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Sample records for subpermafrost saline fracture

  1. Microbial Communities in Subpermafrost Saline Fracture Water at the Lupin Au Mine, Nunavut, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onstott, Tullis [Princeton University; McGown, Daniel [Princeton University; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ruskeeniemi, T [Geological Survey of Finland; Ahonen, L [Geological Survey of Finland; Telling, J [University of Toronto; Soffientino, B [University of Rhode Island; Pfiffner, Susan M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara [University of Toronto; Frape, S [University of Waterloo, Canada; Stotler, R [University of Waterloo, Canada; Johnson, E [Indiana University; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Rothmel, Randi [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Pratt, L.M. [Indiana University

    2009-01-01

    We report the first investigation of a deep subpermafrost microbial ecosystem, a terrestrial analog for the Martian subsurface. Our multidisciplinary team analyzed fracture water collected at 890 and 1,130 m depths beneath a 540-m-thick permafrost layer at the Lupin Au mine (Nunavut, Canada). 14C, 3H, and noble gas isotope analyses suggest that the Na Ca Cl, suboxic, fracture water represents a mixture of geologically ancient brine, ~25-kyr-old, meteoric water and a minor modern talik-water component. Microbial planktonic concentrations were ~103 cells mL 1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from extracted DNA and enrichment cultures revealed 42 unique operational taxonomic units in 11 genera with Desulfosporosinus, Halothiobacillus, and Pseudomonas representing the most prominent phylotypes and failed to detect Archaea. The abundance of terminally branched and midchain-branched saturated fatty acids (5 to 15 mol%) was consistent with the abundance of Grampositive bacteria in the clone libraries. Geochemical data, the ubiquinone (UQ) abundance (3 to 11 mol%), and the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria indicated that the environment was suboxic, not anoxic. Stable sulfur isotope analyses of the fracture water detected the presence of microbial sulfate reduction, and analyses of the vein-filling pyrite indicated that it was in isotopic equilibrium with the dissolved sulfide. Free energy calculations revealed that sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation via denitrification and not methanogenesis were the most thermodynamically viable consistent with the principal metabolisms inferred from the 16S rRNA community composition and with CH4 isotopic compositions. The sulfate-reducing bacteria most likely colonized the subsurface during the Pleistocene or earlier, whereas aerobic bacteria may have entered the fracture water networks either during deglaciation prior to permafrost formation 9,000 years ago or from the nearby talik through the hydrologic gradient

  2. Subpermafrost groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Bense, Victor; Haldorsen, Sylvi

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater basins in polar areas are probably among the least studied systems in the World. Foremost, this is because such systems are mainly situated in sparsely populated areas. Also, where the permafrost is thick and continuous over large areas, the recharge is very limited and terrestrial discharge takes place only in some few springs. A now completed study of polar groundwater was carried out in Svalbard, the arctic archipelago north of Norway. Based on field observations and simulation models it was concluded that major discharge conduits only formed during extensive global glacial phases, beneath the parts of the glaciers were the ice was temperate. During most of the interglacial periods, when the glaciers retreat, the number of discharge springs will decrease gradually as long as continuous permafrost covers the area. However, the amount of recharge and thereby discharge in each individual groundwater spring is today highly dependent on short-time fluctuations in precipitation and air temperature. This situation may also be applicable in other polar areas where glaciers are abundant and parts of them are temperate. Such conditions occur in e.g. Greenland and on islands north of the North American mainland, as well as in parts of Antarctica. However, we cannot use the glacial-interglacial boundary conditions in all polar regions. Subpermafrost groundwater systems also exist in permafrost areas where few or no glaciers occur today and where the recharge has taken and takes place under e.g. larger lakes or snowfields. In many areas the groundwater systems may be much older than assumed in Svalbard. Their cycles may relate to several glaciations or to true non-glacial periods in the past. The development and melting of thick continuous permafrost are slow processes and the dynamic of the related groundwater systems will be dependent on cold/mild climate episodes lasting for many thousand years. The polar systems thereby have many of the same characteristics

  3. Pore water pressure variations in Subpermafrost groundwater : Numerical modeling compared with experimental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Agnès.; Goncalves, Julio; Jost, Anne; Font, Marianne

    2010-05-01

    Development and degradation of permafrost directly affect numerous hydrogeological processes such as thermal regime, exchange between river and groundwater, groundwater flows patterns and groundwater recharge (Michel, 1994). Groundwater in permafrost area is subdivided into two zones: suprapermafrost and subpermafrost which are separated by permafrost. As a result of the volumetric expansion of water upon freezing and assuming ice lenses and frost heave do not form freezing in a saturated aquifer, the progressive formation of permafrost leads to the pressurization of the subpermafrost groundwater (Wang, 2006). Therefore disappearance or aggradation of permafrost modifies the confined or unconfined state of subpermafrost groundwater. Our study focuses on modifications of pore water pressure of subpermafrost groundwater which could appear during thawing and freezing of soil. Numerical simulation allows elucidation of some of these processes. Our numerical model accounts for phase changes for coupled heat transport and variably saturated flow involving cycles of freezing and thawing. The flow model is a combination of a one-dimensional channel flow model which uses Manning-Strickler equation and a two-dimensional vertically groundwater flow model using Richards equation. Numerical simulation of heat transport consisted in a two dimensional model accounting for the effects of latent heat of phase change of water associated with melting/freezing cycles which incorporated the advection-diffusion equation describing heat-transfer in porous media. The change of hydraulic conductivity and thermal conductivity are considered by our numerical model. The model was evaluated by comparing predictions with data from laboratory freezing experiments. Experimental design was undertaken at the Laboratory M2C (Univesité de Caen-Basse Normandie, CNRS, France). The device consisted of a Plexiglas box insulated on all sides except on the top. Precipitation and ambient temperature are

  4. Numerical assessment of the origin of deep salinity in a low permeability fractured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimera, Jordi; Ruiz, Eduardo; Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Domenech, Cristina; Jordana, Salvador; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2007-01-01

    Many possible origins have been proposed for the saline groundwater observed in many deep geological environments. In particular, samples obtained from deep boreholes located in granite at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Central Japan show total dissolved solids increasing to 50 mmol/L at depths below 800 m. Different hypothesis have been formulated to explain the observed fluid composition, among them, long-term water-rock interaction, mixing with residual fluids of magmatic origin and relict seawater dating from Miocene times. A review of the hydrochemical and isotopic data suggests that the three above hypotheses may be valid, at least to different degrees, or that processes acting over more recent geological times may be involved. The origin of the salinity was assessed by simulating land emersion by means of changing the upper recharge boundary. In this manner the Miocene seawater was modeled as being continually mixed with fresh water until the present time. The effects of different retardation processes were considered by varying factors such as matrix diffusion and fracture conductivity. Finally, geochemical reactions reproduced trends in major ions and master variables. This study shows that the salinity observed in the boreholes can be explained qualitatively as residual Miocene age seawater subjected to alteration due to long-term contact with the host material and continuous mixing with meteoric groundwater. (authors)

  5. An Integrated Approach Based on Numerical Modelling and Geophysical Survey to Map Groundwater Salinity in Fractured Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Masciopinto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquifer over-exploitation may increase coastal seawater intrusion by reducing freshwater availability. Fractured subsurface formations commonly host important freshwater reservoirs along sea coasts. These water resources are particularly vulnerable to the contamination due to seawater infiltration occurring through rapid pathways via fractures. Modeling of density driven fluid flow in fractured aquifers is complex, as their hydrodynamics are controlled by interactions between preferential flow pathways, 3D interconnected fractures and rock-matrix porosity distribution. Moreover, physical heterogeneities produce highly localized water infiltrations that make the modeling of saltwater transport in such aquifers very challenging. The new approach described in this work provides a reliable hydrogeological model suitable to reproduce local advancements of the freshwater/saltwater wedge in coastal aquifers. The proposed model use flow simulation results to estimate water salinities in groundwater at a specific depth (1 m below water table by means of positions of the Ghyben-Herzberg saltwater/freshwater sharp interface along the coast. Measurements of salinity in 25 boreholes (i.e., salinity profiles have been used for the model calibration. The results provide the groundwater salinity map in freshwater/saltwater transition coastal zones of the Bari (Southern Italy fractured aquifer. Non-invasive geophysical measurements in groundwater, particularly into vertical 2D vertical cross-sections, were carried out by using the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT in order to validate the model results. The presented integrated approach is very easy to apply and gives very realistic salinity maps in heterogeneous aquifers, without simulating density driven water flow in fractures.

  6. Determining sources of elevated salinity in pre-hydraulic fracturing water quality data using a multivariate discriminant analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, L. K.; Hoke, G. D.; Lu, Z.; Siegel, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has the potential to introduce saline water into the environment due to migration of deep formation water to shallow aquifers and/or discharge of flowback water to the environment during transport and disposal. It is challenging to definitively identify whether elevated salinity is associated with hydraulic fracturing, in part, due to the real possibility of other anthropogenic sources of salinity in the human-impacted watersheds in which drilling is taking place and some formation water present naturally in shallow groundwater aquifers. We combined new and published chemistry data for private drinking water wells sampled across five southern New York (NY) counties overlying the Marcellus Shale (Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Steuben, and Tioga). Measurements include Cl, Na, Br, I, Ca, Mg, Ba, SO4, and Sr. We compared this baseline groundwater quality data in NY, now under a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing, with published chemistry data for 6 different potential sources of elevated salinity in shallow groundwater, including Appalachian Basin formation water, road salt runoff, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, and water softeners. A multivariate random number generator was used to create a synthetic, low salinity ( 20 mg/L Cl) as being affected by formation water, road salt, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, or water softeners. Single elements or pairs of elements (e.g. Cl and Br) were not effective at discriminating between sources of salinity, indicating multivariate methods are needed. The discriminant analysis model classified most accurately samples affected by formation water and landfill leachate, whereas those contaminated by road salt, animal waste, and water softeners were more likely to be discriminated as contaminated by a different source. Using this approach, no shallow groundwater samples from NY appear to be affected by formation water, suggesting the source of salinity pre-hydraulic fracturing is

  7. Hydrological connectivity from glaciers to rivers in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: roles of suprapermafrost and subpermafrost groundwater

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    R. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The roles of groundwater flow in the hydrological cycle within the alpine area characterized by permafrost and/or seasonal frost are poorly known. This study explored the role of permafrost in controlling groundwater flow and the hydrological connections between glaciers in high mountains and rivers in the low piedmont plain with respect to hydraulic head, temperature, geochemical and isotopic data, at a representative catchment in the headwater region of the Heihe River, northeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. The results show that the groundwater in the high mountains mainly occurred as suprapermafrost groundwater, while in the moraine and fluvioglacial deposits on the planation surfaces of higher hills, suprapermafrost, intrapermafrost and subpermafrost groundwater cooccurred. Glacier and snow meltwaters were transported from the high mountains to the plain through stream channels, slope surfaces, and supra- and subpermafrost aquifers. Groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer in the piedmont plain was recharged by the lateral inflow from permafrost areas and the stream infiltration and was discharged as baseflow to the stream in the north. Groundwater maintained streamflow over the cold season and significantly contributed to the streamflow during the warm season. Two mechanisms were proposed to contribute to the seasonal variation of aquifer water-conduction capacity: (1 surface drainage through the stream channel during the warm period and (2 subsurface drainage to an artesian aquifer confined by stream icing and seasonal frost during the cold season.

  8. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: priscila.silva@cprm.gov.br [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail: eloi@unb.br, E-mail: lucianosc@unb.br, E-mail: lmancini@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  9. Nose fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It most ... occurs with other fractures of the face. Nose injuries and neck ...

  10. Fracture Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dong Il; Jeong, Gyeong Seop; Han, Min Gu

    1992-08-01

    This book introduces basic theory and analytical solution of fracture mechanics, linear fracture mechanics, non-linear fracture mechanics, dynamic fracture mechanics, environmental fracture and fatigue fracture, application on design fracture mechanics, application on analysis of structural safety, engineering approach method on fracture mechanics, stochastic fracture mechanics, numerical analysis code and fracture toughness test and fracture toughness data. It gives descriptions of fracture mechanics to theory and analysis from application of engineering.

  11. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of ...

  12. Practically Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schroeder MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case . The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2, and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis . The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion . This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis . We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak.

  13. Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip fractures in people of all ages. In older adults, a hip fracture is most often a result of a fall from a standing height. In people with very weak bones, a hip fracture can occur simply by standing on the leg and twisting. Risk factors The rate of hip fractures increases substantially with ...

  14. Salinity intercalibration JONSDAP 76

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Seven institutes from six countries around the North Sea took 390 salinity samples for a salinity intercalibration exercise during JONSDAP 76. For samples in glass bottles, a mean dispersion in duplicates of 0.03 promille S was found, between salinities of samples determined (soon) after collection

  15. fracture criterion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fracture in metallic glasses. What are the connections between nano- and micro- mechanisms and toughness? Metallic glasses are schizophrenic in the fracture sense. PDF Create! 5 Trial www.nuance.com ...

  16. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thumb Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... Tunnel Ganglion Cysts Thumb Arthritis Trigger Finger Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  17. Wrist Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Wrist Fractures Email to a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION A wrist fracture is a medical term for a broken wrist. The wrist is made up of eight ...

  18. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  19. Shoulder Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as shown on an x-ray. Selection of treatment depends upon the patient’s activity level, the location of the fracture and the severity of the fracture. Recovery Shoulder fractures may leave a patient with permanent shoulder stiffness, regardless of ...

  20. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  1. Skull fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... follow bicycle safety recommendations. Do not drink and drive. Do not allow yourself to be driven by someone who may have been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired. Alternative Names Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture Images Skull of an adult Skull ...

  2. [Hip fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisová, Drahomíra; Salášek, Martin; Pavelka, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Hip fractures are ranked among the frequent injuries. These fractures have been often coupled with high energy trauma in children and in patients with normal bone structure, low energy trauma and osteoporotic fracture (fragility fracture) is typical in elder patients. Hip fractures are divided into five groups: femoral head fracture, femoral neck fracture, pertrochanteric, intertrochateric and subtrochanteric fracture. Surgical treatment is indicated in all patients unless contraindications are present. Long bed rest has been accompanied by a high risk of development of thromboembolic disease, pneumonia and bed sore. Healing in the wrong position and nonunions are often the result of conservative treatment. Screw osteosynthesis is performed in isolated femoral head factures. Three cannulated screws or a DHS plate (dynamic hip screw) are used in fractures of the femoral neck with normal femoral head perfusion, total hip replacement is recommended in elder patients and in case of loss of blood supply of the femoral head. Pertrochanteric and intertrochanteric fractures can be stabilized by the femoral nails (PFN, PFN A, PFH - proximal femoral nail), nails are suitable for minimally invasive insertion and provide higher stability in the shaft, or plates (DHS) designed for stable pertronchanteric and intertrochanteric fractures. Subtrochanteric fractures can be fixed also intramedullary (nails - PFN long, PFN A long) and extramedullary (plates - DCS dynamic condylar screw, proximal femoral LCP - locking compression plate). Open reduction with internal plate fixation is advantageous for pathological fractures, as biopsy sampling can be performed. Hip fracture rehabilitation is integral part of the treatment, including walking on crutches or with a walker with partial weight bearing for at least six weeks.

  3. Measuring soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results.

  4. Acetabular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Correa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 77-year-old female presented to her primary care physician (PCP with right hip pain after a mechanical fall. She did not lose consciousness or have any other traumatic injuries. She was unable to ambulate post-fall, so X-rays were ordered by her PCP. Her X-rays were concerning for a right acetabular fracture (see purple arrows, so the patient was referred to the emergency department where a computed tomography (CT scan was ordered. Significant findings: The non-contrast CT images show a minimally displaced comminuted fracture of the right acetabulum involving the acetabular roof, medial and anterior walls (red arrows, with associated obturator muscle hematoma (blue oval. Discussion: Acetabular fractures are quite rare. There are 37 pelvic fractures per 100,000 people in the United States annually, and only 10% of these involve the acetabulum. They occur more frequently in the elderly totaling an estimated 4,000 per year. High-energy trauma is the primary cause of acetabular fractures in younger individuals and these fractures are commonly associated with other fractures and pelvic ring disruptions. Fractures secondary to moderate or minimal trauma are increasingly of concern in patients of advanced age.1 Classification of acetabular fractures can be challenging. However, the approach can be simplified by remembering the three basic types of acetabular fractures (column, transverse, and wall and their corresponding radiologic views. First, column fractures should be evaluated with coronally oriented CT images. This type of fracture demonstrates a coronal fracture line running caudad to craniad, essentially breaking the acetabulum into two halves: a front half and a back half. Secondly, transverse fractures should be evaluated by sagittally oriented CT images. By definition, a transverse fracture separates the acetabulum into superior and inferior halves with the fracture line extending from anterior to posterior

  5. Colles Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, Belisario

    2014-01-01

    Our expertise is the study of more than 2,000 cases of Colles' fractures. Colles name should in this case to synthesize the type of fractures of the lower end of the radius. There have been various proposed classifications according to the different fracture lines can be demonstrated radiologically in the region of the wrist. We believe that these ratings should only be retained if the concept of the articular fracture or not in the classical sense, since it has great value in the functional ...

  6. [Calcaneus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, M P; Sanders, R W

    2011-10-01

    Fractures of the calcaneus generally occur in the setting of high-energy trauma, resulting in complex, three-dimensionally oriented fracture patterns. Surgical treatment is typically indicated for displaced intra-articular fractures, permitting restoration of calcaneal height, width and overall morphology, in addition to the posterior facet articular surface where possible, and enabling late in situ arthrodesis as a means of salvage in the event of post-traumatic arthritis. The present article briefly discusses our preferred methods for the management of calcaneal fractures. An English full text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  7. Facial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.

  8. Fracture sacrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of combined transverse and vertical fracture of sacrum with neurological deficit is reported here with a six month follow-up. The patient also had an L1 compression fracture. The patient has recovered significantly with conservative management.

  9. Elbow Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur commonly in children and in the elderly. Nerve and/or artery injuries can be associated with these types of fractures and must be carefully evaluated by your doctor. These fractures usually require surgical repair with plates and/or screw, unless they are ...

  10. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  11. Fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

  12. Supracondylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 15-year-old male presented to the emergency department with right elbow pain after falling off a skateboard. The patient denied a decrease in strength or sensation but did endorse paresthesias to his hand. On exam, the patient had an obvious deformity of his right elbow with tenderness to palpation and decreased range of motion at the elbow. Sensation, motor function, and pulses were intact. Radiographic imaging was obtained. Significant findings: The pre-reduction films show a type III supracondylar fracture. There is complete displacement of the distal humerus anteriorly. Specific findings for supracondylar fracture include: a posterior fat pad (red arrow and a displaced anterior humeral line (yellow line.1 When no fracture is present, the anterior humeral line should intersect the middle third of the capitellum; in this X-ray, it does not intersect the capitellum at all. This X-ray demonstrates a normal radiocapitellar line (blue line that intersects the capitellum. The presence of a narrow anterior fat pad aka “sail sign” can be normal. Discussion: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus occur at the distal portion of the humerus without involving the growth plate.2 This is the second most common fracture in children overall. In children, it is the most common fracture of the elbow.3 This injury has a high risk of neurovascular compromise, such as compartment syndrome or ischemic contracture, and thus the clinician must perform immediate and frequent neurovascular assessments focusing on the distributions of the brachial artery in addition to the median, ulnar, and radial nerves.4 Hyperextension injuries that typically occur following a fall onto an outstretched arm are responsible for 95% of supracondylar fractures.1 A type I supracondylar fracture is non-displaced and can be treated with immobilization through a posterior splint and sling5 with close follow-up, type II is angulated but with an intact

  13. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  14. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  15. Galeazzi fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2011-10-01

    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  16. The control of saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, T.

    1963-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of the watertable, water-conducting properties of the soil, climatic factors and groundwater salinity on the salinization of soils in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas, Australia.

    Average daily capillary flow rates were calculated from measured salinization (by

  17. Trochanteric fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrlin, K.; Stroemberg, T.; Lidgren, L.; Walloee, A.; Pettersson, H.; Lund Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Four hundred and thirty trochanteric factures operated upon with McLaughlin, Ender or Richard's osteosynthesis were divided into 6 different types based on their radiographic appearance before and immediately after reposition with special reference to the medial cortical support. A significant correlation was found between the fracture type and subsequent mechanical complications where types 1 and 2 gave less, and types 4 and 5 more complications. A comparison of the various osteosyntheses showed that Richard's had significantly fewer complications than either the Ender or McLaughlin types. For Richard's osteosynthesis alone no correlation to fracture type could be made because of the small number of complications in this group. (orig.)

  18. NITRIFICATION OF SALINE EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Rosa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - An Aerated Submerged Biological Filter was used to promote biological nitrification of a synthetic saline wastewater. Black PVC corrugated plates were used to make the structured packing of the 6 liter reactor. Nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations, pH and DO were periodically measured, according to APHA (1985. In spite of the deleterious effect of salinity, it was possible to obtain nitrogen removal efficiencies as high as 95% for a 25 g/L salt concentration after a three-day reaction in the batch reactor. Continuous operation using a NaCl concentration of 25 g/L was tested using three different hydraulic retention times: 7, 15, and 25 hours. An increase in ammonia removal was observed when the retention time was increased from 7 to 15 hours. However, no further notable increase was obtained for a 25 hour retention time, showing that nitrogen removal tends towards a maximum limit of about 80%.

  19. Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon del Olmo, Oihane

    I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor (exoelectrogenic capability). I demonstrated that MFCs can produce electricity at extremely high salinity (up to 250 g/l NaCl) with a power production of 71mW/m2. Pyrosequencing analysis of the anode population showed the predominance of Halanaerobium spp. (85%), which has been found in shale formations and oil reservoirs. Promoting Quorum sensing (QS, cell to cell communication between bacteria to control gene expression) was used as strategy to increase the attachment of bacteria to the anode and thus improve the MFC performance. Results show that the power output can be bolstered by adding 100nM of quinolone signal with an increase in power density of 30%, for the first time showing QS in Halanaerobium extremophiles. To make this technology closer to market applications, experiments with real wastewaters were also carried out. A sample of produced wastewater from Barnet Shale, Texas (86 g/L NaCl) produced electricity when fed in an MFC, leading to my discovery of another

  20. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  2. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Daly, E.; Maritan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and

  3. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  4. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  5. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increase...

  6. Salinity tolerance of Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Polle, A

    2010-03-01

    The genus Populus has a wide distribution in different climatic zones. Besides its economic and ecological relevance, Populus also serves as a model for elucidating physiological and molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in tree species. In this review, adaptation strategies of poplars to excess soil salinity are addressed at different scales, from the cellular to the whole-plant level. Striking differences in salt tolerance exist among different poplar species and ecotypes, with Populus euphratica being outstanding in this respect. Key mechanisms identified in this species to mediate salt tolerance are compartmentalisation of Cl(-) in the vacuoles of the root cortex cells, diminished xylem loading of NaCl, activation of Na(+) extrusion into the soil solution under stress, together with simultaneously avoiding excessive K(+) loss by regulation of depolarisation-activated cation channels. This leads to improved maintenance of the K(+)/Na(+) balance, a crucial precondition for survival under salt stress. Leaf cells of this species are able to compartmentalise Na(+) preferentially in the apoplast, whereas in susceptible poplar species, as well as in crop plants, vacuolar Na(+) deposition precedes apoplastic transport. ABA, Ca(2+)and ROS are involved in stress sensing, with higher or faster activation of defences in tolerant than in susceptible poplar species. P. euphratica develops leaf succulence after prolonged salt exposure as a plastic morphological adaptation that leads to salt dilution. Transgenic approaches to improve salt tolerance by transformation of candidate genes have had limited success, since salt tolerance is a multigenic trait. In future attempts towards increased salt resistance, barriers between different poplar sections must be overcome and application of novel biotechnological tools, such as gene stacking, are recommended.

  7. Assessment of fracture risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanis, John A.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  8. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  10. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral fracture are discussed in this article. PMID:26435923

  11. Effect of acute salinity stress on ion homeostasis, Na+/K+-ATPase and histological structure in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chenfan; Tian, Yi; Shang, Yanpeng; Wang, Liqiang; Jiang, Yanan; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus ) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity. In coelomic fluid, Na + concentration was observed fluctuated during salinity 18 psu and the inflection point presented at the 6 h. The Na + /K + -ATPase activity in respiratory trees indicated the "U-shaped" fluctuant change and the change trend was opposite with the Na + concentration. The ions (K + , Cl - ) concentration decreased and showed the same tendency at salinity 40 psu with salinity 18 psu. The total coelomocytes counts and phagocytosis of coelomic fluid Na + /K + -ATPase activity indicated fluctuating changes under different salinity stress. Histological variation revealed a negative relation between decreasing salt concentration and tissue integrity. Tissue damages were significantly observed in intestines, muscles and tube feet under low salinity environment (18, 23 and 27 psu). The connective tissue in intestines of A. japonicus exposed to 18 and 23 psu damaged and partly separated from the mucosal epithelium. The significant variations occurred in tube feet, which presented the swelling in connective tissue and a fracture in longitudinal muscles under low salinity (18 psu). The morphological change of tube feet showed the shrinkage of connective tissue under high salinity (40 psu). The amount of infusoria in the respiratory trees decreased or even disappeared in salinity treatment groups (18 and 23 psu). The results inferred that osmoconformity and ionoregulation were

  12. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

  13. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2009-11-15

    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  14. Local manganese chloride treatment accelerates fracture healing in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreha, Jeremy; Wey, Aaron; Cunningham, Catherine; Krell, Ethan S; Brietbart, Eric A; Paglia, David N; Montemurro, Nicholas J; Nguyen, Daniel A; Lee, Yung-Jae; Komlos, Daniel; Lim, Elisha; Benevenia, Joseph; O'Connor, J Patrick; Lin, Sheldon S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of local delivery of manganese chloride (MnCl2), an insulin-mimetic compound, upon fracture healing using a rat femoral fracture model. Mechanical testing, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess early and late parameters of fracture healing. At 4 weeks post-fracture, maximum torque to failure was 70% higher (P<0.05) and maximum torsional rigidity increased 133% (P<0.05) in animals treated with 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 compared to saline controls. Histological analysis of the fracture callus revealed percent new mineralized tissue was 17% higher (P<0.05) at day 10. Immunohistochemical analysis of the 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 treated group, compared to saline controls, showed a 379% increase in the density of VEGF-C+ cells. In addition, compared to saline controls, the 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 treated group showed a 233% and 150% increase in blood vessel density in the subperiosteal region at day 10 post-fracture as assessed by detection of PECAM and smooth muscle α actin, respectively. The results suggest that local MnCl2 treatment accelerates fracture healing by increasing mechanical parameters via a potential mechanism of amplified early angiogenesis leading to increased osteogenesis. Therefore, local administration of MnCl2 is a potential therapeutic adjunct for fracture healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  16. Productive use of saline lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  17. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000548.htm Ankle fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An ankle fracture is a break in 1 or more ...

  18. Fracture prevention in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, PP; Sambrook, P.N.; Lems, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime risk of experiencing a fracture in 50-year-old men is lower (20%) than the risk in women (50%). Consequently, much less research has been carried out on osteoporosis and fracture risk in men. Differences in the risk and incidence of fractures between men and women are related to

  19. Imaging of insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.krestan@meduniwien.ac.at; Hojreh, Azadeh [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This review focuses on the occurrence, imaging and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence, the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures occur with normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. Other conditions which affect bone turnover include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure and high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures, and to differentiate them from other bone lesions. Radiographs are still the most widely used imaging method for identification of insufficiency fractures, but sensitivity is limited, depending on the location of the fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures. Thin section, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but limited specificity. The most important differential diagnosis is underlying malignant disease leading to pathologic fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical history may also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of insufficiency fractures.

  20. Effect of Random Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Geometry in Fractured Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shijie; Zhao, Haiyang; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Geng, Yudi; Tao, Shan; Zhang, Guangqing; Chen, Mian

    2018-02-01

    Natural fractures have a significant influence on the propagation geometry of hydraulic fractures in fractured reservoirs. True triaxial volumetric fracturing experiments, in which random natural fractures are created by placing cement blocks of different dimensions in a cuboid mold and filling the mold with additional cement to create the final test specimen, were used to study the factors that influence the hydraulic fracture propagation geometry. These factors include the presence of natural fractures around the wellbore, the dimension and volumetric density of random natural fractures and the horizontal differential stress. The results show that volumetric fractures preferentially formed when natural fractures occurred around the wellbore, the natural fractures are medium to long and have a volumetric density of 6-9%, and the stress difference is less than 11 MPa. The volumetric fracture geometries are mainly major multi-branch fractures with fracture networks or major multi-branch fractures (2-4 fractures). The angles between the major fractures and the maximum horizontal in situ stress are 30°-45°, and fracture networks are located at the intersections of major multi-branch fractures. Short natural fractures rarely led to the formation of fracture networks. Thus, the interaction between hydraulic fractures and short natural fractures has little engineering significance. The conclusions are important for field applications and for gaining a deeper understanding of the formation process of volumetric fractures.

  1. Role of MRI in hip fractures, including stress fractures, occult fractures, avulsion fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, O.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Lalam, R.; Tins, B.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; Singh, J.

    2012-01-01

    MR imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of hip fractures in all age groups, in a large spectrum of patient groups spanning the elderly and sporting population. It allows a confident exclusion of fracture, differentiation of bony from soft tissue injury and an early confident detection of fractures. There is a spectrum of MR findings which in part is dictated by the type and cause of the fracture which the radiologist needs to be familiar with. Judicious but prompt utilisation of MR in patients with suspected hip fractures has a positive therapeutic impact with healthcare cost benefits as well as social care benefits.

  2. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increased...... with increasing age and disease duration. Among 34 deceased MS patients 4 had had fractures. These findings are discussed in relation to physical and cognitive impairment in MS. A case-control study is recommended....

  3. Medial fracture line significance in calcaneus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen; Kantarci, Fatih; Unlu, Mehmet C; Salih, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    In Sanders' classification of calcaneus fractures, the medial fracture line (subtype C) is close to the tarsal canal, which contains an artery for the talus and calcaneus. We hypothesized that because of this brittle vascular localization, patients with C line fracture patterns might describe radiologic subtalar arthritis more often and have more complaints. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of C line fracture patterns with other types of calcaneus fractures. A total of 25 surgically treated feet were involved. Regarding Sanders' classification, group 1 included fractures involving the C line (11 feet), and group 2 included fractures not involving the C line (14 feet). Patient age at admission, trauma date, and interval until surgery were obtained from the patients' medical records. The Bohler angles were determined from the radiographs. At the last follow-up visit, the radiologist graded subtalar arthritis using computed tomography. For clinical follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were assessed. No significant differences were found in mean age, follow-up period, delay to surgery, or postoperative Bohler angle between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative Bohler angle was significantly low for group 1. Although not significantly different, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were lower for group 1 (81.9 and 84.3) than group 2 (87.8 and 92.0), and the median subtalar arthritis grade was greater for group 1 (score 2) than for group 2 (score 1.5). The worse results with C line fracture patterns despite satisfactory reduction might result from sinus tarsi artery damage. Angiographic investigations could clarify this theory in the future. Consequently, surgeons must inform and should hesitate to operate on patients with these highly comminuted C line calcaneus fractures. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  5. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  6. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  7. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  8. Base of moderately saline ground water in San Juan County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, L.

    1990-01-01

    The base of moderately saline groundwater was delineated for San Juan County, Utah, based on water-quality data and formation-water resistivity determined from geophysical well logs using the resistivity-porosity, spontaneous-potential, and resistivity-ratio methods. These data and the contour map developed from them show that a thick layer of very saline to briny groundwater underlies the eastern two-thirds of San Juan County. The upper surface of this layer is affected by the geologic structure of the area, is affected by the geologic structure of the area, but it may be modified locally by recharge mounds of less saline water and by vertical leakage of water through transmissive faults and fractures. The highest altitude of the base of moderately saline water is west of the Abajo Mountains where it is more than 6,500 ft above sea level. The lowest altitude is in the western part of the county and is below sea level; depressions in the base of moderately saline water in recharge areas in the La Sal and Abajo Mountains also may be that low. The base of moderately saline water commonly is in the Permian Cutler Formation or the Pennsylvanian Honaker Trail Formation of the Hermosa Group, but locally may be as high stratigraphically as the Triassic and Jurassic Navajo Sandstone north of the Abajo Mountains and in the Jurassic Morrison Formation south of the mountains

  9. Odontoid Fracture: Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Peña

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 84-year-old male presented with left-sided posterior head, neck, and back pain after a ground level fall. Exam was notable for left parietal scalp laceration and midline cervical spine tenderness with no obvious deformities. He was neurovascularly intact, and placed in an Aspen Collar with strict spine precautions. Significant findings: Computed Tomography (CT of the cervical spine showed a stable, acute, non-displaced fracture of the odontoid process extending into the body of C2, consistent with a Type III Odontoid Fracture. He was evaluated by orthopedic spine service who recommended conservative, non-operative management. Discussion: The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae, with C1 and C2 commonly referred to as the Atlas and Axis, respectively. Unique to C2 is a bony prominence, the Odontoid Process (Dens. Hyperextension or hyperflexion injuries can induce significant stress causing fractures. Odontoid fractures comprise approximately 10% of vertebral fractures, and there are three types with varying stability.1 Type 1 is the rarest and is a fracture involving the superior segment of the Dens. It is considered a stable fracture. Type 2 is the most common and is a fracture involving the base of the odontoid process, below the transverse component of the cruciform ligament. This fracture is unstable and requires operative stabilization. 2 Type 3 odontoid fractures are classified by a fracture of the Odontoid process, as well as the lateral masses of the C2. Determining the stability of a Type III Odontoid fracture requires radiographic evaluation. Strict cervical spine precautions must be adhered to until adequate imaging and surgical consultation is obtained. CT of the of cervical spine fractures poses several advantages to plain film radiography due to the ability to view the anatomy in three planes. 3 However, if there is concern for ligamentous injury, MRI is the preferred modality.3

  10. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  11. -Lesser known stress fractures-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybier, M; Hamze, B; Champsaur, P; Parlier, C

    1997-01-01

    Stress fractures of the tibia may disclose a longitudinal orientation which is obvious at bone scanning; a mild periostosis may appear on plain films; CT demonstrates a radially-oriented fracture in one aspect of the diaphyseal cortex. A cortical dissection-like vertically oriented insufficiency fracture may involve the medial aspect of the femoral shaft underlying the lesser trochanter; the fracture is concentric to the femoral cortex at CT. Insufficiency fractures of the sacrum may be misdiagnosed on plain films; bone scanning displays a typical H-shaped increased uptake which is a specific pattern. Insufficiency fractures of the pubis may appear as tumoral bone destruction; however no soft tissue mass is present at CT which in addition demonstrates normal fat tissue abutting the osseous lesion.

