular dysfunction. Orthoptic exercises are typically used to improve vergence and the clinical practice suggests that simple repetition of vergence movements improves it. Objective eye movement recordings were used to asses the dynamics and spatial-temporal properties of convergence (8.7°) and divergence (2.7°) along the midline while these movements were repeated 80 times. Eight children, aged on average 13years and showing vertigo symptoms accompanied with vergence insufficiency, participated. For both, convergence and divergence the velocity increased and the overall duration decreased; the amplitude of the mean transient component of the response changed significantly. These findings are compatible with models of double mode control of vergence eye movements (transient - open-loop vs. sustained - closed loop). Due to simple repetitions a real improvement in the dynamics of vergence along the midline occurred. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Suburethral sling removal due to chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, P; Hensel, G; Škorničková, Z; Košťál, M

    2017-01-01

    To point out one possible complication after suburethral tape insertion. To present methods of treatment, especially partial or total removal of the tape. Few successful cases of treatment are shown in case reports. Case report. Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Pardubice hospital. Chronic pain after insertion of suburethral tape is a rare complication. There are several possible causes, such as tape erosion with chronic inflamation, post-colposuspension syndrome, myo-fascial syndrome, nerve damage during tape implantation or due to overproduction of fibrous tissue. Partial or total tape removal is needed when the conservative treatment fails. Patients may remain continent or a new tape is placed. Pain relief is usually complete but there are times when additional treatment is needed. Sling removal is a successful method of treating chronic pain after suburethral tape insertion. Patients describe plain relief and improvement of quality of life.

  2. Degradation of insulating ceramics due to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Radiation-induced electrical degradation was investigated on single crystal alumina under 2.2 MeV electron irradiation with a dose rate of 5.7 x 10{sup 5} Gy/s and an electrical field of 1.6 x 10{sup 5} V/m at 773 K. After irradiation, electrical resistivity both on the surface and in the bulk decreased in the temperature range of 300 to 773 K. Substantial resistivity decreased from the initial value due to the irradiation, the degradation ratio was much smaller than the case of poly-crystalline specimens. On the other hands, surface resistivity decreased with increasing temperature for measurement with an abrupt change by 4 orders of magnitude around 600 K, and it showed thermal hysteresis. (author)

  3. Pulmonary embolism due to exogenous estrogen intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Caner; Carus, Murat; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a relatively common clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism, which develops in relation to acute pulmonary arterial occlusion mostly caused by thrombi of the lower limbs. 29year old female admitted to emergency department with pulmonary thromboembolism due to an ingestion of 17 Diana 35 pills (2 mg cyproterone acetate and 0.035mg ethinyl estradiol) in a suicide attempt without any previously known predisposing factors. After thrombolytic therapy, the patient was discharged with oral warfarin treatment. We know that exogenous estrogen increase the risk of venous thromboembolism in therapeutic use. It should be kept in mind that even single ingestion of a single high-dose exogenous estrogen intake may induce pulmonary thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolyisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in emergency, hospitalization and critical care services. In 15 % of cases it is due to rhabdomyolysis, in which there is breakdown of skeletal muscle with massive necrosis and leakage of muscle cell contents into the circulation. It has many different etiologies. The rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury results from the combination of several mechanisms, including tubular obstruction, vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. The most important therapeutic measures are: Aggressive repletion of fluids, forced diuresis and avoidance of exposure to nephrotoxic substances. In cases of severe uremia, metabolic acidosis, hiperkalemia or fluid overload it is necessary to start renal replacement therapy. As a rule, kidney function is completely recovered, but these patients have higher risk of future chronic kidney disease.

  5. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

  6. Adolescent menorrhagia due to platelet function disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazli; Farzana, Tasneem; Khan, Nusrat Hasan; Shamsi, Tahir Sultan; James, Andra H

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of menorrhagia in adolescent populations with bleeding disorders varies between 14% to 48%. The common conditions associated with menorrhagia include von Willebrand disease (VWD), platelet function disorders and coagulation factor deficiencies. The majority of studies, which have been conducted in the West, report VWD, as the most common inherited bleeding disorder leading to menorrhagia, whereas studies from South-East Asia have found platelet function disorder as the leading inherited bleeding disorder in women with menorrhagia. The other common conditions which can lead to increased blood loss in this age group are anovulatory bleeding and hormonal disorders. We report here three cases of adolescent menorrhagia due to platelet function disorders, along with review of literature.

  7. Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy due to HSPD1 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Maria Schioldan; Damgaard, Bodil; Risom, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HMLs) encompass the X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) caused by PLP1 mutations and known as the classical form of HML as well as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 608804 and OMIM 260600) due to GJC2...... mutations. In addition, mutations in at least 10 other genes are known to cause HMLs. In 2008, an Israeli family with clinical and neuroimaging findings similar to those found in PMD was reported. The patients were found to have a homozygous missense mutation in HSPD1, encoding the mitochondrial heat......-shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and the disorder was defined as the autosomal recessive mitochondrial Hsp60 chaperonopathy (MitCHAP-60) disease. We here report the first case of this severe neurodegenerative disease since it was first described. Given the fact that the families carried the same mutation our patient...

  8. Acute Paraplegia due to Thoracic Hematomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Akpınar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraspinal intramedullary hemorrhage is a rare entity with the acute onset of neurologic symptoms. The etiology of idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia (ISH is unknown, and there are few published case reports. Hematomyelia is mostly associated with trauma, but the other nontraumatic etiologies are vascular malformations, tumors, bleeding disorders, syphilis, syrinx, and myelitis. MRI is a good choice for early diagnosis. Hematomyelia usually causes acute spinal cord syndrome due to the compression and destruction of the spinal cord. A high-dose steroid treatment and surgical decompression and evacuation of hematoma are the urgent solution methods. We present idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia of a previously healthy 80-year-old male with a sudden onset of back pain and paraplegia.

  9. Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S

    2005-12-01

    Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur.

  10. Acute septic arthritis due to Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannides, Demetrios; Boniatsi, Loukia; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Sinapidis, Demetrios; Giotis, Christos

    2006-01-01

    To present a case of acute septic arthritis due to Streptococcussanguis, a member of the viridans group streptococci. A 73-year-old woman presented with fever and increasing swelling and pain of the right knee several weeks after she had been treated for severe periodontal disease. Arthrocentesis yielded purulent synovial fluid. S. sanguis was isolated in synovial fluid cultures, and the patient was treated with intravenous cefotaxime for 3 weeks and repeated aspiration of the knee joint with gradual resolution of fever, joint swelling and effusion. Although S. sanguis is believed to be a rare cause of septic arthritis in native joints, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of this disorder, especially in patients with recent treatment of severe dental caries and periodontal disease.

  11. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  12. Acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Cortés

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic regurgitation (AAR due to infective endocarditis (IE is a serious disease and usually requires surgical treatment. Our study aims to compare the clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with AAR according to the severity of heart failure (HF and to evaluate predictors of in-hospital mortality in a tertiary centre. In a prospective analysis, we compared patients with NYHA functional class I-II HF (G1 vs. functional class III-IV HF (G2. From 06/92 to 07/16, 439 patients with IE were hospitalized; 86 presented AAR: (G1, 39: 45.4% y G2, 47: 54.7%. The G1 had higher prosthetic IE (43.6% vs. 17%, p 0.01. All G2 patients had dyspnoea vs. 30.8% of the G1 (p < 0.0001. There were no differences in clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological characteristics. Surgical treatment was indicated mainly due to infection extension or valvular dysfunction in G1 and HF in G2. In-hospital mortality was 15.4% vs. 27.7% (G1 and G2 respectively p NS. In multivariate analysis, health care-associated acquisition (p 0.001, negative blood cultures (p 0.004, and functional class III-IV HF (p 0.039 were in-hospital mortality predictors. One-fifth of the patients with EI had AAR. Half of them had severe HF which needed emergency surgery and the remaining needed surgery for extension of the infection and / or valvular dysfunction. Both groups remain to have high surgical and in-hospital mortality. Health care-associated acquisition, negative blood cultures and advanced HF were predictors of in-hospital mortality

  13. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to tetrazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Bellón, T; Barranco, P; Padial, A; Tapia, B; Morel, E; Alves-Ferreira, J; Martín-Esteban, M

    2008-01-01

    Tetrazepam is a benzodiazepine that is widely used in Spain as a muscle relaxant, with occasional cutaneous side effects. We report a patient who developed a generalized pruriginous cutaneous reaction compatible with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) due to tetrazepam. Patch tests with bromazepam, diazepam, and tetrazepam were negative at 48 and 72 hours; however, the tetrazepam patch showed a positive reaction at 10 days. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a mononuclear infiltrate composed of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Analysis of interleukin (IL) 8 expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed increased IL-8 mRNA levels in patch test-positive skin. Lymphoblast transformation test (LTT) was positive with tetrazepam but not with diazepam. Positive patch test and LTT suggested that tetrazepam-specific lymphocytes might be responsible for a T cell-mediated reaction. These results support previous data suggesting an important role for IL-8 and drug-specific T cells in the pathogenesis ofAGEP and imply that the reaction was specific to tetrazepam with no cross-reactivity to other benzodiazepines.

  14. Acidification of lake water due to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, L. M.; Zammit, B.; Jolley, A. M.; Barnett, L.

    2014-04-01

    Droughts are predicted to increase in many river systems due to increased demand on water resources and climate variability. A severe drought in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia from 2007 to 2009 resulted in unprecedented declines in water levels in the Lower Lakes (Ramsar-listed ecosystem of international importance) at the end of the river system. The receding water exposed large areas (>200 km2) of sediments on the lake margins. The pyrite (FeS2) in these sediments oxidised and generated high concentrations of acidity. Upon rewetting of the exposed sediments, by rainfall or lake refill, surface water acidification (pH 2-3) occurred in several locations (total area of 21.7 km2). High concentrations of dissolved metals (Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn), which greatly exceeded aquatic ecosystem protection guidelines, were mobilised in the acidic conditions. In many areas neutralisation of the surface water acidity occurred naturally during lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required in two areas to assist in restoring alkalinity. However acidity persists in the submerged lake sediment and groundwater several years after surface water neutralisation. The surface water acidification proved costly to manage and improved water management in the Murray-Darling Basin is required to prevent similar events occurring in the future.

  15. Catatonia due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Pinto Cabral Júnior Rabello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Discuss neuropsychiatric aspects and differential diagnosis of catatonic syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in a pediatric patient. Methods Single case report. Result A 13-year-old male, after two months diagnosed with SLE, started to present psychotic symptoms (behavioral changes, hallucinations and delusions that evolved into intense catatonia. During hospitalization, neuroimaging, biochemical and serological tests for differential diagnosis with metabolic encephalopathy, neurological tumors and neuroinfections, among other tests, were performed. The possibility of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, steroid-induced psychosis and catatonia was also evaluated. A complete reversal of catatonia was achieved after using benzodiazepines in high doses, associated with immunosuppressive therapy for lupus, which speaks in favor of catatonia secondary to autoimmune encephalitis due to lupus. Conclusion Although catatonia rarely is the initial clinical presentation of SLE, the delay in recognizing the syndrome can be risky, having a negative impact on prognosis. Benzodiazepines have an important role in the catatonia resolution, especially when associated with parallel specific organic base cause treatment. The use of neuroleptics should be avoided for the duration of the catatonic syndrome as it may cause clinical deterioration.

  16. Epileptic seizures due to multiple cerebral cavernomatosis

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    Spasić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cavernous angiomas are angiographically occult vascular malformations that are present in 0.4−0.9 % of people, and represent around 5% of all cerebrovascular malformations. They can be single or multiple, and sporadic or familial. The presence of multiple lesions is more frequent in familial cavernomatosis. Ten to 30 % are associated with familial clustering. Case report. We presented the case of a 43-year-old man, admitted to the Emergency Department due to unprovoked seizure during the wide awake and everyday activities. Neurological examination was with no focal signs. A 32-channel standard digital EEG was without any significant changes of normal baseline activity. After sleep deprivation EEG showed multifocal, bilateral and asymmetric polyspikes and sharpwaves activity. Hyperventilation induced generalized epileptiform discharges. MRI scan demonstrated multiple small cavernous angiomas. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated a delayed memory impairment. Neurosurgery treatment was not recommended, and the therapy with valproate 1 250 mg/day had an excellent efficacy with no singnificant adverse effects. Conclusion. This patient considered as a rare case with multiple cavernomatosis highlights the importance of neuroradiological examination in adult patients with the first epileptic seizure but with no focal neurological signs. .

  17. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  18. Dermatoses due to indian cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ′Holi′ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ′Mudichood′ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  19. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  20. [Airway injuries due to blunt chest trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Kan; Hamatake, D; Yoshida, Y; Nakajima, H; Shirakusa, T; Yamasaki, S

    2006-10-01

    Although the incidence of blunt chest trauma is very high, the mediastinal tracheobronchial injuries are quite rare. The airway injuries are thought to be one of the most urgent clinical conditions in thoracic surgery, and we are requested to make not only a rapid and sharp diagnosis but also an appropriate treatment plan considering combined injuries. We present 9 cases of tracheobronchial injuries due to blunt chest trauma in recent years. The average age of these patients is 26.1 years, and they are consisted of 6 male and 3 female. The cause of trauma is traffic accident in 7, and occupational crane accident in 2. Bronchoplasty were done in 5 cases (right main bronchus in 2, left main bronchus in 1, trunks intermediate bronchus in 1, and the spur between middle and lower lobe in 1), membranous-tracheoplasty with right pneumonectomy in 1, left pneumonectomy in 1, conservative treatment in 2. Postoperative mortality is occurred in 1 case who was suffering from multiple injuries including severe head injury and contralateral lung contusion. Tracheobronchial plasties should be chosen if possible to preserve lung function for the patient suffering from airway injuries.

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  2. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  3. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Goyal, K. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the United States, and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of up to 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up to 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand, that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy, and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. In this paper, observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence, and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant thermal mechanisms. Finally, although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  4. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved.

  5. Enhanced skyrmion stability due to exchange frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Malottki, S; Dupé, B; Bessarab, P F; Delin, A; Heinze, S

    2017-09-26

    Skyrmions are localized, topologically non-trivial spin structures which have raised high hopes for future spintronic applications. A key issue is skyrmion stability with respect to annihilation into the ferromagnetic state. Energy barriers for this collapse have been calculated taking only nearest neighbor exchange interactions into account. Here, we demonstrate that exchange frustration can greatly enhance skyrmion stability. We focus on the prototypical film system Pd/Fe/Ir(111) and use an atomistic spin model parametrized from first-principles calculations. We show that energy barriers and critical fields of skyrmion collapse as well as skyrmion lifetimes are drastically enhanced due to frustrated exchange and that antiskyrmions are metastable. In contrast an effective nearest-neighbor exchange model can only account for equilibrium properties of skyrmions such as their magnetic field dependent profile or the zero temperature phase diagram. Our work shows that frustration of long range exchange interactions - a typical feature in itinerant electron magnets - is a route towards enhanced skyrmion stability even in systems with a ferromagnetic ground state.

  6. Health effects due to endotoxin inhalation (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebers, V.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bruening, T. [Ruhr-University Bochum, BGFA, Research Institute of Occupational Medicine, German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Endotoxins are ubiquitous in the environment and represent important components of bioaerosols. High exposure occurs in rural environment and at several workplaces (e.g. waste collecting, textile industry etc.). Adverse effects on human health induced by inhalation of endotoxin are described in several studies. Up to now the endotoxin levels are mainly measured using the Limulus amoebocyte-lysate (LAL) assay. This assay is well established, but for a suitable characterization of bioaerosols more parameters are necessary. Additional information, e.g. concerning the pyrogenic activity of organic dust samples may be delivered by whole blood assay. Whereas on the one hand protection measures at workplaces are demanded to avoid lung function impairment due to endotoxin exposure, on the other hand a protective effect of exposure to microbial agents like endotoxins with regard to allergy development has been observed. On the cellular level toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and IL-1 receptor as well as surface molecules like CD14 have been shown to play a pivotal role in the endotoxin activation cascade. In this review we summarize the mechanism of endotoxin recognition and its manifold effects on human health. (orig.)

  7. Dermatoses due to Indian cultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. 'Henna' use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. 'Kumkum' application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker 'bindis' and 'alta' induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with 'Holi' colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. 'Mudichood' represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  8. Jejunal Diverticular Perforation due to Enterolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.

  9. [Wound infections due to opportunistic corynebacterium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, Alina; Łetowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    Wound infections are often due to endogenous bacterial flora which penetrates into a site of injury. The establishment of the etiologic agent can be problematic, especially when opportunistic bacteria are present, suggesting contamination of clinical material. Among bacteria that can cause such diagnostic problems are opportunistic Corynebacterium spp. and coryneforms colonizing skin. The aim of the study was to analyze the 24 clinical samples collected from wounds of different location, with Gram positive rods isolated in numbers suggesting the cause of infection. Bacterial identification was performed by API Coryne and additional biochemical tests (API ZYM, API NE). It was detected that the commonest species isolated were: C. amycolatum (29.2%), C. striatum (16.7%), C. group G (16.7%) and Brevibacterium spp., C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, C. group F1. The drug susceptibility testing was performed by E-test method. Among isolated strains, 83.3% were simultaneously resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. In 75% cases resistance to co-trimoxazole was noted, in 71.7% resistance to chloramphenicol and in 16.7% resistance to beta-lactams were detected. In presented study the high percentage of strains resistant to macrolids and linkosamids (MLSB) was noted. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Sleep deprivation due to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Movement disorders due to bilirubin toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Advances in the care of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have decreased the incidence of kernicterus. However, neonatal exposure to high levels of bilirubin continues to cause severe motor symptoms and cerebral palsy (CP). Exposure to moderate levels of unconjugated bilirubin may also cause damage to the developing central nervous system, specifically the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Brain lesions identified using magnetic resonance imaging following extreme hyperbilirubinemia have been linked to dyskinetic CP. Newer imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging or single-photon emission computed tomography, allow quantification of more subtle white matter injury following presumed exposure to unbound bilirubin, and may explain more subtle movement disorders. New categories of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction, either independently or characterized by subtle bilirubin encephalopathy, following moderate hyperbilirubinemia have been implicated in long-term motor function. Further research is needed to identify subtle impairments resulting from moderate to severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, understand the influence of perinatal risk factors on bilirubin toxicity, and develop neuroprotective treatment strategies to prevent movement disorders due to bilirubin toxicity. PMID:25524299

  13. Cutaneous reactions due to antihypertensive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhayai J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of a total of 1147 patients on antihypertensive drugs, 23 (2.04% developed adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR. The commonest antihypertensive drug group causing ACDR was beta-blockers of which atenolol was the commonest culprit. The second most common group was calcium channel blockers with amlodipine as the commonest offender. The most common patterns of ACDR observed included urticaria followed by lichenoid drug eruption (LDE. We noted 2 new patterns of reactions; (i one patient developed brownish blue pigmentation of nails while on atenolol for 3 years, which resolved in 4 months after withdrawal and (ii another patient on amlodipine for 8 years developed Schamberg′s like purpuric pigmentation, which resolved on withdrawal of drug within 3 months. These findings have not been reported in the literature earlier. This study is presented for paucity of Indian data on ACDR due to antihypertensive drugs, and remarkable advancement in area of cardiovascular and antihypertensive pharmacology and a large number of population taking antihypertensive drugs.

  14. Recurrent Incisional Hernia due to Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ergul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare but challenging neoplastic disease which is characterized with intraperitoneal mucinous-gelatinous fluid accumulation. It rarely presents as a mass mimicking abdominal wall hernias A recurrent incisional hernia due to pseudomyxoma peritonei is presented here. A 60-year-old female patient had been operated on for a left mucinous ovarian cyst 20 cm in diameter in 1998. Mucinous material had disseminated into interloop spaces through the right subdiaphragmatic region. Total abdominal hysterectomy + bilateral salpingooophorectomy and peritoneal toilet had been performed. She was rehospitalized for abdominal distention and a 4 cm defect over the incision and underwent a hernia repair using polypropylene mesh in 2001. Abdominal distention recurred to give a rise to an incisional hernia in 2006. She was reoperated for decompression and repair, but nothing could be done because of sticky adhesions and the incision were simply closed. The patient was referred to our department for operation. A prosthetic hernia repair with 30×30 cm polypropylene mesh was performed. The patient was discharged on the postoperative 5th day following an uneventful recovery. However, she died of disseminated disease after 18 months.