  12. Re-injection feasibility study of fracturing flow-back fluid in shale gas mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dingyu; Xue, Chen; Chen, Xinjian; Du, Jiajia; Shi, Shengwei; Qu, Chengtun; Yu, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Fracturing flow-back fluid in shale gas mining is usually treated by re-injecting into formation. After treatment, the fracturing flow-back fluid is injected back into the formation. In order to ensure that it will not cause too much damage to the bottom layer, feasibility evaluations of re-injection of two kinds of fracturing fluid with different salinity were researched. The experimental research of the compatibility of mixed water samples based on the static simulation method was conducted. Through the analysis of ion concentration, the amount of scale buildup and clay swelling rate, the feasibility of re-injection of different fracturing fluid were studied. The result shows that the swelling of the clay expansion rate of treated fracturing fluid is lower than the mixed water of treated fracturing fluid and the distilled water, indicating that in terms of clay expansion rate, the treated fracturing flow-back fluid is better than that of water injection after re-injection. In the compatibility test, the maximum amount of fouling in the Yangzhou oilfield is 12mg/L, and the maximum value of calcium loss rate is 1.47%, indicating that the compatibility is good. For the fracturing fluid with high salinity in the Yanchang oilfield, the maximum amount of scaling is 72mg/L, and the maximum calcium loss rate is 3.50%, indicating that the compatibility is better.

  13. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical...

  14. Fracture characterization in a deep geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Hehn, Vera; Hassanzadegan, Alireza; Tischner, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    At the geothermal research drilling Horstberg in North West Germany studies for the characterization of a vertical fracture are performed. The fracture was created by a massive hydraulic stimulation in 2003 in approx. 3700 m depth within rocks of the middle Buntsandstein. The fracture surface is in the order of 100,000 m2, depending on the flow rate at which water is injected. Besides hydraulic characterization, multiple tracer tests are planned. At the depth of interest the reservoir temperature is around 150 °C, pressure is around 600 bar (60 MPa) and due to salinity the water density is around 1200 kg/m3. Knowledge of tracer stability and behavior at these reservoir conditions is limited. Additionally, the planned tracer tests will be performed within one single borehole. In a closed cycle water is injected into the inner pipe of the well (tubing), which is separated by a permanent packer from the outer pipe (annulus). The water is produced back from the annulus approximately 150 m above the injection point. Thus, the circulation of thermal water between two sandstone layers via an artificial fracture can be achieved. Tests will be carried out with different flow rates and accordingly with different pressures, resulting in different fracture areas. Due to this test setup tracer signals will be stacked and will remain for a longer time in the fracture - which is the reason why different tracers are required. For an optimal characterization both conservative and reactive tracers will be used and different injection methods (continuous, instantaneous and pulsed) will be applied. For a proper setup of the tracer test numerical modelling studies are performed in advance. The relevant thermal, hydraulic and chemical processes (mainly adsorption and degredation) are coupled, resulting in a THC model; additionally the dependence of fracture aperture and area on fluid pressure has to be considered. Instead of applying a mechanically coupled model (THMC) a simplified

  15. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization of Fractured Shale Reservoirs with Implications to Hydraulic Fracturing Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Shales are important petroleum source rocks and reservoir seals. Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing technology have facilitated high gas production rates from shale and have had a strong impact on the U.S. gas supply and markets. Modeling of effective permeability for fractured shale reservoirs has been challenging because the presence of a fracture network significantly alters the reservoir hydrologic properties. Due to the frequent occurrence of fracture networks, it is of vital importance to characterize fracture networks and to investigate how these networks can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracturing. We have conducted basic research on 3-D fracture permeability characterization and compartmentization analyses for fractured shale formations, which takes the advantages of the discrete fracture networks (DFN). The DFN modeling is a stochastic modeling approach using the probabilistic density functions of fractures. Three common scenarios of DFN models have been studied for fracture permeability mapping using our previously proposed techniques. In DFN models with moderately to highly concentrated fractures, there exists a representative element volume (REV) for fracture permeability characterization, which indicates that the fractured reservoirs can be treated as anisotropic homogeneous media. Hydraulic fracturing will be most effective if the orientation of the hydraulic fracture is perpendicular to the mean direction of the fractures. A DFN model with randomized fracture orientations, on the other hand, lacks an REV for fracture characterization. Therefore, a fracture permeability tensor has to be computed from each element. Modeling of fracture interconnectivity indicates that there exists no preferred direction for hydraulic fracturing to be most effective oweing to the interconnected pathways of the fracture network. 3-D fracture permeability mapping has been applied to the Devonian Chattanooga Shale in Alabama and the results suggest that an

  16. Do Laying Hens with Keel Bone Fractures Experience Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A. F.; Nicol, Christine J.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems. PMID:22927930

  17. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A F Nasr

    Full Text Available The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM landing time (seconds birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3, 2.2 (0.3, p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6, 16.9 (6.7, p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4, 26.3 (7.6, p = 0.02 150 cm. Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems.

  18. Pediatric pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Candice P; Holman, Joel; Herman, Martin J

    2007-03-01

    Pediatric pelvic fractures account for only 1% to 2% of fractures seen by orthopaedic surgeons who treat children. They are typically associated with high-energy trauma, requiring a comprehensive workup for concomitant life-threatening injuries. Anteroposterior radiographs and rapid-sequence computed tomography are the standards of diagnostic testing to identify the fracture and recognize associated injuries. Treatment is individualized based on patient age, fracture classification, stability of the pelvic ring, extent of concomitant injuries, and hemodynamic stability of the patient. Most pelvic injuries in children are treated nonsurgically, with protected weight bearing and gradual return to activity. Open reduction and internal fixation is required for acetabular fractures with >2 mm of fracture displacement and for any intra-articular or triradiate cartilage fracture displacement >2 mm. To prevent limb-length discrepancies, external fixation is necessary for pelvic ring displacement >2 cm. Fractures involving immature triradiate cartilage may lead to growth disturbance of the acetabulum, resulting in acetabular dysplasia, hip subluxation, or hip joint incongruity. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head may develop after acetabular fractures associated with hip dislocation. Other complications include myositis ossificans and neurologic deficits secondary to sciatic, femoral, and/or lumbosacral plexus nerve injuries.

  19. Scaphoid fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scaphoid fractures are rare in childhood. Diagnosis is very difficult to establish because carpal bones are not fully ossified. In suspected cases comparative or delayed radiography is used, as well as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and bone scintigraphy. Majority of scaphoid fractures are treated conservatively with good results. In case of delayed fracture healing various types of treatment are available. Objective. To determine the mechanism of injury, clinical healing process, types and outcome of treatment of scaphoid fractures in children. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone over a ten-year period (2002-2011. The outcome of the treatment of “acute” scaphoid fracture was evaluated using the Mayo Wrist Score. Results. There were in total 34 patients, of mean age 13.8 years, with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone, whose bone growth was not finished yet. Most common injury mechanism was fall on outstretched arm - 76% of patients. During the examined period 31 children with “acute” fracture underwent conservative treatment, with average immobilization period of 51 days. Six patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 25 patients, after completed rehabilitation, functional results determined by the Mayo Wrist Score were excellent. Conclusion. Conservative therapy of “acute” scaphoid fractures is an acceptable treatment option for pediatric patients with excellent functional results.

  20. Fracture of the styloid process associated with the mandible fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the styloid process (SP of temporal bone is an uncommon injuries. Fracture of the SP can be associated with the facial injuries including mandible fracture. However, injury to the SP may be concealed and missed diagnosis may lead to the improper or various unnecessary treatments. A rare case of SP fracture associated with the ipsilateral mandibular fracture and also the diagnostic and management considerations of the SP fracture are discussed.

  1. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  2. [Trochanteric femoral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, P; Čech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

    2013-01-01

    At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (pfractures were 2.3-times more frequent in women than in men. In the category under 60 years, men significantly outnumbered women (pfractures were, on the average, eight years older than the patients with intertrochanteric fractures, which is a significant difference (pTrochanteric fractures accounted for 54.7% and femoral neck fractures for 45.3% of all fractures. The inter-annual increase was 5.9%, with more trochanteric than femoral neck fractures. There was a non-significant decrease in intertrochanteric (AO 31-A3) fractures. On the other hand, the number of pertrochanteric (AO 31-A1+2) fractures increased significantly (pfractures were treated with a proximal femoral nail; a short nail was used in 1260 and a long nail in 134 of them. A dynamic hip screw (DHS) was employed to treat 947 fractures. Distinguishing between pertrochanteric (21-A1

  3. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  4. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  5. Dislocation model of fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull', L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Papers dealing with study on mechanisms of submicricrack formation and propagation using dislocation representations are analyzed. Cases of brittle and ductile fracture of materials as well as models of dislocationless (amorphous) zone at the growing crack tip are considered. Dislocation models of fracture may be used when studying the processes of deformation and accumulation of damages in elements of nuclear facilities

  6. Physeal Fractures in Foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David G; Aitken, Maia R

    2017-08-01

    Physeal fractures are common musculoskeletal injuries in foals and should be included as a differential diagnosis for the lame or nonweightbearing foal. Careful evaluation of the patient, including precise radiographic assessment, is paramount in determining the options for treatment. Prognosis mostly depends on the patient's age, weight, and fracture location and configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue of S¯adhan¯a is rightly dedicated to the fracture mechanics of concrete. In particular, the size effect is highlighted. As appropriately pointed out in the first inter- national conference on fracture mechanics of concrete structures, FraMCos-I, organized by Z P Ba˘zant, at Breckenridge, Colorado in 1992, ...

  8. Displaced patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Hand fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an orthopedic surgeon if: Your metacarpal bones are broken and shifted out of place Your fingers do not line up correctly Your fracture nearly went through the skin Your fracture went through the skin Your pain is severe or becoming worse Self-care at Home You may have pain and swelling for 1 ...

  10. Management of Open Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blease

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large spectrum of open fractures is an amalgamation of injuries with the single variable in common of communication of the fractured bone with the outside environment, and thus an increased risk for infection. Contributing to the presence of bacteria within the fracture site is devascularized soft tissue, the degree of which can be directly attributed to the amount of energy imparted to the tissues. The currently used classification system aids in defining the degree of severity of these injuries and their subsequent risk for infection. The basic management principal for all of these injury patterns remains essentially the same, however: prevention of infection through debridement, wound management, antibiotic usage, and fracture stabilization. Frequently multiple surgical procedures will be required in order to obtain an infection free, united fracture with adequate soft tissue coverage (1.

  11. Formation fracturing with foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauer, R.E.; Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    Over 60 wells have been treated with hydraulic fracturing techniques, with foam as the fracturing fluid. These foams contained as much as 95% gaseous phase; most treatments used foams with gas contents in the 65% to 85% range. Foam has several desirable properties for use as a fracturing fluid: high sand-carrying and sand-suspending capability, low fluid loss, low hydrostatic head, low pressure drops due to friction, quick fluid recovery, low formation damage, and no reduction of fracture conductivity due to fluid ingredients. Most applications of foam as a fracturing fluid have been in low permeability gas reservoirs. However, several oil reservoirs also have been successfully treated. Cost of the treatment is approx. the same or slightly less than a treatment with conventional fluids of comparable volume and rate. (25 refs.)

  12. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  13. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In hip fracture surgery, the exact choice of implant often remains somewhat unclear for the individual surgeon, but the growing literature consensus has enabled publication of evidence-based surgical treatment pathways. The aim of this article was to review author pathways and national...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we......-displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...

  14. Stabilising nanofluids in saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anssari, Sarmad; Arif, Muhammad; Wang, Shaobin; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-12-15

    Nanofluids (i.e. nanoparticles dispersed in a fluid) have tremendous potential in a broad range of applications, including pharmacy, medicine, water treatment, soil decontamination, or oil recovery and CO 2 geo-sequestration. In these applications nanofluid stability plays a key role, and typically robust stability is required. However, the fluids in these applications are saline, and no stability data is available for such salt-containing fluids. We thus measured and quantified nanofluid stability for a wide range of nanofluid formulations, as a function of salinity, nanoparticle content and various additives, and we investigated how this stability can be improved. Zeta sizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS) principles were used to investigate zeta potential and particle size distribution of nanoparticle-surfactant formulations. Also scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the physicochemical aspects of the suspension. We found that the salt drastically reduced nanofluid stability (because of the screening effect on the repulsive forces between the nanoparticles), while addition of anionic surfactant improved stability. Cationic surfactants again deteriorated stability. Mechanisms for the different behaviour of the different formulations were identified and are discussed here. We thus conclude that for achieving maximum nanofluid stability, anionic surfactant should be added. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing the Economics of Soil Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrich, Joleen C.

    2011-01-01

    Saline soils result in decreased crop growth and yield with the potential for losing productive farm land. Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota for corn, soybeans, wheat, sugar beets, and barley. Installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity decreased per acre crop profitability from 19-49% due to the large upfront capital investment of tile drainage. These losses can b...

  16. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  17. ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) seedlings to salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity stress on five cultivars of common bean: Bassbeer, Beladi, Giza 3, HRS 516 and RO21 were evaluated on a sand/peat medium with different salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) applied 3 weeks after germination for duration of 10 days. Salinity had adverse effects not only on the biomass yield and ...

  18. Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 74-year-old male presented to the emergency department with left hip pain after falling off his bicycle. Pain is 3/10 in severity and exacerbated by movement. Patient denied head trauma. Exam showed left hip tenderness, 3/5 left lower extremity strength secondary to pain, and 5/5 right lower extremity strength. Sensation and pulses were intact in bilateral lower extremities. Left hip X-ray and pelvic CT revealed comminuted, impacted transcervical and subcapital fracture of the left femoral neck. Significant findings: In the anteroposterior view bilateral hip x-ray, there is an evident loss of Shenton’s line on the left (red line when compared to the normal right (white line, indicative of a fracture in the left femoral neck. This correlates with findings seen on pelvic CT, which reveals both a subcapital fracture (blue arrow and transcervical fracture (yellow arrow. The neck of the femur is displaced superiorly relative to the head of the femur while the head of the femur remains in its anatomical position within the acetabulum. Discussion: Femoral neck fractures are one of the most common types of hip fractures, accounting for 49.4% of all hip fractures.1 Diagnosing a femoral neck fracture can be made with plain x-ray, CT, or MRI. Plain film radiographs have been found to be at least 90% sensitive for hip fractures CT’s have been found to be 87%-100% sensitive and 100% specific for occult hip fractures in which plain radiographs were read as negative, but the patient still complained of hip pain Although MRI is currently the gold standard for detecting occult hip fractures (sensitivity and specificity = 100%, given MRI’s limited accessibility in the ED as well as the high sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for occult hip fractures, it is generally recommended to obtain CT scans for patients with suspected occult hip fractures as a first-line investigation

  19. SOIL SALINITY MAPPING USING MULTITEMPORAL LANDSAT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azabdaftari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010 are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index, BI (Brightness Index and SI (Salinity Index are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index, SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field’s electrical conductivity (EC measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR and multiple linear regression (MLR are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  20. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  1. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  2. Early Initial Antibiotics and Debridement Independently Reduce Infection in an Open Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    collagen soaked with 1×105 colony-forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus in 0.5 ml of saline. The (Xenogen 36) strain of Staph . aureus used, derived...and with a proton- count camera to confirm that they were the strain of Staph . aureus used to contaminate the fracture. In addition to the operative

  3. Chance Fracture Secondary to a Healed Kyphotic Compression Osteoporotic Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teh KK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chance fracture is an unstable vertebral fracture, which usually results from a high velocity injury. An elderly lady with a previously healed osteoporotic fracture of the T12 and L1 vertebra which resulted in a severe kyphotic deformity subsequently sustained a Chance fracture of the adjacent L2 vertebrae after a minor fall. The previously fracture left her with a deformity which resulted in significant sagittal imbalance therefore predisposing her to this fracture. This case highlights the importance of aggressive treatment of osteoporotic fractures in order to prevent significant sagittal imbalance from resultant (i.e. kyphotic deformity.

  4. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  5. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  6. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  7. Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work

  8. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  9. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON SURVIVAL AND LARVAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations was conducted to gain a better insight into the effect of changing salinity regime on the development and survival of Macrobrachium vollenhoveli larvae. At water temperature of 28 ± 2oC, larvae reared in the salinity range of 0 to 10 ppt showed low survival (<48%), whereas those reared at 12 ...

  10. (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) UNDER SALINE STRESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Rahim Guealia

    1 sept. 2017 ... Department of Biology, Laboratory of Biodiversity and Conservation of Water and Soils,. University of ... factors (salinity and bentonite) imposed in our study have a significant effect on the water status estimated by RWC, ..... 2003, 62: 37-66. [12] Ngasamy P. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

  11. SUBSURFACE SEQUENCE DELINEATION AND SALINE WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The driller's lithological logs aided by gamma and resistivity logs, showed that the area is underlain by clays, sandy/silty clays, clayey sands and sands with shale and limestone in places. The resistivity logs delineate saline water at shallow depth at Lekki wells I and II, Lakowe and Akodo with fresh/saline water interface at ...

  12. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From the comprehensive survey of groundwater conditions in the study area, it has been noticed that the ground- water widely ranges in salinity between 1000 and about 15000 mg/l. This great variation in salinity is mainly attributed to the dominant hydrologic conditions controlling the groundwater occurrence and recharge.

  13. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  14. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  15. Ontology of fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Aydina, Atilla; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2009-03-01

    Fractures are fundamental structures in the Earth's crust and they can impact many societal and industrial activities including oil and gas exploration and production, aquifer management, CO 2 sequestration, waste isolation, the stabilization of engineering structures, and assessing natural hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides). Therefore, an ontology which organizes the concepts of fractures could help facilitate a sound education within, and communication among, the highly diverse professional and academic community interested in the problems cited above. We developed a process-based ontology that makes explicit specifications about fractures, their properties, and the deformation mechanisms which lead to their formation and evolution. Our ontology emphasizes the relationships among concepts such as the factors that influence the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation and evolution of specific fracture types. Our ontology is a valuable resource with a potential to applications in a number of fields utilizing recent advances in Information Technology, specifically for digital data and information in computers, grids, and Web services.

  16. Fractures - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Bone Fractures - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Cast Care - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual ...

  17. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 13. Safran MR, Zachazewski J, Stone DA. Metatarsal stress fracture. In: Safran MR, Zachazewski J, Stone DA, ...

  18. Stress fractures in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschberger, R.; Henning, A.; Graff, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  19. Calcaneal stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jason M; Vidt, Louis G; Gehl, Richard S; Montgomery, Travis

    2005-01-01

    The majority of plantar heel pain is diagnosed as plantar fasciitis or heel spur syndrome. When historic or physical findings are unusual or when routine treatment proves ineffective, one should consider an atypical cause of heel pain. Stress fractures of the calcaneus are a frequently unrecognized source of heel pain. In some cases they can continue to go unrecognized because the symptoms of calcaneal stress fractures sometimes improves with treatments aimed at plantar fasciitis. Calcaneal stress fractures can occur in any population of adults and even children and are common among active people, such as athletes, sports enthusiasts, and military personnel. It is likely that the number of diagnosed calcaneal stress fractures will rise among practitioners with an increased recognition of their possibility.

  20. Stress fractures in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschberger, R.; Henning, A.; Graff, K.H.

    1984-12-01

    The early exclusion of the presence of a stress fracture may be decisive for the success of an athlete. Scintigraphy with a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical is suitable for the early detection of stress lesions. Of 30 athletes, fractures were demonstrated in 17 whereas in 6 they were excluded. We found most fractures in the tarsal bones such as os naviculare pedis, ossa cuneiformia and talus. The type of sport engaged in appears to be an important factor in determining the location of the fracture. Scintiphotos were taken in several views using region of interest techniques and two phase-scintigraphy. This method is considered to be useful for localization and follow-up of skeletal stress lesions as well as for differential diagnosis.

  1. Fatigue and insufficiency fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodwick, G.S.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Kattapuram, S.V.; Hudson, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of stress fracture is increasing. In our younger society this is due largely to a preocupation with physical conditioning, but in our elderly population it is due to improved recognition and better methods of detection and diagnosis. Stress fracture of the elderly is an insufficiency fracture which occurs in the spine, the pelvis, the sacrum and other bones afflicted with disorders which cause osteopenia. Stress fracture is frequently misdiagnosed as a malignant lesion of bone resulting in biopsy. Scintiscanning provides the greatest frequency of detection, while computed tomography often provides the definitive diagnosis. With increased interest and experience a better insight into the disease has been achieved, and what was once thought of as a simple manifestation of mechanical stress is now known to be an orderly, complex pattern of physiological changes in bone which conform to a model by Frost. The diffuse nature of these changes can be recognized by scintigraphy, radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. 27 refs.; 8 figs

  2. Paediatric talus fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric talus fractures are rare injuries resulting from axial loading of the talus against the anterior tibia with the foot in dorsiflexion. Skeletally immature bone is less brittle, with higher elastic resistance than adult bone, thus the paediatric talus can sustain higher forces before fractures occur. However, displaced paediatric talus fractures and those associated with high-energy trauma have been associated with complications including avascular necrosis, arthrosis, delayed union, neurapraxia and the need for revision surgery. The authors present the rare case of a talar neck fracture in a skeletally immature young girl, initially missed on radiological review. However, clinical suspicion on the part of the emergency physician, repeat examination and further radiographic imaging revealed this rare paediatric injury.

  3. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 55. Read More Broken bone Hip fracture surgery Hip pain Leg MRI scan Osteoporosis - overview Patient Instructions Getting your home ready - knee or hip surgery Osteomyelitis - discharge Review ...

  4. Upscaling on Fracture Flow Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dugstad, Martin Sandanger

    2017-01-01

    Fractures have a great impact on the quality of a porous media. The understanding of the fractures is important to describe the challenges linked to flow of geothermal heat, the transport of groundwater or transport of hydrocarbons in a porous media. The understanding of fracture can help to increase the energy production, or the extraction of clean drinkable groundwater. In this study we will investigate the effects of fractures in a porous medium by incorporate fractures as a...

  5. Investigation of soil salinity to distinguish boundary line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gradual drying of Urmia Lake has left vast saline areas all around it, increasing the risk of salinization of agricultural lands next to the Lake. The current research was aimed to predict soil salinity and distinguish the boundary line between saline and agricultural lands by taking in to account the spatial variability of soil salinity ...

  6. Modelling of Specimen Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    cleavage fracture initiation (such as displacement at fracture initiation for Charpy V-notch tests ) is first selected. Normally, tests are selected... Testing and Materials. 2006. ASTM E 1921-05: Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T0 for Ferritic Steels in the...work includes the continuing testing and improvement of the post-processor. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  7. Brittle fracture properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    In this manual, the following topics are discussed: introduction to the fracture mechanics; theories of brittle fractures; solutions of the boundary value problems of cracks; conservation laws in elastostatics; methods to derive stress-intensity factors; three-dimensional problems; dynamic problems; thermo-elasticity; theories of cracked plates; rock mechanics; crack parameters in elastodynamics; formulae for stress-intensity factors and a programme using the finite element method [fr

  8. Classical fracture mechanics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.; Heerens, J.; Landes, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive Structural Integrity is a reference work which covers all activities involved in the assurance of structural integrity. It provides engineers and scientists with an unparalleled depth of knowledge in the disciplines involved. The new online Volume 11 is dedicated to the mechanical characteristics of materials. This paper contains the chapter 11.02 of this volume and is structured as follows: Test techniques; Analysis; Fracture behavior; Fracture toughness tests for nonmetals

  9. Dynamic fracture toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.; Dadkhah, M. S.; Yang, K.-H.; Kang, B. S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relations of Homalite-100, polycarbonate, hardened 4340 steel and reaction bonded silicon nitride are reviewed and discrepancies with published data and their probable causes are discussed. Data scatter in published data are attributed in part to the observed fluctuations in crack velocities. The results reaffirmed our previous conclusion that the dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relation is specimen dependent and that the dynamic arrest stress intensity factor is not a unique material property.

  10. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... of salinity through its high sorption ability. From tuber bulking to harvesting, the plants were exposed to three saline irrigations, that is 0, 25 and 50 mm NaCl solutions, respectively, and two levels of biochar (0 % and 5 % W/W) treatments. An adsorption study was also conducted to study the Na+ adsorption...... capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water...

  11. Reactive Tracers for Characterizing Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Adam J.

    Multi-component tracer tests were conducted at a 10 x 10 m well field located in the Altona Flat Rocks of northern New York. Temperature advancement between two wells separated by 14 m was monitored throughout the well field during progressive heating of the reservoir over 6 d. Multiple approaches to predicting heat transport were applied to field data and compared to temperature rise recorded during reservoir heat-up. Tracer analysis incorporated both an analytical one-dimensional model and a two-dimensional numerical model for non-uniform fractures experiencing "flow-channeling." Modeling efforts demonstrated that estimating heat transfer surface area using a combined inert/adsorbing tracer (cesium-iodide) could provide accurate forecasting of premature thermal breakthrough. In addition, thermally degrading tracer tests were used to monitor inter-well temperature during progressive reservoir heating. Inert tracers alone were, in general, inadequate in forecasting thermal performance. In fact, moment analysis shows that, mathematically, thermal breakthrough is independent of parameters that primarily influence inert tracers. The most accurate prediction of thermal breakthrough using inert tracer alone was produced by treating hydrodynamic dispersion as a truly Fickian process with known and accurate mathematical models. Under this assumption, inert tracer data was matched by solving an inverse problem for non-uniform fracture aperture. Early arrival of the thermal front was predicted at the production, but was less accurate than using a combined inert/adsorbing tracer test. The spatial distribution of fluid flow paths in the plane of the fracture were identified using computational models, Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) imaging of saline tracer flow paths in the target fracture. Without exception, fluid flow was found to be concentrated in a roughly 1 m wide flow channel directly between the two wells. The

  12. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  13. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  14. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 μS/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 μS/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  15. A laboratory scale analysis of groundwater flow and salinity distribution in the Aespoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This report concerns a study which was conducted for SKB. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in the report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily coincide with those of the client. The objective of the study is to develop, calibrate and apply a numerical simulation model of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). An area of 800 x 600 centred around the HRL, gives the horizontal extent of the model. In the vertical direction the model covers the depth interval from 200 to 560 metres. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes equations for the Darcy velocities, mass conservation and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A site scale groundwater model was used to generate boundary conditions for all boundaries. Transmissivities of major fracture zones are based on field data. Fractures and fracture zones with a length scale between 5 and 320 metres are accounted for by a novel method that is based on a discrete fracture network. A small background conductivity is added to account for fractures smaller than the grid size, which is metres. A calibration of the model is carried out, using field data from the Aespoe HRL. A satisfactory agreement with field data is obtained. Main results from the model include vertical and horizontal sections of flow, salinity and hydraulic head distributions for completed tunnel. A sensitivity study, where the properties of the conductivity field are modified, is also carried out. The general conclusion of the study is that the model developed can simulate the conditions at the Aespoe HRL in a realistic manner.

  16. Occult fracture of the calcaneus - another Toddler's fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Simons, G.W.; Sty, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Fractures of the calcaneus have been considered rare among children. We feel this may be erroneous since in the last 12 months we have seen 10 such fractures among children, 19 and 41 months of age, who presented with acute limping. The fractures were detected with bone imaging which was performed when initial radiographs were noncontributory. Subsequent radiographs of the calcaneus were positive for fracture in 4 to 10 while follow up radiographs confirmed healing fractures in the two children so evaluated. The sensitivity of bone imaging for the detection of occult fractures in toddlers is emphasized. (orig.)

  17. Influence of salinity and cadmium on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmoregulated at salinities between 5 and 25 and osmoconformed at salinities greater than 25. Chiromantes eulimene followed a hyper-hypo-osmoregulatory strategy; it hyper-regulated in salinities from 0 up to isosmotic conditions at about 28 (c.

  18. Genetics of osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Qiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chuan Qiu1,2, Christopher J Papasian2, Hong-Wen Deng1,2,3,4, Hui Shen1,21Center for Bioinformatics and Genomics, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA; 3Center of System Biomedical Sciences, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China; 4Molecular and Statistical Genetics Lab, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, ChinaAbstract: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that results in a massive burden to patients and society through associated low-trauma, osteoporotic fractures. Previous studies have shown that osteoporosis-associated traits, such as low bone mineral density, as well as the probability of actually experiencing an osteoporotic fracture, are under strong genetic control. Susceptibility to osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures is likely to be controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and by interactions between them. Although numerous genetic studies, mainly candidate gene association studies, have attempted to decipher the genetic basis for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, little success has been achieved. Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and knowledge of common human genetic variants have shifted the approach for studying human complex disorders from candidate gene studies to large-scale genome-wide association studies. In the past three years, more than 10 genome-wide association studies have been carried out for osteoporosis. A number of genes that are associated with osteoporosis-related traits, and/or with the probability of actually experiencing an osteoporotic fracture, have been successfully identified and replicated through these studies. In this article, we review the recent progress in the genetics

  19. Radiological classification of mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailova, H.

    2009-01-01

    Mandibular fractures present the biggest part (up to 97%) of the facial bone fractures. Method of choice for diagnosing of mandibular fractures is conventional radiography. The aim of the issue is to present an unified radiological classification of mandibular fractures for the clinical practice. This classification includes only those clinical symptoms of mandibular fracture which could be radiologically objectified: exact anatomical localization (F1-F6), teeth in fracture line (Ta,Tb), grade of dislocation (D I, D II), occlusal disturbances (O(+), O(-)). Radiological symptoms expressed by letter and number symbols are systematized in a formula - FTDO of mandibular fractures similar to TNM formula for tumours. FTDO formula expresses radiological diagnose of each mandibular fracture but it doesn't include neither the site (left or right) of the fracture, nor the kind and number of fractures. In order to express topography and number of fractures the radiological formula is transformed into a decimal fraction. The symbols (FTD) of right mandible fracture are written in the numerator and those of the left site - in the denominator. For double and multiple fractures between the symbols for each fracture we put '+'. Symbols for occlusal disturbances are put down opposite, the fractional line. So topographo-anatomical formula (FTD/FTD)xO is formed. In this way the whole radiological information for unilateral, bilateral, single or multiple fractures of the mandible is expressed. The information in the radiological topography anatomic formula, resp. from the unified topography-anatomic classification ensures a quick and exact X-ray diagnose of mandibular fracture. In this way contributes to get better, make easier and faster X-ray diagnostic process concerning mandibular fractures. And all these is a precondition for prevention of retardation of the diagnosis mandibular fracture. (author)

  20. World salinization with emphasis on Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Pichu

    2006-01-01

    Salinization is the accumulation of water-soluble salts in the soil solum or regolith to a level that impacts on agricultural production, environmental health, and economic welfare. Salt-affected soils occur in more than 100 countries of the world with a variety of extents, nature, and properties. No climatic zone in the world is free from salinization, although the general perception is focused on arid and semi-arid regions. Salinization is a complex process involving the movement of salts and water in soils during seasonal cycles and interactions with groundwater. While rainfall, aeolian deposits, mineral weathering, and stored salts are the sources of salts, surface and groundwaters can redistribute the accumulated salts and may also provide additional sources. Sodium salts dominate in many saline soils of the world, but salts of other cations such as calcium, magnesium, and iron are also found in specific locations. Different types of salinization with a prevalence of sodium salts affect about 30% of the land area in Australia. While more attention is given to groundwater-associated salinity and irrigation salinity, which affects about 16% of the agricultural area, recent investigations suggest that 67% of the agricultural area has a potential for "transient salinity", a type of non-groundwater-associated salinity. Agricultural soils in Australia, being predominantly sodic, accumulate salts under seasonal fluctuations and have multiple subsoil constraints such as alkalinity, acidity, sodicity, and toxic ions. This paper examines soil processes that dictate the exact edaphic environment upon which root functions depend and can help in research on plant improvement.

  1. Delayed Fracture Healing in Diabetics with Distal Radius Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pscherer, S; Sandmann, G H; Ehnert, S; Nussler, A K; Stöckle, U; Freude, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Diabetics may have an increased fracture risk, depending on disease duration, quality of metabolic adjustment and extent of comorbidities, and on an increased tendency to fall. The aim of this retrospective one-centre study consisted in detecting differences in fracture healing between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Data of patients with the most common fracture among older patients were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS Classification of distal radius fractures was established according to the AO classification. Inital assessment and followup were made by conventional x-rays with radiological default settings. To evaluate fracture healing, formation of callus and sclerotic border, assessment of the fracture gap, and evidence of consolidation signs were used. RESULTS The authors demonstrated that fracture morphology does not influence fracture healing regarding time span, neither concerning consolidation signs nor in fracture gap behavior. However, tendency for bone remodeling is around 70% lower in investigated diabetics than in non-diabetics, while probability for a successful fracture consolidation is 60% lower. CONCLUSIONS To corroborate the authors hypothesis of delayed fracture healing in patients with diabetes mellitus, prospective studies incorporating influencing factors like duration of metabolic disease, quality of diabetes control, medical diabetes treatment, comorbidities and secondary diseaseas, like chronic nephropathy and osteoporosis, have to be carried out. Key words: diabetes, delayed fracture healing, distal radius fractures, callus formation, blood glucose level, osteoblasts.