  15. Onshore seismic amplifications due to bathymetric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Carbajal-Romero, M.; Flores-Guzmán, N.; Olivera-Villaseñor, E.; Kryvko, A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform numerical calculations for onshore seismic amplifications, taking into consideration the effect of bathymetric features on the propagation of seismic movements. To this end, the boundary element method is applied. Boundary elements are employed to irradiate waves and, consequently, force densities can be obtained for each boundary element. From this assumption, Huygens’ principle is applied, and since the diffracted waves are built at the boundary from which they are radiated, this idea is equivalent to Somigliana’s representation theorem. The application of boundary conditions leads to a linear system being obtained (Fredholm integral equations). Several numerical models are analyzed, with the first one being used to verify the proposed formulation, and the others being used to estimate onshore seismic amplifications due to the presence of bathymetric features. The results obtained show that compressional waves (P-waves) generate onshore seismic amplifications that can vary from 1.2 to 5.2 times the amplitude of the incident wave. On the other hand, the shear waves (S-waves) can cause seismic amplifications of up to 4.0 times the incident wave. Furthermore, an important result is that in most cases the highest seismic amplifications from an offshore earthquake are located on the shoreline and not offshore, despite the seafloor configuration. Moreover, the influence of the incident angle of seismic waves on the seismic amplifications is highlighted.

  16. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  17. Septic arthritis due to Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandac, Inga; Prkacin, Ingrid; Matovinović, Mirjana Sabljar; Sustercić, Dunja

    2010-06-01

    Septic arthritis may represent a direct invasion of joint space by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Although any infectious agent may cause bacterial arthritis, bacterial pathogens are the most significant because of their rapidly destructive nature. We present a case of septic arthritis in a 56-year old male patient due to Streptococcus viridans which is member of the viridans group streptococci. Patient was admitted to Our Hospital presented as fever of unknown origin, losing more than 30 kg of body weight during couple of months, and anemia of chronic disease as paraneoplastic process. He had long history of arterial hypertension and stroke. There was swelling and pain of the right sternoclavicular joint and precordial systolic murmur in physical status. A large diagnostic panel has been made, computerized tomography (CT) of right sternoclavicular joint showed widening of periarticular soft tissue and loss of clavicular corticalis. Cytologic analysis of synovial fluid showed more than 90% of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There were no crystals on microscopic examination and Gram stain of fluid was negative. Blood cultures were positive for S. sanguis and there was a consideration about possible periodontal disease. Stomatologic examination verified periapical ostitis and extraction of potential cause of infection has been done. Therapy with benzilpenicilline was followed by the gradual improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Although viridans group streptococci and Streptococcus sanguis in particular are rare causes of septic arthritis in native joints, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periodontal disease.

  18. Caregiver anxiety due to interstage feeding concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Dempster, Robert; Allen, Robin; Miller-Tate, Holly; Dickson, Gabrielle; Fichtner, Samantha; Principe, Alex J; Fonseca, Rachel; Nicholson, Lisa; Cua, Clifford L

    2015-01-01

    Improved weight gain during the interstage (IS) period has been shown to improve overall outcomes in patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP). This emphasis on nutrition may have untoward effects, such as increasing anxiety/stress levels in caregivers, who are already known to be at risk for increased anxiety/stress levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate anxiety/stress levels of caregivers as it pertains to feeding during the IS period and to determine if certain characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress scores. Caregivers of children with SVP who completed the IS period, defined as the time between the first and second cardiac surgeries, were recruited. Baseline demographics were obtained. Anxiety/stress levels were measured via eight questions using a 0- to 10-point scale. Correlations were performed between demographic variables and anxiety/stress level scores. Fifty-six surveys were completed (39 males, 27 females) on 43 children. Fourteen children required tube feeds during the IS period. There were significant correlations between anxiety/stress scores and caregiver's gender, caregiver's age, caregiver's level of education, percent of time a caregiver spent feeding the child, if caregivers were taking medications for anxiety, and if the child was seen in the emergency room during the IS period. There were no correlation of anxiety/stress scores with caregiver's race, child's underlying cardiac diagnosis, age of child, route of feeding during the IS period, birth order of the child or number of children in the family, relationship status, or distance from the hospital. In general, caregivers of children with SVP experience anxiety/stress during the IS period specifically due to feeding concerns. Certain intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress levels. Future studies are needed to determine how to minimize anxiety/stress levels during this stressful time period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals

  19. DUE PROGETTI NELLA SCUOLA PLURILINGUE E INTERCULTURALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Bosc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Per rispondere alle esigenze sempre più crescenti di una scuola plurilingue e interculturale alcuni anni fa nelle scuole torinesi sono stati realizzati due progetti, a cura della Divisione Servizi educativi del Comune di Torino. Il primo “Guarda, ce la fai” ha riunito scuole elementari e medie in un lavoro finalizzato alla realizzazione di un percorso multimediale di insegnamento dell’Italiano come L2 che permettesse il raggiungimento del livello A2 del Quadro comune europeo di riferimento (QCER, fosse facilmente utilizzabile, risultasse ampliabile e modificabile in funzione delle esigenze della singola realtà e costituisse un modello per i docenti su come costruire materiali per l’insegnamento della L2. Il risultato è un CD-Rom con sequenze video ed esercizi. Il secondo “Guarda come abbiamo fatto” raccoglie 14 percorsi interculturali di altrettante scuole elementari e medie e riflette sui curricula scolastici nelle diverse aree geografiche culturali, sulla metodologia interculturale e sui possibili percorsi per affrontare la lingua delle discipline. Gli apprendenti stranieri costituiscono il target privilegiato cui è rivolto il progetto, anche se esso ha finalità educative che riguardano anche gli studenti italofoni. Il DVD prodotto presenta in modo completo e dettagliato i percorsi attuati dalle scuole; ciascun percorso si è proposto di affrontare in chiave interculturale un tema disciplinare.TWO PROJECTS IN A MULTILINGUAL, INTERCULTURAL SCHOOL SETTINGTo meet the growing needs of a multilingual, intercultural school setting, a few years ago two projects were implemented by the Educational Services Department of the Municipality of Turin. The first, “Guarda, ce la fai” was aimed at elementary and middle school students and focused on teaching Italian L2 using multimedia materials in order to reach an A2 level (Quadro comune europeo di riferimento - QCER, that was easy to put into effect and could be modified based on the

  20. Clinical and histological findings after intravitreal injection of bevacizumsb (Avastin®) in a porcine model of choroidal neovascularisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Scherfig, Erik

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of intravitreally injected bevacizumab (Avastin) on the histological and angiographic morphology of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a masked and placebo-controlled animal study. METHODS: Choroidal neovascularization was induced surgically in 11 porcine eyes...... leaking on FA, whereas only one of five bevacizumab-injected eyes exhibited leakage. On histological examination, all 11 eyes contained CNV membranes of similar size, regardless of treatment. The number of vascular endothelial cells was significantly reduced (p = 0.03) in CNV membranes from eyes that had...

  1. [Gene therapy for vision restoration in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) due to RPE65 gene mutations: beginning the phase IV trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Camacho, Óscar Francisco; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    This is a significant time moment in the field of gene therapy in humans. Recently, results from a phase III clinical trial were published, demonstrating the first gene therapy success for a genetic disease. A clinical trial was carried out in patients suffering a hereditary blindness disease named Leber congenital amaurosis, caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene. Participating subjects received a subretinal injection of the normal RPE65 gene and one year after exhibited a significant improvement in visual acuity. It is expected that this gene therapy treatment will be approved by the FDA and commercialized in the USA in 2017.

  2. Evolution and failure of liquid bridges between grains due to evaporation and due to extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueckel, T.; Mielniczuk, B.; Said El Youssoufi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Evolution and rupture of liquid bridges between glass spheres during liquid evaporation and during mechanical extension was examined. The latter type of the tests has been widely studied, while a number of pertinent measurements during transient evaporation have not yet been reported. Also the resultant total capillary forces were measured and geometrical characteristics (curvature radii)were recorded with a photo camera and high-speed camera and subsequently digitalized. The obtained results reveal substantial differences in geometry of liquid bridges during extension and evaporation. On the other hand, evaporation and extension of liquid bridgelead to a similar qualitative response in terms of the pressure within the liquid bridge, starting with a significant suction, which initially somewhat increases during evaporation to reach a maximum, followed by a rapid monotonic decrease until zero, to become a sizable positive pressure prior to rupture. Extension same pattern is followed, except that there is no initial suction increase. Hence, in both cases, rupture consistently occurs at a positive fluid pressure. The pressure evolution is a simple resultant of the evolution of radii of curvature, with the neck radius becoming smaller than meridian radius. In terms of resultant capillary force, as the area of the bridge cross-section decreases with the square of the neck radius, the pressure difference is almost entirely negative, in part also due to surface tension component. Nevertheless, the suction decreases nearly monotonically during both processes. Rupture during evaporation of the bridges occurs most abruptly for larger separations, as early as after 25% volume evaporated. It is seen as a bifurcation of the geometry of equilibrium, as demonstrated on a movie with 27, 000 shots per second. The evolution of a bridge between three spheres exhibits a centrally located thin film instability with a circular hole growing within 1/3000th of a second. All these findings

  3. Treatment of recurrent trigeminal neuralgia due to Teflon granuloma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capelle, Hans-Holger; Brandis, Almuth; Tschan, Christoph A; Krauss, Joachim K

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD) may be due to insufficient decompression, dislocation of the implant to pad the neurovascular contact, or the development of granuloma...

  4. Cutaneous allergic reaction due to alprazolam in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Ozlem Kutuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous allergic reactions due to drug intake may be triggered by many types of drugs such as atropine, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines. But allergic reactions due to benzodiazepines are extremely rare. Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine which may be useful for refractory idiopathic urticaria due to antihistaminergic effect. Although antihistaminergic effect of alprazolam, a cold urticaria case and an angioedema case induced by alprazolam are known in the literature. In the case, we present a child suffering from cutaneous allergic reaction due to alprazolam at the first dose taken. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 400-402

  5. Visual acuity and scar size in eyes with age-related subfoveal choroidal neovascular lesions, 30 months after radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.-J. Bergink (Gerrit-Jan); C. Hoyng (Carel); R.W. van der Maazen (Richard); A.F. Deutman; W.A.J. van Daal (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In a study to determine the effectiveness of ionizing radiation on the deterioration of visual acuity (VA) due to choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) the affected eyes of 10 patients were treated with a total dose of 24 Gy (6 Gy fractions). A special lenssparing technique was

  6. 38 CFR 4.58 - Arthritis due to strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthritis due to strain... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.58 Arthritis due to strain. With service incurred lower extremity amputation or shortening, a disabling arthritis, developing in...

  7. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  8. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  9. Treatment of endocarditis due to Proteus species: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Cooley, Christine; Tsigrelis, Constantine

    2011-04-01

    Endocarditis due to Proteus species is very rare. We report a case of endocarditis due to Proteus mirabilis that was successfully treated with ampicillin and gentamicin, and review the treatment regimens of previously published cases of Proteus endocarditis. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the

  11. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  12. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by Weibel instability with the laser wave field is explicitly showed. The main result obtained in this work is that the inclusion ...

  13. Occupational asthma due to unheated polyvinylchloride resin dust.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H S; Yap, J; Wang, Y T; Lee, C S; Tan, K T; Poh, S C

    1989-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins are widely used in industry. Asthma due to the thermal degradation products of PVC are well documented. In this first case of occupational asthma due to unheated PVC resin dust the patient was exposed to PVC resin dust during the mixing of chemicals used for making plastic seals for bottle caps.

  14. [Hemophagocytic syndrome due to lung infection: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Ekren, Pervin; Ergin, Erhan; Göksel, Tuncay; Ozsan, Nazan; Hekimgil, Mine

    2011-01-01

    A 31-year-old man with pneumonia and ampiema was treated with antibiotics and drainage. Hemophagocytic syndrome, characterized with pancytopenia was arised during this treatment. Nosocomial infection due to pancytopenia was treated with antibiotics. Hemophagocytic syndrome was recovered spontaneously after the treatment of this nosocomial infection. Such a severe hemophagocytic syndrome due to infection is a rare condition.

  15. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  16. 12 CFR 313.54 - Exception to due process procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exception to due process procedures. 313.54 Section 313.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.54 Exception to due process procedures. (a) The...

  17. 28 CFR 545.30 - Funds due deceased inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funds due deceased inmates. 545.30 Section 545.30 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.30 Funds due deceased inmates...

  18. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Abstract. In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by Weibel instability with the laser wave field is explicitly showed. The main result obtained in ...

  19. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  20. Scope and limitations of due process in administrative proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carvajal Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explain in a better way the scope of Due Process in Administrative Law as a legal norm whose respect is essential to all government agencies, three points of view (formal, structural and material are proposed. Those items seem useful to understand “Administrative Due Process” in all its dimensions: as a constitutional norm developed by the enactment of laws and decrees; as a principle inspiring some conducts and new norms; and as an objective and subjective fundamental right. On the other hand, it is shown that Administrative Due Process is not an absolute rule because in some cases its full application is subject to normative relativism. Two opposite trends can be perceived at this point: in the first place, government agencies usually do not act the same way judges do, so Administrative Due Process should be distinguished from Judicial Due Process; therefore, it could actually have a more restricted scope. In the second place, some administrative authorities are nowadays playing a role more or less similar to what judges do. This means that new procedural guarantees will be claimed. In any case, admitting valid limitations to Administrative Due Process leads to the quest of the limits of these limitations. The application of the rule of Due Process cannot be totally suppressed; its scope cannot be completely reduced. This is the result of its fundamental nature as a legal norm that ensures justice and equity in all administrative procedures, and proscribes random decisions.

  1. A Patient Developed Painful Muscle Cramps due to Overeating Mangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman had a habit to eat a mango every night before sleep and experienced muscle cramps during sleep. Her muscle cramps may be resulted from potassium overload due to overeating mangos.

  2. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Obesity due to Genomic Imprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merlin G. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder due to errors in genomic imprinting with loss of imprinted genes that are paternally expressed from the chromosome 15q11-q13 region. Approximately 70...

  3. Ventricular septal defect due to blunt chest trauma | Olivier | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blunt chest trauma may cause cardiac trauma, this possibility often being overlooked. Various anatomical structures may be affected. A case of ventr'icular septal defect due to blunt chest trauma is described and the relevant literature is reviewed.

  4. Deformation due to mechanical and thermal sources in generalised ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    dimensional problem of thermoelasticity has been considered to investigate the disturbance due to mechanical (horizontal or verti- cal) and thermal source in a homogeneous, thermally conducting orthorhombic material. Laplace–Fourier ...

  5. Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter ursingii in infants: Reports of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter ursingii in infants: Reports of two cases. Nurhayat Yakut, Eda Kadayifci Kepenekli, Ayse Karaaslan, Serkan Atici, Gulsen Akkoc, Sevliya Ocal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakir ...

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, W. R.; Wonders, J.; Jensema, A. J.; Chocholova, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the

  7. [Reversible first-degree atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Aksüyek Savaş; Amasyalı, Basri

    2017-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism often causes tachyarrhythmia. Reversible atrioventricular block caused by hyperthyroidism is rare occurrence. Presently described is a case of atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism and recovery after antithyroid treatment.

  8. Anaphylaxis due to carrot as hidden food allergen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiappoli, M; Senna, G; Dama, A; Bonadonna, P; Crivellaro, M; Passalacqua, G

    2002-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, carrot alone is rarely responsible for severe systemic reactions. We report a case of anaphylactic shock due to the inadvertent ingestion of carrot as a hidden allergen contained in an ice-cream...

  9. Massive gastrointestinal bleed due to multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric neuroendocrine tumors (G-NETs are uncommon lesions which are usually diagnosed on histological evaluation of gastric polyps. These may occur sporadically or due to hypergastrinemia in the setting of atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Large lesions may ulcerate and result in gastrointestinal bleeding. However, massive gastrointestinal bleeding is rare in patients with NETs. We report a 60-year-old lady who presented with massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to multiple G-NETs.

  10. Intestinal obstruction due to Basidiobolus ranarum: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Neetha Radjou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal obstruction caused by extensive soft tissue fungal infection of the perineum due to Basidiobolus ranarum is presented here. There was excellent response to antifungal treatment. A literature search revealed the case report of intestinal obstruction due to intrinsic mucosal involvement by the fungus, but extensive soft tissue involvement of the perineum resulting in extraneous obstruction to the rectum, has not been reported so far.

  11. Ludovico Castelvetro e Filippo Valentini in due sonetti di corrispondenza

    OpenAIRE

    Roncacci, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Una tra le testimonianze note della produzione volgare in versi riferibile all’Accademia modenese del Grillenzoniè costituita da due sonetti di corrispondenza scritti da Filippo Valentinie da Ludovico Castelvetro. L’interesse intrinseco dei due testi è senz’altro di tipo documentario, sia in senso biografico, sia in riferimento alla riflessione critica e alla produzione letteraria volgare contestualizzata all’ambiente culturale modenese a cavallo degli anni Trenta e Quaranta del Cinquecento. ...

  12. [Mortality due to pesticide poisoning in Colombia, 1998-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Poisoning due to pesticides is an important public health problem worldwide due its morbidity and mortality. In Colombia, there are no exact data on mortality due to pesticide poisoning. To estimate the trend of mortality rate due to pesticide poisoning in Colombia between 1998 and 2011. We carried out a descriptive analysis with the database reports of death as unintentional poisoning, self-inflicted intentional poisoning, aggression with pesticides, and poisoning with non-identified intentionality, population projections between 1998 and 2011, and rurality indexes. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates were estimated and trends and Spearman coefficients were evaluated. A total of 4,835 deaths were registered (age-adjusted mortality rate of 2.38 deaths per 100,000 people). Mortality rates were higher in rural areas, for self-inflicted intentional poisoning, in men and in age groups between 15 and 39 years old. The trend has been decreasing since 2002. Municipality mortality rates due to unintentional poisoning and aggression correlated significantly with the rurality index in less rural municipalities. Mortality rates due to pesticide poisoning presented a mild decrease between 1998 and 2011. It is necessary to adjust and reinforce the measures conducive to reducing pesticide exposure in order to avoid poisoning and reduce mortality.

  13. Clinical predictors of lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comes Emili

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct is poorly characterised. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct and to identify clinical predictors of this variant of lacunar stroke. Methods A total of 146 patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarction were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986-2004. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 146 patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct were compared with those of the 733 patients with lacunar infarction. Results Lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct accounted for 16.6% (146/879 of all cases of lacunar stroke. Subtypes of lacunar syndromes included pure motor stroke in 63 patients, sensorimotor stroke in 51, pure sensory stroke in 14, atypical lacunar syndrome in 9, ataxic hemiparesis in 5 and dysarthria-clumsy hand in 4. Valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation, sudden onset, limb weakness and sensory symptoms were significantly more frequent among patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct than in those with lacunar infarction, whereas diabetes was less frequent. In the multivariate analysis, atrial fibrillation (OR = 4.62, sensorimotor stroke (OR = 4.05, limb weakness (OR = 2.09, sudden onset (OR = 2.06 and age (OR = 0.96 were independent predictors of lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct. Conclusions Although lacunar syndromes are highly suggestive of small deep cerebral infarctions, lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts are found in 16.6% of cases. The presence of sensorimotor stroke, limb weakness and sudden onset in a patient

  14. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, C M; Wiggans, R E; Young, C; Fishwick, D

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. © Crown copyright 2015.

  15. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dubas-Jakóbczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer’s influence on population’s ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. Material and Methods: The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost due to 4 following reasons: 1 temporary disability to work, 2 permanent disability, 3 informal care, and 4 mortality. Results: Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients’ mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women’s mortality. Conclusions: The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3:289–299

  16. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.

    1988-08-01

    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  17. Deterioration of concrete structures in coastal environment due to carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K V G D; Gopalaraju, S S S V; Trilochan, Jena

    2010-07-01

    Failure of existing concrete structures takes place due to lack of durability, and not due to less structural strength. One of the important aspects of durability is carbonation depth. The rate of carbonation in concrete is influenced by both its physical properties and exposure conditions. Rebar corrodes when carbonation reaches to a depth of concrete cover provided. In the present work, various concrete structures with different life periods and exposed to different weather conditions have been considered to study the carbonation effect. It is observed that the effect of carbonation is more in the structures located near to the sea coast and on windward face of the structure.

  18. Reversible Myelopathy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Due to Cobalamin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Subacute combined degeneration (SCD is known as myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. SCD always involves the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, with the neuropathologic change showing vacuolation of the white matter. We describe 2 patients who presented with ataxic gait, impaired proprioception over limbs, and even mental change due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine showed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and laboratory data showed low serum vitamin B12 level. The 2 patients were treated with vitamin B12 injection intramuscularly. There was clinical improvement after treatment along with normalization of the MRI.

  19. [Lactic acidosis due to metformin accumulation complicating acute gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DŽupová, Olga; Kulichová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Lactic acidosis is the most severe adverse effect associated with metformin therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk increases in patients with impaired renal function, most commonly due to diabetic nephropathy, and may be augmented when concurrent medication with a negative impact on renal function is used. The authors present a series of three patients who were admitted to a department of infectious diseases for acute gastroenteritis and within a few hours developed shock syndrome caused by severe lactic acidosis due to accumulation of metformin.

  20. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    B. Sudhakara Reddy; K. Nalini Kumari; Sivajothi, S.; R. Venkatasivakumar

    2014-01-01

    In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as in...

  1. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sugita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption.

  2. Due-Window Assignment Scheduling with Variable Job Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect. The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time.

  3. Diamagnetic magnetocaloric effect due to a transversal oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, M.S., E-mail: marior@if.uff.br

    2014-05-01

    The present Letter describes the magnetocaloric effect of a diamagnetic material with a magnetic field B{sub ∥} along the z axis and a transversal and oscillating field B{sub ⊥}(≪B{sub ∥}) parallel to the x–y plane. We show that the magnetocaloric potentials due to a change in B{sub ∥} are the same as those due to a change in the frequency of B{sub ⊥}. These results raise the possibility of building magnetocaloric devices without moving parts, since changing frequency is a simple electronic issue, while changing the field from permanent magnets depends on mechanical aspects.

  4. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  5. Urinary Incontinence and Urosepsis due to Forgotten Ureteral Stent

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro, Diego Martin; Losada, Johanna Belén; Montiel, Francisco Castro; Lafos, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Case report of a patient who, while being under study due to total urinary incontinence and multiple urinary tract infections, interoccurs with urosepsis due to a forgotten and encrusted double-J stent. An open surgery is performed with two surgical approaches, suprapubic and minimal lumbotomy, in which a nephrectomy of the atrophic kidney, a resection of the urether with a calcified double-J in its interior and a cystolithotomy were conducted with the resulting favorable resolution of the pa...

  6. Urinary Incontinence and Urosepsis due to Forgotten Ureteral Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martin Barreiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Case report of a patient who, while being under study due to total urinary incontinence and multiple urinary tract infections, interoccurs with urosepsis due to a forgotten and encrusted double-J stent. An open surgery is performed with two surgical approaches, suprapubic and minimal lumbotomy, in which a nephrectomy of the atrophic kidney, a resection of the urether with a calcified double-J in its interior and a cystolithotomy were conducted with the resulting favorable resolution of the pathology.

  7. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Eruyar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  8. Geotechnical problems that occur due to the fact of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from the basic views on the main problem that occurs due to hydro-geomechanical processes, in particular the driving force caused by changing the pressure of groundwater, this paper will provide a review of the assessment of stresses and strains in the soil (soil and rock. The solution is a combination of the system of equations of the soil and ground water flow and caused geotechnical stresses or problems that occur in the soil. The paper will describe in detail the problem of subsidence due to pumping of water in the open pit-field problems and assessment of seepage forces in saturated or unsaturated loose materials.

  9. Coastal Flooding Hazards due to storm surges and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal areas before even considering the adverse effects of sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change. While permanent inundation may be a prevalent issue, more often floods related to extreme events (storm surges) have the largest...... damage potential.Challenges are amplified in some areas due to subsidence from natural and/or anthropogenic causes. Subsidence of even a few mm/y may over time greatly impair the safety against flooding of coastal communities and must be accounted for in order to accomplish the economically most viable...

  10. Colopleural fistula due to strangulated Bochdalek hernia in an adult.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, M; Gibbons, P; Kennedy, S C; Matthews, H R

    1989-01-01

    An elderly patient presented with a right sided pneumothorax due to strangulation of part of the colon through a congenital Bochdalek hernia. Congenital posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia of Bochdalek is rare in an adult and strangulation with pneumothorax has not been reported before.

  11. 9 CFR 124.33 - Standard of due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of due diligence. 124.33 Section 124.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... predecessor in interest of the marketing applicant shall be imputed to the applicant for patent term...

  12. Strain field due to self-interstitial impurity in Ni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strain field due to self-interstitial impurity in Ni. HITESH SHARMA1 £ and S ... The embedded-atom method have been applied to study the strain field produced by the self-interstitial impurity at the .... where q is a wave vector and the expansion coefficients Q(q)are normal coordinates known in dynamical theory. Since we ...

  13. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  14. Intraabdominal Hemorrhage Due to Spontaneous Rupture of Superior Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ozden

    2014-04-01

    Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Type IV should be kept in mind in cases of abdominal apoplexy. Repair of vascular complications could be impossible due to abnormal type III collagen leaded vascular fragility. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 408-411

  15. Electric field distribution and simulation of avalanche formation due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field distributions and their role in the formation of avalanche due to the passage of heavy ions in parallel grid avalanche type wire chamber detectors are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative merits and demerits of parallel and crossed wire grid configurations are studied. It is found that the crossed ...

  16. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to Multiple Polyps in Ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Sah Bandar, Ivo Novita; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Manan, Chudahman; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani

    2002-01-01

    The causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (hematochezia) are amyloidosis, anal fissure, angiodysplastic lesions, coagulation disorder, colitis, colon cancer, colorectal polyps, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, haemorrhoids, etc. This was a case of lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to colonic inflammatoric polyp. This inflammatoric polyps were caused by infection/inflammation and improved after antibiotic and NSAID therapy.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis due to an epoxy acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, J R

    1981-06-01

    A printer developed allergic contact dermatitis due to epoxy acrylate resin. Incomplete cross-reactivity between four epoxy acrylate resins and a lack of cross-reactivity to epoxy resin was demonstrated. The epoxy acrylate resin has been shown to be a potent cutaneous sensitizer for the guinea-pig.

  18. When the Due Date Is Not the "Do" Date!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrianni, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Our students consistently hand in assignments late, or complete them at the last minute. Why is it that they know about assignments all term long yet only begin them the night before the assignment is due? Based on a career-focused learning community at Kingsborough Community College of the City University of New York, this article looks at ways…

  19. Venous thromboembolism associated with protein S deficiency due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 6. Venous thromboembolism associated with protein S deficiency due to Arg451∗ mutation in PROS1 gene: a case report and a literature review. EWA WYPASEK MAREK KARPINSKI MARTINE ALHENC-GELAS ANETTA UNDAS. REVIEW ARTICLE Volume 96 Issue ...

  20. Case Report: Early Neonatal Death Due To Liver Rupture Caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An early neonatal death due to liver to liver rupture caused by maternal abdominal manipulation and massage is presented. An apparently health baby girl was born to 26 years old primigravida who came in the second state of labour and deliver of her baby within eight minutes of arrival to the labour ward. Her labour lasted ...

  1. [Mortality due to congenital malformations in Chile (1969-1997)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, P; Orfali, C; Norero, E; Vercellino, M

    2000-04-01

    Congenital malformations are defined as those structural, metabolic or functional defects found at birth. To study the mortality due to congenital malformations in Chile between 1969 and 1997, their type, individual, temporal and geographic variations. A descriptive analysis of deaths registered by the National Statistics Institute and the Ministry of Health. Means, frequencies, raw and adjusted rates were calculated and inferences for some variables were carried out. Between 1969 and 1997 ther was tendency towards a reduction in rates of mortality due to congenital malformations and an increment in their relative importance. During the period, the risk for chromosome (98%) and osteomuscular (67%) malformations increased. Men and children of less than one year had the higher risk. In 1995, 1167 deaths due to congenital malformations were registered, 90% in children of less than 5 years. Higher risks occurred in urban zones (with a rate of 8.25 per 100,000) in the third region (rate 11.59) and second region (rate 11.2). Most deaths occurred in hospitals (85%). Main causes of death were circulatory system, central nervous system and chromosome malformations. The differences in regional deaths due to congenital malformations suggests specific risks that deserve further study.

  2. Dephasing of a qubit due to quantum and classical noise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The qubit (or a system of two quantum dots) has become a standard paradigm for studying quantum information processes. Our focus is decoherence due to interaction of the qubit with its environment, leading to noise. We consider quantum noise generated by a dissipative quantum bath. A detailed comparative study with ...

  3. Breach growth in cohesive embankments due to overtopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.

    2016-01-01

    Breaching is the most frequent form of embankment failure in the world. Due to overtopping, an embankment starts to breach when part of the embankment actually breaks away, leaving an opening for water to flood the land protected by the embankment. A breach can be a sudden or gradual failure that is

  4. Analytical modeling of pipeline failure in multiphase flow due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pipeline could be said to be the safest and the most economical means of transportation of hydrocarbon fluids. Pipelines carrying oil and gas may suffer from internal corrosion when water is present. The corrosivity varies due to several factors such as; temperature, total pressure, CO2 and H2S content in the gas, pH of the ...

  5. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  6. A case of infectious endocarditis due to BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fournier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG disease following instillation for bladder cancer is commonly documented. The intravesical administration of BCG is generally safe, but may present severe complications. A fatal case of native aortic valve infectious endocarditis with septicemia due to BCG in a patient treated with intravesical instillation is reported herein.

  7. Finite element modelling of elastic intraplate stresses due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite element modelling of elastic intraplate stresses due to heterogeneities in crustal density and mechanical properties for the Jabalpur earthquake region, central India. A Manglik1,∗. , S Thiagarajan. 1. , A V Mikhailova. 2 and Yu Rebetsky. 2. 1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, ...

  8. Oesophageal bleeding from aorto- oesophageal fistula due to aortic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-22

    Jan 22, 1983 ... ing gives warning of fistula formation. S Air Med J 1983: 63: 124-127. Exsanguinating oesophageal haemorrhage due to an established .... tive review has persuaded us that a more alert and vigorous approach in our cases might well have achieved some success. We are indebted to the Department of ...

  9. 20 CFR 408.714 - When are reports due?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Reporting Requirements § 408.714 When are reports due? (a) A reportable event happens. You should report to us as soon as an event listed in § 408.708 happens. (b) We request a report. We may request a report...

  10. Cardiac tamponade due to hypothyroidism: a case cluster report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiac tamponade due to hypothyroidism: a case cluster report. Ankia Coetzee, Charles Kyriakakis, Chris Greyling, B.H. Ascott-Evans. Abstract. This study reports on three patients who were seen at Tygerberg Hospital within a short period of six months, with a new diagnosis of biochemically severe primary hypothyroidism ...

  11. 45 CFR 74.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 74.73 Section 74.73 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...

  12. 29 CFR 95.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collection of amounts due. 95.73 Section 95.73 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND... constitute a debt to the Federal Government. If not paid within a reasonable period after the demand for...

  13. Preoperative pharmacological correction of severe anaemia due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the effect of total dose iron-dextran infusion and folic acid with or without a progestogen in the preoperative correction of severe anaemia due to fibroid induced menorrhagia. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional study of severely anaemic patients with uterine fibroids who refused ...

  14. Response of orthotropic micropolar elastic medium due to time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is concerned with the plane strain problem in homogeneous micropolar orthotropic elastic solids. The disturbance due to time harmonic concentrated source is investigated by employing eigen-value approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique to obtain the ...

  15. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The predicted results are compared with experimental crack growth data for variable amplitude loading and are found to capture the overload effect with sufficient accuracy. Through a sensitivity analysis, fracture toughness is found to be the most dominant parameter in accelerating the crack length due to application of ...

  16. Insect pests' incidence and variations due to forest landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group surveys were conducted in five villages in each of the three resource-use zones of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, to assess insect pests' incidence and the variation due to forest landscape degradation in the agricultural production systems. 389 farmers were interviewed. The results show that: (1) In ...

  17. Inactivation of a transgene due to transposition of insertion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Agrobacterium strains harbour insertion sequences, which are known to transpose into genomes as well as into Ti plasmids. In this study we report the inactivation of a transgene due to transposition of the A. tumefaciens insertion sequence IS136. The transposition was discovered following transformation of plant tissues, ...

  18. Failure to Heal of Thyroidectomy Wound Due to Gossypiboma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used, due to its physical and natural properties,[2,3] as well as breach in the sterile procedure. Furthermore, iatrogenic operative complications do occur when surgical materials like gauze, sponges, or surgical instruments are forgotten intraoperation ― leading to various complications, such as failure of the wound to heal, ...

  19. Simplified stochastic modeling of concrete spalling due to fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Lentzen, S.S.K.; Vries, R. de

    2013-01-01

    Predicting spalling of concrete due to fire loading is undoubtedly a complex task to come across. Existing numerical models are dealing with the phenomena on different complexity levels of describing the physical/chemical processes and material behavior. But still they do not take the highly

  20. 34 CFR 303.420 - Due process procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures for resolving individual child complaints (i.e., complaints that generally affect only a single child or the child's family). These procedures require the appointment of a decision-maker who is... Children § 303.420 Due process procedures. Each system must include written procedures including procedures...

  1. Steven-Johnson syndrome due to unknown drugs [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivamurthy, Raghu Prasada M; Kallappa, Ravindra; Reddy, Shashikala G H; Rangappa, Druva Kumar B

    2012-01-01

    Steven-Johnson syndrome may be considered as a cytotoxic immune reaction to drugs, infections etc. This is a case report of Steven-Johnson syndrome due to an ayurvedic preparation which was used in the treatment of mental retardation in a young girl.

  2. Steven-Johnson syndrome due to ayurvedic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Shivamurthy, Raghu Prasada M.; Kallappa, Ravindra; Reddy, Shashikala G. H.; Rangappa, Druva Kumar B.

    2012-01-01

    Steven?Johnson syndrome may be considered as a cytotoxic immune reaction to drugs, infections etc. This is a case report of Steven?Johnson syndrome due to an ayurvedic preparation which was used in the treatment of mental retardation in a young girl.

  3. Electroluminescence from porous silicon due to electron injection from solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Despo, R.W.; Kelly, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the electroluminescence from p‐type porous silicon due to minority carrier injection from an electrolyte solution. The MV+• radical cation formed in the reduction of divalent methylviologen is able to inject electrons into the conduction band of crystalline and porous silicon. The

  4. Dephasing of a qubit due to quantum and classical noise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The qubit (or a system of two quantum dots) has become a standard paradigm for studying quantum information processes. Our focus is decoherence due to interaction of the qubit with its environment, leading to noise. We consider quantum noise generated by a dissipative quan- tum bath. A detailed comparative ...

  5. Fasciolosis: Prevalence, financial losses due to liver condemnation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out from November 2007 to April 2008 to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis and costs incurred due to liver condemnation and evaluate the sensitivity of direct sedimentation method for diagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir. A total of 3251 adult indigenous ...

  6. Application of GIS on Environmental Degradation Due to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of GIS on Environmental Degradation Due to the Offshoots of Highway Development Projects: Central Ethiopian Highlands. ... space and time and to increase its infiltration instead of directing it straight onto unprotected slopes. Key words: Gully erosion Risk, catchment area, Road design, Ecological destructions ...

  7. Directionally independent energy gap formation due to the hyperfine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    2003-01-01

    We study energy gap formation at the level-crossing point due to the hyperfine interaction. In contrast to the energy gap induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the gap induced by the hyperfine interaction is independent of the direction of the magnetic field. We also study the dynamics

  8. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of wages when due. 500.81 Section 500.81 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment of...

  9. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  10. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in South Africa. Y Ganie, C Aldous, Y Balakrishna, R Wiersma. Abstract. Background. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by deficiency of the 21-hydoxylase (21-OH) enzyme is the most common form of CAH worldwide. Objective. To evaluate the ...

  11. Cardiovascular collapse due to intravenous verapamil in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled with propranolol in one and sotalol in the other. Factors contributing to the cardiovascular collapse ... controlled for 8 months, during which the patient remained asymptomatic. Thereafter he returned to his home in ... decrease in cardiac output, cause marked hypotension. Circulatory arrest in patient 1 was due to ...

  12. Iatrogenic Vascular Injuries Due to Spinal Surgeries: Endovascular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Mustafa; Aydin, Elcin; Guneyli, Serkan; Akay, Ali; Cinar, Celal; Oran, Ismail

    2017-01-17

    Iatrogenic vascular injuries due to spinal surgeries are rare but serious complications. Surgical management of these injuries is challenging with high morbidity rates. In this study we aim to present the results of endovascular management of iatrogenic vascular injuries due to spinal surgeries. We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients (5 male, 6 female) who had vascular injuries due to cervical and lumbar spinal surgeries. Clinical findings were bleeding (n=5), leg edema (n=6) and right heart failure with severe dyspnea (n=1). The age range of the patients were between 42-67 (mean: 57.1). Six patients were reviewed with imaging before the procedures and the rest of the patients (n=5) were directly referred to the angiography unit for diagnosis and possible endovascular treatment. The types of surgeries were; cervical surgery (n=5) and lumbar disc operation (n=6). The type of vascular injuries were; vertebral artery stenosis (n=1), vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm (n=3), vertebral artery occlusion (n=1) and iliac arteriovenous fistula (n=6). The type of endovascular treatments were; parent artery occlusion (PAO) (n=2), covered stent graft implantation (n=6) and intrasaccular coil embolization of pseudoaneurysm (n=1). The remaining 2 patients were managed conservatively. No major complications or mortality occured during endovascular interventions. No bleeding or ischemia occured in the follow-up period. Iatrogenic vascular injuries due to spinal surgeries are rare but serious complications. Endovascular interventions are safe and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of such vascular injuries.

  13. Stretton, Ong, and Ezekial: Due Process Rights of Medical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Milton H.

    1981-01-01

    Courts will probably assume that medical residents are entitled to minimal procedural due process when they claim unfair dismissal from a residency program before program termination. Therefore the organization should not create a legitimate claim of expectancy that the resident will be retained beyond specified dates. (MSE)

  14. Evidence of long term benefit of morbidity reduction due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of long term benefit of morbidity reduction due to praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni in Kigungu fishing village in Entebbe, Uganda. ... a yearly administration of praziquantel to the community could be a regiment for mass drug administration (MAD) for this community to control schistosomiasis ...

  15. Dynamic Loads Due to Synchronized Movements of People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.O.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    Structures like sport stadiums, grandstands and arenas for rock concerts become larger and more and more flexible. Therefore dynamic effects due to loads from synchronized movements of people become more important. This paper describes a spectral approach to model the structural response...... for implementation in structural codes are presented....

  16. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Kristian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6 mmol/L and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45. As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. Conclusion Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

  17. [Eumycetic mycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis. Report of six cases.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, G; Arenas, R; Pérez-Polito, A; Torres, B; Estrada, R

    1998-06-01

    We report six cases of mycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis. Five men and a woman from 28 to 70 years of age, and a history of one to ten years. In four of them the foot was affected, in another the wrist, and one exceptional case with neck involvement after an iguana bite. The response to treatment was irregular and not satisfactory.

  18. Corruption and Public Governance: Implication for Customer Due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Therefore, the paper sought to determine the causes and effects of corruption on service delivery in Africa. It is within this context that this paper explored. Principal Agent Theory to explain the relationship between corruption, public governance, customer due diligence and the various aspects of development including.

  19. 29 CFR 452.87 - Dues paid by checkoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arrears when the union changes to a checkoff system. The member may not be denied the right to vote merely... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dues paid by checkoff. 452.87 Section 452.87 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  20. Pathological Fracture due to pemphigus vulgaris: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare but serious autoimmune mucocutaneous bullous disease.The two cardinal pathological processes at work are a split within the epidermis and loss of adhesion of epidermal cells (Acantholysis). It is due to deposition of pathogenic IgG on the Keratinocyte cell surface. The mainstay of treatment is ...

  1. Earliness-tardiness scheduling around almost equal due dates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Hoogeveen (Han); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractDiscusses the existence of another class of problems that are structurally less complicated than the general earliness-tardiness problem. Details of common due date problems; Logic behind Emmons' matching algorithm; List of earliness-tardiness problems to which the optimality principle

  2. Earliness-tardiness scheduling around almost equal due dates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the existence of another class of problems that are structurally less complicated than the general earliness-tardiness problem. Details of common due date problems; Logic behind Emmons' matching algorithm; List of earliness-tardiness problems to which the optimality principle of the

  3. Modelling atmospheric temperature rise due to pollutants and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a mathematical model we show that temperature increases (warming) as the Hartman number due to pollutant increases. Thus, temperature and pollutants contribute to global warming. We also discuss the implications of the result on agriculture and forestry. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  4. Hypothermia due to Antipsychotic Medication : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonnenberg, Cherryl; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Ramlal, Dharmindredew; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypothermia is a rare, but potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Although the opposite condition, hyperthermia, has been researched extensively in the context of the malignant antipsychotic syndrome, little is known about hypothermia due to APDs. Objective:

  5. Midbroken Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Due to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    A non-linear hysteretic model for the response and local damage analyses of reinforced concrete shear frames subject to earthquake excitation is proposed, and, the model is applied to analyse midbroken reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to earthquake loads. Each storey of the shear frame...