  2. Effect of tenoxicam on fracture healing in rat tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Giordano, Marcos; Knackfuss, Irocy G; Apfel, Mara Ibis R; Gomes, Renato Das C

    2003-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated in the development of delayed unions and nonunion after fractures in animal models. Previous investigations have identified two important factors as determinants of delayed fracture healing: early drug administration and a dose-dependent effect. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of tenoxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the fracture healing process in rat tibiae. Fifty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups (I, II, III, and IV). Group I (control group, n=12) was given 0.1ml saline solution per day intramuscularly. Groups II (n=12), III (n=12), and IV (n=12) were administered 10mg per kg per day of tenoxicam intramuscularly. Administration of substances was begun on a week before to 48h after the fracturing procedure and continued during the entire experiment. Callus formation was studied histologically and histomorphologically, using light microscopy. In addition, a histologic grading based on the morphologic stage of fracture healing was carried out at 4 weeks, according to the criteria proposed by Allen et al. There was a significant difference in treatment effect between Group I (saline solution) and Groups II, III, and IV (tenoxicam) (P=0.07). Histologically and histomorphologically, there were qualitative and quantitative delay in callus formation at all tenoxicam groups. This was more pronounced the earlier the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was started, although no significant difference could be detected between Groups II, III, and IV (P>(alpha=10%)). Four weeks after fracture, Group I (n=3) showed complete osseous union, Groups II (n=3) and III (n=3), complete cartilaginous union, and Group IV (n=3), incomplete osseous union, according to Allen et al. By using this rating scale, the difference between control and drug-treated groups was statistically significant (P<0.1). Under studied conditions, this investigation shows that administration

  3. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2017-01-01

    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...... into the detailed study of fracture processes for polymer liquids. High speed imaging shows that polymer liquids fracture like solids with initiation and propagation of an edge fracture. However, remarkable features such as highly reproducible critical stress, independent appearance of multiple fractures...

  4. CT classification of acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B.; Porcellini, B.; Robotti, G.

    1984-05-01

    The contribution of computed tomography (CT) in classifying acetabular fractures was analysed retrospectively in 33 cases. CT and plain radiography classification agreed in 27 cases (82%). CT revealed more extensive fractures in 6 patients (thereof 5 patients with associated fractures). In 10 patients (thereof 9 patients with associated fractures) CT showed intraarticular fragments; radiographically intraarticular fragments were seen only in 2 patients and suspected in 4. CT is of considerable aid in defining the fracture pattern. It should be used mainly in patients with radiographically difficult interpretable associated fractures in order to assess preoperatively the weight-bearing part of the acetabulum, the degree of displacement and the presence of intraarticular fragments.

  5. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy L; Frape, Shaun K; Freifeld, Barry M; Holden, Brian; Onstott, Tullis C; Ruskeeniemi, Timo; Chan, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with δ(18) O values ∼5‰ lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH(4) was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH(4) is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; Freifeld, B.M.; Holden, B.; Onstott, T.C.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Chan, E.

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about hydrogeochemical conditions beneath thick permafrost, particularly in fractured crystalline rock, due to difficulty in accessing this environment. The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods to obtain physical, chemical, and microbial information about the subpermafrost environment from a surface-drilled borehole. Using a U-tube, gas and water samples were collected, along with temperature, pressure, and hydraulic conductivity measurements, 420 m below ground surface, within a 535 m long, angled borehole at High Lake, Nunavut, Canada, in an area with 460-m-thick permafrost. Piezometric head was well above the base of the permafrost, near land surface. Initial water samples were contaminated with drill fluid, with later samples <40% drill fluid. The salinity of the non-drill fluid component was <20,000 mg/L, had a Ca/Na ratio above 1, with {delta}{sup 18}O values {approx}5{per_thousand} lower than the local surface water. The fluid isotopic composition was affected by the permafrost-formation process. Nonbacteriogenic CH{sub 4} was present and the sample location was within methane hydrate stability field. Sampling lines froze before uncontaminated samples from the subpermafrost environment could be obtained, yet the available time to obtain water samples was extended compared to previous studies. Temperature measurements collected from a distributed temperature sensor indicated that this issue can be overcome easily in the future. The lack of methanogenic CH{sub 4} is consistent with the high sulfate concentrations observed in cores. The combined surface-drilled borehole/U-tube approach can provide a large amount of physical, chemical, and microbial data from the subpermafrost environment with few, controllable, sources of contamination.

  7. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  8. Pediatric calcaneal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobie Summers

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although operative treatment of displaced, intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus in adults is generally accepted as standard practice, operative treatment for the same fractures in the skeletally immature remains controversial, potentially because the outcome for fracture types (intra- vs. extra-articular and severity (displaced vs. nondisplaced have been confounded in studies of children. We review herein the results of 21 displaced, intra-articular fractures in 18 skeletally immature patients, who were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a standard surgical approach and protocol developed for adults. The average pre-operative Böhler's angle on the injured side was -5° (range: -35 - +35 compared to 31° (range: +22 - +47 on the uninjured side, indicating substantial displacement. There were no post-operative infections or wound healing problems, and all but one patient was followed to union (average follow-up: 1.5 years; range: 0.30-4.3 years. Maintenance of reduction was confirmed on follow-up radiographs with an average Böhler's angle of 31° (range: +22 - +49. We demonstrate that results for operative fixation of displaced, intra-articular calcaneal fractures in the skeletally immature are comparable to those in adults when the treatment protocol is the same.

  9. Management of penile fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilan, Abdulelah M. M.; Al-Asbahi, Waleed A.; Alwan, Mohammed A.; Al-Khanbashi, Omar M.; Ghafour, Mohammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to present our experience with surgical and conservative management of penile fracture. This prospective study was carried out in the Urology and Nephrology Center, at Al-Thawra General and Teaching Hospital, Sana'a, Yemen from June 2003 to September 2007 and included 30 patients presenting with penile fracture. Diagnosis was made clinically in all our patients. Six patients with simple fracture were treated conservatively while 24 patients with more severe injuries were operated upon. Patient's age ranged from 24-52 years (mean 31.3 years) 46.7% of patients were under the age of 30 years and 56.7% were unmarried. Hard manipulation of the erect penis for example during masturbation was the most frequent mechanism of fracture in 53.3% of patients. Solitary tear was found in 22 patients and bilateral corporal tears associated with urethral injury were found in 2 patients. Corporal tears were saturated with synthetic absorbable sutures and urethral injury was repaired primarily. All operated patients described full erection with straight penis except 3 of the 8 patients who were managed by direct longitudinal incision, in whom mild curvature during erection was observed. The conservatively treated patients described satisfactory penile straightness and erection. The optimal functional and cosmetic results are achieved following immediate surgical repair of penis fracture. Good results can also be obtained in some selected patients with conservative management. (author)

  10. Transstyloid, transscaphoid, transcapitate fracture: a variant of scaphocapitate fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2014-01-01

    Transstyloid, transscaphoid, transcapitate fractures are uncommon. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who sustained this fracture following direct trauma. The patient was successfully treated by open reduction internal fixation of the scaphoid and proximal capitate fragment, with a good clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up. This pattern is a new variant of scaphocapitate fracture as involves a fracture of the radial styloid as well.

  11. Effect of nicotine and tobacco administration method on the mechanical properties of healing bone following closed fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Sidsel Gaarn; Chen, Xinqian; Bechtold, Joan E; Kyle, Richard F; Rahbek, Ole; Keyler, Daniel E; Skoett, Martin; Soeballe, Kjeld

    2010-09-01

    We previously showed different effects of tobacco and nicotine on fracture healing, but due to pump reservoir limits, maximum exposure period was 4 weeks. To allow flexibility in pre- and post-fracture exposure periods, the objective of this study was to compare a new oral administration route for nicotine to the established pump method. Four groups were studied: (1) pump saline, (2) pump saline + oral tobacco, (3) pump saline/nicotine + oral tobacco, and (4) pump saline + oral nicotine/tobacco. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 84) received a transverse femoral fracture stabilized with an intramedullary pin 1 week after initiating dosing. After 3 weeks, no difference was found in torsional strength or stiffness between oral nicotine/tobacco or pump nicotine + tobacco, while energy absorption with oral nicotine/tobacco was greater than pump nicotine + tobacco (p < 0.05). Compared to saline control, strength for oral nicotine/tobacco was higher than control (p < 0.05), and stiffnesses for pump nicotine + tobacco and oral nicotine/tobacco were higher than control (p < 0.05). No differences in energy were found for either nicotine-tobacco group compared to saline control. Mean serum cotinine (stable nicotine metabolite) was different between pump and oral nicotine at 1 and 4 weeks, but all groups were in the range of 1-2 pack/day smokers. In summary, relevant serum cotinine levels can be reached in rats with oral nicotine, and, in the presence of tobacco, nicotine can influence mechanical aspects of fracture healing, dependent on administration method. Caution should be exercised when comparing results of fracture healing studies using different methods of nicotine administration. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Talar neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes.

  13. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... of radiological outcomes and a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) below but not significantly different from the Danish reference population at a mean of 5.2 years follow-up. Furthermore, a knee injury-specific questionnaire (KOOS) reported a level of disability close to a reference population...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...

  14. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  15. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S; Shetye, S; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S

    Levitus (1982) climatology has been used to identify four extrema, three maxima and one minimum, in the vertical salinity profiles in the Arabian Sea. Their geographical distribution, depths, theta-S characteristics, and seasonal variability...

  16. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  17. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1902-present, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  18. Foal Fractures: Osteochondral Fragmentation, Proximal Sesamoid Bone Fractures/Sesamoiditis, and Distal Phalanx Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Heidi L

    2017-08-01

    Foals are susceptible to many of the same types of fractures as adult horses, often secondary to external sources of trauma. In addition, some types of fractures are specific to foals and occur routinely in horses under 1 year of age. These foal-specific fractures may be due to the unique musculoskeletal properties of the developing animal and may present with distinct clinical signs. Treatment plans and prognoses are tailored specifically to young animals. Common fractures not affecting the long bones in foals are discussed in this article, including osteochondral fragmentation, proximal sesamoid bone fractures/sesamoiditis, and distal phalanx fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  20. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  1. Halophytes and Soil Salinity in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Abul Fatih, HA. [حسين علي ابوالفتح; Abdel Bari, E. M.; Alsubaey, A.; Ibrahim, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    Saline soils cover approximately 6% of the land in Qatar. Halophytes are common along the coastal areas and inland salt flats and wetlands, where saline water is available in their natural habitats permanently or periodically. The prevailing plants are mostly perennials including dwarf succulent shrubs (Anabasis setifera, Arthrocnemum glaucum, Atriplex leucoclada, Cornulaca aucheri, Halocnemum stro-bilaceum, Halopeplis perfoliata, Heliotropium bacciferum, Limonium axillare, Salicornia europae...

  2. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  3. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  4. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  5. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  6. Social inequality and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, N. C.; Hansen, L.; Judge, A.

    2015-01-01

    fracture (ICD10: S720, S721, S722 and S729) were identified from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2011. Hip fracture patients were matched 1:1 on age, gender and year of fracture to a non-hip fracture control. An individual's education attainment was defined as basic, secondary or higher, and their income...... and year of fracture, and education and year of fracture, to describe whether the association of income or education with rates of hip fracture changed over time. Results: There were 69,774 hip fracture patients and 69,709 controls (both mean age 81.2 years) with complete data on income and education. Both...

  7. A site scale analysis of groundwater flow and salinity distribution in the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban

    1997-10-01

    The objective of the study is to develop, calibrate and apply a numerical simulation model of the Aespoe area. An area of 1.8 x 1.8 km 2 , centred around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), gives the horizontal extent of the model. In the vertical direction the model follows the topography at the upper boundary and has a lower boundary at 1000 metres below sea level. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes equations for the Darcy velocities, mass conservation and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A regional groundwater model was used to generate boundary conditions for vertical and bottom boundaries. Transmissivities of fracture zones and conductivities for the rock in between, as used in the model, are based on field data. An extensive calibration of the model is carried out, using data for natural conditions (i.e. prior to the construction of the Aespoe HRL), drawdowns from a pump test and data collected during the excavation of the tunnel. A satisfactory agreement with field data is obtained by the calibration. Main results from the model include vertical and horizontal sections of flow, salinity and hydraulic head distributions for natural conditions and for completed tunnel. A sensitivity study, where boundary conditions and material properties are modified, is also carried out. The model is also used to describe some characteristic features of the site like infiltration rates, flux statistics at a depth of 450 metres, salinity of inflows to the tunnel and flow and salinity distributions in fracture zones. The general conclusion of the study is that the model developed can simulate the conditions at Aespoe, both natural and with Aespoe HRL present, in a realistic manner

  8. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  9. High salinity anomalies south of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K.; Carter, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of higher salinity water were observed, using Seaglider data, in the upper 50m of the water-column between Oahu and Penguin Bank. These anomalies occur approximately once a month, and are visible in the glider data for an average of 3 days. Anomalies have abrupt transitions occurring over mere hours. Salinity within the patches can reach values in excess of 35.2 psu, 0.3 higher than the average profile for the region. The salinity signature associated with the anomalies corresponds to Subtropical surface water, found north of the Hawaiian island chain. The high salinity water is trapped by the thermocline in the mixed layer. Seasonal variations of the anomaly depth are directly related to the seasonal variations of mixed layer depth. These patches of high salinity coincide with the presence of eddies. Using sea surface height as an indicator, we found that eddy-eddy interaction and eddy-island interaction dictate the advection of upwelled waters into the region. Infrequently, we observe corresponding temperature anomalies. The larger the distance between the center of the eddy and the glider, the less visible the temperature anomaly. Positive (negative) values indicate salinity above (below) the mean profile.

  10. Statistics and thermodynamics of fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic model of the fracture processes unifying the phenomenological study of long term strength of materials, fracture mechanics and statistical approaches to fracture is briefly outlined. The general framework of irreversible thermodynamics is employed to model the deterministic side of the failure phenomenon. The stochastic calculus is used to account for thg failure mechanisms controlled by chance; particularly, the random roughness of fracture surfaces.

  11. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.

  12. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    type" fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1-C3/4 posterior fusion and the course...... for this injury and suggest early operative stabilization....

  13. Fracture mechanics and parapsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, G. P.

    2010-08-01

    The problem of postcritical deformation of materials beyond the ultimate strength is considered a division of fracture mechanics. A simple example is used to show the relationship between this problem and parapsychology, which studies phenomena and processes where the causality principle fails. It is shown that the concept of postcritical deformation leads to problems with no solution

  14. Fracture mechanics and microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, M.G.; Morrell, R.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on defects in ceramics, and the consequences of their presence for the application of fracture mechanics theories are reviewed. The complexities of microstructures, especially the multiphase nature, the crystallographic anisotropy and the resultant anisotropic physical properties, and the variation of microstructure and surface finish from point to point in real components, all lead to considerable uncertainties in the actual performance of any particular component. It is concluded that although the concepts of fracture mechanics have been and will continue to be most useful for the qualitative explanation of fracture phenomena, the usefulness as a predictive tool with respect to most existing types of material is limited by the interrelation between material microstructure and mechanical properties. At present, the only method of eliminating components with unsatisfactory mechanical properties is to proof-test them, despite the fact that proof-testing itself is limited in ability to cope with changes to the component in service. The aim of the manufacturer must be to improve quality and consistency within individual components, from component to component, and from batch to batch. The aim of the fracture specialist must be to study longer-term properties to improve the accuracy of behaviour predictions with a stronger data base. Materials development needs to concentrate on obtaining defect-free materials that can be translated into more-reliable products, using our present understanding of the influence of microstructure on strength and toughness

  15. Fractal description of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.

    1991-06-01

    Recent studies on the fractal description of fractures are reviewed. Some problems on this subject are discussed. It seems hopeful to use the fractal dimension as a parameter for quantitative fractography and to apply fractal structures to the development of high toughness materials. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  16. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  17. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Going back in the memory pipeline, it was M F Kaplan1 (in 1961) who tried to obtain the fracture toughness of concrete. It was observed ... of cracks. The next question is how to bring the size effect into codes of practice on the design of reinforced concrete structures, since large structures like dams, nuclear reactors, very tall.

  18. Posthydraulic fracture report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht-Nielsen, R.

    1978-10-04

    A series of four, parallel, hydraulically induced hydrofractures were created. The hydrofractures will be used later in Phase I as the loading fractures for slurried explosives. An evaluation of the aerial extent, thickness, and resistance to air flow of each of these four fractures is reported. Downhole pressure, well-head pressure, surface resistivity, tiltmeter, hydrophone response, and crack opening measurements were used as dynamic tests to monitor and to later describe the hydrofracture. Downhole television, high-resolution seismic reflection survey (HRSRS), cross-hole seismic survey (CHSS), pressurized air-flow, tracer-gas flows, gamma-ray logging, and hydrogeologic monitoring were all used as posthydrofracture tests. Of all of these tests, tiltmeter, wellhead pressure, downhole television, pressurized air flows, and hydrogeologic monitoring were the most useful. Downhole pressure, crack opening, hydrophone response, tracer gas flow, and gamma-ray logging were less useful and provided only supportive data. HRSRS and CHSS provided no useful evaluation data. These evaluation tests showed the four hydrofractures to be narrow (less than or equal to 0.01 inches) and horizontal; to extend out at least to the outer ring of production wells in a southeasterly direction; to extend beyond the outer ring of production wells in a northwesterly direction; to have some degree of vertical communication; to have had a minor impact upon the naturally fractured aquifer lying above the desired production zone; and to have had no impact on the naturally fractured aquifer lying below the desired production zone.

  19. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  20. Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Bluemke, David A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Frassica, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often performed for further evaluation. For the detailed assessment of a fracture site, CT offers a high-resolution view of the bone cortex and periosteum which aids the diagnosis of a pathologic fracture. The character of underlying bone marrow patterns of destruction can also be ascertained along with evidence of a soft tissue mass. MRI, however, is a more sensitive technique for the detection of underlying bone marrow lesions at a fracture site. In addition, the surrounding soft tissues, including possible involvement of adjacent muscle, can be well evaluated with MRI. While bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET are not specific, they offer a whole-body screen for metastases in the case of a suspected malignant pathologic fracture. In this review, we present select examples of fractures that underscore imaging features that help distinguish stress fractures from pathologic fractures, since accurate differentiation of these entities is paramount. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Gradual drying of Urmia Lake has left vast saline areas all around it, increasing the risk of salinization of ... have been numerous attempts in mapping spatial variability of soil electrical .... Salinity map resulted from spatial prediction of soil salinity using 78 laboratory measured soil samples is presented in Figure ...

  2. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South African life cycle assessments: part 3 - salinity potentials. ... Surface water 0.165. Natural surfaces 0.031. Agricultural surfaces 1.000. An additional impact category for salinity effects is therefore proposed, and the derived salinity potentials (also known as ...

  3. Salinity tolerance of the South African endemic amphipod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinities were prepared using natural seawater and synthetic sea salt. Grandidierella lignorum tolerated all salinities, but showed highest survival at salinities of 7–42. Salinity tolerance was modified by temperature, with highest survival occurring between 10 and 25 °C. These represent the range of conditions at which ...

  4. Physical fracture properties (fracture surfaces as information sources; crackgrowth and fracture mechanisms; exemples of cracks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meny, Lucienne.

    1979-06-01

    Fracture surfaces are considered as a useful source of informations: an introduction to fractography is presented; the fracture surface may be observed through X ray microanalysis, and other physical methods such as Auger electron spectroscopy or secundary ion emission. The mechanisms of macroscopic and microscopic crackgrowth and fracture are described, in the case of unstable fracture (cleavage, ductile with shear, intergranular brittleness) and of progressive crack propagation (creep, fatigue). Exemples of cracks are presented in the last chapter [fr

  5. Sealing of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Erlstroem, M.; Boergesson, L.

    1985-12-01

    The major water-bearing fractures in granite usually from fairly regular sets but the extension and degree of connectivity is varying. This means that only a few fractures that are interconnected with the deposition holes and larger water-bearing structures in a HLW repository are expected and if they can be identified and cut off through sealing it would be possible to improve the isolation of waste packages very effectively. Nature's own fracture sealing mechanisms may be simulated and a survey of the involved processes actually suggests a number of possible filling methods and substances. Most of them require high temperature and pressure and correspondingly sophisticated techniques, but some are of potential interest for immediate application with rather moderate effort. Such a technique is to fill the fractures with clayey substances which stay flexible and low-permeable provided that they remain physically and chemically intact. It is demonstrated in the report that effective grouting requires a very low viscosity and shear strength of the substance and this can be achieved by mechanical agitation as demonstrated in this report. Thus, by superimposing static pressure and shear waves induced by percussion hammering at a suitable frequency, clays and fine-grained silts as well as cement can be driven into fractures with an average aperture as small as 0.1 mm. Experiments were made in the laboratory using concrete and steel plates, and a field pilot test was also conducted under realistic conditions on site in Stripa. They all demonstrated the practicality of the 'dynamic injection technique' and that the fluid condition of the grouts yielded complete filling of the injected space to a considerable distance from the injection point. The field test indicated a good sealing ability as well as a surprisingly high resistance to erosion and piping. (author)

  6. STRESS FRACTURES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports

  7. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  8. Insufficiency fractures in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, L.; Ausejo de Pomar, E.; Cruzalegui, L.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Ara, P.

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of insufficiency fractures in patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis has not been sufficiently emphasized. Osteoporosis due to rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroid therapy, contracture and angular deformity of the extremity, combine to predispose to the occurrence of the insufficiency fractures in these patients. Additionally, the pain and disability caused by the fracture is often attributed to rheumatoid joint involvement, masking the diagnosis of insufficiency fracture. The fracture may not be visible on radiographs near the onset of symptoms and the bone scanning can help in making an early diagnosis. (Author). 18 refs., 2 fig

  9. Managing Complications of Calcaneus Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael P; Crawford, William S

    2017-03-01

    Calcaneus fractures remain among the most complicated fractures for orthopedic surgeons to manage because of the complexity of various fracture patterns, the limited surrounding soft tissue envelope, and the prolonged rehabilitation issues impacting function after successful treatment. Despite this, appropriate management of complications associated with calcaneus fractures is critical for the complete care of this injury, whether treated operatively or nonoperatively. The authors present the common complications encountered with fractures of the calcaneus and management thereof. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  11. Pubic insufficiency fracture: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Tae Kyu; Lee, Yeon Soo; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young; Chung, Hong Jun; Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Eun Ja; Kang, So Won; Han Tae Il

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic MRI findings of pubic insufficiency fracture. In nine cases of pubic insufficiency fracture, the findings of plain radiography (n=9), MRI (n=9), and bone scintigraphy (n=8) were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed, with regard to fracture site, the destructive pattern revealed by plain radiography, and uptake by other pelvic bones, as demonstrated by RI bone scanning. The MR findings evaluated were the fracture gap and its signal intensity, the site and signal intensity of the soft tissue mass, and other pelvic bone fractures. Plain radiography revealed osteolysis and sclerosis of pubic bone in eight of nine cases (89%), and parasymphyseal fractures in seven (78%). RI indicated uptake by the sacrum in six cases (66%), and by the ilium in three (33%). MR findings of fracture gap (seven cases, 78%) were hypo to isointensity on T1WI, hyper intensity on T2WI and the absence of contrast enhancement. Soft tissue masses were found in seven cases (78%); in four of these the location was parasymphyseal, and in three, surrounding muscle was involved. Hypo to isointensity was revealed by T1WI, hyperintensity by T2WI, and there was peripheral enhancement. Other associated pelvic bone fractures involved the sacrum in seven cases and the ilium in four. The characteristic MR findings of pubic insufficiency fracture were parasymphyseal location, fracture gap, peripherally enhanced soft tissue mass formation, and fractures of other pelvic bones, namely the sacrum and ilium

  12. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...... after 2 weeks in the diaphyseal fractures and after 6 weeks in the condylar fractures. The degradation of type I collagen increased after 4 days and reached a maximum at 2 weeks in both groups. The interindividual variation was wide. On a group basis, the turnover of types I and III collagen had...

  13. HEMIARTHROPLASTY FOR INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intertrochanteric fractures in the generic population are a common injury and are associated with the poor bone quality and hence management of unstable osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures in elderly is challenging because of difficult anatomical reduction, poor bone quality, and sometimes a need to protect the fracture from stresses of weight bearing. Internal fixation in these cases usually involves prolonged bed rest or limited ambulation, to prevent implant failure secondary to osteoporosis. This might result in higher chances of complications like pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, and decubitus ulcer. The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of primary hemiarthroplasty in cases of unstable osteoporotic intertrochanteric femur fractures. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Find out the results of Hemiarthroplasty for intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients from the population of Bihar. METHODS AND MATERIALS Study Area: Departments of Orthopaedics, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital. All these patients with hip injury reporting in Emergency and OPD were clinically examined, those satisfying for the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken for study and the total number of patients was 37 for the study. INCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Boyd Griffin type 3 and 4, 2. Evans and Jensen type 1c and type 2, 3. AO/OTA type a21 to a33, 4. Age > 60 years. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Patient 1. ASA Grade – 1. 2. BG Grade – 1. 3. Less than 60 years. 4. With previous ipsilateral hip fracture. 5. With stable fracture and intact lesser trochanter. 6. With neurologic problem. 7. Psychiatric patient. 8. With multiple fractures. 9. Cataract. 10. Any severe cardiac disorder. 11. Medically unfit for surgery and patient unwillingness for surgery were excluded for study. RESULTS Total mortality was two patients due to unrelated cause (myocardial infarction within 6 months of surgery and study period and remaining 35 patients were followed up

  14. Hydraulic fracture propagation modeling and data-based fracture identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing

    Successful shale gas and tight oil production is enabled by the engineering innovation of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulically induced fractures will most likely deviate from the bi-wing planar pattern and generate complex fracture networks due to mechanical interactions and reservoir heterogeneity, both of which render the conventional fracture simulators insufficient to characterize the fractured reservoir. Moreover, in reservoirs with ultra-low permeability, the natural fractures are widely distributed, which will result in hydraulic fractures branching and merging at the interface and consequently lead to the creation of more complex fracture networks. Thus, developing a reliable hydraulic fracturing simulator, including both mechanical interaction and fluid flow, is critical in maximizing hydrocarbon recovery and optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multistage horizontal wells. A novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple nonplanar fractures' propagation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs with or without pre-existing natural fractures. Initiation, growth, and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. This physics-based modeling approach leads to realistic fracture patterns without using the empirical rock failure and fracture propagation criteria required in conventional continuum methods. Based on this model, a sensitivity study is performed to investigate the effects of perforation spacing, in-situ stress anisotropy, rock properties (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and compressive strength), fluid properties, and natural fracture properties on hydraulic fracture propagation. In addition, since reservoirs are buried thousands of feet below the surface, the

  15. Salinity sources of Kefar Uriya wells in the Judea Group aquifer of Israel. Part 1—conceptual hydrogeological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Flexer, A.; Shulman, H.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Guttman, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Yarkon-Taninim groundwater basin, the karstic Judea Group aquifer contains groundwater of high quality. However, in the western wells of the Kefar Uriya area located in the foothills of the Judea Mountains, brackish groundwater was locally encountered. The salinity of this water is caused presumably by two end members designated as the 'Hazerim' and 'Lakhish' water types. The Hazerim type represents surface water percolating through a highly fractured thin chalky limestone formation overlying the Judea Group aquifer. The salinity of the water derives conjointly from several sources such as leachates from rendzina and grumosols, dissolution of caliche crusts which contain evaporites and of rock debris from the surrounding formations. This surface water percolates downwards into the aquifer through a funnel- or chimney-like mechanism. This local salinization mechanism supercedes another regional process caused by the Lakhish waters. These are essentially diluted brines originating from deep formations in the western parts of the Coastal Plain. The study results show that salinization is not caused by the thick chalky beds of the Senonian Mt Scopus Group overlying the Judea Group aquifer, as traditionally considered but prevalently by aqueous leachates from soils and rock debris. The conceptual qualitative hydrogeological model of the salinization as demonstrated in this study, is supported by a quantitative hydrological model presented in another paper in this volume.

  16. Water cycle and salinity dynamics in the mangrove forests of Europa and Juan de Nova Islands, southwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs, Luc; Mangion, Perrine; Mougin, Eric; Fromard, François

    2016-01-30

    The functioning of mangrove forests found on small coralline islands is characterized by limited freshwater inputs. Here, we present data on the water cycling of such systems located on Europa and Juan de Nova Islands, Mozambique Channel. In order to better understand the water cycle and mangrove growth conditions, we have analysed the hydrological and salinity dynamics of the systems by gauge pressure and isotopic tracing (δ18O and δ2H values). Both islands have important seawater intrusion as measured by the water level change and the high salinities in the karstic ponds. Europa Island displays higher salinity stress, with its inner lagoon, but presents a pluri-specific mangrove species formation ranging from shrub to forest stands. No freshwater signal could be detected around the mangrove trees. On Juan de Nova Island, the presence of sand and detrital sediment allows the storage of some amount of rainfall to form a brackish groundwater. The mangrove surface area is very limited with only small mono-specific stands being present in karstic depression. On the drier Europa Island, the salinity of all the water points is equal to or higher than that of the seawater, and on Juan de Nova the groundwater salinity is lower (5 to 20 PSU). This preliminary study shows that the karstic pothole mangroves exist due to the sea connection through the fractured coral and the high tidal dynamics.

  17. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  18. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, Jens Peder

    Since analytical methods are very time consuming different analytical models have been developed. Three methods for plain concrete are presented, where one of the methods is developed by the author. The method is based on three different fracture models. Also two models applicable for lightly reinforced...... with a description of the different types of size effects. Three examples which discuss the two terms 'size effect' and 'brittleness' and the importance of a stiff test rig. Finally some brittleness numbers are defined. Chapter 3 In chapter 3 the most well-known numerical methods which use the fictitious crack...... to describe fracture in concrete are presented. Two of the methods are combined into a power method which is stable for all brittleness numbers and which is able of calculating the entire load-displacement curve even for very ductile beams. This method is used extensively in the rest of the thesis. Chapter 4...

  19. Fracture of brittle solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lawn, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the at...

  20. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  1. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; Pace, Michael L.; Utz, Ryan M.; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. PMID:29311318

  3. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  4. Melt fracture revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  5. Fracture Behavior under Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    value still is ." the Charpy energy, i.e. the energy to break a Charpy V-notch specimen in a pendulum type impact tester. This material property...Most of the dynamic fracture toughness 3ata have been obtained in the lower impact velocity range with Charpy - and drop weight tests. An overview of...A .-..- ..- -6- =.., lyses (e.g. with Charpy tests [3]), theoretical analyses which some- times are based on nonrealistic assumptions (e.g. infinite

  6. Double segmental tibial fractures - an unusual fracture pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Kamal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A case of a 50-year-old pedestrian who was hit by a bike and suffered fractures of both bones of his right leg was presented. Complete clinical and radiographic assessment showed double segmental fractures of the tibia and multisegmental fractures of the fibula. Review of the literature revealed that this fracture pattern was unique and only a single case was reported so far. Moreover, we discussed the possible mechanisms which can lead to such an injury. We also discussed the management of segmental tibial fracture and the difficulties encountered with them. This case was managed by modern osteosynthesis tech- nique with a pleasing outcome. Key words: Fracture, bone; Tibia; Fibula; Nails

  7. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil Salinity: Effect on Vegetable Crop Growth. Management Practices to Prevent and Mitigate Soil Salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Almeida Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major problem affecting crop production all over the world: 20% of cultivated land in the world, and 33% of irrigated land, are salt-affected and degraded. This process can be accentuated by climate change, excessive use of groundwater (mainly if close to the sea, increasing use of low-quality water in irrigation, and massive introduction of irrigation associated with intensive farming. Excessive soil salinity reduces the productivity of many agricultural crops, including most vegetables, which are particularly sensitive throughout the ontogeny of the plant. The salinity threshold (ECt of the majority of vegetable crops is low (ranging from 1 to 2.5 dS m−1 in saturated soil extracts and vegetable salt tolerance decreases when saline water is used for irrigation. The objective of this review is to discuss the effects of salinity on vegetable growth and how management practices (irrigation, drainage, and fertilization can prevent soil and water salinization and mitigate the adverse effects of salinity.