  6. Diabetes Drug Gets FDA Warning Due to Amputation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Diabetes Drug Gets FDA Warning Due to Amputation Risk Canagliflozin tied to a doubling of amputations of legs, feet, agency says To use the ... to increase the risk of leg and foot amputations, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration says. The ...

  7. Chylous ascites due to signet ring cell gastric adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-04

    Sep 4, 2011 ... and anorexia. He had medical history of high alcohol consumption about 100 g daily, myocardial infarction in. 1997, and percutaneous coronary angioplasty with stent placement. He had no surgical and familial relevant history. On physical examination, he had ascites without signs. Chylous ascites due to ...

  8. Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

  9. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Seweryn, Michał; Koperny, Magdalena

    Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer's influence on population's ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost) due to 4 following reasons: 1) temporary disability to work, 2) permanent disability, 3) informal care, and 4) mortality. Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients' mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women's mortality. The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3):289-299. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Giant Pyonephrosis Due to Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sweta; Choudhary, Arpan; Basu, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    Pyonephrosis is a suppurative infection of upper urinary tract due to obstruction of the ureter. It is usually associated with suppurative damage of renal parenchyma and renal function loss. Patients are mostly symptomatic but may remain asymptomatic in 15% of cases. Severe infection in pyonephrosis may lead to urosepsis and may endangered life, if timely not treated with surgical intervention. We hereby report a rare case of Giant Pyonephrosis (GP), contained 11 liters of pus, due to Ureteropelvic Junction (UPJ) obstruction presented with haematuria. The patient was treated with open nephrectomy. The aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of pyonephrosis with the review of literature of GP in the background of a rare case report have been discussed here. PMID:28969204

  11. Study Of Gear Teeth Distortions Due To Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The work aims to study the distortion occurred due to heat treatment on the Gear teeth. The paper studies various causes of distortion control techniques to eliminate distortion which includes changes in design selection of material heat treatment process mainly due to quenching that includes cooling rates quenching mediums fixtures. An experimental study and results conducted for the effects of the distortion on the Gear teeth and to reduce the distortion with certain changes design modification resulting in shape amp size changes phase changes changes in hardness microstructure and residual stresses. It is observed that adequate velocity of quench oil around the component to be heat treated ensures uniform amp desired cooling rate as per heat treatment cycle. Modification in design of baffles achieved the adequate velocity and minimization of distortion. Also Fixtures for holding finished parts or assemblies during heat treatment may be either support or restraint type to control dimensional relations during aging.

  12. Neutron spectra due (13)N production in a PET cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, J A; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Lacerda, M A S; Fonseca, T C F; Faria, F P; da Silva, T A

    2015-05-01

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during (13)N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for (18)F production in a previous work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Secondary peritonitis due to rupture of pyometra in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino Toquero, Moisé; Bañuelos Flores, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Only 8 cases of spontaneous uterine rupture in untreated cervical cancer have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 52-year-old female, who was admitted to the emergency room due to hypovolemic shock and signs of peritonitis. A 6x4x4 cm cervical tumor was detected at physical exam. At laparotomy 2000 mL of purulent material were found and a 1-cm perforation in the posterior portion of the uterine segment was identified. A subtotal hysterectomy was performed. The patient received antibiotic and support at Intensive Care Unit. Finally, the patient presented ascendant flaccid paralysis and died due to bronchoaspiration. Spontaneous pyometra rupture in untreated cervical cancer is a rare condition and must be considered in postmenopausal women with cervical tumors and peritonitis signs.

  14. Minimizing downstream scour due to submerged hydraulic jump using corrugated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mohamed Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local scour downstream of hydraulic structures due to hydraulic jump is considered one of the tedious and complicated problems facing their stability. Throughout this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the effect of using different spaced corrugated aprons on the downstream local scour due to submerged jump. Sixty runs were carried out in a horizontal rectangular flume to determine the optimal corrugation wavelength which minimizing the scour. A case of flat apron included to estimate the influence of corrugated aprons on scour holes dimensions. Two types of non-cohesive soil were used. Experiments were performed for a range of Froude numbers between 1.68 and 9.29. The results showed that using spaced triangular corrugated aprons minimize the scour depth and length of fine sand by average percentage of 63.4% and 30.2%, respectively and for coarse sand by 44.2% and 20.6% in comparing with classical jump.

  15. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  16. Effects of BMI on Bone Loading due to Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tina; Reeves, Sue; Halsey, Lewis; Huber, Jörg; Luo, Jin

    2017-08-03

    The aim of the current study was to compare bone loading due to physical activity between lean and, overweight and obese individuals. Fifteen participants (lower BMI group: BMIBMI group: 25 kg/m(2) BMI BMI participants at a frequency band of 0.1-2 Hz (P=.039, Cohen's d =1.27) and 2-4 Hz (P=.044, d =1.24). Lower BMI participants also had a significantly greater step count (P=.023, d =1.55). This corroborated with loading intensity (d ≥ 0.93) and questionnaire (d =0.79) effect sizes to indicate higher BMI participants tended to spend more time in very light, and less time in light and moderate activity. Overall participants with a lower BMI exhibited greater bone loading due to physical activity; participants with a higher BMI may benefit from more light and moderate level activity to maintain bone health.

  17. A case of recurrent agranulocytosis due to levamisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Jose, Mohan B; Benjamin, Jobin R

    2015-01-01

    Agranulocytosis is a rare complication of levamisole. We report a 22-year-old female who developed agranulocytosis due to levamisole. The patient initially presented with salmonellosis and agranulocytosis, and then she recovered with treatment. However, 2 months after discharge, she again presented with tonsillitis and agranulocytosis. This time the family revealed that she had been taking levamisole. Though Salmonella infection is a recognized cause of agranulocytosis, any patient presenting with repeated agranulocytosis after an initial recovery should make the clinician suspect another cause, especially drug-induced. A case of Salmonella infection where levamisole was an unsuspecting cause of agranulocytosis has not been described in indexed literature. Recurrent agranulocytosis due to repeated exposure to levamisole has also not been described.

  18. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis.

  19. Self-limiting pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Naoyuki; Fukano, Hiroshi; Mouri, Keiji; Fukuda, Minoru; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Oka, Mikio

    2005-08-01

    A case of self-limiting pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae is described. A 39-year-old male visited our hospital complaining of a persistent cough. No antibiotics were administered to this patient because of the absence of fever and a mild positive inflammatory response, but an infiltrate on a chest radiograph improved. Finally, a diagnosis of C. pneumoniae pneumonia was made by seroconversion of the C. pneumoniae-specific antibody and detection of the C. pneumoniae gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Self-limiting C. pneumoniae pneumonia is rarely encountered, although self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections due to C. pneumoniae are common. Thus, most self-limiting C. pneumoniae pneumonia may be missed when symptoms are minimal.

  20. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  1. Non-traumatic keratitis due to Colletotrichum truncatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamos, Reina; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M. S.; Martínez, Gerardo; Hagen, Ferry; Velar, Rosario; de la Caridad Castillo Pérez, Alexeide; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The fungal genus Colletotrichum is an uncommon cause of human infections. It has been implicated in cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, artritis and keratitis secondary to traumatic implantation. Case presentation: We report two cases of keratitis due Colletotrichum truncatum in middle-aged, immunocompetent persons without history of trauma. The aetiological agents were identified based on DNA sequencing. Azoles and echinocandins showed high minimal inhibitory concentrations while amphotericin B was ≤ 0.25  mg l−1. Both patients failed topical antifungal treatment and needed penetrating keratoplasty with a favourable outcome. Conclusion: C. truncatum caused keratomycosis which did not respond to topical antifungal agents. To the best of our knowledge these are the first reported cases of keratitis due to this fungus in Cuba and Latin-America and highlights the expanding spectrum of fungal agents causing eye infections. PMID:28348770

  2. Road accident due to a pancreatic insulinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Amilcare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Trastulli, Stefano; Barberini, Francesco; Corsi, Alessia; Cacurri, Alban; Renzi, Claudio; Anastasio, Fabio; Battista, Francesca; Pucci, Giacomo; Noya, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Insulinoma is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumor, typically sporadic and solitary. Although the Whipple triad, consisting of hypoglycemia, neuroglycopenic symptoms, and symptoms relief with glucose administration, is often present, the diagnosis may be challenging when symptoms are less typical. We report a case of road accident due to an episode of loss of consciousness in a patient with pancreatic insulinoma. In the previous months, the patient had occasionally reported nonspecific symptoms. During hospitalization, endocrine examinations were compatible with an insulin-producing tumor. Abdominal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed us to identify and localize the tumor. The patient underwent a robotic distal pancreatectomy with partial omentectomy and splenectomy. Insulin-producing tumors may go undetected for a long period due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, and may cause episodes of loss of consciousness with potentially lethal consequences. Robot-assisted procedures can be performed with the same techniques of the traditional surgery, reducing surgical trauma, intraoperative blood loss, and hospital stays.

  3. Cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, L; Merlini, L; Savini, R; Davidovits, P

    1983-09-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine may be a cause of cervical myelopathy. This ossification has often been encountered in Japan, but only sporadically among the Caucasian races. It is therefore probable that racial factors are relevant to the pathology. During the past four years, due to the routine use of computerised axial tomography (CAT) in the pre-operative study of cervical myelopathy, we were able to show that in 13 cases stenosis of the vertebral canal was due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. This was visible in the standard radiographs in only two out of these 13 cases. The clinical data, diagnostic criteria and results of treatment are reported. This is the largest series yet reported outside Japan.

  4. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  5. Chronic Low Back Pain due to Retroperitoneal Cystic Lymphangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Abdominal cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign neoplasm. Less than 1% of lymphangiomas is in the retroperitoneum. Lymphangioma is mostly asymptomatic. Chronic symptoms were reported in retroperitoneal type more than others. Acute symptoms due to complications like infection, cyst rupture or hemorrhage may occur. We report an 18-years-old girl with low back pain from 6 months ago with huge pelvic mass and diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma.

  6. Chronic Low Back Pain due to Retroperitoneal Cystic Lymphangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign neoplasm. Less than 1% of lymphangiomas is in the retroperitoneum. Lymphangioma is mostly asymptomatic. Chronic symptoms were reported in retroperitoneal type more than others. Acute symptoms due to complications like infection, cyst rupture or hemorrhage may occur. We report an 18-years-old girl with low back pain from 6 months ago with huge pelvic mass and diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma.

  7. [Respiratory insufficiency due to duplications of the oesophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Duplications of the oesophagus are uncommon congenital malformations with possible occurrence in any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The duplications may be cysts, diverticula or tubular-shaped. Cysts may even occur further away from the gastrointestinal tract, not necessarily having contact with it. I present a patient case, in which a 13-month-old child was brought to the emergency room due to gradually increasing dyspnea. The child made a full recovery after the surgical procedure.

  8. Treatment of recurrent trigeminal neuralgia due to Teflon granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Capelle, Hans-Holger; Brandis, Almuth; Tschan, Christoph A.; Krauss, Joachim K

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD) may be due to insufficient decompression, dislocation of the implant to pad the neurovascular contact, or the development of granuloma. Here, we report on our experience with Teflon granuloma including its treatment and histopathological examination. In a series of 200 patients with trigeminal neuralgia MVD was performed with Teflon felt according to Jannetta’s technique. In three patients with recurrent facial pain Teflon...

  9. Intestinal obstruction due to Taenia saginata infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, L M

    1992-10-01

    Surgical complications of Taenia saginata infection, the bovine tapeworm which man acquires by eating undercooked beef, are mentioned in standard texts; however, none of these seem to give any specific reference. Reported here is one case of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a bolus impaction of Taenia saginata at the level of the ileocaecal valve. The rarity of this clinical presentation as well as the probable mechanism of obstruction are discussed.

  10. Quantifying reserve demands due to increasing wind power penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Ronan; O'Malley, Mark

    2003-01-01

    With wind power penetration increasing in many systems worldwide, operational issues are beginning to emerge due to the uncertain nature of wind power. One of these issues is the provision of reserve for system security. To analyse this, one must consider generator outage rates, system load forecast errors and wind power forecast errors in such a way as to directly relate the system reserve level to the security of the system. In this paper a new methodology is proposed for the analysi...

  11. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Sawan Verma; Irfan Yousuf; Mushtaq Ahmad Wani; Ravouf Asimi; Sheikh Saleem; Mudasir Mushtaq; Irfan Shah; Skeikh Nawaz; Riyaz Ahmad Daga

    2014-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and high-dose chemotherapy) in the imaging, clinical and laboratory features of this toxic state are becoming better elucidated. We are presenting a case of PRES due ...

  12. 8 . TOTAL THRUST ON EARTH-RETAlNING STRUCTURES DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    application on an earth-retaining structure due to surcharges. The tests .... some operations in the trigonometric functions of. Eq. (9). z•. L Xo-b/2 ..... simplifies to: Substituting for 01 and 02. °t = .I() + b/2 and a2 = .I() - b/2. and noting that the total stress area. A = Ew3 = m3 qH. [see Eq. (12)]. Journal o/EAEA, VoL 16, 1999 ...

  13. Myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to KCNC1 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, Karen L; Franceschetti, Silvana; Milligan, Carol J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively describe the new syndrome of myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation (MEAK), including cellular electrophysiological characterization of observed clinical improvement with fever. METHODS: We analyzed clinical, electroclinical, and neuroimaging.......5), with progressively severe myoclonus and rare tonic-clonic seizures. Ataxia was present early, but quickly became overshadowed by myoclonus; 10 patients were wheelchair-bound by their late teenage years. Mild cognitive decline occurred in half. Early death was not observed. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed...

  14. Micromechanics of Size Effect in Failure Due to Distributed Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-26

    and a higher percentage of mortar: hence it is more homogeneous, which should promote localization. Another difference is due to the effect of Poisson ...11 fracture Dube ar , henergy G," obtained from the preceding tests of notched Doubs aose hoeve, wen dnamc tstsof er- beams, although still larger...possible to obtain any value of elastic Poisson ratio between -1 and 0.5 and, more importantly, has been found by experience to be essential for al

  15. Reducing Energy Waste Due to Idle Network Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rafiullah; Khan, Sarmad Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Network devices always demand full time Internet connectivity for remote access, VoIP & Instant Messaging (IM) clients and other Internet based applications. Their built-in low power management features are usually disabled by users due to their incapability of maintaining network connectivity. The concept of Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP) has recently been proposed as an effective mechanism for reducing energy waste by impersonating presence of sleeping devices. However, proposed strat...

  16. A calculation of confusion noise due to infrared cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, T. N., III; Boulanger, Francois; Perault, M.; Puget, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    General expressions are developed for the statistical errors to be expected in photometric measurements due to confusion in a background of fluctuating surface brightness. Backgrounds actually observed in the far IR by the IRAS satellite are used to calculate tables of these error expressions for two simple measurement techniques. The confusion-noise-limited sensitivities for NASA's planned Space IR Telescope Facility and the ESA's IR Space Observatory are estimated at a wavelength of 100 microns from these tables.

  17. Characteristics of Meningitis Due to Methylobacterium mesophilicum: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchuk, Alexander; Zubach, Olena; Zadorozhnyj, Andrij; Chudina, Yulia; Bilavka, Valentyna

    2015-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum is a gram-negative bacillus most often isolated in medical establishments. In humans, M. mesophilicum is considered a conditionally pathogenic flora. Infections in humans generally occur in immunodeficient individuals. This article describes a rare case of M. mesophilicum infection that developed into acute meningitis in a 26-year-old patient. Decreased neutrophil bactericidal activity was also detected. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of meningitis due to M. mesophilicum.

  18. Acute circulatory deficiency due to endocrinal tumoral manipulation: the pinealoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heithem, Chemchihik; Issaoui, Ghazi; Khadraoui, Mejdi; Ladib, Mohamed; Naija, Walid; Said, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    We rapport the case of a patient presenting intra-abdominal metastasis of a pinealoblastoma, via a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, confirmed by an anatomo-pathologic exam. The patient presented an acute hydrocephalus secondary to DVP dysfunction. The surgical manipulation of this metastasis had caused an acute circulatory deficiency due to massive serotonin release. In this case we analyze pineal gland physiology and serotonin effect on different systems.

  19. Acute circulatory deficiency due to endocrinal tumoral manipulation: the pinealoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Heithem, Chemchihik; Issaoui, Ghazi; Khadraoui, Mejdi; Ladib, Mohamed; Naija, Walid; Said, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    We rapport the case of a patient presenting intra-abdominal metastasis of a pinealoblastoma, via a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, confirmed by an anatomo-pathologic exam. The patient presented an acute hydrocephalus secondary to DVP dysfunction. The surgical manipulation of this metastasis had caused an acute circulatory deficiency due to massive serotonin release. In this case we analyze pineal gland physiology and serotonin effect on different systems.

  20. Hemifacial spasm due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AbdelHamid, MD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemifacial spasm (HFS happens because of vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD is a very rare cause of HFS. VBD is diagnosed by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we report a case of 65-year-old female patient with HFS due to VBD. We discuss the complications and the treatment options for the case.

  1. Delayed Language Development Due to Infantile Thiamine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Azouri-Fattal, Iris; Greenstein, Yoram J.; Guindy, Michal; Blau, Ayala; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the language development of 20 children who had been exposed to thiamine (vitamin B[subscript 1]) deficiency in infancy due to feeding with soy-based formula that was accidentally deficient of thiamine. In this case-control study, 20 children (12 males, eight females; mean age 31.8 mo [SD 4.1], range 24-39…

  2. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    OpenAIRE

    Aghilinejad M; AH Mehrparvar; Mohammadi S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. Case presentation We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and was treated appropriately with lead chelator (CaNa2EDTA). Conclusion ...

  3. Eosinophilic Meningitis Due to Infection With Paragonimus kellicotti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Trotman, Robin L; Samman, Hala; Jung, Richard S; Rosterman, Lee R; Weil, Gary J; Hinthorn, Daniel R

    2017-05-01

    Paragonimus kellicotti is an emerging pathogen in the United States with 19 previously reported cases, most in Missouri. Pulmonary symptoms with eosinophilia are most common, though 1 case did involve the central nervous system with few symptoms. We describe the first 2 cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to Paragonimus kellicotti. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Meningoencephalitis due to anthrax: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Hanefi; Koc, Mustafa; Murat, Ayse [Firat University, Department of Radiology, Elazig (Turkey); Kabakus, Nimet; Incekoey Girgin, Feyza [Firat University, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Elazig (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, but it also causes cutaneous, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in humans. Bacillus anthracis is an uncommon cause of meningitis and generally produces a haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis. We present the CT and MR findings of anthrax meningoencephalitis due to the cutaneous form of anthrax in a 12-year-old boy. They showed focal intracerebral haemorrhage with leptomeningeal enhancement. (orig.)

  5. Symmetry restoration due to preheating and lepton number asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2017-09-01

    We study a possible symmetry restoration due to the radiative effect of particles which are explosively produced in preheating after inflation. As its application, we consider a scenario for leptogenesis based on the lepton number asymmetry generated in the right-handed neutrino sector through the inflaton decay. The scenario is examined in a one-loop radiative neutrino mass model extended with singlet scalars.

  6. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL ON INDUSTRIALIZATION DUE TO HUMAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Sebastian; Preethi Victor

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model is proposed and analyzed to study the Industrialization due to human population. We consider the variables namely, density of the human population and the Industries. We consider that the growth rate of industries is dependent on the density of human population. It is noted that for sustained industrialization, control measures on its growth are required to maintain the ecological stability. We discretize the model by applying Backward Euler metho...

  7. Modelling the Magnetic Disturbances Due to Road-Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J -J Schott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic disturbances due to the traffic are tentatively modelled assuming that the sources are moving dipoles. The influencing section of the road ("useful" portion should be modelled in 3D. The parameters of the model (time of closest position to the magnetometer, velocity, including its sign, dipole moment are fairly accurately estimated. The fit is improved with the incorporation of a small induction effect.

  8. Necrotizing gastritis due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.

  9. Gastrosplenic fistula due to splenic large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Lu Ding

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gastrosplenic fistula (GSF is an unusual complication arising from a variety of primary gastric or splenic malignant lesions and less commonly from benign diseases. Splenic large cell lymphoma may be a main cause of this distinctive complication. We report a case of 62-year-old male with spontaneous GSF due to pathologically proven splenic large cell lymphoma who was diagnosed by computed tomography and treated successfully by surgical management.