  9. Fractures in the growing foal. Part 1: Epiphyseal fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses general considerations for epiphyseal fractures and the anatomical differences which led to the Salter-Harris-classification are explained. The various locations and fracture configurations in the different bones are mentioned, and suggestions for their treatment are made. Epiphyseal fractures in growing foals have generally a favourable prognosis for healing, if treated properly. However, the prognosis for future use as an athlete has to be judged as guarded. The limb with an epiphyseal fracture should under any circumstances be splinted or cast for the transport to hospital. Epiphyseal fractures of the distal portions of the limb may be treated by cast application in some cases. More frequently, however, surgical reduction followed by some form of internal fixation is preferred. It is important to follow the basic principles of internal fixation. The implants should be removed at the earliest convenience, to prevent undue growth disturbances. Epiphyseal fractures should be treated as soon as possible to avoid further destruction of the growth plate through continuous movement at the fracture site. Growth disturbances are the most frequently encountered complications with epiphyseal fractures. Other complications include infection, osteomyelitis, degenerative joint disease and breakdown of the fracture fixation

  10. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  11. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Z.; Malik, K.A.; Khurshid, S.J.; Awan, A.R.; Akram, M.; Hashmi, Z.; Ali, Y.; Gulnaz, A.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    The salinity problem is one of the severe constraints for agriculture in Pakistan. In a socio-economic and salinity and drainage survey over an area of about 25000 acres of salt-affected land recently, crop production is found to be very low. Livestock is underfed and malnourished. Pakistan has spent and allocated over one billion US dollars on Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARP), of course, with dubious results. Over the years, a Saline Agriculture Technology has been developed as a cheap alternative at NIAB for comfortably living with salinity and to profitably utilize saline land rather than its reclamation. The soil improvement is a fringe benefit in this approach. The Saline Agriculture Technology has been tested at laboratory level, at field stations and at farms of some progressive farmers. Now we are sharing this technology with farming communities through a 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan', with assistance from the National Rural Support Programme. The new project has been launched simultaneously in all four provinces of Pakistan on 25000 acres of salt-affected land. Under this project seeds of salt tolerant crop varieties wheat, cotton, rice, castor, brassica and barley and saplings of trees/shrubs, e.g. Acacia ampliceps, A. nilotica, Casuarina glauca, ber, jaman, etc selected for development work in various institutions of Pakistan are being provided to farmers. Know-how on new irrigation techniques like bed-and-corrugation and bed-and-furrow, agronomic practices like laser land leveling, planting on beds and in auger holes and soil/water amendment practices (use of gypsum and mineral acids) are being shared with farmers. These interventions are quite efficient, save water up to 40% and enable farmers to utilize bad quality water. In general, farmers are being familiarized with prevalent animal diseases, nutritional problems and prophylactic techniques. They are being helped in developing Saline

  12. Atomistic simulations of nanotube fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, T.; Xiao, S. P.; Schatz, G. C.; Ruoff, R. S.

    2002-06-01

    The fracture of carbon nanotubes is studied by molecular mechanics simulations. The fracture behavior is found to be almost independent of the separation energy and to depend primarily on the inflection point in the interatomic potential. The fracture strain of a zigzag nanotube is predicted to be between 10% and 15%, which compares reasonably well with experimental results. The predicted range of fracture stresses is 65-93 GPa and is markedly higher than observed. The computed fracture strengths of chiral and armchair nanotubes are above these values. Various plausible small-scale defects do not suffice to bring the failure stresses into agreement with available experimental results. As in the experiments, the fracture of carbon nanotubes is predicted to be brittle.

  13. Characterisation of fracture network and groundwater preferential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation of fractured rocks and evaluation of fracture connectivity are essential for the study of subsurface flow and transport in fractured rock aquifers. In this study, we use a new method to present fracture networks and analyse the connectivity of the fractures, based on the technique of randomly-generated ...

  14. Characterisation of fracture network and groundwater preferential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-18

    Mar 18, 2014 ... Characterisation of fractured rocks and evaluation of fracture connectivity are essential for the study of subsurface flow and transport in fractured rock aquifers. In this study, we use a new method to present fracture networks and analyse the connectivity of the fractures, based on the technique of ...

  15. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  16. Paratethys response to the Messinian salinity crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G.C.; Krijgsman, Wout; Magyar, Imre; Sztanó, Orsolya; Golovina, Larisa A.; Grothe, Arjen; Hoyle, Thomas M.; Mandic, Oleg; Patina, Irina S.; Popov, Sergey V.; Radionova, Eleonora P.; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    The Black Sea and Caspian Sea are the present-day remnants of a much larger epicontinental sea on the Eurasian continental interior, the Paratethys. During the late Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), a unique oceanographic event where 10% of the salt in the world's ocean got deposited in the

  17. Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yantao; van der Poel, Erwin; Ostilla Monico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilised by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared with experiments by Hage & Tilgner (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010,

  18. Empirical Relationships Between Electrical Conductivity, Salinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that some level of desalination/treatment for the water before consumption would be necessary. On the other hand, the values obtained for Abraka, Ughelli, Oleh and Ozoro fall within the WHO maximum permissible limit for fresh drinking water. KEY WORDS: Electrical Conductivity, Salinity, Density, pH, Water ...

  19. Hydrogeochemical evolution and potability evaluation of saline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potability analysis of the samples is sugges- tive of widespread unsuitability for domestic, agriculture and industrial uses. The extensive occurrence of salinity hazards, sodium hazards and magnesium hazards across the terrain makes the groundwater unsafe for domestic and agricultural utilization while industrial potability ...

  20. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater ... bility of runoff, the attitude of water divide, and the rate of pumping causing sea ...... environmental implications for future sustainable devel- opment of the northwestern coastal ...

  1. (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) UNDER SALINE STRESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Rahim Guealia

    1 sept. 2017 ... treatments of NaCl (Control, 100 mM and 300 mM) for 7 days, on young okra plants. (Abelmoschus esculentus), grown in two types of substrate with bentonite (B) 7% and without bentonite (WB) under controlled greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the two factors (salinity and bentonite) imposed ...

  2. About uncertainties in practical salinity calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Menn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current state of the art, salinity is a quantity computed from conductivity ratio measurements, with temperature and pressure known at the time of the measurement, and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78. This calculation gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected in PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but no details have ever been given on the method used to work out this uncertainty, and the error sources to include in this calculation. Following a guide published by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM, using two independent methods, this paper assesses the uncertainties of salinity values obtained from a laboratory salinometer and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD measurements after laboratory calibration of a conductivity cell. The results show that the part due to the PSS-78 relations fits is sometimes as significant as the instrument's. This is particularly the case with CTD measurements where correlations between variables contribute mainly to decreasing the uncertainty of S, even when expanded uncertainties of conductivity cell calibrations are for the most part in the order of 0.002 mS cm−1. The relations given here, and obtained with the normalized GUM method, allow a real analysis of the uncertainties' sources and they can be used in a more general way, with instruments having different specifications.

  3. Routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.85%), 8 (30.77%) and 4 (15.38%) respectively. The average duration of the procedure was 6 minutes with a range of 4-9 minutes. Saline infusion sonohysterography is a reliable, cost effective and safe diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the ...

  4. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    at the estuaries where freshwater flows into the sea or wherever sources of different salinities exist. In India, the total freshwater discharge from rivers and streams flowing into the seas around amounts to about 23 x 103 m3/sec which could provide a power...

  5. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  6. CROP DENSITY AND IRRIGATION WITH SALINE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Feinerman, Eli

    1983-01-01

    The economic implications of plant density for irrigation water use under saline conditions are investigated, utilizing the involved physical and biological relationships. The analysis considers a single crop and is applied to cotton data. The results suggest that treating plant density as an endogenous control variable has substantial impact on profits and the optimal quantities and qualities of the applied irrigation water.

  7. Golfer's fracture of the ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Golfer's fracture is stress fracture of the posterior portion of left 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7th ribs of golfer's, usually beginners,and it is considered due to exposure to unaccustomed severe exercise of this fascinating sport. Healing is usually uneventful, but possible complication may occur, because symptom is mild and golfers continue the exercise with physical therapy such as massage. Author report 4 cases of golfer's fracture, including 1 case complicated by platelike at electasis of lung.

  8. Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczak, P.; Ladd, A. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice-Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate and geometrical pr...

  9. Fracture mechanics in pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available MODELLING FRACTURE IN PAVEMENT MATERIALS The cohesive crack approach can be incorporated in finite element method (FEM) to simulate fracture in pavement materials. In this paper an embedded discontinuity method (EDM) based on the work by Sancho et al... through elements, in other words, independent of nodal positions and element boundaries. The EDM was used for the numerical simulation of two examples of fracture tests on road materials from the literature. The model is applied to reproduce...

  10. Hydraulic properties of fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreuzy, J.R. de

    1999-12-01

    Fractured medium are studied in the general framework of oil and water supply and more recently for the underground storage of high level nuclear wastes. As fractures are generally far more permeable than the embedding medium, flow is highly channeled in a complex network of fractures. The complexity of the network comes from the broad distributions of fracture length and permeability at the fracture scale and appears through the increase of the equivalent permeability at the network scale. The goal of this thesis is to develop models of fracture networks consistent with both local-scale and global-scale observations. Bidimensional models of fracture networks display a wide variety of flow structures ranging from the sole permeable fracture to the equivalent homogeneous medium. The type of the relevant structure depends not only on the density and the length and aperture distributions but also on the observation scale. In several models, a crossover scale separates complex structures highly channeled from more distributed and homogeneous-like flow patterns at larger scales. These models, built on local characteristics and validated by global properties, have been settled in steady state. They have also been compared to natural well test data obtained in Ploemeur (Morbihan) in transient state. The good agreement between models and data reinforces the relevance of the models. Once validated and calibrated, the models are used to estimate the global tendencies of the main flow properties and the risk associated with the relative lack of data on natural fractures media. (author)

  11. Radionuclide migration through fractured granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondin, D.M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Drew, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fractures in granite blocks of up to 30 cm in length. Results are reported for four migration experiments involving synthetic groundwaters containing tritiated water, 95m Tc, 75 Se, 137 Cs, or 60 Co-labelled natural colloids, which were injected into the fractures at flow rates of 0.4-0.45 mL/h, giving residence times in the fractures of up to 15 h. Also presented are the results of the post-experiment analyses, including an autoradiograph of one of the fracture surfaces, and the spatial distribution of the sorbed radionuclides determined by γ-scanning and selective chemical extractions

  12. Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, P.; Ladd, A. J. C.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate, and geometrical properties of the fracture were investigated, and the optimal conditions for wormhole formation were determined.

  13. Management of femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, M V; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are severe injuries and are often associated with a high impact trauma mechanism, frequently seen in multiple injured patients. In contrast an indirect trauma mechanism can lead to a complex femoral shaft fracture especially in elderly patients with minor bone stock quality. Hence management of femoral shaft fractures is often directed by co-morbidities, additional injuries and the medical condition of the patient. Timing of fracture stabilization is depended on the overall medical condition of the patient, but definite fracture fixation can often be implemented in the early total care concept in management of multiple injured patients. The treatment of choice is intramedullary fracture fixation. Further development of existing intramedullary nailing systems now offer comfortable handling and different locking options. Ipsilateral fractures of the neck and shaft are therefore facilitated in management. Then again increasing numbers of obese patient are representing a new patient group with challenging co-factors in fracture management. Sufficient preoperative planning is helpful to choose the most adequate fixation device. Correct reduction of the fracture and perioperative control of the axis and rotation is mandatory to avoid postoperative malrotation, which still represents the most frequent complication.

  14. Excess mortality following hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R

    2009-01-01

    Summary This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlig......Summary This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter...... and excess mortality rates for hip fracture. Although a lack of consistent study design precluded any formal meta-analysis or pooled analysis of the data, we have shown that hip fracture is associated with excess mortality (over and above mortality rates in nonhip fracture/community control populations......) during the first year after fracture ranging from 8.4% to 36%. In the identified studies, individuals experienced an increased relative risk for mortality following hip fracture that was at least double that for the age-matched control population, became less pronounced with advancing age, was higher...

  15. Fracture network growth for prediction of fracture characteristics and connectivity in tight reservoir rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Cox, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Fracturing experiments on very low-porosity dolomite rocks shows a difference in growth of fracture networks by stress-driven fracturing and fluid-driven fracturing. Stress-driven fracture growth, in the absence of fluid pressure, initially forms fractures randomly throughout the rocks followed by

  16. Echinoderm responses to variation in salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Although Echinodermata is one of the only stenohaline phyla in the animal kingdom, several species show remarkable abilities to acclimate and survive in euryhaline habitats. The last comprehensive review of this topic was over 25 years ago and much work has been published since. These recent studies expand the field reports of species living in hyposaline environments and detail experimental research on the responses, physiological range, and limits of echinoderms to salinity challenges. I provide a brief review of the historical concepts and measures of salinity and relate this overview to the physiological and ecological studies on echinoderms. Many marine biologists are not aware that chemical oceanographers advocate abandoning today's commonly used measure of salinity, 'PSU', in favour of absolute salinity (SA)-a return to the ppt (‰) metric. The literature survey reveals only one euryhaline-tolerant species in the Southern Hemisphere (there are 42 in the North) and more euryhaline species in the geologically older, brackish seas. The green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, is one of the most tolerant echinoids to hyposalinity. Different source populations have varying levels of acclimation and tolerance to hyposalinity. Experiments show that green urchins previously unexposed to hyposalinity experience a clear decrease in growth rates; however, this adverse effect is short lived. Green urchins already acclimated to hyposalinity can endure intense and repeated bouts and grow at the same rate of urchins not exposed. Promising future work on the physiological and cellular mechanisms of hyposalinity acclimation includes comparative studies of the role of heat shock proteins in the response to changing salinities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.

    1983-01-01

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  18. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Effect of Chlorhexidine and Saline for Irrigating a Contaminated Open Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    to detect biofilm bacteria on recovered arthroplasty prosthesis that conventional microbiological techniques HAD found to be sterile.14,15 This...topical application of chlorhexidine on the development of dental plaque and gingivitis in man. J Periodontal Res. 1970;5:79–83. J Orthop Trauma

  19. Femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.E.; Campbell, D.C. II

    1985-01-01

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  20. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. (author)

  1. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable Javascript in your browser. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes) The structure of the foot is ... received in an emergency room. What Is a Fracture? A fracture is a break in the bone. ...

  2. Hydrologic behavior of fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Endo, H.K.; Karasaki, K.; Pyrak, L.; MacLean, P.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1984-10-01

    This paper reviews recent research on the nature of flow and transport in discontinuous fracture networks. The hydrologic behavior of these networks has been examined using two- and three-dimensional numerical models. The numerical models represent random realizations of fracture networks based on statistical field measurements of fracture geometry and equivalent hydraulic aperture. We have compared the flux and mechanical transport behavior of these networks to the behavior of equivalent continua. In this way we are able to determine whether a given fracture network can be modeled as an equivalent porous media in both flux and advective transport studies. We have examined departures from porous media behavior both as a function of interconnectivity and heterogeneity. Parameter studies have revealed behavior patterns such as: given a fracture frequency that can be measured in the field, porous media like behavior and the magnitude of permeability are both enhanced if the fractures are longer and the standard deviation of fracture permeabilities is smaller. Transport studies have shown that the ratio between flux and velocity is not necessarily constant when the direction of flow is changed in systems which do behave like a porous media for flux. Thus the conditions under which porous media analysis can be used in transport studies are more restrictive than the condition for flux studies. We have examined systems which do not behave like porous media and have shown how the in situ behavior varies as a function of scale of observation. The behavior of well tests in fractured networks has been modeled and compared to a new analytical well test solution which accounts for the early time dominance of the fractures intersecting the well. Finally, a three-dimensional fracture flow model has been constructed which assumes fractures are randomly located discs. 13 references, 12 figures

  3. Mandibular ramus fractures: a rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Tejraj Pundalik; Kotrashetti, S M; Louis, Archana; Lingaraj, J B; Sarvesh, B U

    2013-01-01

    To determine the incidence of mandibular ramus fractures in KLE's PK Hospital and to analyze the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures. Using a retrospective study design, records of all trauma patients who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, KLE's PK Hospital Belgaum, between the years January 2006 to October 2011 was obtained from the medical records office. The data variables that were analyzed were the name, age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of MMF and post-treatment occlusion. Total number of mandibular fracture cases was 298. Ramus fractures were 10 in number which accounted for 3.3% of fractures. The age range of these 10 patients was seen to be between 20 to 80 years with the average age being 35.6 years. Of these 10 patients, 9 were male and 1 was female and 7 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and the remaining 3 by closed reduction. The average period of MMF was 3 days for the patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. There was improvement in occlusion in all 10 patients post-treatment and there was no complication reported in any of the cases. Ramus fractures accounted for 3.3% of all mandibular fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of ramus fractures ensures adequate functional and anatomic reduction. This study makes an attempt to throw a light on the increasing incidence of ramus fractures and a successful management of these fractures by open reduction and internal fixation. How to cite this article: Kale TP, Kotrashetti SM, Louis A, Lingaraj JB, Sarvesh BU. Mandibular Ramus Fractures: A Rarity. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(1):39-42. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  4. Associations of early premenopausal fractures with subsequent fractures vary by sites and mechanisms of fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, R; Tuppurainen, M; Kroger, H; Alhava, E; Puntila, E

    1997-04-01

    In a retrospective population-based study we assessed whether and how self-reported former fractures sustained at the ages of 20-34 are associated with subsequent fractures sustained at the ages of 35-57. The 12,162 women who responded to fracture questions of the baseline postal enquiry (in 1989) of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Study, Finland formed the study population. They reported 589 former and 2092 subsequent fractures. The hazard ratio (HR), with 95% confidence interval (CI), of a subsequent fracture was 1.9 (1.6-2.3) in women with the history of a former fracture compared with women without such a history. A former low-energy wrist fracture was related to subsequent low-energy wrist [HR = 3.7 (2.0-6.8)] and high-energy nonwrist [HR = 2.4 (1.3-4.4)] fractures, whereas former high-energy nonwrist fractures were related only to subsequent high-energy nonwrist [HR = 2.8 (1.9-4.1)] but not to low-energy wrist [HR = 0.7 (0.3-1.8)] fractures. The analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) data of a subsample of premenopausal women who underwent dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during 1989-91 revealed that those with a wrist fracture due to a fall on the same level at the age of 20-34 recorded 6.5% lower spinal (P = 0.140) and 10.5% lower femoral (P = 0.026) BMD than nonfractured women, whereas the corresponding differences for women with a former nonwrist fracture due to high-energy trauma were -1.8% (P = 0.721) and -2.4% (P = 0. 616), respectively. Our results suggest that an early premenopausal, low-energy wrist fracture is an indicator of low peak BMD which predisposes to subsequent fractures in general, whereas early high-energy fractures are mainly indicators of other and more specific extraskeletal factors which mainly predispose to same types of subsequent fractures only.

  5. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data, 1985-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  6. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  7. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  8. Mapping fracture flow paths with a nanoscale zero-valent iron tracer test and a flowmeter test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, Yung-Chia; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2018-02-01

    The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are important for the development of hydrogeological conceptual models in fractured-rock aquifers. In this study, nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles were used as tracers to characterize fracture connectivity between two boreholes in fractured rock. A magnet array was installed vertically in the observation well to attract arriving nZVI particles and identify the location of the incoming tracer. Heat-pulse flowmeter tests were conducted to delineate the permeable fractures in the two wells for the design of the tracer test. The nZVI slurry was released in the screened injection well. The arrival of the slurry in the observation well was detected by an increase in electrical conductivity, while the depth of the connected fracture was identified by the distribution of nZVI particles attracted to the magnet array. The position where the maximum weight of attracted nZVI particles was observed coincides with the depth of a permeable fracture zone delineated by the heat-pulse flowmeter. In addition, a saline tracer test produced comparable results with the nZVI tracer test. Numerical simulation was performed using MODFLOW with MT3DMS to estimate the hydraulic properties of the connected fracture zones between the two wells. The study results indicate that the nZVI particle could be a promising tracer for the characterization of flow paths in fractured rock.

  9. The effect of low salinity on teredinids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine C. Barreto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Teredinids survival in low salinities was determined in aquaria. Panels previously immersed in Ponta de Leste, Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, were transferred to aquaria with salinities ranging from 5.0 to 15.0 Practical Salinity Unities (PSU. The waters of Ilha Grande Bay receive a large amount of wood from the marginal rainforest vegetation, being suitable for the development of teredinids. The coastal areas of the bay are subjected to wide salinity fluctuations due to strong and sudden tropical storms. Eleven different species of teredinids were found in the panels. The critical salinity concentration for the survival of the two most common species was 11.93 PSU for Lyrodus floridanus and 12.90 PSU for Teredo furcifera. The effect of time on the mortality of teredinids at low salinities is also discussed.A sobrevivência de moluscos bivalves perfurantes de madeira da família Teredinidae foi avaliada a partir de sua manutenção em aquários de baixa salinidade. Painéis de madeira previamente imersos em Ponta de Leste, Baía da Ilha Grande, RJ, foram transferidos para aquários, contendo água do mar, cujas concentrações salinas variaram de 5,0 a 15,0 PSU. A Baía da Ilha Grande recebe uma grande quantidade de madeira da vegetação marginal de Mata Atlântica, o que torna o ambiente particularmente favorável ao desenvolvimento de teredinídeos. As áreas costeiras da baía estão sujeitas a grandes variações salinas decorrentes de tempestades tropicais que ocorrem súbita e intensamente. A salinidade crítica à sobrevivência das duas espécies mais comuns nos painéis foi de 11,93, para Lyrodus floridanus e 12,90 para Teredo furcifera. O efeito do tempo na mortalidade dos teredinídeos, quando sujeitos a baixas salinidades, foi discutido.

  10. Hydraulic fracturing proppants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. P. de Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon reservoirs can be classified as unconventional or conventional depending on the oil and gas extraction difficulty, such as the need for high-cost technology and techniques. The hydrocarbon extraction from bituminous shale, commonly known as shale gas/oil, is performed by using the hydraulic fracturing technique in unconventional reservoirs where 95% water, 0.5% of additives and 4.5% of proppants are used. Environmental problems related to hydraulic fracturing technique and better performance/development of proppants are the current challenge faced by companies, researchers, regulatory agencies, environmentalists, governments and society. Shale gas is expected to increase USA fuel production, which triggers the development of new proppants and technologies of exploration. This paper presents a review of the definition of proppants, their types, characteristics and situation in the world market and information about manufacturers. The production of nanoscale materials such as anticorrosive and intelligent proppants besides proppants with carbon nanotubes is already carried out on a scale of tonnes per year in Belgium, Germany and Asia countries.

  11. Pediatric tibia fractures: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setter, Kevin J; Palomino, Kathryn E

    2006-02-01

    Fracture of the tibia is a common occurrence in children. The operative treatment of pediatric tibia fractures has undergone a recent change. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the superiority of one treatment option. The literature clearly supports the fact that the vast majority of pediatric tibia fractures can and should be managed nonoperatively. This is secondary to their inherent stability. A variety of factors including fracture type, location, severity and patient age determine the best treatment options for a particular fracture. A thorough understanding of these factors and how they affect outcome, help the clinician formulate the proper plan of treatment. A randomized prospective controlled trial will be necessary to establish which surgical options are superior for which type of pediatric tibia fracture. Until then, recent studies have indicated that flexible intramedullary nails may lead to a shorter time to union and a decreased rate of refracture when compared with external fixation of unstable tibial shaft fractures. What remains unclear are the specific indications and contraindication for the use of flexible nails. External fixation still remains a successful treatment option for unstable tibial shaft fractures.

  12. Ankle Fractures: The Operative Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hafiz Z

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankle fractures are commonly seen in orthopaedic practice. This retrospective study of patients with ankle fractures who underwent surgical treatment in our institution from January 2000 to December 2003 was undertaken to analyze the common causes and patterns of ankle fractures; and the functional outcome of operative treatment for these fractures. Eighty patients were identified and reviewed. There were 65 male (81.3% and 15 female patients (18.7% with age ranging from 13 to 71 years old (mean, 32.3y. Common causes of ankle fractures were trauma (especially motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries and the osteoporotic bones in the elderly. Weber C (64.0% was the most common pattern of fracture at presentation. The most common operative treatment for ankle fractures was open reduction and internal fixation (73 patients, 91.2%. Excellent and good outcomes were achieved in 93.8% of cases when measured using the Olerud and Molander scoring system for foot and ankle. In conclusion, operative treatment for ankle fractures restores sufficient stability and allowed mobility of the ankle joint.

  13. Management of pediatric mandible fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goth, Stephen; Sawatari, Yoh; Peleg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The pediatric mandible fracture is a rare occurrence when compared with the number of mandible fractures that occur within the adult population. Although the clinician who manages facial fractures may never encounter a pediatric mandible fracture, it is a unique injury that warrants a comprehensive discussion. Because of the unique anatomy, dentition, and growth of the pediatric patient, the management of a pediatric mandible fracture requires true diligence with a variance in treatment ranging from soft diet to open reduction and internal fixation. In addition to the variability in treatment, any trauma to the face of a child requires additional management factors including child abuse issues and long-term sequelae involving skeletal growth, which may affect facial symmetry and occlusion. The following is a review of the incidence, relevant anatomy, clinical and radiographic examination, and treatment modalities for specific fracture types of the pediatric mandible based on the clinical experience at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery program. In addition, a review of the literature regarding the management of the pediatric mandible fracture was performed to offer a more comprehensive overview of this unique subset of facial fractures.

  14. Diplopia and Orbital Wall Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  15. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  16. Bilateral acetabular fracture without trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, M. A.; Maccauro, G.; D’Arienzo, M.

    1999-01-01

     In the absence of trauma fracture of the acetabulum is an extremely rare injury. We describe a 70 year old man who spontaneously developed fractures in both acetabulae due to bony insufficiency. It was successfully treated by bilateral total hip replacement.

  17. Fracture of the anterior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skie, M C; Ebraheim, N A; Woldenberg, L; Randall, K

    1995-04-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of fracture involving the anterior colliculus of the medial malleolus to examine clinical results of operative treatment for these fractures. Although this injury appears innocuous, it can be difficult to obtain stable fixation of the fragment intraoperatively, and painful nonunion can result. A simple reduction maneuver and method of tension band fixation are described.

  18. [Surgical treatment of unstable pelvic fractures combined with acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jun; Li, Zong-yuan; Liu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    To discuss the treatment strategy of acetabular fractures and unstable pelvic fracture of the hip and to evaluate its outcome. Retrospective analysis of clinical data in 32 patients with unstable pelvic fracture and acetabular fractures from January 2007 to June 2013 were collected. There were 18 males and 14 females aged from 18 to 62 years old (means 38 years old). According to Tile classification of pelvic fracture, 11 cases were type B1, 8 were type B2.1, 7 were type B2.2, 3 were type C1.1, 2 were type C1.2, 1 was type C3. According to Judet-Letournel classification, anterior column fracture was in 1 case, transverse fracture in 8, transverse plus posterior wall fracture in 6, T-type fracture in 1, anterior column plus half transverse fractures in 5, double column fracture in 11. Other combined injuries were treated early, the surgical operation were performed after stable condition. The hip joint function and the fracture reduction were assessed during follow-up. The operative time was from 1.8 to 6.5 hours (averaged 3 hours). Two fat patients' incision occurred in fat liquefaction and healed after dressing, no incision infection happened. Only 1 case was lost to follow-up, 31 patients were followed up with a mean time of 23 months (6 to 42 months). The healing time of pelvic fracture was from 8 to 18 weeks (averaged in 10.6 weeks). The hip function was evaluated according to the Matta and Tornetta standard postoperatively, the result was excellent in 15 cases, good in 14 cases, fair and poor in 1 case respectively. The Majeed score of the hip function was 83.65? 7.67, the result was excellent in 15 cases, good in 12 cases and fair in 4 cases. The healing time of acetabular fractures was from 8 to 16 weeks (averaged in 10.2 weeks). The fracture reduction was assessed by Matta standard, the result was excellent in 15 cases, good in 12 cases and fair in 4 cases. The heterotopic ossification was evaluated by Brooker standard, 4 cases were grade I, 1 case was

  19. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence

  20. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  1. Measurement of salinity and electrical conductivity of some soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity and electrical conductivity of some selected soil samples from Uruan Local government area of Akwa Ibom state of the Federal Republic of Nigeria were measured. The results show that an increase in salinity gives rise to an increase in electrical conductivity. The salinities of the area under study falls within the ...

  2. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  3. Effects of salinity on growth and organic solutes accumulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... solution (½ strength) with the salinity treatments (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl). The saline treatments ... At 30 days after the beginning of saline treatments, the plants were evaluated for height, leaf number .... water stress: biophysical analysis and relation to water transport. J. Exp. Bot. 51: 1595-1616.

  4. Partnership for adapting Vulnerable Populations to Soil Salinization ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partnership for adapting Vulnerable Populations to Soil Salinization resulting from Climate Change in Sénégal. Soil salinization affects nearly all regions of Sénégal. Nearly a million hectares are affected by salinization and acidification. It is only in the last few years that researchers have understood the relation between ...

  5. Salinity affects behavioral thermoregulation in a marine decapod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Stefan; Mues, Annika; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Eckhardt, André; Hufnagl, Marc; Temming, Axel

    2017-10-01

    Thermoregulation in aquatic ectotherms is a complex behavioral pattern that is affected by various biotic and abiotic factors with one being salinity. Especially in coastal and estuarine habitats, altering levels of salinity involve osmoregulatory adjustments that affect total energy budgets and may influence behavioral responses towards temperature. To examine the effect of salinity on behavioral thermoregulation in a marine evertebrate ectotherm, we acclimated juvenile and sub-adult common brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, L.) to salinities of 10, 20 and 30 PSU and investigated their thermal preference in an annular chamber system using the gravitational method for temperature preference determination. Thermal preference of individual brown shrimp was considerably variable and brown shrimp selected a wide range of temperatures in each level of salinity as well as within individual experimental trials. However, salinity significantly affected thermal preference with the shrimp selecting higher temperatures at 10 and 20 PSU when compared to 30 PSU of salinity. Body size had no effect on thermal selection and did not interact with salinity. Temperature preference differed by sex and male shrimp selected significantly higher temperatures at 10 PSU when compared to females. The results show that salinity strongly affects thermal selection in brown shrimp and confirms the strong interrelation of temperature and salinity on seasonal migratory movements that has been previously derived from observations in the field. In the field, however, it remains unclear whether salinity drives thermal selection or whether changes in temperature modify salinity preference.

  6. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  7. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil salinity is a major limitation to crop production in many areas of the world. A pot experiment was carried out with rapeseed cultivars in order to investigate the effects of salinity stress on plant development and nutrient composition. For the salinity studies, 150 mM NaCl concentration was applied to12 rapseed cultivars ...

  8. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  9. Paleohydrogeological implications from fracture calcites in fissures of low transmissivity. A report of investigations in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlstedt, E.; Karhu, J.

    2014-07-01

    Samples of fracture fillings were collected from 26 bedrock fractures at Olkiluoto. Special attention was paid to fractures having low transmissivities of <1E-8 m 2 /s. The chemical composition and the C and O isotopic composition of the fracture filling calcite were analysed. In addition, fluid inclusions were studied and microthermometric measurements conducted on fracture filling calcite. The most common minor element in calcite fillings was Mn, having concentrations up to 3.4 wt-%. The δ13C values had a wide range, from -13.0 to 14.5 per mille, and the δ18O values a narrower range, from -13.4 to -7.3 per mille. The δ18O values of late-stage calcite appear to be independent of the transmissivity of the fractures, ranging from -11.2 to -7.3 per mille over a T range from 3E -6 to 1.6E -1 1 m 2 /s. The δ13C values of late-stage calcite appear to have more variation at high transmissivities of >1E-8 m 2 /s. Unusually low and high δ13C values in late-stage calcite fillings occur in the upper ∼ 400 m of the bedrock and are probably related to microbial reduction processes, at near surface (<60 m) conditions to oxidation of organic matter resulting in low δ13C values and at ∼ 55-400 m to methanogenesis, causing high δ 13C values. A relatively low spread in the δ 13C values of late-stage calcite precipitates in low transmissivity (<1E-8 m 2 /s) fractures is most likely caused by stable conditions in the areas of low conductivity in the bedrock, reflecting slow dissolution/reprecipitation of older carbonate fillings. Fluid inclusion data indicate variation in fracture water types from high temperature, ∼ 200 deg C, low salinity fluid with < 4 wt-% of NaCl eq to low temperature, <100 deg C, high salinity fluid with 17-29 wt-% of NaCl eq . The high temperature fluid is associated with Group 5 calcite fillings and the low temperature fluid with Group 3 calcite. The composition of fluids related to Group 4 calcite falls roughly between the compositions

  10. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture....... The markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). The latter is a new serum marker of degradation of type I...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...

  11. Computer simulation of ductile fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.; Streit, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Finite difference computer simulation programs are capable of very accurate solutions to problems in plasticity with large deformations and rotation. This opens the possibility of developing models of ductile fracture by correlating experiments with equivalent computer simulations. Selected experiments were done to emphasize different aspects of the model. A difficult problem is the establishment of a fracture-size effect. This paper is a study of the strain field around notched tensile specimens of aluminum 6061-T651. A series of geometrically scaled specimens are tested to fracture. The scaled experiments are conducted for different notch radius-to-diameter ratios. The strains at fracture are determined from computer simulations. An estimate is made of the fracture-size effect

  12. [Femoral shaft fractures in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, H-G; Schlickewei, W

    2011-05-01

    Femoral shaft fractures in children represent 1.5% of all fractures in childhood. Up to the age of 4 years, conservative treatment in a hip spica or short-term overhead traction is the therapy of choice. Femoral shaft fractures between the age of 5 and 16 years should be treated surgically. In over 90% of these cases elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is the premier treatment option. Additional end caps can be used for unstable fractures and in length discrepancy. The external fixator and the locking plate are reserved for fractures with severe soft tissue injuries, vascular problems and some specific situations mentioned later on. By adhering to these standards good results can be achieved with a low complication rate.