  10. Fuel Loss and Jams due to Pausing Railroad Crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Harada, Yoshiaki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, all cars must pause before crossing the railroad for avoiding the accidents. This rule was established by a law in 1960. In fact, however, railroad crossings come to the serious bottlenecks because of this pausing rule and this bottleneck causes heavy jams. In this study, by using cellular automaton model we have investigated the traffic flow at railroad crossings in two cases: with pausing and without pausing. Moreover, the lost time due to pausing at railroad crossings have been a...

  11. Space shuttle contamination due to backflow from control motor exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S. J.; Chan, S. T. K.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination of the space shuttle orbiter and accompanying Spacelab payloads is studied. The scattering of molecules from the vernier engines and flash evaporator nozzle after impingement on the orbiter wing surfaces, and the backflow of molecules out of the flash evaporator nozzle plume flow field due to intermolecular collisions in the plume are the problems discussed. A method was formulated for dealing with these problems, and detailed results are given.

  12. Mortality due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Burden and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Erviti, Anabella; Caballero, Mauricio T; Vallone, Fernando; Zanone, Stella M; Losada, Juan Ves; Bianchi, Alejandra; Acosta, Patricio L; Talarico, Laura B; Ferretti, Adrian; Grimaldi, Luciano Alva; Sancilio, Andrea; Dueñas, Karina; Sastre, Gustavo; Rodriguez, Andrea; Ferrero, Fernando; Barboza, Edgar; Gago, Guadalupe Fernández; Nocito, Celina; Flamenco, Edgardo; Perez, Alberto Rodriguez; Rebec, Beatriz; Ferolla, F Martin; Libster, Romina; Karron, Ruth A; Bergel, Eduardo; Polack, Fernando P

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization and an important cause of death in infants in the developing world. The relative contribution of social, biologic, and clinical risk factors to RSV mortality in low-income regions is unclear. To determine the burden and risk factors for mortality due to RSV in a low-income population of 84,840 infants. This was a prospective, population-based, cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted between 2011 and 2013. Hospitalizations and deaths due to severe lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) were recorded during the RSV season. All-cause hospital deaths and community deaths were monitored. Risk factors for respiratory failure (RF) and mortality due to RSV were assessed using a hierarchical, logistic regression model. A total of 2,588 (65.5%) infants with severe LRTI were infected with RSV. A total of 157 infants (148 postneonatal) experienced RF or died with RSV. RSV LRTI accounted for 57% fatal LRTI tested for the virus. A diagnosis of sepsis (odds ratio [OR], 17.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.14-21.16 for RF) (OR, 119.39; 95% CI, 50.98-273.34 for death) and pneumothorax (OR, 17.15; 95% CI, 13.07-21.01 for RF) (OR, 65.49; 95% CI, 28.90-139.17 for death) were the main determinants of poor outcomes. RSV was the most frequent cause of mortality in low-income postneonatal infants. RF and death due to RSV LRTI, almost exclusively associated with prematurity and cardiopulmonary diseases in industrialized countries, primarily affect term infants in a developing world environment. Poor outcomes at hospitals are frequent and associated with the cooccurrence of bacterial sepsis and clinically significant pneumothoraxes.

  13. Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist.

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy, M S; Beattie, B E; Burge, P S

    1985-01-01

    A toolsetter developed occupational asthma due to the oil mist generated by his lathe on which it was used as a coolant. The diagnosis was confirmed by serial measurements of peak expiratory flow at home and work, including a prolonged period away from work. Occupational type bronchial provocation tests were performed using the whole emulsified oil and its components separately. He reacted specifically to the whole emulsified oil and to the reodorant, a pine oil preparation. He also reacted t...

  14. Somnambulism Due to Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Somnambulism (sleep walking is a disorder of arousal that falls under the parasomnia group. It is more common in children than in adults. (1. The onset of sleep walking in adult life is most unusual and suggests the presence of secondary causes rather than a primary sleep disorder (1. We report a 30-year-old male who presented with repeated episodes of sleep waling possibly due to nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy.

  15. [Cervical lymphoadenopathy due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following mesotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaladi, Ali Muftah; Crestani, Francesco; Bocchi, Anna; Saltari, Maria Rita; Piva, Bruno; Tartari, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    Mesotherapy is a treatment method devised for controlling several diseases by means of subcutaneous microinjections given at or around the affected areas at short time intervals. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, amongst which all orthopaedic diseases and rheumatic pain. Mesotherapy is especially indicated for neck pain. The mechanism of action is twofold: a pharmacological effect due to the drug administered, and a reflexogenic effect, the skin containing many nerve endings that are sensitive to the mechanical action of the needle. Although this therapy is safe, like any other medical intervention it cannot be considered free of complications that may occur, such as allergies, haematomas, bruising, wheals, granulomas and telangiectasias. Infective complications are also possible, due to pathogenic bacteria that are inoculated through contamination of products, of the materials used for the procedure or even from germs on the skin. We present the case of a patient who had cervical lymphadenopathy due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa after mesotherapy treatment for neck pain.

  16. Readmissions due to traffic accidents at a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paiva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to verify the occurrence and the causes of hospital readmissions within a year after discharge from hospitalizations due to traffic accidents.Methods: victims of multiple traumas due to traffic accidents were included, who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Sociodemographic data, accident circumstances, body regions affected and cause of readmission were collected from the patient histories.Results: among the 109 victims of traffic accidents, the majority were young and adult men. Most hospitalizations due to accidents involved motorcycle drivers (56.9%. The causes of the return to the hospital were: need to continue the surgical treatment (63.2%, surgical site infection (26.3% and fall related to the physical sequelae of the trauma (10.5%. The rehospitalization rate corresponded to 174/1,000 people/year.Conclusion: the hospital readmission rate in the study population is similar to the rates found in other studies. Victims of severe limb traumas need multiple surgical procedures, lengthier hospitalizations and extended rehabilitation.

  17. Work leave among nursing professionals due to psychological etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Douglas de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the incidence and the length of periods off work specifically linked to psychological causes among nursing professionals. Furthermore, the study tried to identify risk factors for the work leaves and suggest actions that can mitigate the problems encountered. Methods: This was a retrospective, ecological study, in the largest public hospital of Curitiba-PR, with data from 3,692 nurses (2,294 auxiliary nurses, 590 nursing technicians and 808 nurses from January 2007 to September 2010. An exploratory review was performed to form the theoretical basis of this study. The annual incidences for each type of work leave due to psychological causes were identified, among the nursing professionals. Results: It was found that the main cause of absenteeism were depressive episodes (F32, with 784 leaves. As for the length of time, the cause for longer periods off among nurses (40.62 days on average was the bipolar affective disorder (F31. Nursing assistants and technicians were away from work due to recurrent depressive disorder (F33 on average for 40.47 days and 54.33 days, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high incidence of depressive episodes and the mean duration of absenteeism due to psychological causes was over 30 days, pointing to the need of investments in prevention and in healthcare for nursing professionals. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p554

  18. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, B-A; Diallo, M; Diadie, S; Faye, B; Ndiaye, M; Hakim, H; Diallo, S; Seck, B; Niang, S-O; Kane, A; Dieng, M-T

    2016-10-01

    In Senegal, reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are often due to Leishmania major. Immunosuppression related to HIV infection contributes to the emergence of leishmaniasis in humans and to cutaneous localization of viscerotropic species. We report the first observed case in Senegal of opportunistic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum associated with HIV. A 5-year-old boy presented crusted ulcerative lesions of the scalp and left forearm, together with axillary and cervical lymphadenopathy present for two months. Direct parasitological examination of the scalp and arm lesions, coupled with liquid aspiration of lymph nodes and bone marrow, enabled identification of amastigote forms of Leishmania. Polymerase chain reaction performed on skin, lymph node and bone marrow biopsy samples allowed identification of L. infantum. The child was positive for HIV1. Treatment of HIV infection and leishmaniasis resulted in clinical improvement. Co-infection with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum and HIV is a complex combination in terms of the related therapeutic issues. The clinical and laboratory outcomes depend on restoration of immunity and on the efficacy, safety and availability of anti-leishmaniasis drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel due to Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Park, Duck Gun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Thermal SS sets are located above the nuclear core where a fast neutron flux is negligible and temperature is 320 .deg. C (as opposed to 290 .deg. C in locations of high-irradiated SS). These SS allow monitoring of continuous operation temperature exposure effect on mechanical characteristics of the steels. Although transgranular cleavage is the predominant mode of brittle fracture in RPV steels, solute (e.g. phosphorus) segregation to grain boundaries can result in another type of brittle fracture known as intergranular (grain boundary) fracture. Figures 1 a) and b) show examples of transgranular and intergranular (IG) fracture, respectively, as viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The investigators have interpreted the intergranular cracking occurs as a result of segregation of sulfur and/or phosphorus at grain boundary. The IG cracking is a kind of symptom of embrittlement. It is reported that the IG cracking occurs in inert (Ar) environment under slow strain rate test. 1. The lath grain size in SA508 RPV steel increases slightly due to thermal aging at 350, 420, and 420 .deg. C for 2,250H. 2. The decrease in toughness appeared 4-25% and the lattice contraction appeared to be +0.004% - -0.022% due to thermal aging at 350, 420, and 420 .deg. C for 2,250H. 3. The amount of decrease in Charpy impact energy due to thermal aging is correlated well with the magnitude of lattice contraction.

  20. SIMULATION OF SCOURING AROUND A VERTICAL CYLINDER DUE TO TSUNAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local scour due to tsunami is damaging especially on shallow foundation. Although relatively in a short duration, tsunami attack may scour material around buildings that led to destruction. A number of formulae on local scouring due to flood and tsunami have been available. The local scouring pattern and depth produced by tsunami may be affected by tsunami duration and tsunami surge Froude number and hence different to that resulted by flood which normally have much longer duration and lower Froude number. The research used a relatively short flume to create short duration tsunami surge that run-up on 1:20 beach slope and hit a vertical cylinder on land. Both the pattern and the depth of local scouring around the cylinder were observed and the results were compared with similar research but with different tsunami surge characteristic. It was shown that the maximum scour depth was significantly deeper than the final scour depth. When compared with other experimental study of local scour due to tsunami, the present local scour maximum depth seemed to be slightly less. This could have been caused by the relatively short duration of the present experiment. It was also found that the sidewall effect was insignificant when the ratio of cylinder diameter to the flume width was less then approximately 0.15.

  1. [Percutaneous surgery for plantar fasciitis due to a calcaneal spur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstol-González, Saúl; Herrera, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Determine the efficacy of percutaneous surgical treatment for talalgia due to a calcaneal spur. This is an observational, descriptive, clinical series analyzing the outcomes of 10 patients with a diagnosis of talalgia due to plantar fasciitis with a calcaneal spur treated with percutaneous foot surgery. The end result was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS) to measure pain, the patients' opinion and their return to activities of daily living. Central tendency and scatter measurements were calculated. The inferential analysis was done with the non-parametric chi square (chi2) test. Most patients were females (90%) and mean age was 40.5 years. Follow-up was 12 months. One patient had bleeding of the approached area. Pain was reduced from 8 to 1.5 in the VAS. Nine patients returned to their activities. Two patients had occasional mild pain upon prolonged bipedestation. Ninety percent of results were satisfactory. Percutaneous foot surgery in talalgias caused by plantar fasciitis due to a calcaneal spur is a simple and effective method. It reduces the operative time and allows for an early return of patients to their activities of daily living.

  2. Unusual forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M; Greenberger, S; Baum, S; Pavlotsky, F; Barzilai, A; Schwartz, E

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to Leishmania major (L. major) is common in the Middle East; however, this skin infection may be under-diagnosed when it presents atypically. To highlight the occurrence of uncommon presentations of CL that may elude diagnosis. A retrospective study was performed among patients who presented at The Sheba Medical Center between 2005 and 2014 with atypical clinical presentations of CL due to L. major. Twelve patients with unusual clinical presentations of L. major CL were identified. All infections were acquired in L. major - endemic areas of Israel. The average age was 37 years. The average number of lesions was 2. Nine patients presented with a form that mimicked other forms of CL, such as lupoid, giant ulcer, sporotrichoid and recidivans, and three had a variant resembling other infectious skin diseases, such as erysipeloid and verruciform. All patients required systemic therapy. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major can masquerade as many other infectious and inflammatory diseases. In addition, it can mimic clinical forms of New World CL. We suggest that in endemic countries or in travellers returning from countries where L. major is endemic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania-specific DNA should be performed routinely in cases of unusual presentations of dermatitis with a single or a few lesions, even if a diagnosis of CL was not considered by the referring clinician. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Recurrent iridocyclitis due to cotton fiber in anterior chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh S

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is commonly used during ophthalmic surgical procedure. Cotton fibers may get attracted to the instruments due to electrostatic forces and become adhered to the surface. With the introduction of these instruments during the surgical procedure cotton fiber may get entry into the eye. In the literature they have been infrequently reported due to insignificant effect on the ocular structures. We present a case of recurrent iridocyclitis due to cotton fiber in the anterior chamber. Patient was relived of his symptoms after removal. A 78-year-old male presented with pain, redness and blurring of right eye vision since last six months. The patient had undergone phacoemulsification with implantation of hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL) six years earlier. Postoperative follow up was uneventful from his records till last 6 months. Slit-lamp examination revealed a cotton fiber in the anterior chamber touching the endothelium. Keratic precipitates were seen on the endothelium. Removal of the cotton fiber resulted in subsidence of inflammation. We recommend use of plastic eye and trolley drapes, lint free instrument wipes and use of needle cap to support the globe during creation of side port while performing phacoemulsification instead of cotton buds to avoid entry of cotton fiber into the anterior chamber. © NEPjOPH.

  4. Assessment of ecosystem productivity damage due to land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaenchan, Piyanon; Guinée, Jeroen; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2017-10-18

    Land use can affect ecosystems on land and their services. Because land use has mainly local effects, damage to ecosystem productivity due to land use should be modelled spatially dependent. Unfortunately, even though land use of impacts are particular importance for countries whose economies are highly agriculture-based, ecosystem productivity damage due to land use has not yet been assessed in Thailand so far. This study presents the method for assessing the damage to ecosystem productivity due to land use (land occupation and land transformation) in Thailand. Ecosystem productivity damage is expressed through net primary production (NPP). To convert the damage into monetary units, this study performs an economic valuation of NPP using the production function approach. The results show that the value of marginal product of NPP is around 10-15 Thai baht (THB) (1 USD≈36 THB), per tonne dry weight biomass. The results are applied to the case of biodiesel production. The method presented in this paper could be a guideline for future land use impact assessment research. In addition, converting the NPP damage results into monetary units facilitates integration of impact assessment and economic analysis results for supporting decision support tools such as cost benefit analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vertigo in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients Due to Other Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyouni, Ronald; Moshtaghi, Omid; Haidar, Yarah M; Mahboubi, Hossein; Moshtaghi, Afsheen; Lin, Harrison W; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-12-01

    To report findings from a cohort of vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients presenting with vertigo from a secondary comorbid vestibular disorder; and to discuss management strategies for this subset of patients presenting with both episodic vertigo and VS. All VS patients who presented with vertigo as the primary symptom from 2012 to 2015 and endorsing no other major complaints were examined. Treatment with migraine lifestyle and prophylactic therapy, or Epley maneuver. Resolution of vertigo following medical treatment alone. Of the nine patients studied, seven (78%) suffered from vestibular migraine, and two (22%) experienced benign positional vertigo. All patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms after treatment. As a result of symptomatic improvement, seven patients (78%) avoided surgery in favor of observation, while two patients (22%) underwent radiosurgery due to continued tumor growth and other nonvertigo symptoms. VS patients can sometimes present with a history of recurrent episodic vertigo. The etiology of the vertigo could be due to the tumor itself or may be due to an underlying comorbidity such as vestibular migraine or benign positional vertigo. VS patients presenting with vertigo should undergo a standard vertigo history and examination to identify other potential causes of vertigo. Most VS patients in our cohort avoided intervention and had resolution of their vertigo.

  6. Leukocyte count and incidence of hospitalizations due to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Hedblad, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte concentration in blood is a classical marker of systemic inflammation. Whether high leukocyte counts are associated with incidence of heart failure (HF) is unknown. This population-based study explored whether the leukocyte concentrations were associated with incidence of hospitalizations due to HF. Leukocyte counts were measured in 16 940 men from the general population (mean age 44 years) without history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Incidence of hospitalizations due to HF (primary diagnosis) was monitored over 23 years of follow-up, in relation to quartiles of leukocytes. Subjects with myocardial infarction during follow-up were censored in the main analysis. During the follow-up, 436 men were hospitalized due to HF. Incidence of HF hospitalizations was increased in men with high leukocyte counts. After adjustments for confounding factors, the adjusted hazards ratio (HR, 95% CI) for HF hospitalization was 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.93 to 1.7), 1.24 (0.91 to 1.7), and 1.73 (1.3 to 2.3), respectively, for men with leukocytes in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th (highest) quartiles (trend, Pleukocyte counts in middle-aged men were associated with increased long-term incidence of HF hospitalizations.

  7. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Bursitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastiaux, H; Maillard, H; Bara, C; Catala, S; Steff, M; Célérier, P

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium intracellulare are infrequent. We report a case of bursitis in an immunocompetent patient. A 80-year-old patient with a history of tuberculosis reported swelling of the elbow for six months with effusion due to olecranon bursitis, progressing to an abscess and skin ulceration. Examination of the synovial fluid revealed the presence of M. intracellulare. Histologic investigations showed epithelioid and gigantocellular granulations. Screening for immunodepression was negative. Treatment with clarithromycin and rifabutin proved effective, with partial healing at three months, although hepatic and ocular side effects occurred. While osteomyelitis, arthritis and cutaneous infections due to M. intracellulare have been described in immunocompromised patients, there are very few reported cases concerning immunocompetent individuals, and these suggest the possibility of special individual sensitivity to mycobacterial infections. Genetic mutations of the interleukin-12-interferon-gamma pathway involved in the immune response to mycobacterial infections have been demonstrated. Autoantibodies against interferon-gamma have also been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is resistant to the classical antibiotics used in tuberculosis. As in pulmonary infections, antibiotics with proven in vivo and in vitro efficacy must be used, taking into account the antibiogram and potential side effects, particularly for combined clarithromycin and rifabutin. This case report emphasizes the benefits of routine mycobacterial investigation of synovial fluid samples.

  9. Productivity Cost Due to Maternal Ill Health in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth; Agampodi, Thilini; Wickramasinghe, Nuwan; Fernando, Santhushya; Chathurani, Umanga; Adhikari, Wathsala; Dharshika, Ishani; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela; Dharmaratne, Samath; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. Methods and Findings We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3%) reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8%) of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1%) of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss) and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss). Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60%) had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215) was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64) was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78). Conclusions Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy. PMID:22879943

  10. Productivity cost due to maternal ill health in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3% reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8% of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1% of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss. Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60% had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215 was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64 was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy.

  11. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in pattern dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P J; Schultz, D W; Gregory, A M; Schain, M B; Barra, R; Majewski, J; Ott, J; Acott, T; Weleber, R G; Klein, M L

    2005-01-01

    Background: The pattern dystrophies (PD) represent a clinically heterogeneous family of inherited macular diseases frequently caused by mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. Most previous studies have detailed the clinical findings in single families, making it difficult to derive data from which progression and visual outcome can be generalised. Methods: Families were ascertained and clinically evaluated including angiography and electrophysiology where appropriate. Results: In each of the six families with autosomal dominant PD, a mutation in the peripherin/RDS gene was identified, including a novel Cys250Phe variant. These data suggest that the condition is characterised by the accumulation of yellow to grey subretinal flecks, followed by pigmentary change accompanied by patches of chorioretinal atrophy. Subsequently, 50% (16/32) of individuals with PD developed poor central vision because of chorioretinal geographic atrophy or subretinal neovascularisation. The risk of these complications appears to increase with age. Conclusion: PD should not necessarily be considered a benign condition. Instead, patients should be counselled that there is a significant chance of losing central vision in their later years. Some elderly patients with probands showing PD may be misdiagnosed with age related macular degeneration owing to the phenotypic similarities between these conditions in the advanced state. PMID:16113362

  12. TYPE 2 (SUBRETINAL) NEOVASCULARIZATION IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH PURE RETICULAR PSEUDODRUSEN PHENOTYPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysan, Jonathan; Jung, Jesse J; Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Freund, K Bailey

    2016-03-01

    To report the association of pure type 2 neovascularization (NV) in age-related macular degeneration occurring almost exclusively in patients with reticular pseudodrusen. An observational retrospective cohort study of all eyes receiving antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy for newly diagnosed neovascular age-related macular degeneration by a single practitioner over a 6-year period. Only patients with treatment-naive, pure type 2 NV who also had either pre-neovascular imaging of the study eye or imaging of a nonneovascular fellow eye available to determine baseline characteristics including drusen type and choroidal thickness were incuded. Of 694 patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, only 8 met the inclusion criteria with pure type 2 NV. Of these, 7 (88%) had exclusively reticular pseudodrusen (5 in the nonneovascular fellow eye, 2 in the study eye before developing NV). Six (75%) patients in the affected neovascular eye and 6 (75%) in the fellow nonneovascular eye had choroidal thickness age-related macular degeneration, occurring almost exclusively in patients with reticular pseudodrusen and thin choroids.

  13. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources.

  14. HIV due to female sex work: regional and global estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Prüss-Ustün

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSWs are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. METHODS: Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. RESULTS: An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. DISCUSSION: Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. CONCLUSION: FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population.

  15. HIV due to female sex work: regional and global estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Wolf, Jennyfer; Driscoll, Tim; Degenhardt, Louisa; Neira, Maria; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of HIV infection. Our objective was to determine the proportion of HIV prevalence in the general female adult population that is attributable to the occupational exposure of female sex work, due to unprotected sexual intercourse. Population attributable fractions of HIV prevalence due to female sex work were estimated for 2011. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve required input data from available sources. Data gaps of HIV prevalence in FSWs for 2011 were filled using multilevel modeling and multivariate linear regression. The fraction of HIV attributable to female sex work was estimated as the excess HIV burden in FSWs deducting the HIV burden in FSWs due to injecting drug use. An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to (unsafe) female sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is Sub Saharan Africa, but the burden is also substantial for the Caribbean, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. We estimate 106,000 deaths from HIV are a result of female sex work globally, 98,000 of which occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV prevalence in other population groups originating from sexual contact with FSWs had been considered, the overall attributable burden would probably be much larger. Female sex work is an important contributor to HIV transmission and the global HIV burden. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. These must be scaled up. FSWs suffer from high HIV burden and are a crucial core population for HIV transmission. Surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV in FSWs should benefit both this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population.

  16. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Obesity due to Genomic Imprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G

    2011-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder due to errors in genomic imprinting with loss of imprinted genes that are paternally expressed from the chromosome 15q11-q13 region. Approximately 70% of individuals with PWS have a de novo deletion of the paternally derived 15q11-q13 region in which there are two subtypes (i.e., larger Type I or smaller Type II), maternal disomy 15 (both 15s from the mother) in about 25% of cases, and the remaining subjects have either defects in the imprinting center controlling the activity of imprinted genes or due to other chromosome 15 rearrangements. PWS is characterized by a particular facial appearance, infantile hypotonia, a poor suck and feeding difficulties, hypogonadism and hypogenitalism in both sexes, short stature and small hands and feet due to growth hormone deficiency, mild learning and behavioral problems (e.g., skin picking, temper tantrums) and hyperphagia leading to early childhood obesity. Obesity is a significant health problem, if uncontrolled. PWS is considered the most common known genetic cause of morbid obesity in children. The chromosome 15q11-q13 region contains approximately 100 genes and transcripts in which about 10 are imprinted and paternally expressed. This region can be divided into four groups: 1) a proximal non-imprinted region; 2) a PWS paternal-only expressed region containing protein-coding and non-coding genes; 3) an Angelman syndrome region containing maternally expressed genes and 4) a distal non-imprinted region. This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic causes, the natural history and clinical presentation of individuals with PWS. PMID:22043168

  17. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  18. Minimal model for calcium alternans due to SR release refractoriness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalapiedra, Inma R.; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Peñaranda, Angelina; Echebarria, Blas

    2017-09-01

    In the heart, rapid pacing rates may induce alternations in the strength of cardiac contraction, termed pulsus alternans. Often, this is due to an instability in the dynamics of the intracellular calcium concentration, whose transients become larger and smaller at consecutive beats. This alternation has been linked experimentally and theoretically to two different mechanisms: an instability due to (1) a strong dependence of calcium release on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, together with a slow calcium reuptake into the SR or (2) to SR release refractoriness, due to a slow recovery of the ryanodine receptors (RyR2) from inactivation. The relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the RyR2 has been more elusive than the corresponding SR Ca load mechanism. To study the former, we reduce a general calcium model, which mimics the deterministic evolution of a calcium release unit, to its most basic elements. We show that calcium alternans can be understood using a simple nonlinear equation for calcium concentration at the dyadic space, coupled to a relaxation equation for the number of recovered RyR2s. Depending on the number of RyR2s that are recovered at the beginning of a stimulation, the increase in calcium concentration may pass, or not, over an excitability threshold that limits the occurrence of a large calcium transient. When the recovery of the RyR2 is slow, this produces naturally a period doubling bifurcation, resulting in calcium alternans. We then study the effects of inactivation, calcium diffusion, and release conductance for the onset of alternans. We find that the development of alternans requires a well-defined value of diffusion while it is less sensitive to the values of inactivation or release conductance.

  19. RECORD OF THE BINARY DATA ON SD CARD ARDUINO DUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The short review of microcontrollers of family Arduino, their characteristics and application fields is given. Importance of record of parameters of researched object is marked to produce debugging of control systems on microcontrollers Arduino. Unique possibility of registration of parameters in family Arduino is record on SD a card in an alpha mode with usage of functions print (, write (. The problems connected to record of the binary data on SD a card on microcontroller Arduino Due are considered. The analysis of methods of record of the binary data on SD card Arduino Due, originating problems with neo-cleaning of memory from the previous program leading to possibility of duplication of the data on SD to a card, presence of the erratic point of view about restriction of volumes of data record and necessity of usage become outdated SD cards is carried out. Ways of elimination of the marked lacks are considered. The estimation of high-speed performance of various approaches of a data recording on SD a card is led. On the basis of the led researches the approach of multiplexing of the writeable information at the expense of conversion of the binary data is offered is byte-serial in a character array in code ASCI without magnification of their volume and record by units on 240 byte. It allows to use as much as possible standard function possibilities write ( Arduino and specificity of the organization of memory SD of cards and to increase high-speed performance more than in 1100 times in comparison with record in a character type on one byte.It is marked that usage of decisions of an exception of duplication of the data offered at forums does not provide completeness of their elimination. For Arduino Due for storage cleaning it is necessary usages of the special programmator or setting of the new program of loading.

  20. Therapy-resistant septic olecranon bursitis due to Mycobacterium gordonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrads, Christian; Rückl, Kilian; El Tabbakh, Mohammed; Rudert, Maximilian; Kircher, Stefan; Plumhoff, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Septic olecranon bursitis due to atypical mycobacteria is rare. An insidious beginning can delay diagnosis and treatment. Antibacterial therapy recommendations are not well-defined for bursitis caused by atypical mycobacteria. We present a rare case of olecranon bursitis caused by Mycobacterium gordonae, reporting our experiences regarding pathogen identification and antibiotic therapy, which differs from regimes used in common septic bursitis mostly caused by staphylococcus aureus. A 35-year-old male with bursitis olecrani received open bursectomy. Microbiological culture did not reveal bacteria. Due to wound healing complications revision surgery was performed four weeks postoperatively. Finally, Mycobacterium gordonae was identified by PCR and an antibiogram could be developed. A triple antimicrobial combination therapy with Rifampicin, Clarithromycin, and Ethambutol was administered systemically for 12 months. The patient was followed-up for 24 months. After the second operation with pathogen identification and antibiotic combination therapy the wound healed without any additional complications. At last follow-up 24 months after the first surgery with bursectomy and 23 months after revision surgery with debridement, the patient was still pain free with no significant clinical findings or tenderness to touch at the operation site. Elbow range of motion was full. As septic bursitis can be caused by many different and sometimes rare and difficult to identify bacteria, intraoperative probes should be taken and histopathological and microbiological analysis should be conducted, including PCR. In a young man with olecranon bursitis due to Mycobacterium gordonae surgical treatment and an antibiotic combination therapy showed a good clinical outcome after one and two years. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  1. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  2. [Moebius syndrome due to the use of misoprostol. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Otto; Guerra, Dania

    2003-06-01

    We report a patient affected with Moebius Syndrome (OMIM 157900) due to the use of misoprostol during the first trimester of the pregnancy, when abortion was intended twice using this drug, vias vaginal (600 mg) and oral (900 mg), with failure to induce abortion on both occasions. Since the use of misoprostol for abortion, without any medical indication or supervision, appears to be rather frequent in our population and since there are reports of severe malformations in children born after failed intents of abortion with this medication, it is necessary to alert the medical community and the population in general about the teratogenic risks of this drug.

  3. Ulcerations due to methotrexate toxicity in a psoriasis patient*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Claudia Fernanda Dias; Suarez, Olga Milena Zarco; da Silva, Talita Fonseca Medeiros; Gorenstein, Ana Carolina Lourenço Araújo; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate is one of the most used drugs in the treatment of psoriasis with indication of systemic therapy. Cutaneous and mucous side effects are described by pharmacological characteristics of the drug itself or due to overdose. We report the case of a patient with ulcerations in oral mucosa and psoriatic plaques after incorrect use of Methotrexate. Prescribed in a weekly dose, it was used continuously for 10 days and without simultaneous intake of folic acid. It is important to ensure correct comprehension of the prescription. PMID:27438211

  4. Deforestation due to Urbanization: a Case Study for Trabzon, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telkenaroglu, C.; Dikmen, M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper inspects the deforestation of Trabzon in Turkey, due to urbanization, between 2006 and 2016. For this purpose, Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) images are obtained from United States Geographical Survey (USGS) archive (USGS, 2017a) and their VNIR bands related to this study are utilized. For both years, and for each band, histograms are equalized. Finally, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values are calculated as images. Resulting vegetation indexes are assessed in comparison to the binary ground truth images. A visual inspection is also done with respect to Google's Timelapse images for each year to validate and support the results.

  5. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bryla

    Full Text Available An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999-2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases.The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR, Standardized Death Rates (SDR and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd. Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values.Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999-2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05. The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19 (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05 and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04 (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05. The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09 Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05. SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0.05.Despite smaller

  6. Pregnancy Complicated with Pulmonary Edema Due to Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Yang

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is one of the most common causes of cardiac failure. Blood volume expands greatly during pregnancy, especially after the last part of the second trimester. Such expansion exacerbates the symptoms of heart failure and accelerates the development of pulmonary edema when abnormal thyroid function is not well controlled. Two cases of pregnancy complicated with congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema due to hyperthyroidism are reported here. Both patients did not receive treatment for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, and both sought clinical help during the third trimester. The clinical problems were resolved by medical management before delivery.

  7. Pregnancy complicated with pulmonary edema due to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Jie; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2005-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism is one of the most common causes of cardiac failure. Blood volume expands greatly during pregnancy, especially after the last part of the second trimester. Such expansion exacerbates the symptoms of heart failure and accelerates the development of pulmonary edema when abnormal thyroid function is not well controlled. Two cases of pregnancy complicated with congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema due to hyperthyroidism are reported here. Both patients did not receive treatment for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, and both sought clinical help during the third trimester. The clinical problems were resolved by medical management before delivery.

  8. Cerebral infarction due to smoker’s polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kiran Teresa; Westover, M Brandon

    2011-01-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with fluctuating focal neurological deficits and neuroimaging findings of multiple small cerebral infarctions. His medical investigation revealed a >100 pack/year smoking history, and a haematocrit >60. Subsequent investigations led to a diagnosis of cerebral infarction due to smoker’s polycythemia, the third such case reported in the medical literature. The patient’s neurological deficits resolved completely with subsequent haematocrit reduction. This brief report reviews the differential diagnosis of polycythemia, current knowledge of the mechanisms by which smoker’s polycythemia may lead to ischemic stroke, and recommendations for management. PMID:22675101

  9. Change in lattice parameter of tantalum due to dissolved hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra P. Tiwari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume expansion of tantalum due to the dissolved hydrogen has been determined using Bragg equation. The hydrogen was dissolved in the pure tantalum metal at constant temperature (360 °C and constant pressure (132 mbar by varying the duration of hydrogen charging. The amount of dissolved hydrogen was within the solid solubility limit. The samples with different hydrogen concentration were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Slight peak shifts as well as peak broadening were observed. The relative changes of lattice parameters plotted against the hydrogen concentration revealed that the lattice parameters varied linearly with the hydrogen concentration.

  10. Distortion of Crabbed Bunch Due to the Electron Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    In order to improve the luminosity, two crab cavities have been installed in KEKB HER and LER [1]. Since there is only one crab cavity in each ring, the crab cavity generates a horizontally titled bunch along the whole ring. The achieved specific luminosity with crabbed bunch is higher, but it is not as high as that from beam-beam simulation [2]. One of the suspicions is the electron cloud. The electron cloud in LER (positron beam) may distort the crabbed bunch and cause the luminosity drop. This note briefly estimates the bunch shape distortion due to the electron cloud in KEKB LER.

  11. DEFORESTATION DUE TO URBANIZATION: A CASE STUDY FOR TRABZON, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Telkenaroglu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper inspects the deforestation of Trabzon in Turkey, due to urbanization, between 2006 and 2016. For this purpose, Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images are obtained from United States Geographical Survey (USGS archive (USGS, 2017a and their VNIR bands related to this study are utilized. For both years, and for each band, histograms are equalized. Finally, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values are calculated as images. Resulting vegetation indexes are assessed in comparison to the binary ground truth images. A visual inspection is also done with respect to Google’s Timelapse images for each year to validate and support the results.

  12. Acoustic injuries due to headphones among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    古川, 勝朗

    1990-01-01

    A survey was performed at 3 junior and 2 senior high schools in Kagawa Prefecture, in order to carify the use of headphones and the possibility of auditory damage due to headphones. Out of 2,217 students, 46.1% used “headphones”, including earphones and so-called Walkman-type headphones. Most of them used the headphones to listen to music. There was a significant difference in the incidence of cochlear symptoms between headphones users and non-users. In junior high school students, the incide...

  13. Acoustic injuries due to headphones among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    古川, 勝朗

    1990-01-01

    A survey was performed at 3 junior and 2 senior high schools in Kagawa Prefecture, in order to carify the use of headphones and the possibility of auditory damage due to headphones. Out of 2,217 students, 46.1% used “headphones”, including earphones and so-called Walkman-type headphones. Most of them used the headphones to listen to music. There was a significant difference in the incidence of cochlear symptoms between headphones users and non-users. In junior high school studen...

  14. Renal infarct: a rare disease due to a rare etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshintala, Divya; Bansal, Saurabh K.; Emani, Vamsi Krishna; Yadav, Manajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Renal infarction is caused by profound hypoperfusion secondary to embolic/thrombotic occlusion of the renal artery or vasospasm of the renal artery. We present a case of a 54-year-old patient who presented with nausea, vomiting, and vague abdominal pain. He had frequent episodes of migraine headaches and he treated himself with as needed rizatriptan. CT scan of the abdomen showed renal cortical infarction. After extensive investigations, etiology of his renal infarct was deemed to be due to rizatriptan. PMID:26091657

  15. Unilateral conjunctival ulcer due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmamalini Mahendradas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unilateral conjunctival ulcer due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in an immunocompetent individual. A 44-year-old male presented with complaints of pain and yellowish discharge in the right eye for one week. Patient underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation and relevant laboratory investigations. Anterior segment examination revealed localized conjunctival and episcleral congestion with conjunctival ulceration on the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye. Gram′s stain revealed gram-negative bacilli. Culture and sensitivity revealed S. maltophilia and responded well to topical moxifloxacin with systemic co-trimoxazole therapy.

  16. [Delayed diagnosis of ophthalmic artery obstruction due to atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, N; Alforja, S; Rey, A; Giralt, J

    2013-08-01

    A 56 year old woman with atrial myxoma presented with a visual acuity of no light perception after acute ophthalmic artery obstruction (OAO) associated with stroke. She developed late retinal pigmentary changes due choroidal infarction, typical of the OAO. Simultaneous obstruction of the retinal and choroidal circulation was observed in the OAO. Atrial myxoma should be suspected in patients who suffer from OAO associated with stroke. Systemic studies should be performed to find the origin of OAO. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Breach growth in cohesive embankments due to overtopping

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, G.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China)

    2016-01-01

    Breaching is the most frequent form of embankment failure in the world. Due to overtopping, an embankment starts to breach when part of the embankment actually breaks away, leaving an opening for water to flood the land protected by the embankment. A breach can be a sudden or gradual failure that is caused by surface erosion and/or headcut erosion in the embankment. The magnitude and extent of the losses depend highly on the rate of breaching of the embankment, which determines the discharge ...

  18. [Atlas fracture due to aneurysmal bone cyst after minor trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, T; Krüger, A; Zettl, R; Figiel, J; Ruchholtz, S; Frangen, T M

    2014-05-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts predominantly occur in young adults and the long bones, the lumbar spine and the pelvis are mainly affected. This article presents the case of a 22-year-old woman with the very rare localization of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the atlas and an atlas fracture after a minor trauma. The initial radiological diagnosis was a suspicted aneurysmal bone cyst which was confirmed histologically. Due to the unstable fracture it was decided to carry out surgical treatment with occipitocervical stabilization in combination with a transoral bone graft. After a period of 11 months the fracture had completely healed and the implants were removed without any complications.

  19. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawan Verma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and high-dose chemotherapy in the imaging, clinical and laboratory features of this toxic state are becoming better elucidated. We are presenting a case of PRES due to seronegative systemic lupus erythematosus, with MRI findings of diffuse vasogenic edema.

  20. Acute colonic obstruction due to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Giobuin, S

    2012-02-01

    A seventy two year old man presented to the Emergency Department with clinical features of colonic obstruction. Subsequent radiological investigations confirmed this impression and revealed the aetiology to be compression of the sigmoid colon against the sacrum by a massively distended urinary bladder. Chronic urinary retention due to benign prostatic hypertrophy is an extremely unusual cause of large bowel obstruction. Little in this patient\\'s clinical findings suggested this aetiology. We reviewed the literature in this area and highlight the benefits of CT scanning over contrast studies.

  1. Alcock canal syndrome due to obturator internus muscle fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insola, Angelo; Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca

    2010-09-01

    Alcock canal syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the pudendal nerve. We report a case of perineal neuralgia where pudendal nerve compression was due to fibrosis of the obturator internus muscle following an injury of the muscle. After being misdiagnosed for 2 years, the patient was diagnosed only after a combined neurophysiologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation. This case underlines the importance of performing focused neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies in patients with neuropathic perineal pain in order to reach a correct diagnosis.

  2. hypertensive intracranial bleed due to mid aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovazhagi, Varadarajan; Pauline, Leema; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe an 11-y-old child with intracranial bleed due to malignant hypertension. Child presented with hypertension, right hemiparesis, feeble femoral pulses and lower limb blood pressure less than the upper limb. CT angiogram revealed narrowing of the abdominal aorta with thinned out left renal artery and hypoplasia of the left kidney. A diagnosis of Mid aortic syndrome was arrived at. CT brain revealed left ganglio capsular bleed. Child was treated with antihypertensives and steriods in view of suspected Takayasu arteritis. Child recovered with minimal hemiparesis and is being followed up.

  3. Bilateral afrenal nodules due to histoplasmosis in an elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pedreira de Freitas de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We report a case history of an 84-year-old elderly male patient that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of adrenal failure and bilateral adrenal nodules detected by abdominal computed tomography. A fine needle-guided biopsy was inconclusive for achieving a final diagnosis. The patient died due to septic shock and the autopsy disclosed histoplasmosis with extensive bilateral necrosis of the adrenal glands. Although the adrenal involvement in chronic disseminated histoplasmosis has been described, there have been few reports of the infection being associated with adrenal insufficiency.

  4. Partial drift volume due to a self-propelled swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Nicholas G.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2018-01-01

    We assess the ability of a self-propelled swimmer to displace a volume of fluid that is large compared to its own volume via the mechanism of partial drift. The swimmer performs rectilinear locomotion in an incompressible, unbounded Newtonian fluid. The partial drift volume D is the volume of fluid enclosed between the initial and final profiles of an initially flat circular disk of marked fluid elements; the disk is initially aligned perpendicular to the direction of locomotion and subsequently distorted due to the passage of the swimmer, which travels a finite distance. To focus on the possibility of large-scale drift, we model the swimmer simply as a force dipole aligned with the swimming direction. At zero Reynolds number (Re =0 ), we demonstrate that D grows without limit as the radius of the marked fluid disk h is made large, indicating that a swimmer at Re =0 can generate a partial drift volume much larger than its own volume. Next, we consider a steady swimmer at small Re , which is modeled as the force-dipole solution to Oseen's equation. Here, we find that D no longer diverges with h , which is due to inertial screening of viscous forces, and is effectively proportional to the magnitude of the force dipole exerted by the swimmer. The validity of this result is extended to Re ≥O (1 ) —the realm of intermediate-Re swimmers such as copepods—by taking advantage of the fact that, in this case, the flow is also described by Oseen's equations at distances much larger than the characteristic linear dimension of the swimmer. Next, we utilize an integral momentum balance to demonstrate that our analysis for a steady inertial swimmer also holds, in a time-averaged sense, for an unsteady swimmer that does not experience a net acceleration over a stroke cycle. Finally, we use experimental data to estimate D for a few real swimmers. Interestingly, we find that D depends heavily on the kinematics of swimming, and, in certain cases, D can be significantly greater

  5. System influences on work disability due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartys, Serena; Frederiksen, Pernille; Bendix, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Work disability due to low back pain is a significant global health concern. Current policy and practice aimed at tackling this problem is largely informed by the biopsychosocial model. Resultant interventions have demonstrated some small-scale success, but they have not created a widespread...... and disability benefits), healthcare and family systems (spouse/partner/close others) can act as obstacles to work participation for those with low back pain. Systematic searches of several scientific and grey literature sources were conducted, resulting in 1762 records. Following a systematic exclusion process...