  13. Polymer-cement interactions towards improved wellbore cement fracture sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, B. S.; Iloejesi, C.; Minkler, M. J.; Schindler, A. K.; Beckingham, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) in deep geologic formations is a promising means of reducing point source emissions of CO2. In these systems, CO2 is captured at the source and then injected to be utilized (eg. in enhanced oil recovery or as a working fluid in enhanced geothermal energy plants) or stored in geologic formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline aquifers. While CCUS in subsurface systems could aid in reducing atmospheric CO2 emissions, the potential for CO2 leakage from these systems to overlying formations remains a major limitation and poses a significant risk to the security of injected CO2. Thus, improved materials for both initial wellbore isolation and repairing leakage pathways that develop over time are sought. One approach for the repair of cement fractures in wellbore (and other) systems is the injection of polymer materials into the fracture with a subsequent environmentally dependent (temperature, pressure, pH, etc.) densification or solidification. Here, we aim to investigate novel polymer materials for use to repair leaking wellbores in the context of CCUS. We synthesize and fully characterize a series of novel polymer materials and utilize a suite of analysis techniques to examine polymer-cement interactions at a range of conditions (namely temperature, pressure and pH). Initial findings will be leveraged to design novel polymer materials for further evaluation in polymer-cement composite cores, cement fracture healing, and the aging behavior of healed cements.

  14. Numerical Analysis on the Formation of Fracture Network during the Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale with Pre-Existing Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, configurations of pre-existing fractures in cubic rock blocks were investigated and reconstructed for the modeling of experimental hydraulic fracturing. The fluid-rock coupling process of hydraulic fracturing was simulated based on the displacement discontinuities method. The numerical model was validated against the related laboratory experiments. The stimulated fracture configurations under different conditions can be clearly shown using the validated numerical model. First, a dominated fracture along the maximum principle stress direction is always formed when the stress difference is large enough. Second, there are less reopened pre-existing fractures, more newly formed fractures and less shear fractures with the increase of the cohesion value of pre-existing fractures. Third, the length of the stimulated shear fracture decreases rapidly with the increase of the friction coefficient, while the length of the tensile fracture has no correlation to the fiction coefficient. Finally, the increase of the fluid injection rate is favorable to the formation of a fracture network. The unfavorable effects of the large stress difference and the large cohesion of pre-existing fractures can be partly suppressed by an increase of the injection rate in the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The results of this paper are useful for understanding fracture propagation behaviors during the hydraulic fracturing of shale reservoirs with pre-existing fractures.

  15. Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J.E.; Bartha, R.

    1980-09-01

    Monomethyl and dimethylmercury are potent neurotoxins subject to biomagnification in food webs. This fact was tragically demonstrated by the Minamata and Niigata poisoning incidents in Japan in which 168 persons who ate seafood from mercury polluted waters were poisoned, 52 fatally. Shortly after these two incidents, work conducted in freshwater environments demonstrated the microbial conversion of inorganic and phenylmercury compounds to mono- and di-methylmercury. Consideration of some fragmentary evidence from the literature, however, indicates that the rate and the significance of microbial methylation of mercury in freshwater and saltwater environments may not be the same. A demonstrated relationship between mercury methylation rates and water salinity would greatly influence our thinking about mercury pollution effects in marine versus freshwater environments. Since we were unable to locate published reports on this subject, we are investigating the influence of salinity on the rate of mercury methylation in an estuarine sediment.

  16. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  17. Rock-matrix diffusion in transport of salinity. Implementation in CONNECTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, A.R.; Jackson, C.P.

    2004-07-01

    One of the programs used for modelling groundwater flow in Swedish rocks for SKB is CONNECTFLOW, which combines the facilities of the programs NAMMU for modelling continuum porous-medium models and NAPSAC for modelling discrete fracture-networks. The version of CONNECTFLOW current at the start of the work described here did not have a capability to model rock-matrix diffusion for saline flows in continuum porous-medium models of fractured rocks. Possible approaches for implementing such an option were evaluated and then the approach that was considered to be the most suitable was implemented and tested and then used in calculations for a realistic example. Three main approaches for representing diffusion in the rock matrix were considered: the use of a numerical finite-difference scheme, an approach based on the use of Laplace transforms, and a so-called 'hybrid' approach which combines a series solution that gives a good representation at long times with an inverse square-root form that gives a good representation at small times. The finite-difference approach is the most flexible of the approaches considered. In particular, it is the only approach that can deal with the case in which, at each location in the continuum representing the fractures, the groundwater density varies within the rock matrix. The Laplace transform approach and the hybrid approach treat the diffusion in the rock matrix exactly, whereas the finite-difference approach involves discretisation errors. In particular, the unit response function is significantly in error for the first few time steps. The method that was considered to be the most appropriate to implement initially in CONNECTFLOW for SKB was the hybrid method. The algorithm was used to carry out calculations for a large site-scale model, based on the version 1.1 model of the Forsmark site in Sweden. Calculations of the evolution of the groundwater flow system from conditions 10,000 years ago to the present were carried out. The

  18. Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Eric N.; Armitage, Anna R.; López-Portillo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans in the Gulf of Mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. Vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. We surveyed populations of A. germinans throughout the Gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. We measured vessel density, hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, potential conductance capacity, and maximum tensile fracture stress. At each sampling site we recorded mangrove canopy height and soil salinity, and determined average minimum winter temperature from archived weather records. At a subset of sites, we measured carbon fixation rates using a LI-COR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Populations of A. germinans from cooler areas (Texas and Louisiana) had narrower vessels, likely reducing the risk of freeze-induced embolisms but also decreasing water conductance capacity. Vessels were also narrower in regions with high soil salinity, including Texas, USA and tidal flats in Veracruz, Mexico. Vessel density did not consistently vary with temperature or soil salinity. In abiotically stressful areas, A. germinans had a safe hydraulic architecture with narrower vessels that may increase local survival. This safe architecture appears to come at a substantial physiological cost in terms of reduction in conductance capacity and carbon fixation potential, likely contributing to lower canopy heights. The current distribution of A. germinans in the Gulf is influenced by the complex interplay between temperature, salinity, and vessel architecture. Given the plasticity of A. germinans vessel characters, it is likely that this mangrove species will be able to adapt to a wide range of potential future environmental conditions, and continue its expansion in the Gulf of Mexico in response to near-term climate change

  19. Avicennia germinans (black mangrove vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric N Madrid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans in the Gulf of Mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. Vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. We surveyed populations of A. germinans throughout the Gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. We measured vessel density, hydraulically weighted vessel diameter, potential conductance capacity, and maximum tensile fracture stress. At each sampling site we recorded mangrove canopy height and soil salinity, and determined average minimum winter temperature from archived weather records. At a subset of sites, we measured carbon fixation rates using a LI-COR 6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System. Populations of A. germinans from cooler areas (Texas and Louisiana had narrower vessels, likely reducing the risk of freeze-induced embolisms but also decreasing water conductance capacity. Vessels were also narrower in regions with high soil salinity, including Texas, USA and tidal flats in Veracruz, Mexico. Vessel density did not consistently vary with temperature or soil salinity. In abiotically stressful areas, A. germinans had a safe hydraulic architecture with narrower vessels that may increase local survival. This safe architecture appears to come at a substantial physiological cost in terms of reduction in conductance capacity and carbon fixation potential, likely contributing to lower canopy heights. The current distribution of A. germinans in the Gulf is influenced by the complex interplay between temperature, salinity, and vessel architecture. Given the plasticity of A. germinans vessel characters, it is likely that this mangrove species will be able to adapt to a wide range of potential future environmental conditions, and continue its expansion in the Gulf of Mexico in response to near

  20. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from ...

  1. Salinization mechanisms in semi-arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    During a period of three years the basins of the Pereira de Miranda and Caxitore dams, located in the crystalline rock area of Ceara, Brazil, were studied in order to determine the mechanisms of salinization of their waters. Isotope methods ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hidrochemistry (determination of the of the maior ions) were applied to surface, underground and rain water in this study. An isotope model was designed and applied to the determination of evaporation and percolation of dams in semi-arid zones during the dry season. The results are compared to those from a conventional chemical model. As causes of salinization of the water in the dams, the contributions of the rain itself and the lixiviation of the soil are quantified. An interaction between the dams and the underground water is imperceptible. The salinization of the underground water is attributed to recharge of the aquifer with rain water from the surface runoff followed by evaporation of the water rising, due to capilarity, in a one-directional flow to the surface. (Author) [pt

  2. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  3. Fractures of the sustentaculum tali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, C; Zwipp, H; Rammelt, S

    2013-12-01

    Anatomical reconstruction of displaced sustentaculum tali fractures via a direct medial approach. Displaced fractures of the sustentaculum tali with incongruity or depression of the medial facet of the subtalar joint, entrapment of the flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus tendons, fracture line extending into the posterior facet of the subtalar joint. Infected or grossly contaminated soft tissue, severely restricted vascular supply to the foot, high perioperative risk. Direct medial approach over the sustentaculum tali, retraction of the tendons, joint exploration, fracture reduction using the medial facet and cortical outline as guidelines, fracture fixation with two small fragment screws from medial to lateral directed slightly plantarly and posteriorly. Fractures with depression of the medial facet as a whole can alternatively be reduced and fixed percutaneously. Lower leg splint for 5-7 days, partial weight-bearing with 20 kg for 6-8 weeks (until radiographic signs of consolidation) in the patient's own shoewear, early range of motion exercises of the ankle, subtalar and mid-tarsal joints. Over a course of 15 years, 31 patients were treated operatively for sustentacular fractures. In all, 27 patients (87%) had additional fractures to the same foot and ankle. Eighteen patients with a mean age of 41 years treated at our institution with screw fixation for a unilateral fracture of the sustentaculum tali could be followed for a mean of 80 months (range 15-151 months). No wound healing problems or infections were seen with the medial approach. At the time of follow-up, 15 sustentaculum tali fractures had an average Foot Function Index of 21.6 and an average AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score of 83.6. Patients with isolated fractures of the sustentaculum tali had significantly better scores than those with additional injuries. In 1 patient, an additional lateral process fracture of the talus required subtalar fusion due to persistent pain. Care must be taken not

  4. Impacts of a Saline Lake and Its Salinity on Local Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the weather research and forecasting model coupled with the community land model (WRF-CLM is used to investigate impacts of the GSL and its salinity from October 2001 to April 2002. A salinity parameterization scheme is incorporated into the lake scheme of CLM. The WRF-CLM model with the salinity parameterization scheme can better simulate temperature and precipitation compared to that without considering the salinity effects. The improvement of simulation is especially significant under cold weather condition. The precipitation caused by the GSL effect is always positive over the downwind area of the GSL during the study period. Increased precipitation is largely attributed to the warm lake surface temperature and high latent heat flux over the GSL, which are favorable for the development of strong convective activity and horizontal wind and moisture convergence. Such kind of GSL-induced forcing is the primary mechanism for the downstream GSL effect precipitation. The GSL effect precipitation is largely contributed by fresh water effect when the temperature is close to or higher than 0°C. However, with lower temperature, the salinity effect becomes dominant for the GSL effect precipitation.

  5. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  6. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  8. Early history of scapular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  9. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  10. Stress fractures and bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method

  11. Fracture healing in osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing Hoi; Miclau, Theodore; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Yang, Frank F; Alt, Volker

    2016-06-01

    As the world population rises, osteoporotic fracture is an emerging global threat to the well-being of elderly patients. The process of fracture healing by intramembranous ossification or/and endochondral ossification involve many well-orchestrated events including the signaling, recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the early phase; formation of a hard callus and extracellular matrix, angiogenesis and revascularization during the mid-phase; and finally callus remodeling at the late phase of fracture healing. Through clinical and animal research, many of these factors are shown to be impaired in osteoporotic bone. Animal studies related to post-menopausal estrogen deficient osteoporosis (type I) have shown healing to be prolonged with decreased levels of MSCs and decreased levels of angiogenesis. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) was shown to be delayed in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture. This might be related to the observed difference in mechanical sensitivity between normal and osteoporotic bones, which requires further experiments to elucidate. In mice fracture models related to senile osteoporosis (type II), it was observed that chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation were impaired; and that transplantation of juvenile bone marrow would result in enhanced callus formation. Other factors related to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis have also been noted to be impaired in aged models, affecting the degradation of cartilaginous matrixes and vascular invasion; the result is changes in matrix composition and growth factors concentrations that ultimately impairs healing during age-related osteoporosis. Most osteoporotic related fractures occur at metaphyseal sites clinically, and reports have indicated that differences exist between diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. An animal model that satisfies three main criteria (metaphyseal region, plate fixation, osteoporosis) is suggested for future research for

  12. Possible factors for ankle fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabaković Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Classification of ankle fractures is commonly used for selecting an appropriate treatment and prognosing an outcome of definite management. One of the most used classifications is the Danis-Weber classification. To the best of our knowledge, in the available literature, there are no parameters affecting specific types of ankle fractures according to the Danis-Weber classification. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of the following parameters: age, body weight, body mass index (BMI, height, osteoporosis, osteopenia and physical exercises with specific types of ankle fractures using the Danis-Weber classification. Methods. A total of 85 patients grouped by the Danis-Weber classification fracture types were analyzed and the significance of certain parameters for specific types of ankle fractures was established. Results. The proportion of females was significantly higher (p < 0.001 with a significantly higher age (59.9 years, SD ± 14.2 in relation to males (45.1 years, SD ± 12.8 (p < 0.0001. Type A fracture was most frequent in the younger patients (34.2 years, SD ± 8.6, and those with increased physical exercises (p = 0.020. In type B fracture, the risk factor was osteoporosis (p = 0.0180, while in type C fracture, body weight (p = 0.017 and osteoporosis (p = 0.004 were significant parameters. Conclusion. Statistical analysis using the Danis-Weber classification reveals that there are certain parameters suggesting significant risk factors for specific types of ankle fractures.

  13. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  14. fracture ouverte de la jambe

    OpenAIRE

    DJALT HOUARI, BADREDDINE; KHODJA, BOCHRA BAKHTA

    2015-01-01

    Les fractures de jambes ouvertes sont les plus fréquentes des fractures ouvertes des os longs. Elles sont en général graves et surviennent le plus souvent après un accident de la voie publique. La classification de Cauchoix modifiée par Gustilo a une valeur pronostique, mais elle nécessite une réévaluation au cours du temps. La contamination initiale de la plaie peut être considérée comme une constante lors de fractures ouvertes. La prise en charge initiale comporte une a...

  15. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia, M.; Brennan, R.E.; Edeiken, J.

    1982-01-01

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  16. Arthroscopic Management of Bennett Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jason; Culp, Randall W

    2017-11-01

    Bennett fracture is the most common fracture of the thumb. Choosing the appropriate approach to fracture fixation requires a thorough knowledge of the anatomy surrounding the first carpometacarpal joint, which is necessary to prevent injury to local sensory nerves and tendons. Although no study has shown superior outcomes compared with open reduction internal fixation and fluoroscopically guided closed reduction and percutaneous pinning, arthroscopic-assisted fixation allows for debridement of the carpometacarpal joint, direct visualization of the articular surface during reduction, and has minimal morbidity and associated complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elastic fracture in driven media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung Chiwei; Wang Shenggang; Long Qiyi

    1999-08-01

    Fracture as one of the mechanical properties of materials is structurally dependent. Defects, defect assemblies, grain boundaries and sub-boundaries materials, modify the local stress intensity factors intensively. Brittle fracture prefers to confine to the grain boundary where the specific surface energy is lower than that in the grain. Again, transgranular cracking may occur on the crystal cleavage plane or planes where the local toughness is lowered by dislocation interaction and motion. This paper shows the complexity of the fractal dimension or roughness index of fractured surfaces in materials with metallographic structures or in inhomogeneous media. (author)

  18. Contemporary management of subtrochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Lindvall, Eric M; Martirosian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Cephalomedullary interlocking nails that allow for trochanteric entry and minimally invasive fixation have revolutionized the contemporary management of subtrochanteric fractures with improved union rates and decreased incidence of fixation failure. The most successful alternative to intramedullary fixation remains the angled blade plate. Despite biomechanical superiority of contemporary intramedullary implants to previous intramedullary devices, the importance of achieving and maintaining satisfactory fracture reduction prior to and during hardware insertion cannot be overemphasized. In comminuted and more challenging fractures, additional techniques, such as limited open reduction with clamps and/or cables, can allow for canal restoration and more anatomic reductions prior to and/or during nail insertion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Atypical fractures on long term bisphosphonates therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussein, W

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates reduce fractures risk in patients with osteoporosis. A new pattern of fractures is now being noted in patients on prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. We report a case of an atypical femoral fracture with preceding pain and highlight the characteristics of these fractures.

  20. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fracture networks have the potentiality to significantly influence local and regional scale fluid movement. Fracture induced permeability depends on density of fractures, size of apertures and connectivities (Singhal and Gupta. 1999). It is assumed that closely spaced fractures with higher frequency represent better possibility.

  1. Humerus shaft fractures - where are we today?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strohm, P C; Reising, K; Hammer, T

    2011-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures account for about 1-3% of all fractures. These fractures are regarded as the domain of non-surgical management. This is certainly still the contemporary view but there is an obvious trend towards surgical stabilization. Surgical treatment of humeral shaft fractures has...

  2. Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Xian, Yao; Guo-Liang, Li; Shi-Hua, Tu; Gavin, Sulewski; Zhao-Huan, He

    2007-09-20

    To enhance animal productivity and maximize economic returns, mineral salts are routinely added to animal feed worldwide. Salinity and ionic composition of animal manure from intensive poultry and livestock farms in Guangdong province were investigated. Field experiments were conducted for six successive crops of Brassica Parachinensis to evaluate the possibility of secondary soil salinization by successive application of chicken manure (CM) and pigeon manure (PM) to a garden soil. The concentration of total soluble salts (TSS), which were mainly composed of sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium, averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g.kg(- 1) in chicken, pig and pigeon manure, respectively. After three crops, successive application of CM and PM increased soil concentrations of TSS, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), SO(4)(2-), and Cl(-) with application rate, resulting in a rise in soil salinity from low to medium levels and a slight reduction in soil pH. After heavy rains during the last three crops, soil TSS was reduced considerably and pH showed a slight increase. Concentrations of Cl(-) and Mg(2+) increased and Ca(2+) decreased at the end of the experiment, all leading to changes in the ionic composition of soil salinity. Manure with higher ion concentrations appeared to play a more important role in affecting ionic composition of soil salinity. The results further suggest that even in a region with abundant rainfall like Guangzhou, there is still potential risk for secondary soil salinization when high rates of CM and PM are applied.

  3. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead topostoperative acute anemia and some other complications.Tranexamic acid (TA is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusionrequirements during some elective surgeries (1-3.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA on intraoperative blood loss and asubsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting.Methods:Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullarynailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. GroupI, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA via intravenous infusion before surgical incision.Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline.Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobinchange as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups.Results:Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups,respectively (P=0.570. Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group(5.6% compared to the placebo group (30% (P=0.06. No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during thesurgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894.Conclusion:Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion duringtraumatic femoral fracture operation.

  4. Intramedullary nailing in segmental tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, G C; Sotgiu, F; Lepori, M; Guido, P

    1981-10-01

    Thirty-eight consecutive segmental fractures of the tibia were treated by intramedullary nailing with the Küntscher-Herzog nail. Twenty-two fractures were closed and sixteen were open. Reaming of the medullary cavity was performed and adequate fixation was ensured by use of a plaster cast. Weight-bearing was allowed after thirty-days for closed fractures and sixty days for open fractures. All of the closed fractures healed without malunion or infection. Of the patients with open fractures, one had an infection; one, non-union; and one, malunion. In all cases but one, union was slower at the distal fracture.

  5. Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: (1) the etiology is torsion and not flexion; (2) there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; (3) in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; (4) the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally. These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine. (orig.)

  6. Detection of fractures in borehole image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Xiaoling

    2009-10-01

    Fractures in borehole images are currently handpicked by geologists, which is a tedious and expensive task. Automatically detecting fractures in these images is not an easy task. We present a scheme for automatic fracture detection in borehole images. First, an adaptive histogram equalization method is applied to enhance borehole images which enhances the visibility of fractures in the images. Then, a direction filtering method is proposed to extract traces of fractures in borehole images. Finally, the fast Hough transform is taken to detect fractures from the results of direction filtering. Experiment results show that the scheme achieves the good results for automatic fracture detection in borehole images.

  7. Quantifying Water-Rock Interactions during Hydraulic Fracturing from the Analysis of Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselin, F.; Nightingale, M.; Kloppmann, W.; Gaucher, E.; Clarkson, C.; Mayer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies have facilitated the rapid development of shale gas and other unconventional resources throughout the world. In order to get sufficient access to the trapped hydrocarbon, it is necessary to fracture the bedrock and increase its permeability. Fracturing fluids are usually composed of tens of thousand of cubic meters of low salinity water with numerous additives, such as viscosity agent or breakers. The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing. This study was based on repeated sampling of flowback water from a hydraulically fractured well in Alberta, Canada. The flowback water was sampled 24 times during the first week and one last time after one, and analyzed for major ions and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes of sulfate and water among others. Results showed that salinity rapidly increases up to 100 000 mg/L at the end of the first week. We demonstrate that conservative species such as Na and Cl follow a clear two end-members mixing line, while some species including sulfate had much higher concentrations (8 times higher than the expected value from the mixing line). This indicates that the rapid increase of salinity in flowback water is caused by both mixing with formation water initially present in the shale formation, and from water-rock interactions triggered by the fracturing fluid and in some cases by the additives. Stable isotope data suggest that additional sulfate is mobilized as a consequence of pyrite oxidation, releasing sulfate, iron and potentially other heavy metals into the flowback water. This release of excess sulfate can be detrimental because it has the potential to promote scaling of sulfate minerals. Moreover, pyrite oxidation is a highly acidifying reaction and this may decrease the effectiveness of other additives, and promote carbonate minerals dissolution enhancing further scaling. We propose that a better control of the

  8. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  9. [Management of facial bone fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarinen, Kyösti; Korpi, Jarkko

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of patients suffering from facial bone fractures has decreased more resources due to complexity of the fractures are needed. The initial treatment and reconstruction phase require hospitalisation and close collaboration between several medical and dental specialists. Fractures cause alterations in occlusion and masticatory functions and are frequently associated with soft tissue injuries. The primary radiographic examination is panoramic radiography in mandibular and computed tomography in maxillary and mid face fractures. The treatment principles have changed during the last three decades. Long-term maxillomandibular immobilisation has given way to internal fixation and direct osteosynthesis. The greatest innovations of the treatment have taken place in materials. Steel has been replaced by Titanium or resorbable plates, screws and meshes.

  10. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Home & Recreational Safety Older Adult Falls Important Facts about Falls Costs of Falls Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Older Adult Falls Programs Compendium of Effective Fall Interventions, 3rd Edition ...

  11. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially in the cold-weather months when most ankle injuries occur. An ankle fracture involves a crack or ... Weak ankles may be a result of previous ankle injuries, but in some cases, they are a congenital ( ...

  12. The treatment of subtrochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Čedomir S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur have a special place because of a significant number of complications following treatment. Powerful loading forces asymmetrically acting to this bone segment, as well as poor vascularization interfere with bone union. There are basically two current approaches in the fixation of subtrochanteric fractures; the first involves a plate with a compression screw and another one is intramedullary (IM nail, with two options: centromedullary (standard interlocking femoral nail and cephalomedullary femoral nail with two modifications, reconstructive and trochanteric. All IM nails may be used by open technique or closed minimal invasive method. IM nailing is favoured in view of a shorter operative time, shorter hospitalisation and complications. Indirect fracture reduction and knowledge of biology of bone fracture may result in full success without any bone graft.

  13. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  14. Computed tomography of calcaneal fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.; Seddiqi, M.S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of 25 fractured calcanei was performed to investigate the potential of CT in evaluating the pattern and biomechanics of these fractures. The characteristic findings of typical fractures are presented, including the number and type of principal fragments, size and dislocation of the sustentacular fragment, and involvement of the anterior and posterior facets of the subtalar joint. In 17 cases, the calcaneus consisted of four or more fragments. Furthermore, in 17 cases the sustentacular fragment included all or part of the posterior facet joint. In 18 of the 25 cases, the sustentacular fragment was displaced. It is concluded that well performed CT is an invaluable adjunct in understanding the fracture mechanism and in detecting pain-provoking impingement between the fibular malleolus and the tuberosity fragment

  15. Computed tomography of calcaneal fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.; Seddiqi, M.S.A.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of 25 fractured calcanei was performed to investigate the potential of CT in evaluating the pattern and biomechanics of these fractures. The characteristic findings of typical fractures are presented, including the number and type of principal fragments, size and dislocation of the sustentacular fragment, and involvement of the anterior and posterior facets of the subtalar joint. In 17 cases, the calcaneus consisted of four or more fragments. Furthermore, in 17 cases the sustentacular fragment included all or part of the posterior facet joint. In 18 of the 25 cases, the sustentacular fragment was displaced. It is concluded that well performed CT is an invaluable adjunct in understanding the fracture mechanism and in detecting pain-provoking impingement between the fibular malleolus and the tuberosity fragment.

  16. [Humeral shaft fracture in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, F G; Vinz, H

    1993-06-01

    In a collective study of twelve surgical clinics 222 diaphyseal fractures of the humerus in children were examined. 159 children were checked up two to 14 years after the accident. Priority was given to conservative treatment: Désault or Gilchrist dressing (24%), arm cast (34%), extension (29%), change from primary extension to secondary dressing or cast (27%), osteosynthesis (10%). Late results were excellent in 85%, whereas in 15% minor anatomical lesions persisted, such as axial deviations, but without functional impairment. There were eight transitory primary nerve lesions (3.6%), seven concerning the radial nerve, one the ulnar nerve. The individual therapeutic procedure depends on the age of the child and on the pattern of the fracture. Operative treatment is indicated in open fractures, in cases of polytraumatism, and in fractures with uncontrolled major axial deviation.

  17. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  18. Estimation method of the fracture resistance curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Keun; Lee, Kwang Hyeon; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electric Company, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Fracture resistance curves for concerned materials are required in order to perform elastic-plastic fracture mechanical analysis. Fracture resistance curve is built with J-integral values and crack extension values. The objective of this paper is to propose the estimation method of the fracture resistance curve. The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed by the load ratio method from load - displacement data for the standard specimen.

  19. The role of ethylene in plants under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun eTao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the roles of ethylene in plant response to salinity and other stresses have been extensively studied, there are still some obscure points left to be clarified. Generally, in Arabidopsis and many other terrestrial plants, ethylene signaling is indispensable for plant rapid response and tolerance to salinity stress. However, a few studies showed that functional knock-out of some ACSs increased plant salinity-tolerance, while overexpression of them caused more sensitivity. This seems to be contradictory to the known opinion that ethylene plays positive roles in salinity response. Differently, ethylene in rice may play negative roles in regulating seedling tolerance to salinity. The main positive ethylene signaling components MHZ7/OsEIN2, MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 all negatively regulate the salinity-tolerance of rice seedlings. Recently, several different research groups all proposed a negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and ethylene response, in which several ethylene-inducible proteins (including NtTCTP, NEIP2, SAUR76/77/78 and ARGOS act as inhibitors of ethylene response but activators of plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a summary of the general roles of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, this review mainly focused on discussing (i the discrepancies between ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in salinity response, (ii the divergence between rice and Arabidopsis in regulation of salinity response by ethylene, and (iii the possible negative feedback mechanism of coordinating plant growth and salinity response by ethylene.

  20. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  1. Irreducible Galeazzi Fracture-Dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, Nicholas J; De Tolla, Jadie; Kaye, Marc B; Edelstein, David M; Choueka, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Fractures of the radial shaft with disruption of the distal radial ulnar joint (DRUJ) or Galeazzi fractures are treated with reduction of the radius followed by stability assessment of the DRUJ. In rare instances, the reduction of the DRUJ is blocked by interposed structures requiring open reduction of this joint. The purpose of this study is to review all cases of irreducible Galeazzi fracture-dislocations reported in the literature to offer guidelines in the diagnosis and management of this rare injury. A search of the MEDLINE database, OVID database, and PubMed database was employed using the terms "Galeazzi" and "fracture." Of the 124 articles the search produced, a total of 12 articles and 17 cases of irreducible Galeazzi fracture-dislocations were found. The age range was 16 to 64 years (mean = 25 years). A high-energy mechanism of injury was the root cause in all cases. More than half of the irreducible DRUJ dislocations were not identified intraoperatively. In a dorsally dislocated DRUJ, a block to reduction in most cases (92.3%) was secondary to entrapment of one or more extensor tendons including the extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor digitorum communis, with the remaining cases blocked by fracture fragments. Irreducible volar dislocations due to entrapment of the ulnar head occurred in 17.6% of cases with no tendon entrapment noted. In the presence of a Galeazzi fracture, a reduced/stable DRUJ needs to be critically assessed as more than half of irreducible DRUJs in a Galeazzi fracture-dislocation were missed either pre- or intraoperatively.

  2. Gene Therapy for Fracture Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    the periosteal tissues of healing fractures in small animals , and allow more accurate evaluation of the effects of the fracture therapy (Rundle et...X-ray fluoroscopy (Figure 7). Individual animals receiving the MLV-BMP-2/4 gene therapy by either the percutaneous injection or the intramedullary... animal subjects to understand gene expression in the healing response to bone injury and identify novel genes that might accelerate or delay the

  3. Treatment of Unstable Ankle Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniel Truffín Rodríguez; Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with unstable ankle fractures frequently attend the emergency rooms. It is estimated that there are 122 ankle fractures per 100 000 people a year. Surgical treatment of those that are unstable is inevitable since they can not be corrected in a conservative way. Several surgical procedures for repair of such lesions have been described and all of them constitute important tools for the orthopedic surgeon. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to discuss the current management of...

  4. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water leak-off during hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs is a complicated transport behavior involving thermal (T, hydrodynamic (H, mechanical (M and chemical (C processes. Although many leak-off models have been published, none of the models fully coupled the transient fluid flow modeling with heat transfer, chemical-potential equilibrium and natural-fracture dilation phenomena. In this paper, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, thermo-poroelastic rock mechanics, and non-isothermal chemical-potential equations is presented to simulate the water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The THMC model takes into account a triple-porosity medium, which includes hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and shale matrix. The leak-off simulation with the THMC model involves all the important processes in this triple-porosity medium, including: (1 water transport driven by hydraulic, capillary, chemical and thermal osmotic convections; (2 gas transport induced by both hydraulic pressure driven convection and adsorption; (3 heat transport driven by thermal convection and conduction; and (4 natural-fracture dilation considered as a thermo-poroelastic rock deformation. The fluid and heat transport, coupled with rock deformation, are described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The semi-implicit finite-difference algorithm is proposed to solve these equations. The evolution of pressure, temperature, saturation and salinity profiles of hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and matrix is calculated, revealing the multi-field coupled water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The influences of hydraulic pressure, natural-fracture dilation, chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis on water leak-off are investigated. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the

  5. The water footprint of hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Li, Jian; Kondash, Andrew; Coyte, Rachel; Lauer, Nancy; Cui, Huiying; Liao, Fengrong; Vengosh, Avner

    2018-02-23

    Shale gas is likely to play a major role in China's transition away from coal. In addition to technological and infrastructural constraints, the main challenges to China's sustainable shale gas development are sufficient shale gas production, water availability, and adequate wastewater management. Here we present, for the first time, actual data of shale gas production and its water footprint from the Weiyuan gas field, one of the major gas fields in Sichuan Basin. We show that shale gas production rates during the first 12 months (24 million m 3 per well) are similar to gas production rates in U.S. shale basins. The amount of water used for hydraulic fracturing (34,000 m 3 per well) and the volume of flowback and produced (FP) water in the first 12 months (19,800 m 3 per well) in Sichuan Basin are also similar to the current water footprints of hydraulic fracturing in U.S. basins. We present salinity data of the FP water (5000 to 40,000 mgCl/L) in Sichuan Basin and the treatment operations, which include sedimentation, dilution with fresh water, and recycling of the FP water for hydraulic fracturing. We utilize the water use data, empirical decline rates of shale gas and FP water productions in Sichuan Basin to generate two prediction models for water use for hydraulic fracturing and FP water production upon achieving China's goals to generate 100 billion m 3 of shale gas by 2030. The first model utilizes the current water use and FP production data, and the second assumes a yearly 5% intensification of the hydraulic fracturing process. The predicted water use for hydraulic fracturing in 2030 (50-65 million m 3 per year), FP water production (50-55 million m 3 per year), and fresh water dilution of FP water (25 million m 3 per year) constitute a water footprint that is much smaller than current water consumption and wastewater generation for coal mining, but higher than those of conventional gas production in China. Given estimates

  6. Dimensional threshold for fracture linkage and hooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Juliette; Chabani, Arezki; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Fracture connectivity in rocks depends on spatial properties of the pattern including length, abundance and orientation. When fractures form a single-strike set, they hardly cross-cut each other and the connectivity is limited. Linkage probability increases with increasing fracture abundance and length as small fractures connect to each other to form longer ones. A process for parallel fracture linkage is the "hooking", where two converging fracture tips mutually deviate and then converge to connect due to the interaction of their crack-tip stresses. Quantifying the processes and conditions for fracture linkage in single-strike fracture sets is crucial to better predicting fluid flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. For 1734 fractures in Permian shales of the Lodève Basin, SE France, we measured geometrical parameters in 2D, characterizing three stages of the hooking process: underlapping, overlapping and linkage. We deciphered the threshold values, shape ratios and limiting conditions to switch from one stage to another one. The hook set up depends on the spacing (S) and fracture length (Lh) with the relation S ≈ 0.15 Lh. Once the hooking is initiated, with the fracture deviation length (L) L ≈ 0.4 Lh, the fractures reaches the linkage stage only when the spacing is reduced to S ≈ 0.02 Lh and the convergence (C) is < 0.1 L. These conditions apply to multi-scale fractures with a shape ratio L/S = 10 and for fracture curvature of 10°-20°.