  6. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

    2011-05-31

    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  7. Lethal subarachnoid bleeding under immunosuppressive therapy due to mycotic arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Kloska, S.; Freund, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Kehl, H.G. [Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology, Univ. Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    A subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) occurred 67 days after cardiac transplantation in 10-year-old girl with consecutive immunocompromising therapy. Neither digital subtraction angiography (DSA) nor computed tomographic angiography showed signs of intracranial vascular malformations. One month before the lethal SAH occurred, she had developed arterial hypertension and attacks of severe headache with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis while CT scans showed an infarct of the left thalamus. Pathologic findings established the rare diagnosis of SAH due to aspergillosis-related mycotic arteritis. Imaging characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  8. A Case of Localized Hypertrichosis Due to Temporary Henna Tattoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deren Özcan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporary henna tattoos have become very popular among children and teenagers in recent years. However, the use of additives to shorten the application time and darken the color of commercial henna, such as para-phenylenediamine, has led to an increased risk of complications due to those tattoos. The most commonly seen complications are allergic contact dermatitis, hypertrophic scarring, keloid formation, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation. Herein; a 13-year-old girl who developed localized hypertrichosis after a temporary henna tattoo application was presented.

  9. Approximating the Probability of Mortality Due to Protracted Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2.25 168 573.4 924.7 1291.1 2.25 Radiological weapons (“dirty bombs”) will in most cases disperse radionuclides whose half-life is long enough that...Under the current Nuclear Survivability and Forensics contract, HDTRA1-14-D-0003; 0005, Dr. Paul Blake of DTRA/NTPR has supported the transition of...present approximate methods for estimating the probability of mortality due to radiological environments from nuclear weapon detonations or from a

  10. Resolution degradation of semiconductor detectors due to carrier trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozorezov, A.G. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.kozorezov@lancaster.ac.uk; Wigmore, J.K. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Owens, A. [Science Payloads and Advanced Concepts Office, SCI-A, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hartog, R. den [Science Payloads and Advanced Concepts Office, SCI-A, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Peacock, A. [Science Payloads and Advanced Concepts Office, SCI-A, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); A Al-Jawhari, Hala [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-07-01

    Incomplete charge collection in semiconductor X-ray detectors due to carrier trapping is recognized as an important source of signal broadening. In this paper we show the results of calculations of energy resolution for a TlBr detector using an analytic approach developed in our earlier work in which fluctuations in the distribution of photon absorption sites are related to fluctuations in the collected charge. Using measured values of transport parameters for electrons and holes in the detector material we obtained excellent agreement with experiment in the X-ray energy range 6-660 keV.

  11. Sarcoidal granulomatous reaction due to tattoos: report of two cases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Martha Cecilia; Franco, Victoria Eugenia; Sánchez, Lorena; Jiménez, Héctor David

    2017-01-01

    Numerous infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic complications secondary to tattoo placement have been reported in the literature. Within inflammatory complications sarcoidal granulomatous reactions have been described. We report two cases, a 55-year-old woman with yellowish infiltrated plaques on bilateral ciliary region, 16 years after the placement of a permanent tattoo in the eyebrows, and a 20-year-old tattoo artist who developed orange papules on 3 of his tattoos. Histopathology in both cases confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidal granulomatous reaction due to tattoo pigment. PMID:29267473

  12. Sarcoidal granulomatous reaction due to tattoos: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Martha Cecilia; Franco, Victoria Eugenia; Sánchez, Lorena; Jiménez, Héctor David

    2017-01-01

    Numerous infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic complications secondary to tattoo placement have been reported in the literature. Within inflammatory complications sarcoidal granulomatous reactions have been described. We report two cases, a 55-year-old woman with yellowish infiltrated plaques on bilateral ciliary region, 16 years after the placement of a permanent tattoo in the eyebrows, and a 20-year-old tattoo artist who developed orange papules on 3 of his tattoos. Histopathology in both cases confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidal granulomatous reaction due to tattoo pigment.

  13. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-02-01

    I present calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a graphene monolayer on a dielectric medium when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Measuring the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts is an alternative method to determine graphene’s conductivity. I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, 450, {σ }+) and I discuss other possible experimental routes to determine these beamshifts and consequently, the graphene’s optical conductivity. The Goos-Hänchen shifts for visible light I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment.

  14. Does Ondansetron Modify Sympathectomy Due to Subarachnoid Anesthesia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkawi, Abdullah S; Mavridis, Dimitris; Flood, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    randomized placebo-controlled trials (1,045 subjects) were identified and analyzed. By using conventional meta-analyses, the authors determined that ondansetron was associated with reduction in the incidence of hypotension (relative risk = 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46 to 0.83], P = 0.001; TSA-adjusted CI, 0.34 to 1...... reduces the incidence of hypotension and bradycardia after subarachnoid anesthesia due to the risk of bias and information sizes less than the required. As results from meta-analysis are given significant weight, it is important to carefully evaluate the quality of the evidence that is input....

  15. Absenteeism due to occupational diseases among sugarcane workers

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Duarte Ferreira Ceccato; Luiz Carlos Soares de Carvalho Junior; Rafaela Campos Cuissi; Mariane Monteschi; Nayara Galvão Oliveira; Carlos Roberto Padovani; Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos; Dionei Ramos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of work-related sick leave in sugarcane workers. A total of 1,230 medical excuses for 400 sugarcane workers were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The following items were analyzed: diagnosis, sex, and length and season of sick leave. In all the seasons, musculoskeletal diseases showed the highest sick leave rate, following by respiratory diseases (p < 0.05). Sick leave due to musculos...

  16. Psychosis Crisis Associated with Thyrotoxicosis due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibet Urias-Uribe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with previous psychiatric illness, acutely exacerbated by thyroid storm due to Graves’ disease, in whom treatment with antipsychotics induced catatonia. These associations are extremely rare and may be confused with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, especially in the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. The treatment consists in the control of the triggering disease (in this case the resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and the use of benzodiazepines. However, in some cases, the resolution of psychiatric symptoms is partial and may require the use of electroconvulsive therapy.

  17. Bilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis due to Elevated Factor VIII Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patole, Shalom; Ramya, I

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence has shown that high level of factor VIII is associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. High factor VIII levels are associated with a seven-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis is usually associated with nephrotic syndrome, procoagulant state or oral contraceptive pills. We report a case of a lady who presented with bilateral renal vein thrombosis due to high factor VIII levels and oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  18. Valley filtering due to orbital magnetic moment in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Soo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of valley-dependent orbital magnetic moment on the transmission of quasiparticles through biased bilayer graphene npn and pnp junctions in the presence of out-of-plane magnetic field. It is shown that the valley-polarized Zeeman-like energy splitting, due to the interaction of orbital magnetic moment with magnetic field, can suppress the transmission of quasiparticles of one valley while transmitting those of the other valley. This valley-selective transmission property can be exploited for valley filtering. We demonstrate that the npn and pnp junction, respectively, filters off the K‧-valley and K-valley particles, with nearly perfect degree of filtration.

  19. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow′s milk allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow′s milk protein allergy (CMPA typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung′s disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow′s milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms.

  20. Injection site abscess due to mycobacterium fortuitum: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi DR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection abscess is an iatrogenic infection occurring as an isolated case or as cluster outbreak. These infections occur due to contaminated injectables or lapse in sterilisation protocol. While pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, E. coli, and S. aureus are the usual causative agents, unusual organisms such as mycobacteria, particularly the rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM may cause the abscess. The chances of overlooking these organisms is high unless an acid fast bacilli (AFB smear and culture is done on all aspirated pus specimens. We report a case of a three year old child who presented with a gluteal abscess following an intramuscular infection with an unknown preparation.

  1. Development of acute dystonia in three brothers due to metoclopramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Silfeler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the agents that cause dystonic reactions is metoclopramide. In this study, we presented three individuals of the same family who were admitted to our hospital while receiving the treatment of metoclopramide because of developing acute dystonic reaction. Appropriate doses of metoclopramide therapy had begun to all brothers with a diagnosis of gastroenteritis. After receiving the first dose of medication, acute dystonia was observed within half an hour in these brothers who used metoclopramide. Thus, if there is a patient who developed acute dystonia in the same family due to metoclopramide, avoiding from use of metoclopramide will be beneficial for other members of the family.

  2. Familial cardiac valvulopathy due to filamin A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, Daniel; Hehr, Ute; Hudgins, Louanne

    2011-09-01

    We report on the clinical findings in siblings affected by the recently characterized X-linked form of hereditary cardiac valvular dystrophy or cardiac valve disease (OMIM 314400) due to mutations in the FLNA gene and review the literature on this condition. Although FLNA related cardiac valve disease is presumed to be a rare disorder, it is likely underdiagnosed. Several features of this condition may aid in its identification. FLNA related valvular disease can be recognized on the basis of its distinctive inheritance, early age of onset, and frequent multi-valve involvement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. [Hospital admissions due to varicella in a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Laura, K P; Periañez Vasco, A; Falcón Neyra, M D; Croche Santander, B

    2014-06-01

    Varicella (chickenpox) can cause serious complications and admission to hospital. Several countries included the varicella vaccine in their immunization schedules. A descriptive and retrospective study of hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications was conducted in a referral center from 2005 to 2011. A total of 1192 children with varicella were seen in the emergency room, of which 99 (8.5%) required admission. The annual incidence of admissions due to varicella and varicella complications was, 19.4 and 15.3 cases per 100,000 children under 14 years, respectively. Complications were more common in children under 5 years (79.5%), and with no underlying disease (78.2%). Infection of skin and soft tissue was the most common complication (62%). The mean hospital stay was 4.5 days (SD 4). Varicella causes high morbidity, and is more frequent in absolute terms in healthy children under 5 years of age. Therefore, routine vaccination recommended by the Immunization Advisory Committee should be mandatory. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Recurrent non-surgical pneumoperitoneum due to jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganovic, Lejla; Lee, Yauk K; Chu, Pauline K; Cassidy, Fiona Hughes

    2012-09-01

    The presence of free intraperitoneal gas usually warrants emergent surgery. In rare instances, however, non-surgical conditions such as jejunal diverticulosis can cause pneumoperitoneum and do not require intervention. The objective of this article is to provide the computed tomography (CT) scan findings of jejunal diverticulosis causing pneumoperitoneum. The article will also discuss other non-surgical causes of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum to increase awareness and avoid unnecessary surgery. We describe a case of recurrent pneumoperitoneum due to jejunal diverticulosis in which the patient remained asymptomatic and free of complications with repeated evaluations in the emergency department over the course of 18 months. Although spontaneous pneumoperitoneum due to jejunal diverticulosis is a rare finding, when it does occur, this condition must be distinguished from other forms of pneumoperitoneum to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan findings of multiple rounded, variably sized jejunal outpouchings filled with oral contrast are helpful in diagnosing jejunal diverticulosis and confirming the decision for conservative management of the patient. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Analytical solution for irradiance due to inhomogeneous Lambertian polygonal emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Arvo, James

    2003-05-01

    We present an analytic solution for the irradiance at a point due to a polygonal Lambertian emitter with radiant exitance that varies with position according to a polynomial of arbitrary degree. This is a basic problem that arises naturally in radiative transfer and more specifically in global illumination, a subfield of computer graphics. Our solution is closed form except for a single nonalgebraic special function known as the Clausen integral. We begin by deriving several useful formulas for high-order tensor analogs of irradiance, which are natural generalizations of the radiation pressure tensor. We apply the resulting tensor formulas to linearly varying emitters, obtaining a solution that exhibits the general structure of higher-degree cases, including the dependence on the Clausen integral. We then generalize to higher-degree polynomials with a recurrence formula that combines solutions for lower-degree polynomials; the result is a generalization of Lambert's formula for homogeneous diffuse emitters, a well-known formula with many applications in radiative transfer and computer graphics. Similar techniques have been used previously to derive closed-form solutions for the irradiance due to homogeneous polygonal emitters with directionally varying radiance. The present work extends this previous result to include inhomogeneous emitters, which proves to be significantly more challenging to solve in closed form. We verify our theoretical results with numerical approximations and briefly discuss their potential applications.

  6. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D. Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  7. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D; Eng, Katisha D; Bialowas, Todd A; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  8. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D.; Eng, Katisha D.; Bialowas, Todd A.; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening. PMID:23326701

  9. Structural changes in amber due to uranium mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; René, Miloš; Borecká, Lenka; Lapčák, Ladislav; Bičáková, Olga; Janeček, Oldřich; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-07-01

    The presence of uranium, with a bulk mass fraction of about 1.5 wt% and radiolytic alterations are a feature of Cenomanian amber from Křižany, at the northeastern edge of the North Bohemian Cretaceous uranium ore district. Pores and microcracks in the amber were filled with a mineral admixture, mainly in the form of Zr-Y-REE enriched uraninite. As a result of radiolytic alterations due to the presence of uranium, structural changes were observed in the Křižany amber in comparison with a reference amber from Nové Strašecí in central Bohemia; this was of similar age and botanical origin but did not contain elevated levels of uranium. Structural changes involved an increase in aromaticity due to dehydroaromatization of aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbons, loss of oxygen functional groups, an increase in the degree of polymerization, crosslinking of CC bonds, formation of a three-dimensional hydrocarbon network in the bulk organic matrix, and carbonization of the organic matrix around the uraninite infill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of thrombocytopenia due to liver cirrhosis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Beppu, Toru; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Baba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common complication in liver disease and can adversely affect the treatment of liver cirrhosis, limiting the ability to administer therapy and delaying planned surgical/diagnostic procedures because of an increased risk of bleeding. Multiple factors, including splenic sequestration, reduced activity of the hematopoietic growth factor thrombopoietin, bone marrow suppression by chronic hepatitis C virus infection and anti-cancer agents, and antiviral treatment with interferon-based therapy, can contribute to the development of thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients. Of these factors, the major mechanisms for thrombocytopenia in liver cirrhosis are (1) platelet sequestration in the spleen; and (2) decreased production of thrombopoietin in the liver. Several treatment options, including platelet transfusion, interventional partial splenic embolization, and surgical splenectomy, are now available for severe thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients. Although thrombopoietin agonists and targeted agents are alternative tools for noninvasively treating thrombocytopenia due to liver cirrhosis, their ability to improve thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients is under investigation in clinical trials. In this review, we propose a treatment approach to thrombocytopenia according to our novel concept of splenic volume, and we describe the current management of thrombocytopenia due to liver cirrhosis. PMID:24627595

  11. [The presyrinx state due to adhesive arachnoiditis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yasuhiro; Yagishita, Akira; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2006-06-01

    We report a 66-year-old woman with a presyrinx state due to adhesive arachnoiditis. She had a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage one year ago. She became aware of gait disturbance and abnormal sensation at the chest 6 months ago. Neurological examination revealed weakness of the both lower extremities and sensory disturbance below the T6 level. MR images of the thoracic spine revealed swelling of the thoracic cord at the T3-4 level, with an intramedullary hyperintensity on T2 weighted images (WI) and hypointensity on T1-WI. The intramedullary hypointensity on T1-WI was less than the CSF intensity. In addition, the thoracic cord lower than T5 level was compressed by an arachnoid cyst in the spinal canal. The preoperative diagnosis was the presyrinx state due to adhesive arachnoiditis. An operation for detachment of arachnoidal adhesion and restoration of CSF flow pathway was performed. After one month from the operation, neurological findings were improved. Postoperative MR images revealed improvement of swelling of the thoracic cord and intramedullary abnormal intensity. The arachnoid cyst in the spinal canal was decreased in the size. The presyrinx state is recently recognized condition before the formation of syringomyelia and that is known to resolve with proper treatment. We wish to emphasize we could prevent a progression to syringomyelia by a proper treatment for the presyrinx state.

  12. Energy Loss in Pulse Detonation Engine due to Fuel Viscosity

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    Weipeng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid viscosity is a significant factor resulting in the energy loss in most fluid dynamical systems. To analyze the energy loss in the pulse detonation engine (PDE due to the viscosity of the fuel, the energy loss in the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is investigated based on the generalized multisymplectic method in this paper. Firstly, the single detonation energy is simplified as an impulse; thus the complex detonation process is simplified. And then, the symmetry of the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is studied in the generalized multisymplectic framework and the energy loss expression is obtained. Finally, the energy loss in the Burgers model is investigated numerically. The results in this paper can be used to explain the difference between the theoretical performance and the experimental performance of the PDE partly. In addition, the analytical approach of this paper can be extended to the analysis of the energy loss in other fluid dynamic systems due to the fluid viscosity.

  13. Alcohol Prices and Mortality Due to Liver Cirrhosis

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    Jon P. Nelson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates a reduced-form regression model for mortality rates due to alcoholic liver diseases, with alcohol prices and income as explanatory variables. Panel data cover the years 2000-2010 for 21 member countries of the European Union. In the reduced form, prices affect mortality rates indirectly through the demand for alcohol, while income has potential direct and indirect effects. Country and time fixed effects are used to control for other factors that influence alcohol consumption and mortality. Special attention is paid to outliers in the data, and final results are based on the MS-estimator for robust regressions. Regression results for alcohol prices and income are sensitive to adjustments for stationary data and down-weighting of outliers and other influential data points. Final results indicate that alcohol prices do not affect mortality rates due to chronic liver diseases. Empirical results in the study do not lend support to broad price-based approaches to alcohol policy.

  14. A Delayed Recrudescent Case of Sigmoidocutaneous Fistula due to Diverticulitis

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    Takaaki Fujii

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Colocutaneous fistula caused by diverticulitis is relatively rare, and a delayed recrudescent case of colocutaneous fistula is very uncommon. We herein report a rare case of a Japanese 56-year-old male with delayed recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula due to diverticulitis. A colocutaneous fistula was formed after a drainage operation against a perforation of the sigmoid colon diverticulum. After 5 years from treatment, he was admitted to our hospital because of lower abdominal pain. We diagnosed the recrudescent sigmoidocutaneous fistula by abdominal computed tomography and gastrografin enema, and managed the patient with total parenteral nutrition and antibiotics. As the fistula formation did not improve, a low anterior resection with fistulectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged. It has been reported that, in fistulas of the skin caused by diverticular disease, complete closure of the fistula by conservative therapy may not be possible. This case also implies the possibility of a recurrence of the fistula even if the conservative treatment was effective. In cases of colocutaneous fistulas due to diverticulitis, radical surgery is considered necessary because of possibility of recurrence of the fistula.

  15. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P. [University of malaya Centre, Kuala Lumpar (Malaysia). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient`s sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients` sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients` education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 9 refs.

  16. A Case of Primary Hyperparathyroidism due to Intrathyroidal Parathyroid Cyst

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    Yavuz Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid cysts constitute 0.08–3.41% of all parathyroid masses. Intrathyroidal parathyroid cysts, however, are rare conditions with only a few cases being reported. Most of the parathyroid cysts are found to be nonfunctional and functional cysts are generally thought to be due to cystic degeneration of parathyroid adenomas. A cystic, smooth contoured lesion of 24 × 19 × 16 mm was observed in left thyroid lobe of a 76-year-old woman during ultrasonography which was performed as routine workup for primary hyperparathyroidism. It was defined as a cystic thyroid nodule at first. Tc99m sestamibi scintigraphy was performed to see any parathyroid lesions, but no radioactive uptake was observed. Intact parathormone (iPTH level was found to be >600 pg/mL in cyst aspiration fluid. Left lobectomy was performed, with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism due to functional parathyroid cyst. Serum iPTH level was decreased >50% postoperatively and histopathological evaluation was consistent with an encapsulated parathyroid adenoma with a cystic center. Parathyroid cysts are among rare causes of primary hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis is made by markedly increased iPTH level in cyst fluid and observation of parathyroid epithelium lining the cyst wall.

  17. Sensory exotropia due to keratoconus and review of the literature

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    Ciftci S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suleyman Ciftci,1 Ali Simsek,2 Eyup Dogan,1 Leyla Ciftci31Department of Ophthalmology, Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman; 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, TurkeyAbstract: This case report describes a 17-year-old boy with sensory strabismus due to keratoconus and an ipsilateral nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva. The aligned eye was the right eye and keratoconus in this eye was of late onset. Vision in the left eye was poor and keratoconus was advanced in this eye. Due to the longstanding nature of the keratoconus and its occurrence in a developmentally sensitive period, sensory exotropia had developed in the left eye. There was a nodular lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the ipsilateral eye. If keratoconus occurs before the age of 7 years and the prolonged visual loss is not corrected, sensory strabismus can develop, as in this patient.Keywords: keratoconus, sensory exotropia, childhood

  18. Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms not due to asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Chetan A; Batterby, Eugenie; Van Asperen, Peter; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript describes two interesting patients who had exercise-induced symptoms that unmasked an alternative underlying diagnosis. The first is an 8-year-old boy who was treated for asthma all his life but really had exercise-induced stridor (labelled as wheeze) causing significant exercise limitation, which was due to a double aortic arch with the right arch compressing the trachea. The second case describes the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction in a 13-year-old anxious high achiever. He also initially had exercise-induced symptoms treated as exercise-induced wheeze but again had a stridor due to vocal cord dysfunction. Both these cases demonstrate the importance of detailed history including during exercise, which can unmask alternative diagnosis. Another important message is that if there is no response to bronchodilator treatment with absence of typical signs and symptoms of asthma, alternative diagnosis should be considered. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. [Analysis of sick leaves due to mental and behavioral problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gonzalo H; Alvarado, Sergio O; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-02-01

    In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008 for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. A total of 546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27 per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.

  20. Nonlinear wave damping due to multi-plasmon resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, G.; Ekman, R.; Zamanian, J.

    2018-02-01

    For short wavelengths, it is well known that the linearized Wigner–Moyal equation predicts wave damping due to wave-particle interaction, where the resonant velocity shifted from the phase velocity by a velocity {v}q={{\\hslash }}k/2m. Here {{\\hslash }} is the reduced Planck constant, k is the wavenumber and m is the electron mass. Going beyond linear theory, we find additional resonances with velocity shifts {{nv}}q,n=2,3, \\ldots , giving rise to a new wave-damping mechanism that we term multi-plasmon damping, as it can be seen as the simultaneous absorption (or emission) of multiple plasmon quanta. Naturally this wave damping is not present in classical plasmas. For a temperature well below the Fermi temperature, if the linear (n = 1) resonant velocity is outside the Fermi sphere, the number of linearly resonant particles is exponentially small, while the multi-plasmon resonances can be located in the bulk of the distribution. We derive sets of evolution equations for the case of two-plasmon and three-plasmon resonances for Langmuir waves in the simplest case of a fully degenerate plasma. By solving these equations numerically for a range of wave-numbers we find the corresponding damping rates, and we compare them to results from linear theory to estimate the applicability. Finally, we discuss the effects due to a finite temperature.

  1. [Mortality due to respiratory diseases in Spain (1977-1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Sancho Izquierdo, E

    1993-09-01

    A descriptive and comparative epidemiological is made of mortality due to respiratory disease by provinces in Spain. The study period covers 1977 to 1985, this being the last year reported by the Natural Movement of the Spanish Population (Movimiento Natural de la Población Española). In particular, 5 causes of death were analyzed in accordance to the International Classification of Disease (IX Revision): respiratory tuberculosis, influenza, chronic pulmonary disease, pneumonia and other pathologies of the respiratory apparatus. The results reveal an annual increase in these diseases. Standardized mortality ratio in turn reflects the provinces with increased mortality, the distribution of which varies for each pathology studied as a result of the different factors involved. Variation is also seen in terms of sex. Thus, influenza predominates among women, whereas males are more frequent as regards the remaining pathologies. Mortality due to pneumonia is similar in both sexes, this being the disease exhibiting the greatest increase during the study period. The results obtained may be of use in protocolizing resources for better control and prevention of respiratory disease in this country.

  2. Due recenti contribute statinitensi alla linguistica romanza e latina

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    Pavao Tekavčić

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni la linguisti.ca romanza si è arricchita di un notevole numero di opere di importanza fondamentale e di indirizzo più o meno moderno: oltre aile edizioni nuove e aggiornate di manuali ormai classici come Le Origini delle lingue neolatine di C. Tagliavini (VI edizione, Bologna, 1972 e The Romance Languages di W. D. Elcock (II edizione, Londra, 1975, hanna vista la luce il compendia di P. Bec, Manuel pratigue de philologie romane (Parigi, I volume 1970, II volume 1971, la traduzione Spagnola dell' opera di I. Iordan e M. Manoliu (Manual de lingüística románica, I-II, Madrid 1972; trad. di M. Alvar e, recentissimamente, le due opere che sono l'argomento del presente contributo: R. A. Hall jr. ci ha dato i due primi volumi della sua Comparative Romance Grammar (I External History of the Romance Languages 7 Nuova York, Elsevier, 1974; II Proto-Romance Phonology, ibid. , Elsevier, 1976 e Mario Pei ha pubblicato il suo volume The Story of Latin and the Romance Languages (Nuova York, Harper and Row, 1976.

  3. Loss of productivity due to depression among Korean employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in productivity between those who are depressed and those who are not. A cross-sectional study of depressive and non-depressive employees at a workplace was performed. Data was collected between April and June 2008 through self-reported questionnaires including the Stanford Presenteeism Scale. One thousand employees participated in this study. Inappropriate responses including missing data or non-relevant responses were excluded. Finally, data of 612 subjects was analyzed using the SPSS program. The productivity of employees with depression was lower than that of employees without depression. The difference in productivity loss due to impaired presenteeism was significantly different between the two groups, but the productivity loss due to absenteeism was not. From the results of this study, we can deduce that depression among employees leads to productivity loss. Therefore, we must consider the management of depression in the workplace and improve the activities of occupational nurses and doctors during the mental health screening of employees.

  4. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A

    2002-06-01

    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity.

  5. Blepharitis due to in a cat from northern Portugal

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    Paulo Pimenta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary We report a clinical case of blepharitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts in a 2-year-old stray cat from northern Portugal (Vila Real without concurrent naso-ocular signs. Ophthalmological examination revealed mucopurulent discharge from an open wound in the right upper and lower lids. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a normal anterior segment, and intraocular pressure was within the normal reference interval. No fundoscopic alterations were detected in either eye by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. Cytological examination of an appositional smear showed numerous polymorphic neutrophils and macrophages, together with spherical yeast cells compatible with Cryptococcus species. Molecular analysis by means of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism identified C neoformans genotype VNI. The cat was treated with itraconazole, and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, combined with a commercial ear ointment and an imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on application for bilateral parasitic otitis caused by Otodectes cynotis . One month after treatment, the clinical signs were completely resolved. Localised cutaneous lesions, as in the present case, probably result from contamination of cat-scratch injuries with viable encapsulated yeasts. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline blepharitis due to C neoformans without concurrent naso-ocular signs. The current findings, together with those from recent reports of the infection in domestic animals, should alert the veterinary community both in Portugal and in Europe to this underdiagnosed disease.

  6. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Ruptured due to Acute Intracystic Hemorrhage

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    Kunishige Okamura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst is one of the rare complications and usually results in high mortality. The present case was a rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst that could be treated by surgical intervention. A 74-year-old man developed abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, and he was diagnosed with cholecystitis and pneumonia. Three days later, acute pancreatitis occurred and computed tomography (CT showed slight hemorrhage in the cyst of the pancreatic tail. After another 10 days, CT showed pancreatic cyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed leakage of contrast agent from pancreatic tail cyst to enclosed abdominal cavity. His left hypochondrial pain was increasing, and CT showed rupture of the cyst of the pancreatic tail into the peritoneal cavity was increased in 10 days. CT showed also two left renal tumors. Therefore we performed distal pancreatectomy with concomitant resection of transverse colon and left kidney. We histopathologically diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage and renal cell carcinoma. Despite postoperative paralytic ileus and fluid collection at pancreatic stump, they improved by conservative management and he could be discharged on postoperative day 29. He has achieved relapse-free survival for 6 months postoperatively. The mortality of pancreatic pseudocyst rupture is very high if some effective medical interventions cannot be performed. It should be necessary to plan appropriate treatment strategy depending on each patient.

  7. A Salvage Operation for Total Penis Amputation Due to Circumcision

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    Bilsev Ince

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocautery during circumcision. Although penile replantation was attempted, it was unsuccessful due to burn damage to the veins. After restoration of the functional structures, the penis was buried in the inguinal area by reepithelization to maintain blood circulation. The recovery of the penis was successful. This case is presented as a novel example of groin flap surgery to achieve a functionally and aesthetically acceptable outcome in a salvage operation for a penis with significant traumatic injury, which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  8. Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth's outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to the first adiabatic invariant μ = 4-200 MeV/G. The electron diffusion coefficients due to hiss scattering are calculated at L = 2-6, and the modeled energy band of effective pitch angle scattering is also well correlated with the constant μ lines and is consistent with the observed energy range of electron decay. Using the previously developed statistical plasmaspheric hiss model during modestly disturbed periods, we perform a 2-D Fokker-Planck simulation of the electron phase space density evolution at L = 3.5 and demonstrate that plasmaspheric hiss causes the significant decay of 100 keV-1 MeV electrons with the largest decay rate occurring at around 340 keV, forming anisotropic pitch angle distributions at lower energies and more flattened distributions at higher energies. Our study provides reasonable estimates of the electron populations that can be most significantly affected by plasmaspheric hiss and the consequent electron decay profiles.

  9. Probability assessment of burst limit state due to internal corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Sikder, E-mail: msh678@mun.ca [Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X5 (Canada); Khan, Faisal; Kenny, Shawn [Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X5 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    The failure probability of an oil and gas pipeline, with longitudinally oriented internal corrosion defects, due to burst from internal operating pressure can be estimated through characterization of defect geometry, internal corrosion growth rate, and remaining mechanical hoop strength capacity. A number of candidate models to estimate the corrosion defect depth growth rate were evaluated. Defining a corrosion defect length, the corrosion feature geometry was integrated within burst pressure models, which have been adopted by oil and gas industry standards, codes or recommended practices. On this basis the burst pressure failure probability of a pipeline with internal corrosion defects can be estimated. A comparative analysis of pipe burst limit states and failure estimates were conducted, using Monte Carlo simulation and First Order Second Moment (FOSM) methods. Results from the comparative analysis closely matched and demonstrated consistent trends. Based on the probabilistic assessment, the relative conservatism between burst pressure models was analyzed and recommendations provided to assist designers on model selection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied failure probability of pipeline due to internal corrosion defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared the burst pressure models of recommended codes/standard or individual models Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussed relative conservatism of recommended codes/standards or individual models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recommendations also provided to assist designer on model selection.

  10. Marvelous but Morbid: Infective endocarditis due to Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K.; Jacob, Jesse T.

    2016-01-01

    A 46-year-old man with HIV infection and active intravenous drug use presented with approximately two weeks of fevers and body aches. On physical examination he was somnolent, had a new systolic murmur, bilateral conjunctival hemorrhages, diffuse petechiae, and left-sided arm weakness. Echocardiography revealed a large mitral valve vegetation and brain imaging demonstrated numerous embolic infarctions. Blood cultures grew Serratia marcescens. Despite aggressive treatment with meropenem the patient died due to intracranial hemorrhage complicated by herniation. Serratia marcescens is an uncommon cause of infective endocarditis. While this disease has historically been associated with intravenous drug use, more recent reports suggest that it is now largely a consequence of opportunistic infections of the chronically ill. Our case highlights several characteristic features of this infection, including isolation of a non-pigmented strain of the organism, an antibiotic susceptibility profile suggestive of AmpC β-lactamase production, and rapid clinical deterioration with multiple embolic complications resulting in death. In this review we discuss the history, epidemiology, and management of endovascular infections due to Serratia spp., emphasizing the continued importance of considering this organism in the differential diagnosis of endocarditis among intravenous drug users and as a potential indication for surgical therapy. PMID:27346925

  11. Intravenous Thrombolysis for Embolic Stroke due to Cardiac Myxoma

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    Mu-Chien Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myxoma is a rare but curable cause of ischemic stroke. Current guidelines do not address the use of intravenous thrombolysis for embolic stroke caused by cardiac myxoma. The risk of hemorrhage due to occult tumor emboli or microaneurysms is a major concern. We describe a 45-year-old man who had an embolic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery. The initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score was 16. He received intravenous thrombolysis 2 h and 52 min after stroke onset. No intracranial hemorrhage developed. A cardiac mass was found in the left atrium and removed surgically 84 h after stroke. Pathological study showed a myxoma with extensive hemorrhage and thrombus over the surface. At the 3-month follow-up, the NIHSS score was 9 and the modified Rankin scale score was 3. Our experience with this patient supports the hypothesis that intravenous thrombolysis may be safely used in the treatment of embolic stroke due to cardiac myxoma.

  12. Dynamic Model of Signal Fading due to Swaying Vegetation

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    Torbjörn Ekman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we use fading measurements at 2.45, 5.25, 29, and 60 GHz, and wind speed data, to study the dynamic effects of vegetation on propagating radiowaves. A new simulation model for generating signal fading due to a swaying tree has been developed by utilizing a multiple mass-spring system to represent a tree and a turbulent wind model. The model is validated in terms of the cumulative distribution function (CDF, autocorrelation function (ACF, level crossing rate (LCR, and average fade duration (AFD using measurements. The agreements found between the measured and simulated first- and second-order statistics of the received signals through vegetation are satisfactory. In addition, Ricean K-factors for different wind speeds are estimated from measurements. Generally, the new model has similar dynamical and statistical characteristics as those observed in measurements and can thus be used for synthesizing signal fading due to a swaying tree. The synthesized fading can be used for simulating different capacity enhancing techniques such as adaptive coding and modulation and other fade mitigation techniques.

  13. Small bowel obstruction in children due to persimmon phytobezoars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Arshad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ghafoor, Aamir; Turabi, Mohsin Raza

    2003-08-01

    To present the clinical picture of small bowel obstruction caused by Persimmon phytobezoars in children of Hazara (Northern Pakistan). Descriptive case series. Three general surgical units of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from November 1998 to March 2003. Nineteen children were managed for small bowel obstruction due to persimmon phytobezoars. The age, gender, season at the time of presentation, history of persimmon ingestion, symptoms, signs, site of obstruction, operative procedure and outcome were analyzed. There were 15 males and 4 females with ages ranging from 4-11 years (mean 7 years). All presented in winter with a positive history of persimmon ingestion. All had signs and symptoms and evidence of small bowel obstruction on plain abdominal x-rays. At laparotomy, ileum was the commonest site of obstruction. Milking of bezoars into caecum was performed in 17 patients while 2 patients required enterotomy for removal of bezoars. Complications occurred in 4 patients. There was no mortality. Small bowel obstruction in children due to persimmon phytobezoars is uncommon. However, it should be considered pre-operatively as a possible cause of intestinal obstruction in winter in children who have access to the fruit. Laparotomy should be performed for persistent obstruction or signs of strangulation.

  14. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.

    2003-10-09

    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

  15. Sensitivity of Process Design due to Uncertainties in Property Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Jones, Mark Nicholas; Sarup, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic methodology for performing analysis of sensitivity of process design due to uncertainties in property estimates. The methodology provides the following results: a) list of properties with critical importance on design; b) acceptable levels of...... in chemical processes. Among others vapour pressure accuracy for azeotropic mixtures is critical and needs to be measured or estimated with a ±0.25% accuracy to satisfy acceptable safety levels in design.......The objective of this paper is to present a systematic methodology for performing analysis of sensitivity of process design due to uncertainties in property estimates. The methodology provides the following results: a) list of properties with critical importance on design; b) acceptable levels...... of accuracy for different thermo-physical property prediction models; and c) design variables versus properties relationships. The application of the methodology is illustrated through a case study of an extractive distillation process and sensitivity analysis of designs of various unit operations found...

  16. Allergic alveolitis due to wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D H; Rogers, P

    1991-01-01

    Farmer's lung is rare in Australia whereas allergic alveolitis due to domestic fungal exposure ("domestic allergic alveolitis") is common. However there has been no systematic analysis of the fungi responsible for domestic allergic alveolitis in Australia. The aim of this study was to determine the sources and types of fungi that cause this type of alveolitis in Australia. Twelve subjects with recently diagnosed, biopsy proved, alveolitis thought on clinical grounds to be due to domestic fungal exposure were studied. The houses of all subjects were inspected, and fungal samples were taken. All lived in substandard inner city dwellings. Extensive wood decay was found in 10/12 while 4/12 also had obvious fungal growth on damp walls. Twelve fungal species were identified including Serpula lacrymans (8/12), Paecilomyces variottii (6/12), Aspergillus fumigatus (5/12), and Leucogyrophana pinastri (2/12). No single fungal group predominated. Nine of 12 patients showed positive precipitin results to one or more of the isolated fungi. Inhalation tests were done with extracts of Serpula lacrymans, Geotrichum candidum, and Aspergillus fumigatus in six of the patients and a positive late response to one or more of the fungi was observed in five of these. Relocation of the patients to a new dwelling resulted in improvement in each case.

  17. Inter-Hemispheric Differences Due to Ionospheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, R. L.; Song, Y.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.; Obana, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The ionospheric conductivity is a critical parameter in the evolution of the global field-aligned current system. The conductivity is produced by both the illumination due to solar ultra-violet radiation and the energy input due to the precipitation of particles. The first effect gives rise to day-night differences in the conductivity, as well as seasonal differences, especially during solstice when one ionosphere is mostly in daylight while the other is mostly dark. During daylight conditions, the large Pedersen conductance leads to a strong reflection of incident Alfvén waves and an enhancement of the field-aligned current. In darkness, Alfvén waves are strongly absorbed and the current decreases. This leads to the so-called "quarter-wave modes" in which a standing Alfvén wave has a node in the electric field in one ionosphere and an anti-node in the other (e.g., Obana et al., 2015). These waves can be observed near the terminator under solstice conditions when one end of the field line is in daylight while the other is in darkness. While the response to solar illumination varies on diurnal time scales, the response of the ionosphere to electron precipitation can be much more rapid. In the presence of a background convection electric field, a localized enhancement of the conductivity due to this precipitation can give rise to a feedback interaction in which the conductivity enhancement and the resulting field-aligned currents can grow. This effect is suppressed in the daylit ionosphere since recombination is faster in the high density region, suggesting that auroral arcs are more prevalent in a dark ionosphere (e.g., Newell et al., 1996). On the other hand, the higher currents resulting in the high-conductivity ionosphere may lead to enhanced parallel electric fields and higher energy precipitation. A similar trade-off may apply in ion outflow regions, since higher density will suppress the ambipolar field necessary to accelerate ions while also providing a

  18. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  19. Electron spin dynamics due to hyperfine coupling in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, L. M.; Reinecke, T. L.; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2008-02-01

    The dynamics of spins in semiconductor quantum dots often is controlled by their hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins. We develop a straightforward and efficient approach to describe the dynamics and the effective decoherence of the electron spins due to hyperfine coupling in realistic quantum dots. Systems with a large number of nuclei and an arbitrary initial nuclear polarization for which the number of nuclei initially flipped over is much less than the total number of nuclei are treated. This treatment employs a pole approximation within a Schrödinger equation of motion for the state of the coupled electron and nuclear spin system, and it allows us to treat systems with arbitrary initial conditions. We find that typical time scales for the effective spin decoherence are on the order of tens of microseconds.

  20. Multiphoton Effects Enhanced due to Ultrafast Photon-Number Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasibko, Kirill Yu.; Kopylov, Denis A.; Krutyanskiy, Victor L.; Murzina, Tatiana V.; Leuchs, Gerd; Chekhova, Maria V.

    2017-12-01

    The rate of an n -photon effect generally scales as the n th order autocorrelation function of the incident light, which is high for light with strong photon-number fluctuations. Therefore, "noisy" light sources are much more efficient for multiphoton effects than coherent sources with the same mean power, pulse duration, and repetition rate. Here we generate optical harmonics of the order of 2-4 from a bright squeezed vacuum, a state of light consisting of only quantum noise with no coherent component. We observe up to 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in the generation of optical harmonics due to ultrafast photon-number fluctuations. This feature is especially important for the nonlinear optics of fragile structures, where the use of a noisy pump can considerably increase the effect without overcoming the damage threshold.