  7. Avulsion fractures of the scapula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyse-Moore, G.H.; Stoker, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Fractures of the scapula due to direct violence are relatively common. Wilber and Evans [18] reported 40 scapular fractures and reviewed the literature. All those injured has received direct trauma to the shoulder and they were able to divide their cases into two groups, based on anatomical location and functional results. Scapular fractures due to avulsion of the muscular attachments are uncommon and, as reports of these injuries in the literature are usually confined to single cases, no classification has been established which takes account of the anatomical sites at which these fractures occur and the mechanism of injury involved. In this paper the more common sites of avulsion injury of the scapula are described and illustrated by case reports. In several of these the skeletal injury resulted from muscle contraction against a resisted force on the upper limb during the course of an accident. This mechanism has been implicated in fractures of the coracoid and acromion, but is shown in this paper to contribute to other avulsion fractures. (orig.)

  8. Bilateral Monteggia fracture in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1814 Giovanni Monteggia first described two cases of fractures of the proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the radial head. These fractures are more common in children than in adults, and mutual Monteggia fracture is a rare complication. This study presents a treatment course of a patient with bilateral Monteggia fracture. Case report. A 55- year-old patient was injured by falling in the yard. Radiography showed bilateral Monteggia fracture type II (by the Badon classification. Operative treatment of fracture was done by a compression plate on the right side and by the zuggurtung technique on the left one. Closed repositioning of the radial head was done on both sides. The patient was wearing a plaster splint for the upper arm for 21 days. After removing the fixation, the function of the elbow was determined by the Broberg Morrey score (BM which was on the right side 45.5 and on the left side 47.5. After the proper physical therapy, four months after the surgery, BM score was 100 on the right side, and 93 on the left one. Conclusion. Surgical treatment and early rehabilitation is the key for the return of good function of both elbows.

  9. Avulsion fractures of the scapula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyse-Moore, G.H.; Stoker, D.J.

    1982-11-01

    Fractures of the scapula due to direct violence are relatively common. Wilber and Evans (18) reported 40 scapular fractures and reviewed the literature. All those injured has received direct trauma to the shoulder and they were able to divide their cases into two groups, based on anatomical location and functional results. Scapular fractures due to avulsion of the muscular attachments are uncommon and, as reports of these injuries in the literature are usually confined to single cases, no classification has been established which takes account of the anatomical sites at which these fractures occur and the mechanism of injury involved. In this paper the more common sites of avulsion injury of the scapula are described and illustrated by case reports. In several of these the skeletal injury resulted from muscle contraction against a resisted force on the upper limb during the course of an accident. This mechanism has been implicated in fractures of the coracoid and acromion, but is shown in this paper to contribute to other avulsion fractures.

  10. Sarcopenia and fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederholm, T; Cruz-Jentoft, A J; Maggi, S

    2013-02-01

    Sarcopenia, a reduction in muscle mass and muscle function, is considered one of the hallmarks of the aging process. Current views consider sarcopenia as the consequence of multiple medical, behavioural and environmental factors that characterize aged individuals. Likewise bone fragility is known to depend on several pathogenetic mechanisms leading to bone mass loss and reduction of bone strength. Muscle weakness, fear of falls, falls and subsequent fractures are associated to concurrent sarcopenia and osteoporosis and lead to restricted mobility, loss of autonomy and reduced life expectancy. The skeletal and the muscular organ systems are tightly intertwined: the strongest mechanical forces applied to bones are, indeed, those created by muscle contractions that condition bone density, strength, and microarchitecture. Not surprising, therefore, the decrease in muscle strength leads to lower bone strength. The degenerative processes leading to osteoporosis and sarcopenia show many common pathogenic pathways, like the sensitivity to reduced anabolic hormone secretion, increased inflammatory cytokine activity and reduced physical activity. Thus they may also respond to the same kind of treatments. Basic is life-style interventions related to exercise and nutrition. Sufficient vitamin D levels are of importance for both bone and muscle, primarily provided by sun exposure at younger age, and by supplementation at older age. Resistance training several times per week is crucial, and to be effective adequate access to energy and proteins is necessary.

  11. Effect of Two Halophyte Plants Irrigated with Saline Water on Soil Salinization under Different Soil Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M. F.; Rizk, M. A.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Moustafa, S. M.; Eigala, A. M.; Abuo El-Naga, H.

    2007-01-01

    A lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of saline water irrigation at three levels namely, fresh water (0.3), 4 and 8 dS/m on salt accumulation and its effect on different soil types. The tested halophyte plants were Kallar grass and Atriplex (Salt bush). The tested soil types were sandy, calcareous and clayey soils. Irrigating the soil with saline water (either 4 or 8 dS/m) resulted in increasing salinity levels in soil profile with different orders of magnitude, depending on the soil type layer and the cultivated plant. Kallar grass seems limit the accumulation of salts in soil profile, compared to Atriplex at any tested soil. This may be attributed to its root effect on soil profile such as dispersed soil matrix and improved soil structure, which provide channels for solute movement through the profile under halophyte cultivation. Calculating the SAR average values for each irrigation treatment (18 values) showed significant increase in soil SAR values, especially under Kallar grass compared to Atriplex. The highest SAR values were observed in the case of clayey soil. However, the relevant SAR values under Atriplex cultivation were always lower. Values for SAR were always higher in the saline clayey > calcareous > sandy soils

  12. Salinization of soil over saline-sodic overburden from the oil sands in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, S.; Dobchuk, B.S. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Barbour, S.L. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2010-11-15

    This paper characterized the 4-year evolution of salinity profiles in the reclaimed soil covers placed over saline-sodic overburden in the Athabasca region of Alberta, evaluated the influence of cover thickness and salt redistribution in the reclaimed material, and sought to identify the dominant mechanism of salt transport contributing to these profiles. A comparison of 4 reclamation treatments showed that salts accumulated in the cover soils, increasing the electrical conductivity in the lower part of the soils to levels exceeding the acceptable value for plant growth. Diffusion and not slope position was found to be the predominant mechanism driving the salt redistribution in the soils, at least for the 4-year period under observation. The cover thickness had no effect on the extent of salt ingress, but the average salinity for thinner soils was substantially higher than the average for thicker covers. The higher salinity levels compromised the overall quality of the thinner covers for vegetative growth. The thicker covers performed better as a reclamation prescription because the water storage capacity above the salt-affected zone was sufficient for the maintenance of vegetative communities. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Saline Valley Radar Facility Project Saline Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    positions. In 1999, a Marine Corps jet aircraft crashed in the Saline Valley area. Because of the lack of radar data, the search area initially...Sauromalus obesus), zebra-tailed lizards (Callisaurus draconoides), desert iguanas Section 3.0 – Description of Proposed Action FINAL December

  14. Radiological study of the mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Jun

    2009-01-01

    To classify and evaluate mandibular fractures. The author classified mandibular fractures of 284 patients who were referred to the Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital during the period from March 2004 to June 2007. This study was based on the conventional radiographs as well as computed tomographs which were pertained to the 284 patients who have had the mandibular fractures including the facial bone fractures. And mandibular fractures were classified with respect to gender, age, site and type of the fractures. More frequently affected gender with mandibular fracture was male with the ratio of 3.3 : 1. The most frequently affected age with mandibular fracture was third decade (38%), followed by fourth decade (16%), second decade (15%), fifth decade (11%), sixth decade (7%), seventh decade (5%), eighth decade (4%), first decade (4%), and ninth decade (0.3%). The most frequent type of mandibular fracture was single fracture (58%), followed by double fracture (39%), triple fracture (3%). The most common site of mandibular fracture was mandibular condyle as 113 cases (27.7%) and the next was mandibular symphysis as 109 cases (26.7%), mandibular angle as 103 cases (25.3%), mandibular body as 83 cases (20.3%) in order. The sum of fracture sites were 408 sites and there were 1.4 fracture sites per one patient. The number of mandible fractures accompanied with facial bone fractures were 41 cases (14.4%). The results showed the most frequent type and common site of mandibular fracture was single fracture and mandibular condyle respectively.

  15. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  16. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  17. Evaluation of simvastatin in the process of fracture healing in tibiae of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wanderley Vasconcelos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of simvastatin in the process of fracture healing in rat tibia. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were subjected to diaphyseal fracture of the leg bones and divided in the statin group (GE and control group (GC, being subdivided into three subgroups according to days post-fracture (7th, 14th and 28th day to assess bone healing. In GE was administered by gavage a solution of simvastatin to the sacrifice. In the control group was administered saline by the same route of SG. Immobilization was not used. After the sacrifice was made to limb amputation in the distal femur and conducted the clinical, radiological and histological analysis. Clinical evaluation was made as to the mobility of the fracture. Then the samples were radiographed and evaluated for callus diameter. Histological examination was performed with cuts of 5 micrometers and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome and Alcian blue pH 2.5. The level of significance to exclude the null hypothesis was 5%. RESULTS: All GE animals showed greater stability of the fracture and higher callus area. There were no significant changes in the histological study. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin accelerates the consolidation process by increasing the callus, but does not alter the histology of the newly formed bone.

  18. Effect of MTA and Portland Cement on Fracture Resistance of Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Forghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. It is important to evaluate the effects of endodontic materials on tooth structures to avoid endodontic treatment failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA and Portland cement (PC on fracture resistance of dentin. Materials and methods. Thirty-six freshly extracted human single-rooted premolar teeth were selected. The crowns were removed and the roots were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The root samples were longitudinally divided into two halves and a dentin bar (2×2×10 mm was cut from each root section for short-term (2 weeks and long-term (12 weeks evaluations. The root sections in the experimental groups were exposed to MTA or PC, while keeping the control group specimens in physiologic saline. The fracture resistance of each specimen was measured using an Instron testing machine. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, a post hoc Tukey test and paired ttest at 5% significance level. Results. The fracture resistance of MTA-treated specimens significantly increased between 2 and 12 weeks (P0.05. Conclusion. The results showed that MTA increased the fracture resistance of root dentin, while PC had no significant effect on dentin fracture resistance.

  19. Effects of Pre-Fracture Depressive Illness and Post-Fracture Depressive Symptoms on Physical Performance Following Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Alan M.; Shardell, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Ostir, Glenn; Hicks, Gregory E.; Miller, Ram R.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the impact of pre-fracture depressive illness and post-fracture depressive symptoms on changes in physical performance after hip fracture. Design Longitudinal observational cohort. Setting Baltimore metropolitan area. Participants Older adults (n=255) with hip fracture who underwent Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments at two, six, or twelve months post fracture. Measurements Pre-fracture depressive illness (from medical records) at baseline and post-fracture depressive symptoms at two months (using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were measured. Physical performance was measured using the SPPB, a composite metric of functional status with a score ranging from zero to twelve. Weighted estimating equations assessed mean SPPB over time comparing participants with and without pre-fracture depressive illness and subjects with and without post-fracture depressive symptoms. Results Participants with pre-fracture depressive illness had an SPPB increase of 0.4 units (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.5, 1.3) from two to six months, smaller than the increase of 1.0 SPPB unit (95% CI: 0.4, 1.6) in those without pre-fracture depressive illness. Participants with post-fracture depressive symptoms had an SPPB increase of 0.2 units (95% CI: −1.0, 1.5) from two to twelve months, while subjects without post-fracture depressive symptoms had a larger increase of 1.2 units (95% CI: 0.6, 1.8) over the same time period. However, pre-fracture depressive illness and post-fracture depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with SPPB. Conclusions Neither pre-fracture depressive illness nor post-fracture depressive symptoms were significantly associated with changes in physical performance after hip fracture, but the magnitude of estimates suggested possible clinically meaningful effects on functional recovery. PMID:27673273

  20. Dynamic changes in water and salinity in saline-alkali soils after simulated irrigation and leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutao Wang

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is a global problem that limits agricultural development and impacts human life. This study aimed to understand the dynamic changes in water and salinity in saline-alkali soil based on an indoor soil column simulation. We studied the changes in the water and salt contents of soils with different degrees of salinization under various irrigation conditions. The results showed that after seven irrigations, the pH, conductivity and total soluble salt content of the percolation samples after irrigation generally increased initially then decreased with repeated irrigation. The soil moisture did not change significantly after irrigation. The pH, conductivity, and total soluble salt content of each layer of the soil profile exhibited general declining trends. In the soil profile from Changguo Township (CG, the pH decreased from 8.21-8.35 to 7.71-7.88, the conductivity decreased from 0.95-1.14 ms/cm to 0.45-0.68 ms/cm, and the total soluble salt content decreased from 2.63-2.81 g/kg to 2.28-2.51 g/kg. In the soil profile from Zhongjie Industrial Park (ZJ, the pH decreased from 8.36-8.54 to 7.73-7.96, the conductivity decreased from 1.58-1.68 ms/cm to 1.45-1.54 ms/cm, and the total soluble salt decreased from 2.81-4.03 g/kg to 2.56-3.28 g/kg. The transported salt ions were primarily K+, Na+ and Cl-. After several irrigations, a representative desalination effect was achieved. The results of this study can provide technical guidance for the comprehensive management of saline-alkali soils.

  1. Coagulation processes of kaolinite and montmorillonite in calm, saline water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-He; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    A three dimensional numerical model for simulating the coagulation processes of colloids has been performed by monitoring the time evolution of particle number concentration, the size distribution of aggregates, the averaged settling velocity, the collision frequency, and the collision efficiency in quiescent water with selected salinities. This model directly simulates all interaction forces between particles based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, and thus, can reveal the collision and coagulation processes of colloidal suspensions. Although using perfect spherical particles in the modeling, the results were compared with those for kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions to demonstrate the capability of simulating the responses of these particles with highly irregular shape. The averaged settling velocity of kaolinite aggregates in quiescent saline water reached a maximum of 0.16 mm/s when the salinity increasing to about 3, and then, exhibited little dependence on salinity thereafter. Model simulations results (by choosing specific values that represent kaolinite's characteristics) indicate a similar trend: rapid decrease of the particle number concentration (i.e., rapidly flocculated, and thus, settling velocity also increases rapidly) when salinity increases from 0 to 2, and then, only increased slightly when salinity was further increased from 5 to 20. The collision frequency for kaolinite only decreases slightly with increasing salinity because that the fluid density and viscosity increase slightly in sea water. It suggests that the collision efficiency for kaolinite rises rapidly at low salinities and levels off at high salinity. For montmorillonite, the settling velocity of aggregates in quiescent saline water continuedly increases to 0.022 mm/s over the whole salinity range 0-20, and the collision efficiency for montmorillonite rises with increasing salinities.

  2. Variable Saline Concentrations for Initial Resuscitation Following Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    cerebral edema . In addition, 3% saline may be the optimal crystalloid fluid to resuscitate in the setting of hypotension after head injury, as it limits...ongoing inflammation, cerebral edema , and neurologic injury while preserving blood pressure and survival. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Resuscitation, saline...leads to increased mortality despite decreased posttraumatic cerebral edema . In addition, 3% saline may be the optimal crystalloid fluid to resuscitate

  3. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Nan; Marschner, Petra; Cao, Wenhong; Zuo, Changqing; Qin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain t...

  4. Radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur: femoral neck fracture vs. transtrochanteric fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lecia Carneiro Leão de Araújo Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters of the proximal femur with femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures. METHODS: Cervicodiaphyseal angle (CDA, femoral neck width (FNW, hip axis length (HAL, and acetabular tear drop distance (ATD were analyzed in 30 pelvis anteroposterior view X-rays of patients with femoral neck fractures (n = 15 and transtrochanteric fractures (n = 15. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the X-rays with femoral neck fractures and with transtrochanteric fractures. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between samples were observed. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between radiographic parameters evaluated and specific occurrence of femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures.

  5. Prevalence of Temporal Bone Fractures in Patients with Mandibular Fractures Using Multidetector-Row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, I; Kaneda, T; Sasaki, Y; Buch, K; Sakai, O

    2015-06-01

    Temporal bone fracture after mandibular trauma is thought to be rare, and its prevalence has not been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of temporal bone fractures in patients with mandibular fractures and the relationship between temporal bone fractures and the mandibular fracture location using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). A prospective study was performed in 201 patients with mandibular fractures who underwent 64-MDCT scans. The mandibular fracture locations were classified as median, paramedian, angle, and condylar types. Statistical analysis for the relationship between prevalence of temporal bone fractures and mandibular fracture locations was performed using χ(2) test with Fisher's exact test. A P-value fracture was 3.0 % of all patients with mandibular fractures and 19.0 % of those with multiple mandibular fractures of paramedian and condylar type. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of temporal bone fracture and the paramedian- and condylar-type mandibular fracture (P = 0.001). Multiple mandibular fractures of paramedian and condylar type may be a stronger indicator for temporal bone fractures. This study suggests that patients with mandibular fracture, especially the paramedian and condylar type, should be examined for coexisting temporal bone fracture using MDCT.

  6. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained...... incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6-24 months and subsequently received an annual infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg or placebo after low-trauma hip-fracture repair. In total, 2,127 men...... with other qualifying hip fractures reported prior bisphosphonate use. Only one further subtrochanteric fracture occurred in each treatment group over an average 2-year patient follow-up. Subtrochanteric fractures are not uncommon in bisphosphonate-naive patients. Extreme difficulties with mobility may...

  7. Atypical femoral fractures related to bisphosphonate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Pankaj Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BP are a commonly prescribed class of drugs for the prevention of osteoporosis-related fractures. Paradoxically, however, they have recently been linked to atypical fractures in the shaft of the femur. Since many physicians including radiologists, are not aware of this entity, the incidence is likely underreported. These fractures usually occur in the sub-trochanteric region of the femur in the setting of low-energy trauma. It starts as a fracture line involving the lateral cortex and then progresses medially to give rise to a complete fracture. The fracture line is usually transverse, and there is a medial spike associated with a complete fracture. These fractures can be bilateral. Awareness of these atypical fractures and their radiological appearance should enable their early and accurate detection and thus lead to specific treatment.

  8. Changes in Fracture Compliance Due to Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Dahi Taleghani, A.; Sayers, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rock fractures are a source of extra compliance, and the effect of fractures on seismic wave propagation can be quantified in terms of the normal and shear fracture compliances. However, fractures are usually assumed to be smooth discontinuities with no preferential orientation for slippage. This assumption rarely matches with outcrop studies. Irregularities always exist on the fracture faces in the form of hackles, slickensides, or gouges. These features may facilitate movement in one direction while oppose shear deformation in the other direction due to the saw-tooth structure of irregularities. This direction dependence of the shear compliance of the fracture planes may affect the measured ratio of normal to shear fracture compliance for different locations along the fracture. Furthermore, these effects may contribute to the pressure dependence of fracture compliance, because fracture opening or shear sliding would change the number of asperities in contact and, consequently, affect the ratio of the normal to shear compliance. Here, we use numerical modeling to investigate the change in normal and shear compliance caused by the presence of slickensides. The effect of the hackles' geometry, the friction coefficient between the fracture surfaces, and the offset between the fracture faces will be discussed in this presentation. Our analysis shows that even in the case of low asperity angles or small offsets between the fracture faces, the fracture compliance ratio could be greater than one, in agreement with several field observations available in the literature.

  9. The effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the mobility of laying hens with keel bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed Af; Nicol, Christine J; Wilkins, Lindsay; Murrell, Joanna C

    2015-03-01

    Investigate the effects of administration of meloxicam and carprofen on the mobility of hens with and without keel fractures. Within each of two experiments a 'blinded' randomised cross over design whereby birds received either the test drug (carprofen or meloxicam) or saline. Two groups of Lohman Brown hens with and without keel bone fractures. The first group (n = 63) was treated with carprofen 25 mg kg(-1) and saline subcutaneously, twice. The second group (n = 40) was treated with meloxicam (5 mg kg(-1) ) and saline subcutaneously. The latency of birds to fly down from perches 50, 100 and 150 cm above the ground was measured after each treatment. Data from experiment 1 and 2 were analysed separately; the effects of drug treatment compared with saline on landing time for birds with and without keel bone fractures were evaluated using MLwiN. In both experiments latency to fly down from perches was longer in hens with keel fractures and there was a significant interaction between perch height and fracture status. For carprofen, at the 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm perch heights, birds with fractures took (mean ± SD) 2.5 ± 2.9, 6.8 ± 9.7 and 11.5 ± 13.2 seconds respectively to fly down compared with 1.3 ± 0.5, 2.3 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 3.1 seconds for birds without fractures. For meloxicam, at the 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm perch heights, birds with fractures took 2.9 ± 2.5, 49.8 ± 85.4 and 100.3 ± 123.6 seconds respectively compared with 0.7 ± 0.5, 2.5 ± 7.1 and 3.0 ± 4.6 seconds to fly down for birds without fractures. There was no significant effect of carprofen or meloxicam treatment. These data provide further confirmation that keel fractures reduce the willingness of birds to move from perches. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  10. Low-salinity water off West Luzon Island in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunwei; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunzai; Su, Jilan

    2015-04-01

    Low-salinity water with two cores is found off West Luzon Island in the South China Sea (SCS) during summer. A series of salinity observations and model results show that the low-salinity water begins to appear in June, reaches its lowest salinity in September, and disappears after October. Rainfall associated with the summer monsoon impinging on the Philippine mountain ranges plays an important role in the formation of the low-salinity water, while upward Ekman pumping of high-salinity subsurface water caused by the strong winter monsoon is important for its disappearance. Variation in mixed layer depth is responsible for the formation of the two cores of the low-salinity water, while advection also contributes. The study further demonstrates that the low-salinity water has considerable interannual variability associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): during the summer of the decaying year of an El Niño, an anticyclonic wind anomaly occurs in the SCS. The anticyclonic wind anomaly is associated with a northeasterly anomaly south of 18°N, reducing precipitation and causing salting of the low-salinity water off West Luzon Island. The situation is reversed during the summer of the decaying year of a La Niña.

  11. Phenanthrene partitioning in sediment-surfactant-fresh/saline water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongwen; Wu Wenling; Wang Lei

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of salinity on the effectiveness of surfactants in the remediation of sediments contaminated with phenanthrene (PHE). This is an example of a more general application of surfactants in removing hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from contaminated soil/sediment in saline environments via in-situ enhanced sorption or ex-situ soil washing. Salinity effects on surfactant micelle formation and PHE partitioning into solution surfactant micelles and sorbed surfactant were investigated. The critical micelle concentration of surfactants decreased, and PHE partition between surfactant micelles and water increased with increasing salinity. Carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K ss ) of PHE onto the sorbed cationic surfactant increased significantly with increasing salinity, which illustrates a more pronounced immobilization of PHE by cationic surfactant in a saline system. Reduction of PHE sorption by anionic surfactant was more pronounced in the saline system, indicating that the anionic surfactant has a higher soil washing effectiveness in saline systems. - The effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced remediation technology was promoted when applying it in estuarine environment with a higher salinity.

  12. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  13. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  14. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  15. Impact of Salinity Gradients on Ammonia Bioattenuation Processes in a Photosynthetic Wetland Biomat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, M.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow, open water treatment wetlands may be able to offset challenges associated with the reclamation of impaired waters (e.g., membrane fouling, aeration costs, etc.) due to natural biogeochemical fluctuations produced by a benthic, photoactive biomat. This diatomaceous, redox-stratified biomat has demonstrated significant nitrate and trace organic removal from municipal wastewater streams and the microbial community has been thoroughly characterized. However, research is required to predict shifts in community structure and function in response to the excess salinity, ammonia, and metal gradients of impaired waters. Batch microcosm studies inoculating biomat from an active open water treatment wetland with incremental dilutions of hydraulic fracturing produced water were conducted in a light chamber with oscillating twelve-hour light and dark cycles to assess the effect of an impaired water matrix on biomat functionality. Diurnal photosynthetic signatures and ammonia removal kinetics were quantified in various experiments probing the effects of oscillating light conditions, biomat depth, water column isolation, nitrogen source, and salinity gradients in conjunction with phylogenetic profiles and morphological characterization. Diurnal pH and dissolved oxygen fluctuations were present at all produced water permutations, perhaps indicating stabilization of photosynthetic communities. Ammonia attenuation results suggest that the biomat is effective at removing ammonia, although first order rate constants decrease with increasing produced water abundance. Microbial community diversity appears to decrease with increasing salinity, and it is likely that these shifts correspond to variation in ecosystem function and thus treatment effectiveness. The application of shallow, open water treatment wetlands to remediate impaired waters has the potential to address societally relevant problems while discerning fundamental biogeochemical phenomena.

  16. Vertically-Integrated Dual-Continuum Models for CO2 Injection in Fractured Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer leads to a two-phase flow system, with supercritical CO2 and brine being the two fluid phases. Various modeling approaches, including fully three-dimensional (3D) models and vertical-equilibrium (VE) models, have been used to study the system. Almost all of that work has focused on unfractured formations. 3D models solve the governing equations in three dimensions and are applicable to generic geological formations. VE models assume rapid and complete buoyant segregation of the two fluid phases, resulting in vertical pressure equilibrium and allowing integration of the governing equations in the vertical dimension. This reduction in dimensionality makes VE models computationally more efficient, but the associated assumptions restrict the applicability of VE model to formations with moderate to high permeability. In this presentation, we extend the VE and 3D models for CO2 injection in fractured aquifers. This is done in the context of dual-continuum modeling, where the fractured formation is modeled as an overlap of two continuous domains, one representing the fractures and the other representing the rock matrix. Both domains are treated as porous media continua and can be modeled by either a VE or a 3D formulation. The transfer of fluid mass between rock matrix and fractures is represented by a mass transfer function connecting the two domains. We have developed a computational model that combines the VE and 3D models, where we use the VE model in the fractures, which typically have high permeability, and the 3D model in the less permeable rock matrix. A new mass transfer function is derived, which couples the VE and 3D models. The coupled VE-3D model can simulate CO2 injection and migration in fractured aquifers. Results from this model compare well with a full-3D model in which both the fractures and rock matrix are modeled with 3D models, with the hybrid VE-3D model having significantly reduced computational cost. In

  17. The Effects of High Salinity Groundwater on the Performance of Clay Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David

    2005-08-01

    maintain a nominal swelling pressure of 0.1 MPa. Canadian tunnel backfill contains much less clay (6 % by dry mass) than the SKB variety, but a much higher density of 2.1 Mg/m 3 . SKB considers that if groundwater inflow in fractures in deposition holes exceeds that which can be absorbed by bentonite swelling, there will be a water pressure in the fracture acting on the buffer which may lead to piping. Piping is the erosion of the clay along a linear feature. SKB believe that piping will only occur before full saturation of the buffer and is of concern during the operational phase of the repository. Piping is a complex process which increases with water pressure and groundwater salinity. SKB continue to research this problem through laboratory and in situ tests. The problem of piping is also germane to repository backfilling. SKB consider that it may be difficult to derive a solution to water inflow during backfill installation. Consequently, the backfill needs to have enough swelling ability so that piping channels can be healed once a tunnel has been sealed by plugging. All this must be placed in context of the rate of backfilling which SKB hopes to be in the order of 6 m per day. Research conducted by SKB and elsewhere suggests that the long-term effects of montmorillonite degradation due to the presence of saline groundwater will consist mainly of formation of beidellite or kaolinite

  18. The Effects of High Salinity Groundwater on the Performance of Clay Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David [Quintessa Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    backfilling in Canada suggests that an initial density of at least 0.9 Mg/m{sup 3} is required to maintain a nominal swelling pressure of 0.1 MPa. Canadian tunnel backfill contains much less clay (6 % by dry mass) than the SKB variety, but a much higher density of 2.1 Mg/m{sup 3}. SKB considers that if groundwater inflow in fractures in deposition holes exceeds that which can be absorbed by bentonite swelling, there will be a water pressure in the fracture acting on the buffer which may lead to piping. Piping is the erosion of the clay along a linear feature. SKB believe that piping will only occur before full saturation of the buffer and is of concern during the operational phase of the repository. Piping is a complex process which increases with water pressure and groundwater salinity. SKB continue to research this problem through laboratory and in situ tests. The problem of piping is also germane to repository backfilling. SKB consider that it may be difficult to derive a solution to water inflow during backfill installation. Consequently, the backfill needs to have enough swelling ability so that piping channels can be healed once a tunnel has been sealed by plugging. All this must be placed in context of the rate of backfilling which SKB hopes to be in the order of 6 m per day. Research conducted by SKB and elsewhere suggests that the long-term effects of montmorillonite degradation due to the presence of saline groundwater will consist mainly of formation of beidellite or kaolinite.

  19. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na....... The findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  20. Saline Alone vs Saline plus Mannitol Hydration for the Prevention of Acute Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-15

    REPORT TYPE 10/15/2017 Presentation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Saline Alone vs Saline plus Mannitol Hydration for the Prevention of Acute Cisplatin ...Saline plus Mannitol Hydration for the Prevention of Acute Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity: A Randomized Trial Wilfred Dela Cruz, Frederick Flynt, Sandra...America Background Cisplatin is widely used as an effective chemotherapy in diverse neoplasms and is associated with renal toxicity. Several studies

  1. The fibular reciprocal fracture in tibial shaft fractures caused by indirect violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böstman, O; Hänninen, A

    1982-01-01

    A series of 200 consecutive junctional middle-distal third tibial shaft fractures caused by indirect violence was analysed with emphasis on the significance of the location of the fibular reciprocal fracture. The fibular fracture was eccentric, i.e. subcapital or malleolar, in 96 patients. This fracture pattern was encountered only in adults and showed significantly more severe initial displacement and with conservative treatment longer union time than fractures with intact fibula or the fibular fracture on the same level with the tibial fracture. Especially for fractures with an initial lateral displacement of more than one half of the diaphyseal diameter and with an eccentric fibular reciprocal fracture internal fixation with uncomplicated postoperative course shortened the union time and prevented residual deformity. A malleolar fibular fracture and the rare separate displaced posterior triangle fracture should in addition as such be regarded as indications for osteosynthesis.

  2. Occult posterior pelvic ring fractures in elderly patients with osteoporotic pubic rami fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tak-wing; Leung, Frankie

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate postoperative walking status of elderly patients with osteoporotic pubic rami fractures with or without posterior pelvic ring fractures. 33 women and 4 men aged 66 to 95 (mean, 85) years presented with osteoporotic pubic rami fractures after a fall. 22 (59%) of the patients had additional posterior pelvic ring fractures (9 had lateral compression type-II fractures involving the ilium and 13 had lateral compression type-I fractures involving the sacroalar region). Seven of the 9 patients with lateral compression type-II fractures underwent open reduction and internal fixation using plates and/ or screws. The remaining 30 patients were treated conservatively. Postoperative walking status was similar in elderly patients with osteoporotic pubic rami fractures with or without posterior pelvic ring fractures. Posterior pelvic ring fractures are easily missed in elderly patients with pubic rami fractures. Routine computed tomography of the pelvis is useful in making the diagnosis.

  3. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  4. Conservative management of fracture scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Conservative management of fracture scaphoid with cast is still the most common modality of management, but the results following this protocol are not always satisfactory. Methods : Twenty five patients with fracture scaphoid were treated with a below elbow scaphoid cast and were followed up for minimum duration of one year. On follow up patients were examined clinicoradiologically and functional results were evaluated using the modification of the Mayo wrist scoring chart. Results : Nineteen fractures showed union, two were malunited and five went for nonunion. Two fractures developed avascular necrosis and three patients had wrist arthritis on follow up. Nineteen patients had excellent functional results, one had good results and six patients had poor results. Patients with delayed diagnosis had nonunion and poor functional results. Patients with premature removal of cast had comparatively inferior results Conclusion : For displaced unstable fracture, open reduction and internal fixation should be the preferred modality of treatment as cast treatment gives unacceptably high rate of malunion and nonunion with poor functional results.

  5. Acetabular Fractures in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Gary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population ages, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, including those of the pelvis and acetabulum, continues to rise. Treatment of the elder patients with an acetabular fracture is much more controversial than the treatment of younger patients with similar injuries, where prevention of posttraumatic arthritis and total hip replacement remains optimal to limit need for revision arthroplasty. Arthroplasty for fractures of the proximal femur is commonplace in an older population and is a mainstay of treatment to promote early mobilization and weight-bearing. However, even with acute total hip arthroplasty for a geriatric acetabular fracture, most surgeons do not permit immediate weight-bearing postoperatively. Therefore, controversy regarding optimal treatment of these challenging fractures persists. Four treatment options have emerged: nonoperative treatment with early mobilization, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF, limited open reduction and percutaneous screw fixation, and acute total hip arthroplasty. The exact indications and benefits of each treatment remain unknown. This article serves as a review of these four treatments and the data existing to support them.

  6. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiber/braided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiber/braided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  7. CT of the acetabular fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magu, N.K.; Moda, S.K.; Magu, Sarita; Airon, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Nine patients with 10 injured hips, in whom acetabular fractures with posterior dislocation of the femoral heads were demonstrated on initial radiography, underwent CT. CT was found superior in detecting the presence of intra-articular bony fragments in Group A patients (40%), where conventional radiography exhibited congruous manipulative reduction of the joint surfaces. The spatial position of the intra-articular fragments could not be ascertained on conventional radiography in 40% of the patients in Group B, in whom congruous manipulative reduction could not be achieved and subluxation of the femoral heads was observed. On conventional radiography, it was also difficult to appreciate the presence of intra-articular fragments in 60% of the patients in Group B, in whom either the dislocation could not be reduced (40%) or the femoral head redislocated after close manipulative reduction (20%). CT proved its superiority in detecting the extent of the fractures of the acetabular roof, posterior and anterior acetabular margins, the quadrilateral plate along with rotation of the acetabular columns and displacements of the major fractured fragments. Associated fractures of the sacrum (20%), and traumatic lesions of the sacro-iliac joint (20%), not apparent on conventional radiography were well demonstrated by CT. As a result of CT, the treatment was changed in 60% of the patients in Group A, and 40% in Group B. In addition, CT permitted a better choice of surgical technique in the management of acetabular fractures. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Fracture toughness of irradiated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeston, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The fracture toughness of nuclear grade hot-pressed beryllium upon irradiation to fluences of 3.5 to 5.0 x 10 21 n/cm 2 , E greater than 1 MeV, was determined. Procedures and data relating to a round-robin test contributing to a standard ASTM method for unirradiated beryllium are discussed in connection with the testing of irradiated specimens. A porous grade of beryllium was also irradiated and tested, thereby enabling some discrimination between the models for describing the fracture toughness behavior of porous beryllium. The fracture toughness of unirradiated 2 percent BeO nuclear grade beryllium was 12.0 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 60 percent upon irradiation at 339 K and testing at 295 K. The fracture toughness of a porous grade of beryllium was 13.1 MPa m/sup 1 / 2 /, which was reduced 68 percent upon irradiation and testing at the same conditions. Reasons for the reduction in fracture toughness upon irradiation are discussed

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  10. Spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at different scales in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Zhao, Gengxing; Gao, Mingxiu; Chang, Chunyan

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at macro, meso and micro scales in the Yellow River delta, China. Soil electrical conductivities (ECs) were measured at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths at 49 sampling sites during November 9 to 11, 2013. Soil salinity was converted from soil ECs based on laboratory analyses. Our results indicated that at the macro scale, soil salinity was high with strong variability in each soil layer, and the content increased and the variability weakened with increasing soil depth. From east to west in the region, the farther away from the sea, the lower the soil salinity was. The degrees of soil salinization in three deeper soil layers are 1.14, 1.24 and 1.40 times higher than that in the surface soil. At the meso scale, the sequence of soil salinity in different topographies, soil texture and vegetation decreased, respectively, as follows: depression >flatland >hillock >batture; sandy loam >light loam >medium loam >heavy loam >clay; bare land >suaeda salsa >reed >cogongrass >cotton >paddy >winter wheat. At the micro scale, soil salinity changed with elevation in natural micro-topography and with anthropogenic activities in cultivated land. As the study area narrowed down to different scales, the spatial variability of soil salinity weakened gradually in cultivated land and salt wasteland except the bare land.

  11. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  12. Drinking water salinity associated health crisis in coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Al Nahian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity intrusion in coastal Bangladesh has serious population health implications, which are yet to be clearly understood. The study was undertaken through the ‘Assessing Health, Livelihoods, Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation in Populous Deltas’ project in coastal Bangladesh. Drinking water salinity and blood pressure measurements were carried out during the household survey campaign. The study explored association among Socio-Ecological Systems (SESs, drinking water salinity and blood pressure. High blood pressure (prehypertension and hypertension was found significantly associated with drinking water salinity. People exposed to slightly saline (1000–2000 mg/l and moderately saline (≥2000 mg/l concentration drinking water had respectively 17% (p < 0.1 and 42% (p < 0.05 higher chance of being hypertensive than those who consumed fresh water (<1000 mg/l. Women had 31% higher chance of being hypertensive than men. Also, respondents of 35 years and above were about 2.4 times more likely to be hypertensive compared to below 35 years age group. For the 35 years and above age group, both prehypertension and hypertension were found higher than national rural statistics (50.1% for saline water categories (53.8% for slightly and 62.5% for moderate saline. For moderate salinity exposure, hypertension prevalence was found respectively 21%, 60% and 48% higher than national statistics (23.6% in consecutive survey rounds among the respondents. Though there was small seasonal variation in drinking water salinity, however blood pressure showed an increasing trend and maximum during the dry season. Mean salinity and associated hypertension prevalence were found higher for deep aquifer (21.6% compared to shallow aquifer (20.8%. Localized increase in soil and groundwater salinity was predicted over the study area. Shallow aquifer salinity increase was projected based on modelled output of soil salinity. Rather than uniform increase, there were

  13. Salinity effects on germination properties of Kochia scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid jami ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine seed germination responses of kochia to different levels of salinity, an experiment was performed in the Institute of Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC, Cordoba, Spain, in a completely randomized design with two replications. Treatments were different levels of salinities equal to 0,5, 10, 15, and 20 ds/m, obtained by mixing NaCl and CaCl2 in a 2:1 molar ratio. Evaluated properties were germination percentage, rate and final number of germinated seeds. The results showed that the germinated seed number and the germination percentage had a converse relation with salinity levels. About 91% of seeds were germinated in distilled water. This value reduced to about 36% in 20 ds/m. Increasing salinity up to 10 ds/m did not have any significant effects on germination, but after that, the germination rate and percentage begun to reduce significantly. Salinity also increased the time required for 50% germination from 28 hours in distilled water to 78 hours in 20 ds/m, showing a delay in germination as salinity increased. Regarding linear reduction in germination rate in response to increase in salinity, it seems that as salinity exceeds 30 ds/m, germination rate of kochia approaches zero. This perhaps could be accepted as the threshold of kochia germination tolerance to salinity. According to the results, the germination stage of kochia has a good tolerance to elevated levels of salinity and it seems that a good stand establishment in saline soils and water conditions could be insured, if proper management is exerted in farms.

  14. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  15. The radiation swelling effect on fracture properties and fracture mechanisms of irradiated austenitic steels. Part I. Ductility and fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, B., E-mail: mail@crism.ru; Sorokin, A.; Shvetsova, V.; Minkin, A.; Potapova, V.; Smirnov, V.

    2016-11-15

    The radiation swelling effect on the fracture properties of irradiated austenitic steels under static loading has been studied and analyzed from the mechanical and physical viewpoints. Experimental data on the stress-strain curves, fracture strain, fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms have been represented for austenitic steel of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade (Russian analog of AISI 321 steel) irradiated up to neutron dose of 150 dpa with various swelling. Some phenomena in mechanical behaviour of irradiated austenitic steels have been revealed and explained as follows: a sharp decrease of fracture toughness with swelling growth; untypical large increase of fracture toughness with decrease of the test temperature; some increase of fracture toughness after preliminary cyclic loading. Role of channel deformation and channel fracture has been clarified in the properties of irradiated austenitic steel and different tendencies to channel deformation have been shown and explained for the same austenitic steel irradiated at different temperatures and neutron doses.

  16. Plain film analysis of acetabular fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Han, Sang Suk; Yoon, Eu Giene; Cha, Seong Sook; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje Medical College Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Acetabular fracture can result in severe limitation of the motion of the hip joint, which supports total weight of human body. Because of different methods of surgical approach according to fracture type, precise interpretation of X-ray films of acetabular fracture is required. We reviewed 38 cases of simple X-ray films showing acetabular fracture. The results were as follows: 1. Almost 60% of the cases-were in their 2nd and 3rd decades. 2. Twenty cases were male, and 18 cases were female. 3. The most common cause of the injury was traffic accident (33 cases, 86.8%), followed by fall down (4 cases, 10.5%), and slip down (1 case, 2.7%). 4. Elementary fractures were 21 cases (55.3%), and associated fractures were 17 cases (44.7%). 5. Among elementary fractures, posterior wall fractures were 9 cases (23.7%), followed by anterior column fractures (8 cases, 21.1%), anterior wall fractures (4 cases, 10.5%). 6. Among associated fractures, T-shaped fractures were 8 cases (21.1%), followed by both column fractures (6 cases, 15.8%), anterior and hemitransverse fractures (3 cases, 7.8%). 7. Other pelvic bone fractures associated with the acetabular fracture were as follows: fractures of contralateral pubic rami (6 cases, 15.8%) contralateral iliac bone (1 case, 2.6%) and ipsilateral iliac bone (1 case, 2.6%). 8. Injuries of other organs adjacent to the acetabulum were as follows: rupture of the bladder (3 cases, 7.9%), urethra (2 cases, 5.3%) and uterus (1 cases, 2.6%)

  17. Plain film analysis of acetabular fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Han, Sang Suk; Yoon, Eu Giene; Cha, Seong Sook; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1986-01-01

    Acetabular fracture can result in severe limitation of the motion of the hip joint, which supports total weight of human body. Because of different methods of surgical approach according to fracture type, precise interpretation of X-ray films of acetabular fracture is required. We reviewed 38 cases of simple X-ray films showing acetabular fracture. The results were as follows: 1. Almost 60% of the cases-were in their 2nd and 3rd decades. 2. Twenty cases were male, and 18 cases were female. 3. The most common cause of the injury was traffic accident (33 cases, 86.8%), followed by fall down (4 cases, 10.5%), and slip down (1 case, 2.7%). 4. Elementary fractures were 21 cases (55.3%), and associated fractures were 17 cases (44.7%). 5. Among elementary fractures, posterior wall fractures were 9 cases (23.7%), followed by anterior column fractures (8 cases, 21.1%), anterior wall fractures (4 cases, 10.5%). 6. Among associated fractures, T-shaped fractures were 8 cases (21.1%), followed by both column fractures (6 cases, 15.8%), anterior and hemitransverse fractures (3 cases, 7.8%). 7. Other pelvic bone fractures associated with the acetabular fracture were as follows: fractures of contralateral pubic rami (6 cases, 15.8%) contralateral iliac bone (1 case, 2.6%) and ipsilateral iliac bone (1 case, 2.6%). 8. Injuries of other organs adjacent to the acetabulum were as follows: rupture of the bladder (3 cases, 7.9%), urethra (2 cases, 5.3%) and uterus (1 cases, 2.6%).

  18. [BIOMECHANICS STUDY ON ACETABULAR POSTERIOR WALL FRACTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Hu Xiaopeng; Lu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Yuntong; Zhang, Chuncai; Wang, Panfeng; Zhao, Xue

    2015-08-01

    To study the experimental biomechanics of acetabular posterior wall fractures so as to provide theoretical basis for its clinical treatment. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were divided into groups A and B (n=3). The fracture models of superior-posterior wall and inferior-posterior wall of the acetabulum were created on both hips in group A; fractures were fixed with two interfragmentary screws and a locking reconstruction plate. The fracture models of superior-posterior wall of acetabulum were created on both hips in group B; fractures were fixed with two interfragmentary screws and a locking reconstruction plate at one side, and with acetabular tridimensional memory fixation system (ATMFS) at the other side. The biomechanical testing machine was used to load to 1 500 N at 10 mm/min speed for 30 seconds. The displacement of superior and inferior fracture sites was analyzed with the digital image correlation technology. No fracture or internal fixation breakage occurred during loading and measuring; the displacement valuess of the upper and lower fracture lines were below 2 mm (the clinically tolerable maximum value) in 2 groups. In group A, the displacement values of the upper and lower fracture lines at superior-posterior wall fracture site were significantly higher than those at inferior-posterior wall fracture site (P fracture line were significantly higher than those of lower fracture line (P fracture types. In group B, the displacement values of the upper and lower fracture lines at the side fixed with screws and a locking reconstruction plate were similar to the values at the side fixed with ATMFS, all being close to 2 mm; the displacement values of the upper fracture line were significantly higher than those of lower fracture line (P acetabulum is much greater than that of the inferior-posterior wall of acetabulum and they should be discriminated, which might be the reasons of reduction loss, femoral head subluxation, and traumatic arthritis

  19. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and compl......Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large...... the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher...... frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. Conclusion: This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type...

  20. Corrective Septorhinoplasty in Acute Nasal Bone Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisung; Jung, Hahn Jin; Shim, Woo Sub

    2018-03-01

    Closed reduction is generally recommended for acute nasal bone fractures, and rhinoplasty is considered in cases with an unsatisfactory outcome. However, concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction might achieve better surgical outcomes. This study investigated the surgical techniques and outcomes in patients who underwent rhinoplasty and fracture reduction concomitantly, during the acute stage of nasal bone fracture. Forty-five patients who underwent concomitant rhinoplasty and fracture reduction were enrolled. Nasal bone fractures were classified into three major types (type I, simple fracture; type II, fracture line that mimics nasal osteotomy; and type III, comminuted fracture) based on computed tomography images and preoperative facial images. Two independent otolaryngology-head and neck surgeons evaluated the surgical outcomes and telephone based survey were made to evaluate patients satisfaction. Among 45 patients, there were 39 males and 6 females. Type I was the commonest type of fracture with 18 patients (40%), while the most frequently used surgical technique for corrective surgery was dorsal augmentation with 44 patients (97.8%). The mean visual analogue scale satisfaction score of the surgeons and patients were 7.62 and 8, respectively, with no significant differences between fracture types. Concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction can be performed for acute nasal bone fracture patients, and it might lead to better aesthetic outcomes.

  1. Humeral Shaft Fracture: Intramedullary Nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Sanjit R; Saleh, Hesham; Fisher, Nina; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    This video demonstrates the technique of intramedullary nailing for a humeral shaft fracture. The patient is a 30-year-old man who sustained a gunshot wound to his right arm. The patient was indicated for humeral nailing given the comminuted nature of the diaphysis and to allow for minimal skin incisions. Other relative indications include soft-tissue compromise about the arm precluding a large surgical exposure. This video presents a case of a comminuted humeral shaft fracture treated with an intramedullary nail. Anatomic reduction and stable fixation was obtained with this technique. This case demonstrates a soft-tissue sparing technique of humeral shaft fixation using a humeral intramedullary nail. The technique is easy to perform and has significant benefits in minimizing surgical exposure, decreasing operative time, and decreasing blood loss. In the correct clinical setting, humeral nailing provides an expeditious form of fixation that restores length, alignment, and rotation of the fracture humeral diaphysis.

  2. Fracture as a material sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokh, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Cracks are created by massive breakage of molecular or atomic bonds. The latter, in its turn, leads to the highly localized loss of material, which is the reason why even closed cracks are visible by a naked eye. Thus, fracture can be interpreted as the local material sink. Mass conservation is violated locally in the area of material failure. We consider a theoretical formulation of the coupled mass and momenta balance equations for a description of fracture. Our focus is on brittle fracture and we propose a finite strain hyperelastic thermodynamic framework for the coupled mass-flow-elastic boundary value problem. The attractiveness of the proposed framework as compared to the traditional continuum damage theories is that no internal parameters (like damage variables, phase fields, etc.) are used while the regularization of the failure localization is provided by the physically sound law of mass balance.

  3. Rio Blanco massive hydraulic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    The Piceance Basin in Colorado contains an estimated 600 trillion cu ft of natural gas in place. Both the Rulison and Rio Blanco events have been detonated to determine the feasibility of nuclear fracturing to stimulate natural gas production in this basin. A demonstration program to test the relative effectiveness of massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) to achieve natural gas production stimulation from the same gas reservoir is presented. Details are included on MHF design parameters, including surface and subsurface equipment, pumping requirements, evaluation of fracturing results, and all associated test programs; site characteristics and preparation; proposal for gas utilization program; environmental surveillance and comparative analysis of environmental aspects of MHF and nuclear stimulation; gas delivery estimates; project administration; and costs and scheduling.

  4. PRODUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Antolović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. [Ilizarov fixation of supramalleolar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mseddi, M B E; Mseddi, M; Siala, A; Dahmene, J; Ben Hamida, R; Ben Ayeche, M

    2005-02-01

    Supramalleolar fractures are generally considered to be a difficult surgical challenge because they occur in a area where the tibia lies superficially with a precarious blood supply to the skin, exposing to the risk of infection and necrosis after internal fixation. These fractures are also situated close to the tibiotalar joint making centromedullary nailing difficult, even with distal locking. The Ilizarov external fixator could be an attractive alternative in this indication. We report a series of 17 supramalleolar fractures in 17 patients, 14 men and 3 women, treated with the Ilizarov external fixator between 1991 and 2001. Most were traffic accident victims and most had complex fractures resulting from high-energy trauma. There were many associated lesions. Fractures were open in ten patients. The Ilizarov fixator was used as the first intention treatment in seven patients and as a second line treatment in ten. The system allowed early weight bearing in all patients. Tolerance was generally good with a relatively low rate of superficial pin track infections (two cases). There was one case of osteitis which developed in a patient with an open fracture. There were no thromboembolic complications and no nerve involvement. Bone healing was achieved within three months in thirteen patients. There were three cases of late healing which were treated by the ascension technique using a cancellous graft and fibular osteotomy. The overall healing rate with this method was 94%. The one case of nonunion was successfully treated with an inter tibiofibular graft. The overall functional outcome was satisfactory in 76% of the patients, based on the Alho-Klemm criteria. Axial deformation predominated in the frontal plane: three patients had > 10 degrees varus in one case. These results could be improved by better operative technique. We advocate installing the patient in the supine position with transcalcaneal traction allowing good restitution of the leg axis. The assembly

  6. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  7. Sustainable management of coastal saline soils in the Saloum river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assess the constraints and potentialities of these saline soils and propose sustainable soil management strategies. One transect (2.2 km) oriented ... Keywords: soil salinity, soil management, Saloum river basin, Senegal, West Africa. INTRODUCTION ...... yield of potato in eastern India. Agriculture Water Management, 94:.

  8. Morphological responses of forage sorghums to salinity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from December 2007 to December 2009. Two forage sorghum varieties (Speedfeed and KFS4) were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential ...

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. B. BIZIMANA

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Many earlier studies reported big qSaltol for seedling stage salinity tolerance in rice is on short arm of chromosome 1 but none of the QTL in our study was on qSaltol or nearby position, therefore, Hasawi conferred salinity tolerance in. RILs due to novel QTLs. It is suggested to fine map the novel QTLs so ...

  10. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  11. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  12. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  13. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and. February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  14. Geology and groundwater regions to quantify primary salinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although anthropogenic salinisation and sodification has been researched extensively, little is known about the primary salinity in South Africa. This paper therefore aimed to determine the primary salinity, sodicity and alkalinity conditions for South African soils, based on geological units and groundwater regions, and ...

  15. Plant succession - a key to the utilisation of saline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, G.R.; Malik, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the extent of salinity in the Indus Plain and mentions some of the methods employed for reclaiming the salt-affected soils. The rationale of a biological approach consisting of introduction of a plant succession on calcareous saline-sodic soils has been described, and has given encouraging results in the preliminary experiments carried out by the authors

  16. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on the effects of silicon (150 mg L-1) on the morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) differing in salt tolerance under saline (10 dS m-1) and non-saline (2 dS m-1) hydroponic culture. Silicon supplementation ...

  17. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    The theories and classification schemes commonly used for understanding estuarine dynamics often refer to a steady state of the estuary in which the salinity field is time-independent. In this state salinity-ingress into the estuary due to different...

  18. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  19. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic freshwater flooding, especially during summer. The penetration of freshwater teleosts and elasmobranchs ...

  20. Salinity tolerance of the burrowing ocypodid crab, Paratylodiplax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This difference was ascribed to the exposure of the Mhlathuze population to wider salinity fluctuations arising from greater tidal exchange volumes and freshwater input compared with St. Lucia, which has no major rivers entering it. Keywords: Paratylodiplax blephariskios; Ocypodidae; Brachyura; salinity; temperature; ...

  1. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes: Perspectives for saline agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; Rozema, J.

    2013-01-01

    Saline agriculture provides a solution for at least two environmental and social problems. It allows us to return to agricultural production areas that have been lost as a consequence of salinization and it can save valuable fresh water by using brackish or salt water to irrigate arable lands. Sea

  2. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  3. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  4. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  5. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    biodegradation of oily sludge by hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) at salinity (NaCl ... petroleum waste. In recent times, several literatures have shown that bioremediation has high potentials for restoring polluted media with least negative impact on the ..... salinity, bacterial consortium is highly stable in immo-.

  6. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  7. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.

    2014-01-01

    . An irrigation experiment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Volturno river plain. Three treatments irrigated with fresh water (Q100, Q50 and Q25) and three irrigated with saline water (Q100S, Q50S and Q25S) were tested. For saline irrigation, water with an electrical conductivity of 22 dS m-1 was used...

  8. First attempts for predicting future Salinization in coastal irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity contamination of irrigation ground water is a serious worldwide problem. The Mnasra zone, which has an agricultural land area that represents 70% of the total area and its agricultural production reaches 12% of the national production, is threatened by a Salinization of underground waters. The ground water ...

  9. Varietal differences of quinoa's tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Shabala, Sergey; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting...

  10. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinisation of South African water resources is of strategic concern, and the need for life-cycle assessments to be able to incorporate salinity effects is apparent. There are sufficiently clear cause-effect relationships between the sources and impacts of salinity, and impacts are sufficiently different in nature from existing ...

  11. Effect of salinity on growth of juvenile silver kob, Argyrosomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that silver kob perform at least as well at reduced salinities as in full strength seawater. This could lead to significant cost savings when rearing fish inland using artificial seawater. Keywords: fish physiology; mariculture; mulloway; osmolality; salinity tolerance. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, 33(2): ...

  12. Effects of salinity on growth and metabolism in blue tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were taken to analyse plasma sodium, chloride, potassium, total protein and triglycerides. Liver and muscle samples were collected for HSI and moisture values. Plasma sodium chloride increased in parallel with salinity rise. Total protein and triglycerides significantly reduced as salinity increased. Glucose ...

  13. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water and deterioration in the quality of soil and water resources are considered to be the prime cause of reduced crop yield in arid and semi-arid regions ‘More crop per drop’ by trickle irrigation, deficit irrigation, and uncommon water are the best strategies for mitigating water crises. Different irrigation management strategies are needed to increase production in different areas. In areas where sufficient water is available, a full irrigation strategy could be a suitable option, while in areas where water is limited, deficit irrigation would be an appropriate method, and finally in areas where water resources are saline, management strategies for achieving sustainable production as well as economic yields would be suitable. Maize is the third most important grain crop in the world following wheat and rice and it is the main source of nutrition for humans and animals. Because of the importance of maize in the world, increasing maize production under environmental stresses is a big challenge for agricultural scientists. Different methods of irrigation and the use of saline water that had satisfactory results for increasing agricultural production have been studied by several investigators . The main objective of this study was to establish an efficient use of limited water resources as well as to explore the possibility of replacing saline water with fresh water using different management techniques. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted over two maize cropping seasons (2012–2013 in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station to compare different alternate irrigation scenarios using saline water on corn yield, salinity and soil moisture distribution in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were: T1 and T2 = 100 and 50 % of crop water requirement with non-saline water, respectively; T3 and T4 = variable and fixed full irrigation with saline and non-saline

  14. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  15. Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven; Hosalkar, Harish; Cameron, Danielle B; Heath, Aaron; David Horn, B; Ganley, Theodore J

    2008-12-01

    Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are uncommon. We retrospectively reviewed all tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents (10-19) who presented to our level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 7-year period to review fracture morphology, mechanism of injury, fracture management including return to play, as well as complications. Additionally, we present a review of the literature and treatment algorithm. We reviewed the clinical charts and radiographs of consecutive patients with tibial tuberosity fractures between 01 January 2000 and 01 January 2007. Data parameters included the following: patients age and gender, involved side, injury classification, co-morbidities, mechanism of injury, treatment, return to activity and complications. Data were extracted and reviewed, and a treatment algorithm is proposed with some additional insights into the epidemiology of the injury. Nineteen patients met the inclusion criteria. There were 19 patients with 20 tibial tuberosity fractures. The mean age was 13.7 years. There were 18 males and 1 female patient. There were nine left-sided injuries and eleven right-sided including one patient with bilateral fractures. Mechanism of injuries included basketball injury (8), running injury (5), football injury (3), fall from a scooter (2), high jump (1) and fall (1). Co-morbidities included three patients with concurrent Osgood-Schlatter disease and one with osteogenesis imperfecta. All were treated with ORIF, including arthroscopic-assisted techniques in two cases. Complications included four patients with pre-operative presentation of compartment syndrome all requiring fasciotomy, one post-operative stiffness and one painful hardware requiring removal. Range of motion was started an average of 4.3 weeks post-operatively and return to play was an average of 3.9 months post-operatively. Although uncommon, tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are clinically important injuries. Early recognition and treatment (closed or open

  16. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  17. Probabilistic application of fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.

    1981-04-01

    The different methods used to evaluate the rupture probability of a pressure vessel are reviewed. Data collection and processing of all parameters necessary for fracture mechanics evaluation are presented with particular attention to the size distribution of defects in actual vessels. Physical process is followed during crack growth and unstable propagation, using LEFM (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanism) and plastic instability. Results show that the final failure probability for a PWR pressure vessel is 3.5 10 -8 , and is due essentially to LOCAs for any break size. The weakest point is the internal side of the belt line

  18. Dynamic fracture of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, M.G.; Liu, C.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.; Bennett, J.G.; Haberman, K.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to investigate the fundamental aspects of the process of dynamic fracture propagation in heterogeneous materials. The work focused on three important, but poorly understood, aspects of dynamic fracture for materials with a heterogeneous microstructure. These were: the appropriateness of using a single-parameter asymptotic analysis to describe dynamic crack-tip deformation fields, the temperature rises at the tip and on the flanks of a running crack, and the constitutive modeling of damage initiation and accumulation.

  19. Inverse relationship between D/H fractionation in cyanobacterial lipids and salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Dirk; Sachs, Julian P.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from 28 saline and hypersaline (salinity 13.6-149.2) ponds on Christmas Island (Kiritimati), in the Central tropical Pacific Ocean, were investigated for the effect of salinity on the D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene, and phytene from cyanobacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰, while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. Net D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors ( αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity, and increased in all compound classes studied by up to 0.0967 over a salinity range of 136. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, mevalonate, and non-mevalonate) remained similar irrespective of the salinity. This suggests that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water-salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. We propose that a decrease in the exchange of intra- and extra-cellular (ambient) water resulting from down-regulation or closure of water channels (aquaporins) within cyanobacterial cell membranes, and subsequent isotopic enrichment of the intracellular water, likely resulting from metabolic reactions. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from environments that may have experienced salinity variations. On the other, hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on lipid δD, if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  20. A retrospective analysis of zygomatic fracture etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Sakamoto

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The severities of the zygomatic fractures, their causes, and the associated patient ages were closely related. Based on this study, possible prevention strategies for zygomatic fractures need to be considered.

  1. Oblique angled view for coracoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R P; Vicks, B

    1983-01-01

    In cases of shoulder injury when clinical signs suggest a possible coracoid fracture, a 20 degree posterior oblique film with 20 degrees of cephalad angulation has been shown to demonstrate coracoid fractures when other views have been inconclusive.

  2. Oblique angled view for coracoid fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, R.P.; Vicks, B.

    1983-02-01

    In cases of shoulder injury when clinical signs suggest a possible coracoid fracture, a 20 degree posterior oblique film with 20 degrees of cephalad angulation has been shown to demonstrate coracoid fractures when other views have been inconclusive.

  3. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  4. Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

  5. Assessment of soil salinization risks under irrigation with brackish water in semiarid Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouksila, F.; Bahri, A.; Berndtsson, R.; Persson, M; Rozema, J.; van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The salinity problem is becoming increasingly widespread in arid countries. In semiarid Tunisia about 50% of the irrigated land is considered as highly sensitive to salinization. To avoid the risk of salinization, it is important to control the soil salinity and keep it below plant salinity

  6. Assessment of soil salinization risks under irrigation with brackish water in semiarid Tunesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouksila, F.; Bahrib, A.; Berndtsson, R.; Persson, M.; Rozema, J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The salinity problem is becoming increasingly widespread in arid countries. In semiarid Tunisia about 50% of the irrigated land is considered as highly sensitive to salinization. To avoid the risk of salinization, it is important to control the soil salinity and keep it below plant salinity

  7. Fracture Rates and Fracture Sites in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary, clinically heterogeneous, connective tissue disorder. The population prevalence of OI in Denmark is 10.6 in 100,000. A hallmark of the disease is frequent fractures that are often precipitated by minimal trauma. The aim of the current study...

  8. Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Kenneth W; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Magaziner, Jay S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality is increased after a hip fracture, and strategies that improve outcomes are needed. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1065 patients were assigned to receive yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (at a dose of 5 mg), and 1062 patients were assi...

  9. Characterisation of hydraulically-active fractures in a fractured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentially permeable fractures intersecting a shallow, 10-m borehole were first identified using conventional geophysical methods such as acoustic borehole televiewer imaging and temperature, electrical conductivity and gamma-gamma logs. These results were then compared to results of analysis using the SP method.

  10. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  11. Combined interpretation of radar, hydraulic, and tracer data from a fractured-rock aquifer near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J.W.; Gorelick, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated interpretation of field experimental cross-hole radar, tracer, and hydraulic data demonstrates the value of combining time-lapse geophysical monitoring with conventional hydrologic measurements for improved characterization of a fractured-rock aquifer. Time-lapse difference-attenuation radar tomography was conducted during saline tracer experiments at the US Geological Survey Fractured Rock Hydrology Research Site near Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA. The presence of electrically conductive saline tracer effectively illuminates permeable fractures or pathways for geophysical imaging. The geophysical results guide the construction of three-dimensional numerical models of ground-water flow and solute transport. In an effort to explore alternative explanations for the tracer and tomographic data, a suite of conceptual models involving heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields and rate-limited mass transfer are considered. Calibration data include tracer concentrations, the arrival time of peak concentration at the outlet, and steady-state hydraulic head. Results from the coupled inversion procedure suggest that much of the tracer mass migrated outside the three tomographic image planes, and that solute is likely transported by two pathways through the system. This work provides basic and site-specific insights into the control of permeability heterogeneity on ground-water flow and solute transport in fractured rock. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  12. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  13. The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

  14. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  15. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  16. Modified fracture brace for tibial fracture with varus angulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S F; Au, T L; Wong, A M; Lee, M Y

    1995-08-01

    Sarmiento introduced the functional fracture brace for the management of tibial shaft fracture in 1963. However, tibial angulation with varus deformity cannot be prevented or corrected by such a device. In this paper, a case of tibial shaft fracture with varus angulation treated with a modified below-knee fracture brace was reported.

  17. The incidence of associated fractures of the upper limb in fractures of the radial head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, Laurens; van Riet, Roger P.; Vroemen, Jos P. A. M.; Eygendaal, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Radial head fractures are common injuries. In American publications, one-third of the patients with these fractures have been shown to have associated injuries. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the epidemiology of radial head fractures and associated fractures of the ipsilateral

  18. Variation of brine compositions resulting from flow from matrix or fracture permeability, investigated by high pressure laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poszwa, A. C.; Coleman, M. L.; Pouya, A.; Ader, M.; Bounenni, A.

    2003-04-01

    Planning oil production from a chalk reservoir oilfield is difficult because the matrix usually has low permeability despite its high porosity. Most oil is thought to come from fracture porosity but the matrix contribution should increase as compaction occurs during production. To better understand the respective contributions from matrix and fracture, we studied the geochemical characteristics of fluids using high-pressure brine flow experiments on chalk cores. During the experiment axial load was changed relative to confining pressure to induce fractures and to close them again. We used chlorine stable isotope variations to study fluid pathway, because chlorine is a chemically conservative element in sedimentary systems and its isotopes fractionate only with physical processes like diffusion or adsorption that could occur mainly in the chalk matrix. A first experiment was performed on a very porous chalk from Henley (on-shore UK) and using a low-salinity brine. Large variations of brine Cl isotope composition were observed (from -0.56 to +0.08 per mil). The variations were correlated positively with the brine flux through the chalk and the permeability of the rock, both parameters controlled by the rock fracturing. A second experiment used brine with salinity similar to that of seawater. In this case, chemical and isotopic variations were not significant. From the beginning, the chalk structure seems to have been destroyed very quickly (induced fracture porosity collapsed) possibly because of the fluid nature, so that whatever pressure was applied, the permeability did not change significantly. Using Valhall reservoir chalk (offshore Norwegian North Sea) and fluid half the salinity of seawater in a third experiment, we obtained a large range of permeabilities. Brine isotopic trends were very similar on average to those of the first experiment even though variations were smaller (Cl isotopes from -0.09 to +0.29 per mil) and not significantly correlated simply to

  19. Quantifying Fracture Heterogeneity in Different Domains of Folded Carbonate Rocks to Improve Fractured Reservoir Analog Fluid Flow Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Gauthier, B.D.M.; Hardebol, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs is largely controlled by multiscale fracture networks. Significant variations of fracture network porosity and permeability are caused by the 3D heterogeneity of the fracture network characteristics, such as intensity, orientation and size. Characterizing fracture

  20. Muscle-bone Interactions During Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    fracture heal - ing. The rate of delayed union or non-union in tibial fractures with associated compartment syndrome was 55...complications of open tibial shaft fractures stratified as per the Gustilo–Ander- son classification. Injury 2011;42:1408-15. 121. Giannoudis PV, Harwood PJ...Kontakis G, et al. Long- term quality of life in trauma patients following the full spectrum of tibial injury (fasciotomy, closed fracture , grade

  1. High temperature fracture of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhorn, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of fracture mechanisms and methods of lifetime prediction in ceramic materials. Techniques of lifetime prediction are based on the science of fracture mechanics. Application of these techniques to structural ceramics is limited by our incomplete understanding of fracture mechanisms in these materials, and by the occurrence of flaw generation in these materials at elevated temperatures. Research on flaw generation and fracture mechanisms is recommended as a way of improving the reliability of structural ceramics

  2. Case 24: Stress Fracture of the Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Stress fractures in athletes . Int J Sports Med 1987;8: 221-226 2 Krause GR, Thompson JR. March Fracture of the Tibia. Radiology 1943;41:580-5 3 Bruce... stress fracture. Fig. 2: Axial CT showing the periosteal reaction. Female athletes have the greater tendency of acquiring tibial stress ...H Jones, Stephen B. Baker, Julie Gilchrist, Dexter Kimsey, Daniel M. Sosin: Prevention of Lower Extremity Stress Fractures in Athletes and Soldiers

  3. Fractures in childhood; Frakturen beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Joerg D. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Paediatrische Radiologie und Sonografie

    2014-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.

  4. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle ('pediculolysis') is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors)

  5. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M. [Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, (Singapore). Department of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle (`pediculolysis`) is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Triquetral fracture with associated pisiform subluxation

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lee Ping; Satkunanantham, Mala; Sreedharan, Sechachalam; Chew, Winston Yoon Chong

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a case of right triquetral fracture with associated pisiform and flexor carpi ulnaris subluxation in a 29-year-old man. Initial radiography showed a right triquetral fracture. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a triquetral fracture with a subluxated pisiform. Open reduction and lag screw fixation of the right triquetrum was performed, with good subsequent recovery of function. Although triquetral fracture with subluxation of the pisotriquetral j...

  7. Fractures of the distal phalanx in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovich, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    Fractures of the distal phalanx are an important cause of lameness referable to the foot. Depending on the fracture configuration and articular involvement, conservative or surgical treatment may be required. Fractures of the distal phalanx have been divided into six categories based on fracture configuration. Discussion of clinical features, management, and prognosis for horses with distal phalangeal fractures is presented for each fracture type

  8. Subtrochanteric and Distal Femur Fractures in a Patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was an improvement of the preinjury function attributed to the osteotomy of the femoral diaphyseal, which alleviated the anterior thigh discomfort. Keywords: Amputation, Distal femur fracture, Femoral shaft fracture, Femur, Femur fractures, Fracture fixation, Fracture malunion, Fractures, Intramedullary nail, Knee ...

  9. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  10. Functional outcome after a spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Richard Bernardus

    2008-01-01

    This thesis takes a closer look at the functional outcome after a spinal fracture. An introduction to different aspects regarding spinal fractures is presented in Chapter 1. The incidence of traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fractures without neurological deficit in the Netherlands is approximately 1.2

  11. Treatment of Medial Malleolar Stress Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of medial malleolar stress fractures varies from 0.6%-4.1% of all stress fractures. These fractures occur almost entirely in athletes and runners, and more frequently in skeletally mature patients aged 20-40 years. Treatment depends on the result of diagnostic imaging, displacement of

  12. Fracture and Fatigue: Some New Insights

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fracture and Fatigue: Some New Insights. FOREWORD. It is over nine decades since fracture mechanics found its importance in the design of mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering structures. Its application started in naval structures during the early part of 20th century. The theory of fracture mechanics was initially ...

  13. Demographics and outcome of metatarsal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, H.; van Vliet-Koppert, S. T.; van Lieshout, E. M. M.; de Vries, M. R.; van der Elst, M.; Schepers, T.

    2011-01-01

    Although metatarsal fractures are amongst the most common injuries of the foot, this is the first study on outcome after metatarsal fractures. All consecutive patients with metatarsal fractures treated between January 2006 and September 2008 were re-evaluated. Patients aged 16 to 75 were sent a

  14. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  16. Fluid transfers in fractured media: scale effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    As there has been a growing interest in the study of fluid circulations in fractured media for the last fifteen years, for example for projects of underground storage of different waste types, or to improve water resources, or for exploitation of underground oil products or geothermal resources, this research thesis first gives a large overview of the modelling and transport properties of fractured media. He presents the main notions related to fluid transfers in fractured media (structures of fracture networks, hydraulic properties of fractured media), and the various adopted approaches (the effective medium theory, the percolation theory, double porosity models, deterministic discrete fracture models, equivalent discontinuous model, fractal models), and outlines the originality of the approach developed in this research: scale change, conceptual hypotheses, methodology, tools). The second part addresses scale rules in fracture networks: presentation of fracture networks (mechanical aspects, statistical analysis), distribution of fracture lengths and of fracture networks, length-position relationship, modelling attempt, lessons learned and consequences in terms of hydraulic and mechanical properties, and of relationship between length distribution and fractal dimension. The third part proposes two articles published by the author and addressing the connectivity properties of fracture networks. The fifth chapter reports the application to natural media. It contains an article on the application of percolation theory to 2D natural fracture networks, and reports information collected on a site [fr

  17. Impacts of irrigation regimes with saline water on carrot productivity and soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different irrigation regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot as a fall-winter crop under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot was grown on a sandy soil and surface-irrigated with a water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For the three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Four irrigation methods were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using traditional farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI-100, 80% (DI-80 and 60% (DI-60. FI-100 was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-DI60 was also used. Farmer method (Farmer consisted in giving fixed amounts of water (25 mm every 7 days from planting till harvest. Results on carrot production and soil salinization are globally consistent between the three-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity in the root zone is observed at harvest under DI-60 (3.1, 3.4, 3.9 dS/m, respectively, for the three years and farmer irrigation (3.3, 3.6, 3.9 dS/m treatments compared to FI-100 treatment (2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 dS/m. Relatively low ECe values were also observed under FI-DI60 and DI-80 treatments with respectively (2.7, 3, 3.5 dS/m and (2.5, 2.9, 3.3 dS/m. ECe values under the different irrigation treatments were generally lower than or equal to the EC of irrigation water used. Rainfall received during fall and/or winter periods (57, 26 and 29 mm, respectively, during the three years contributed probably to leaching soluble

  18. Salinity tolerances and use of saline environments by freshwater turtles: implications of sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R; Bower, Deborah S; Nowakowski, A Justin; Sweat, Sarah C; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-25

    The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments. Here, we provide the first comprehensive global review on freshwater turtle use and tolerance of brackish water ecosystems. We link together current knowledge of geographic occurrence, salinity tolerance, phylogenetic relationships, and physiological and behavioural mechanisms to generate a baseline understanding of the response of freshwater turtles to changing saline environments. We also review the potential origins of salinity tolerance in freshwater turtles. Finally, we integrate 2100 sea level rise (SLR) projections, species distribution maps, literature gathered on brackish water use, and a phylogeny to predict the exposure of freshwater turtles to projected SLR globally. From our synthesis of published literature and available data, we build a framework for spatial and phylogenetic conservation prioritization of coastal freshwater turtles. Based on our literature review, 70 species (∼30% of coastal freshwater turtle species) from 10 of the 11 freshwater turtle families have been reported in brackish water ecosystems. Most anecdotal records, observations, and descriptions do not imply long-term salinity tolerance among freshwater turtles. Rather, experiments show that some species exhibit potential for adaptation and plasticity in physiological, behavioural, and life-history traits that enable them to endure varying periods (e.g. days or months) and levels of saltwater exposure. Species that specialize on

  19. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... valve closure and respiratory weight loss. A trend line in a plot of all available growth data for both mussel species as a function of salinity indicates that the growth of mussels is steadily hampered by reduced salinities from 30 psu down to about 10 psu, below which the growth is rapidly reduced...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...

  20. Bone fractures: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L; Sirichai, P

    2016-03-01

    Severe dental traumatic injuries often involve the supporting bone and soft tissues. This article outlines the current concepts in the management of dentoalveolar fractures for the general dental practitioner with case reports to illustrate management principles and techniques. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Stress fractures in military training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population

  2. Current concepts of fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulth, A

    1989-12-01

    The current concepts of fracture healing are mainly based on two variables: blood supply and stability. The effect of electricity on delayed union has not been explained. Possible individual differences in the primary osteogenetic activity and the effect of soft-tissue injuries are seldom considered. In recent years, interesting data have revealed how biomechanical forces and electric currents can be translated to biochemical mediators such as prostaglandins (PGE2), morphogens, and growth factors. It is likely that the fracture ends emit osteogenic signal substances (such as bone morphogenetic protein) to the exudate in addition to those mediators (interleukin-1, growth factors) which are released from the blood clot as in wound healing. Movement of the fragments increases the fracture exudate with its migrating cells and sprouting vessels, resulting in exuberant callus. Cartilage is formed in the well-vascularized granulation tissue due to its ability to repel vessels. Rigid fixation minimizes granulation tissue and external callus. Rigid plates may also retard effusion of morphogens and growth factors from bone ends. Reaming of the intramedullary canal and nailing may cause additional bone damage, which may increase the osteogenetic activity. Weight bearing stimulates growth factors and PGE2. The molecular activity of the fracture exudate is the most decisive factor for bone healing. This activity can be impeded by diastasis, infections, and soft-tissue crushing injuries that cause extensive activation of macrophages and activate mediators, disturbing the osteogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Calcaneal fractures • In children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Fortunately these injuries in children generally have a ... of the foot and ankle unless immobilisation in a plaster-of- ... of this injury. A history of trauma may not be forthcoming, and furthermore, the blow required to produce a fracture of calcaneum, especially in the younger child, may be surprisingly. triviaJ.2 ...

  4. PTH analogues and osteoporotic fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, H.J.; Lems, W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: At present there are two parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues (PTH 1 34 and PTH 1 84) registered for the treatment of established osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (PTH 1 34 and PTH 1 84) and in men (PTH 1 34 only) who are at increased risk of having a fracture. Areas

  5. Gas-driven fracture propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, R.H.

    1981-10-01

    A one-dimensional gas-flow drives a wedge-shaped fracture into a linearly elastic, impermeable half-space which is in uniform compression, sigma/sub infinity/, at infinity. Under a constant driving pressure, p 0 , the fracture/flow system accelerates through a sequence of three self-similar asymptotic regimes (laminar, turbulent, inviscid) in which the fracture grows like an elementary function of time (exponential, near-unity power, and linear; respectively). In each regime, the transport equations are reducible under a separation-of-variables transformation. The integro-differential equations which describe the viscous flows are solved by iterative shooting-methods using expansion techniques to accommodate a zero-pressure singularity at the leading edge of the flow. These numerical results are complemented by an asymptotic analysis for large pressure ratio (N = p 0 /sigma/sub infinity/ → infinity) which exploits the disparity between the fracture-length and penetration-length of the flow. The considered prototypic problem has geologic applications: containment evaluation of underground nuclear tests, explosive stimulation of oil and gas wells, and explosive permeability-enhancement prior to in-situ combustion of coal or oil-shale

  6. Bone shortening of clavicular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsmark, A. H.; Muhareb Udby, P.; Ban, I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim of this ......Background: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim...... of this study was to investigate if three commonly scientifically used measurement methods were interchangeable to each other. Methods: A retrospective study using radiographs collected as part of a previous study on clavicular fractures. Two independent raters measured clavicle shortening on 60 patients using......, Weir's protocol for Standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: None of the methods were directly interchangeable. The side difference method by Lazarides et al. was the most reliable of the three methods, but had a high proportion of post-fracture...

  7. Sport-related maxillofacial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone

  8. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  9. Hydraulic fracturing system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciezobka, Jordan; Maity, Debotyam

    2018-01-30

    A hydraulic fracturing system and method for enhancing effective permeability of earth formations to increase hydrocarbon production, enhance operation efficiency by reducing fluid entry friction due to tortuosity and perforation, and to open perforations that are either unopened or not effective using traditional techniques, by varying a pump rate and/or a flow rate to a wellbore.

  10. Biomechanics of intramedullary fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, R F

    1985-11-01

    Intramedullary rodding allows excellent control of bending forces on long bone fractures when adequate sized rods are used. This is made possible by reaming when necessary. Torsional stability is poor if adequate bone nail contact is not obtained and there is little bone fragment interdigitation. This can be optimized with the interlocking system, especially with proximal and distal fractures. Intramedullary rods allow transmission of compressive load so there must be adequate bone to bone contact without comminution to prevent shortening. If a great deal of comminution is present, an interlocking system must be used to resist compressive loads. The interlocked devices have not been proven to be a detriment to union and indeed are a semi-rigid fixation system when used in comminuted shaft fractures. The strength of an osteosynthesis with an intramedullary rod depends on the geometry of the rod and the geometry of the fracture complex. Both locked and nonlocked intramedullary rods perform extremely well when one understands the mechanical principles involved in intramedullary rodding and pays close attention to detail.

  11. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...

  12. Fracture resistance and histological findings of immature teeth treated with mineral trioxide aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatibovic-Kofman, S.; Raimundo, L.; Zheng, L.

    2008-01-01

    for a histological study, examining matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP14) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). The results showed the mean fracture strengths decreased over time for all the three groups. Although the untreated teeth showed the highest value (45.5 MPa) at 2 weeks, the fracture...... hydroxide-treated teeth at 2 weeks or 2 months (P > 0.05). However, the strength was significantly higher in the MTA group compared with the other two groups after 1 year (P MMP-2 and MMP-14 in both untreated and endodontically...... with a barbed broach, and the teeth were divided into three experimental groups. Group 1: untreated teeth. Group 2: the root canals were filled with calcium hydroxide paste. Group 3: the root canals were filled with MTA. All specimens were kept in saline with 1% antibiotics at 4 degrees C for certain periods...

  13. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  14. [Isolated fractures of the atlas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocis, J; Wendsche, P; Visna, P; Muzík, V; Hart, R

    2004-01-01

    To present the current tends in the diagnosis and management of isolated atlas fractures based on the retrospectively evaluated group of patients with this trauma. In the period from 1995 to 2002, we treated 486 injuries to the cervical spine at our department. Out of these, 19 patients sustained an isolated fracture of the first cervical vertebra. This group consisted of 12 men and seven women; the average age was 46.6 years. Neurological findings in 18 patients were classified as Frankel E and, in one, as Frankel A. The causes of injury included a fall from height in five patient, a fall in the street in five pedestrians, a car accident in five patients, a dive into shallow water in three and a shooting injury in one patient. We treated 16 patients conservatively, using a halo-vest in eight patients and a Philadelphia collar also in eight patients. In two patients with unstable atlas injury, we carried out C1-C2 transarticular stabilization according to Magerl. In the patient who had been shot, we removed the bullet transorally. All patients healed completely without signs of instability. One patient with postraumatic pentaplegia, who died within 24 h of surgery due to septic shock, had not been included in the follow-up. Two patients reported neck pain at rest, three after exercise and 13 were without any pain. The patient after C1-C2 transarticular stabilization had a significant restriction of the range of motion in the cervical spine; the rest of the patients were without limitation. None of the patients showed any deterioration of neurological findings during the treatment, nor was any post-traumatic atlantoaxial instability recorded after the therapy was completed. Isolated fractures of the atlas account for 1 to 2% of all spinal fractures. Many fractures may remain unnoticed and, therefore, it is important to X-ray patients with a symptomatic injury to the cervical spine in three standard projection planes (anteroposterior, lateral and transoral). When a

  15. Fracture of the Distal Ulna Metaphysis in the Setting of Distal Radius Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Khurana, Sonya; Soojian, Michael; Patel, Vipul; Egol, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Fracture of the metaphyseal region of the distal ulna is an uncommon injury that has been reported to occur concomitantly with distal radius fracture. We aimed to report the incidence and types of distal ulnar head and neck fractures associated with distal radius fractures and compare outcomes in operatively versus non-operatively treated patients. Over a 5-year period a distal radius fracture registry was maintained at our institution. Eleven of 512 consecutive patients had metaphyseal distal ulna fractures in association with distal radius fractures and at least 1-year follow-up. Baseline radiographs and functional data were obtained, and patients were followed at 1-week, 2-week, 3-week, 6-week, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. Patients were split into two treatment groups: Group 1 consisted of five non-operatively treated patients, and Group 2 consisted of six operatively treated patients. Four separate fracture patterns were observed: simple transverse or oblique fracture of the ulnar neck just proximal to the ulnar head, fracture of the neck region with concomitant fracture of the tip of the ulnar styloid, simple fracture of the ulnar head, and comminuted fracture of the ulnar head. There were no statistical differences between the two groups with regard to flexion, extension, supination, pronation, and functional outcomes. Ulnar fracture patterns observed did not easily fall into previously described categories, and we have proposed a new classification system. Simple fractures of the ulnar neck or head often do not require operative fixation.

  16. Effluent salinity of pipe drains and tube-wells : a case study from the Indus plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: anisotropy, aquifer, desalinization, effluent salinity, groundwater, irrigation, salt-water upconing, soil salinity, stream-function, subsurface drainage

    Irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid zones often suffers from waterlogging and salinity problems.

  17. [Classification of periprosthetic shoulder fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C; Kirchhoff, S; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    The key targets in the treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures (PHF) are the preservation of bone, successful bony consolidation and provision of a stable anchoring of the prosthesis with the major goal of restoring the shoulder-arm function. A substantial problem of periprosthetic shoulder fractures is the fact that treatment is determined not only by the fracture itself but also by the implanted prosthesis and its function. Consequently, the exact preoperative shoulder function and, in the case of an implanted anatomical prosthesis, the status and function of the rotator cuff need to be assessed in order to clarify the possibility of a secondarily occurring malfunction. Of equal importance in this context is the type of implanted prosthesis. The existing classification systems of Wright and Cofield, Campbell et al., Groh et al. and Worland et al. have several drawbacks from a shoulder surgeon's point of view, such as a missing reference to the great variability of the available prostheses and the lack of an evaluation of rotator cuff function. The presented 6‑stage classification for the evaluation of periprosthetic fractures of the shoulder can be considered just as simple or complex to understand as the classification of the working group for osteosynthesis problems (AO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen), depending on the viewpoint. From our point of view the classification presented here encompasses the essential points of the existing classification systems and also covers the otherwise missing points, which should be considered in the assessment of such periprosthetic fractures. The classification presented here should provide helpful assistance in the daily routine to find the most convenient form of therapy.

  18. Salinity, can be indicator for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity being within nature is an incontestable reality. Less than a century, man have diversified and intensified its presence, especially after nuclear weapons and peaceful use of fission power. Secondary, the risks of ionizing radiation effects on live matter have increased. The need of environmental radioactivity assessment and knowledge development in the field is and remains actually in follow time. The nuclear techniques are generally expensive and the radioanalytical methods are no so fast. Sometimes it is necessary to make the rapid and cheapest estimation, without to replace them. This is possible by finding of some accessible correlated parameters and easy to be analyzed. These parameters could indicate the availability of radionuclides in different ecosystems or the availability of ecosystems for different radionuclides. K-40 is a remarkable presence in marine natural radioactivity and plays an important role for euphotic and deep levels. As nutrient it can influence coastal ecosystems and its radiation power can be significant for microbiological processes. This present work analyzed the correlation between salinity and water K-40 radioactivity (beta, gamma) and proposes an empirical connection formula on the base of the good correlation that has been identified

  19. Pulsative hematoma: A penile fracture complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nale Đorđe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fracture of the penis is a direct blunt trauma of the erect or semi-erect penis. It can be treated by conservative or surgical means. Retrospective analyses of conservative penile fracture treatment reveal frequent immediate and later complications. Case report. We presented a 41- year-old patient with pulsative hematoma caused by an unusual fracture of the penis. Fracture had appeared 40 days before the admittance during a sexual intercourse. The patient was treated surgically. Conclusion. Pulsative hematoma (pulsative diverticulum is a very rare, early complication of a conservatively treated penile fracture. Surgical treatment has an advantage over surgical one, which was confirmed by our case report.

  20. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.

    1981-01-01

    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  1. Multidetector Computed Tomography in Acute Joint Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapamaeki, V.V.; Kiuru, M.J.; Mustonen, A.O.; Koskinen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional radiography plays an essential diagnostic role in the primary evaluation of acute joint trauma. In complex fractures, however, computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality often used second to radiography. As a result of technical breakthroughs in the field, multidetector CT (MDCT) allows faster imaging and better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with conventional single-slice spiral CT. MDCT with multiplanar reformation is helpful in disclosing fracture patterns, particularly in complex joint fractures, where they reveal occult fractures and show the exact number of fracture components and their degree of displacement

  2. Rib Fracture Diagnosis in the Panscan Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Charles E; Raja, Ali S; Baumann, Brigitte M; Medak, Anthony J; Langdorf, Mark I; Nishijima, Daniel K; Hendey, Gregory W; Mower, William R; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    With increased use of chest computed tomography (CT) in trauma evaluation, traditional teachings in regard to rib fracture morbidity and mortality may no longer be accurate. We seek to determine rates of rib fracture observed on chest CT only; admission and mortality of patients with isolated rib fractures, rib fractures observed on CT only, and first or second rib fractures; and first or second rib fracture-associated great vessel injury. We conducted a planned secondary analysis of 2 prospectively enrolled cohorts of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study chest studies, which evaluated patients with blunt trauma who were older than 14 years and received chest imaging in the emergency department. We defined rib fractures and other thoracic injuries according to CT reports and followed patients through their hospital course to determine outcomes. Of 8,661 patients who had both chest radiograph and chest CT, 2,071 (23.9%) had rib fractures, and rib fractures were observed on chest CT only in 1,368 cases (66.1%). Rib fracture patients had higher admission rates (88.7% versus 45.8%; mean difference 42.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.4% to 44.4%) and mortality (5.6% versus 2.7%; mean difference 2.9%; 95% CI 1.8% to 4.0%) than patients without rib fracture. The mortality of patients with rib fracture observed on chest CT only was not statistically significantly different from that of patients with fractures also observed on chest radiograph (4.8% versus 5.7%; mean difference -0.9%; 95% CI -3.1% to 1.1%). Patients with first or second rib fractures had significantly higher mortality (7.4% versus 4.1%; mean difference 3.3%; 95% CI 0.2% to 7.1%) and prevalence of concomitant great vessel injury (2.8% versus 0.6%; mean difference 2.2%; 95% CI 0.6% to 4.9%) than patients with fractures of ribs 3 to 12, and the odds ratio of great vessel injury with first or second rib fracture was 4.4 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4). Under trauma imaging protocols that commonly

  3. Scottish saline lagoons: Impacts and challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    The majority of Scotland's saline lagoons are located on the low-lying coastlines of the Western Isles and the northern archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland, where recorded annual relative sea level rise rates are among the highest in Scotland. The sediment-impounded lagoons of Orkney and Shetland will either lose their impoundment and become incorporated in marine coastal waters, or become increasingly saline, as relative sea levels rise. The rock-basin lagoons of the Western Isles will retain their restricted exchange with the sea but will also become more saline with rising sea level. Specialist lagoonal organisms tend to have wide salinity tolerances but may succumb to competition from marine counterparts. In all areas, there are sufficient fresh-water inland water bodies with potential to be captured as lagoons to compensate for loss of extent and number, but the specialist lagoon biota tend to have limited dispersal powers. It is thus possible that they will be unable to transfer to their analogue sites before existing lagoons become fully marine, giving conservation managers the problem of deciding on management options: leave natural processes to operate without interference, manage the saline inflow to maintain the current salinity regime, or translocate lagoon organisms perceived as threatened by rising salinities. Timing of conversion and capture is unpredictable due to local topography and complications caused by variable stratification.

  4. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-10-29

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

  5. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  6. Chemical fingerprinting of saline water intrusion into sewage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ola; Aina, Oluwajinmi Daniel; Ahmad, Farrukh

    2017-10-01

    High salinity in sewage sludge can affect not only the operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) but also the quality of treated water generated, thereby limiting its downstream reuse. Using data on geochemical parameters, both for the central WWTP in Abu Dhabi, UAE, and literature values for potential regional saline water sources (e.g., shallow groundwater and regional Arabian Gulf seawater), a variety of chemical fingerprinting diagnostic ratios were calculated and plotted in order to determine the source of salinity in the municipal sewage. Data were compared with data from a regional WWTP that was not impacted by salinity. Monitoring data demonstrated persistently elevated levels of salinity in the municipal wastewater arriving at the central WWTP from the city. Dilution/concentration analysis using a conductivity vs. chloride plot showed both potential sources, i.e. Arabian Gulf seawater and coastal hypersaline groundwater, as feasible sources of wastewater salinization. Further diagnostic analysis using a Panno Plot indicated that coastal groundwater was the only likely source of salinization of municipal sewage. Additional confirmation of the identity of the source and the extent of mixing using different lines of evidence like stable isotope ratios is recommended for future study.

  7. Decadal changes in salinity in the oceanic subtropical gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Bryce A.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal salinity trends in five subtropical gyre regions over the past six decades using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis with a focus on the subsurface salinity of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. Our results indicate an overall salinity increase within the mixed layer, and a salinity decrease at depths greater than 200 m in the global subtropical gyres over 61 years, of which each individual gyre was analyzed in further detail. We determine that freshwater fluxes at the air-sea interface are the primary drivers of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature over these open ocean regions by quantifying the advective contribution within the surface layer. This was demonstrated through a mixed layer salinity budget in each subtropical gyre based on the vertically integrated advection and entrainment of salt. Our analysis of decadal variability of fluxes into and out of the gyres reveals little change in the strength of the mean currents through this region despite an increase in the annual export of salt in all subtropical gyres, with the meridional component dominating the zonal. This study reveals that the salt content of E-P maximum waters advected into the subtropical gyres is increasing over time. A combination of increasing direct evaporation over the regions with increasing remote evaporation over nearby E-P maxima is believed to be the main driver in increasing salinity of the subtropical oceans, suggesting an intensification of the global water cycle over decadal time scales.

  8. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  9. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  10. The individual response of saline lakes to a severe drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Sarah; Grace, Mike; Leblanc, Marc; Cartwright, Ian; Smithyman, Donna

    2011-09-01

    A severe protracted drought between 1997 and 2009 has altered the physical and chemical hydrology of a series of lakes in the Corangamite Basin of southeast Australia. Leading up to the drying out of most lakes (many for the first time on record), we document the changes in lakes' water quantity (water levels and inundation), salinity (Cl concentrations), salinity processes (Cl/Br ratios), nutrient concentrations and ratios (ammonia, phosphate and NOx (nitrate and nitrite)) and algae (as chlorophyll-a) for six lakes. All lakes show record declines in inundated areas and increases in salinity from pre-drought (drought conditions. However, the magnitude of change in salinity varies for different lakes, and there is no systematic change in the controls on lake salinity processes. Four lakes show no change in salinity processes, one lake shows the beginnings of change; where halite dissolution reactions increased closer to the time of the lake drying up, and another lake shows a marked shift from predominantly evaporation to the cyclic dissolution and precipitation of halite. Changes in filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) values and lake N and P limitation predictions also showed little systematic correlation with changes in lake salinity, and nutrient values varied between lakes and over time. The decline in NO(x) concentrations in lakes where electrical conductivity (EC) values were above 100 mS/cm indicates some correlation with changes in salinity. Largely, these lakes exhibit individual changes in water quality parameters and salinity processes in response to the drought, indicating that while the stress of drought is regional, the hydrochemical response is local. In future changing climates, these results suggest that the catchment adaption strategies will require comprehensive plans for individual lake systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.

    2017-12-15

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  12. Hydro-fracture in the laboratory: matching diagnostic seismic signals to fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehne, S.; Benson, P. M.; Koor, N.; Dobson, K. J.; Enfield, M.; Barber, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a key process in both natural (e.g. dyke intrusion) and engineered environments (e.g. shale gas). To better understand this process, we present new data from simulated hydraulic fracturing in a controlled laboratory environment in order to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time to assess the fracture mechanics and developing fracture network. Fluid overpressure is used to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in an anisotropic sandstone and a highly anisotropic shale. A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from a pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. For both rock types, fractures progresses parallel to the bedding plane (short-transverse) if the bedding plane is aligned with the direction of σ1 requiring breakdown pressures of approximately 7 and 13MPa respectively at a confining pressure of 8MPa. The data also indicates a more ductile behaviour of the shale than expected. We use X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) to evaluate the evolved fracture network in terms of fracture pattern and aperture. Hydraulic fracturing produces very planar fractures in the shale, with axial fractures over the entire length of the sample broadly following the bedding. In contrast, fractures in the sandstone are more diffuse, linking pore spaces as they propagate. However, secondary micro cracking, branching of the main fracture, are also observed. These new experiments suggest that fracture pattern, fracture propagation trajectories, and fracturing fluid pressures are predominantly controlled by the interaction between the anisotropic mechanical properties of the rock and the anisotropic stress environment.

  13. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Bo G. [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m{sup 3}/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say {+-}1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m{sup 3}/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the

  14. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m 3 /s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m 3 /s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  15. Femoral neck fracture following hardware removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, James A; Hileman, Barbara M; Newcomer, Jill E; Hanes, Marina C

    2012-01-16

    It is uncommon for femoral neck fractures to occur after proximal femoral hardware removal because age, osteoporosis, and technical error are often noted as the causes for this type of fracture. However, excessive alcohol consumption and failure to comply with protected weight bearing for 6 weeks increases the risk of femoral neck fractures.This article describes a case of a 57-year-old man with a high-energy ipsilateral inter-trochanteric hip fracture, comminuted distal third femoral shaft fracture, and displaced lateral tibial plateau fracture. Cephalomedullary fixation was used to fix the ipsilateral femur fractures after medical stabilization and evaluation of the patient. The patient healed clinically and radiographically at 6 months. Despite conservative treatment for painful proximal hardware, elective hip screw removal was performed 22.5 months after injury. Seven weeks later, he sustained a nontraumatic femoral neck fracture.In this case, it is unlikely that the femoral neck fracture occurred as a result of hardware removal. We assumed that, in addition to the patient's alcohol abuse and tobacco use, stress fractures may have attributed to the femoral neck fracture. We recommend using a shorter hip screw to minimize hardware prominence or possibly off-label use of an injectable bone filler, such as calcium phosphate cement. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Fracture behaviour of zirconia FPDs substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, W; Sjögren, G

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of superficial flaws after machining and to identify fracture initiation and propagation in three-unit heat-treated machined fixed partial dentures (FPDs) substructures made of hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) after loaded to fracture. Four three-unit HIPed Y-TZP-based FPDs substructures were examined. To evaluate the occurrence of superficial flaws after machining, the surfaces were studied utilizing a fluorescent penetrant method. After static loading to fracture, characteristic fracture features on both mating halves of the fractured specimens were studied using a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope. Grinding grooves were clearly visible on the surfaces of the machined FPDs substructures, but no other flaws could be seen with the fluorescent penetrant method. After loading to fracture, the characteristic fracture features of arrest lines, compression curl, fracture mirror, fracture origin, hackle and twist hackle were detected. These findings indicated that the decisive fracture was initiated at the gingival embrasure of the pontic in association with a grinding groove. Thus, in three-unit heat-treated machined HIPed Y-TZP FPDs substructures, with the shape studied in this study, the gingival embrasure of the pontic seems to be a weak area providing a location for tensile stresses when they are occlusally loaded. In this area, fracture initiation may be located to a grinding groove.

  17. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-04-12

    Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

  18. Low energy fractures of the acetabulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, N; Pearce, R; Bircher, M D

    2014-05-01

    Acetabular fractures due to high energy injuries are common and well documented; those secondary to low energy mechanisms are less well described. We undertook a retrospective study of the acetabular fracture referrals to our unit to evaluate the proportion of injuries resulting from a low energy mechanism. A total of 573 acetabular fractures were evaluated from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008. The plain radiography and computed tomography of those sustaining a low energy fracture were assessed and the fracture patterns classified. Of the 573 acetabular fractures, 71 (12.4%) were recorded as being a result of a low energy mechanism. The male-to-female ratio was 2.4:1 and the mean patient age was 67.0 years (standard deviation: 19.1 years). There was a significantly higher number of fractures (pfracture studies. Our results demonstrate that low energy fractures make up a considerable proportion of acetabular fractures with a distinctly different fracture pattern distribution. With the continued predicted rise in the incidence of osteoporosis, life expectancy and an aging population, it is likely that this type of fracture will become increasingly more common, posing difficult management decisions and leading to procedures that are technically more challenging.

  19. Complications associated with open calcaneus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, Brent; Brokaw, David; Weber, Timothy; Psaradellis, Telly; Panero, Carlo; Weber, Chad; Musapatika, Dana

    2011-11-01

    Literature on open calcaneus fractures is limited and inconsistent. This study's purpose was to report complications such as osteomyelitis, amputations, and soft tissue infections in open calcaneus fractures that were treated at a Level I Trauma Center. From January 1995 through December 2007, 1,157 calcaneus fractures were identified with 127 fractures being open (11.0%). Average followup time was 9.1 (range, 2 to 53) months. All open fractures were treated by a similar protocol of intravenous (i.v.) antibiotics, emergent irrigation and debridement (I&D), initial fracture stabilization if possible, subsequent I&Ds as needed, and delayed definitive fixation. One hundred fifteen open calcaneus fractures in 112 patients had sufficient followup for study inclusion. For this study complications were classified into four categories: superficial infections, deep infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. Medial based wounds occurred in 63 (54.8%) fractures. The overall complication rate was 23.5% with 16 fractures (13.9%) requiring a reoperation. Eleven (9.6%) fractures experienced superficial wound infection and 14 (12.2%) had deep wound infection. Six (5.2%) amputations were required with three being for either soft tissue infection or wound necrosis. Culture-positive osteomyelitis occurred in six (5.2%) patients. Utilizing a standardized protocol, open calcaneus fractures were found to have a lower complication rate than has been previously reported.

  20. How do bisphosphonates affect fracture healing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Stephen L; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been in use for many years for the treatment of osteoporosis, multiple myeloma, Paget's disease, as well as a variety of other diseases in which there is reduced bone mineral density. Given that bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption, an important stage of fracture healing; this class of compounds has been widely studied in preclinical models regarding their influence on fracture healing. In animal models, bisphosphonate treatment is associated with a larger fracture callus, coincident with a delay in remodeling from primary woven bone to lamellar bone, but there is no delay in formation of the fracture callus. In humans, de novo use of bisphosphonate therapy after fracture does not appear to have a significant effect on fracture healing. Rarely, patients with long term use of Bisphosphonates may develop an atypical fracture and delay in fracture healing has been observed. In summary, bisphosphonates appear safe for use in the setting of acute fracture management in the upper and lower extremity in humans. While much remains unknown about the effects on healing of long-term bisphosphonates, use prior to "typical" fracture, in the special case of atypical fracture, evidence suggests that bisphosphonates negatively influence healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.