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Sample records for subparallel fault strands

  1. Slip rate gradients along parallel strands of the eastern Altyn Tagh fault confirm modeled rupture behavior at a transpressional bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, A. J.; Oskin, M. E.; Liu-Zeng, J.; Shao, Y.; Liu, Z.; Duan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Characterized in sufficient spatial proximity, Holocene fault slip rates may be used to test numerical model predictions of recurrent rupture behavior, including whether fault geometry produces a persistent control on rupture length. We document slip rate gradients along two subparallel strands of the Altyn Tagh fault (ATF) in western China as they pass through the 50-km-long, 15-20° transpressional double-bend at Aksay (~93°E). In the middle of the bend the southern fault (SATF) attains a strike 20° clockwise from regional fault strike, a bend angle that prior model results predict will inhibit throughgoing propagation of rupture. The northern fault (NATF) reaches only 15° clockwise from regional strike, at which angle model results indicate rupture may continue unimpeded. The sum of NATF and SATF slip rates at a given longitude gives the full sinistral slip rate of the ATF. Our mapping, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), Be-10, and C-14 geochronology, and paleoseismic results show that ruptures have not propagated through the bend on the SATF during at least the past 5-6 earthquake cycles, including the most recent surface rupture, which we have mapped and measured in detail. We map an abrupt west-to-east decline in mid-Holocene slip rate on the SATF from 5 ± 2 mm/yr west of the bend to 0 mm/yr in the middle of the bend. As the SATF straightens out again to the east, slip has largely been transferred to the NATF; a >10.7 ± 0.8 ka alluvial fan on the east side of the bend is offset merely 9.1 ± 1.2 m by the SATF, giving a Holocene slip rate of 0.9 ± 0.3 mm/yr and representing possibly only 2-3 Holocene earthquakes. On the NATF, we document a more gradual decline in slip rate through the bend, from 6.5 ± 2.5 mm/yr in the east to 2-3 mm/yr on the west. Fault morphology and the absence of an abrupt drop in slip rate on the NATF stand in stark contrast to the SATF and indicate that earthquakes on the NATF may span the bend. Our measured gradients in

  2. Near Surface Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault, Point Año Nuevo, San Mateo County, California, from Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Weber, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is one of the major faults of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The SGFZ is nearly 200 km long, trends subparallel to the SAF, and is located primarily offshore with two exceptions- between Point Año Nuevo and San Gregorio Beach and between Pillar Point and Moss Beach. It has a total width of 2 to 3 km and is comprised of seven known fault strands with Quaternary activity, five of which also demonstrate late Holocene activity. The fault is clearly a potential source of significant earthquakes and has been assigned a maximum likely magnitude of 7.3. To better understand the structure, geometry, and shallow-depth P-wave velocities associated with the SGFZ, we acquired a 585-m-long, high-resolution, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across the Frijoles strand of the SGFZ at Point Año Nuevo State Park. Both P- and S-wave data were acquired, but here we present only the P-wave data. We used two 60-channel Geometrics RX60 seismographs and 120 40-Hz single-element geophones connected via cable to record Betsy Seisgun seismic sources (shots). Both shots and geophones were approximately co-located and spaced at 5-m intervals along the profile, with the shots offset laterally from the geophones by 1 m. We measured first-arrival refractions from all shots and geophones to develop a seismic refraction tomography velocity model of the upper 70 m. P-wave velocities range from about 600 m/s near the surface to more than 2400 m/s at 70 m depth. We used the refraction tomography image to infer the depth to the top of the groundwater table on the basis of the 1500 m/s velocity contour. The image suggests that the depth, along the profile, to the top of groundwater varies by about 18 m, with greater depth on the west side of the fault. At about 46 m depth, a 60- to 80-m-wide, low-velocity zone, which is consistent with faulting, is observed southwest of the Frijoles strand of the

  3. Fault diagnosis for stator winding bar hollow strand blockage of turbogenerators based on data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianpei; Dai, Zheng Y.; Liu, Zhenxing; Chen, Yalin

    2003-09-01

    Stator Winding Bar Hollow Strand Blockage (SWBHSB) is one of the main faults for large turbo-generators with water and hydrogen cooling system. It will lead to increasing water temperature at the bar exit which may cause hidden troubles for turbo-generator's security. According to a three-layer-structural model of data fusion, this paper presents a fault diagnosis method for turbo-generators based on data fusion technology. Firstly, a bp network on pixel level fusion is set up, in which several temperature parameters at the bar exit are accurately computed. Then in feature level fusion, the fingerprints are distilled from the result of pixel level fusion. Finally, decision level fusion gives a fault diagnosis for the measuring channels and thermometric components. This method can effectively avoid problems such as misinformation and fake report.

  4. Character and Implications of a Newly Identified Creeping Strand of the San Andreas fault NE of Salton Sea, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Markowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    The overdue earthquake on the Coachella section, San Andreas fault (SAF), the model ShakeOut earthquake, and the conflict between cross-fault models involving the Extra fault array and mapped shortening in the Durmid Hill area motivate new analyses at the southern SAF tip. Geologic mapping, LiDAR, seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity datasets, and aerial photography confirm the existence of the East Shoreline strand (ESS) of the SAF southwest of the main trace of the SAF. We mapped the 15 km long ESS, in a band northeast side of the Salton Sea. Other data suggest that the ESS continues N to the latitude of the Mecca Hills, and is >35 km long. The ESS cuts and folds upper Holocene beds and appears to creep, based on discovery of large NW-striking cracks in modern beach deposits. The two traces of the SAF are parallel and ~0.5 to ~2.5 km apart. Groups of east, SE, and ENE-striking strike-slip cross-faults connect the master dextral faults of the SAF. There are few sinistral-normal faults that could be part of the Extra fault array. The 1-km wide ESS contains short, discontinuous traces of NW-striking dextral-oblique faults. These en-echelon faults bound steeply dipping Pleistocene beds, cut out section, parallel tight NW-trending folds, and produced growth folds. Beds commonly dip toward the ESS on both sides, in accord with persistent NE-SW shortening across the ESS. The dispersed fault-fold structural style of the ESS is due to decollements in faulted mud-rich Pliocene to Holocene sediment and ramps and flats along the strike-slip faults. A sheared ladder-like geometric model of the two master dextral strands of the SAF and their intervening cross-faults, best explains the field relationships and geophysical datasets. Contraction across >40 km2 of the southernmost SAF zone in the Durmid Hills suggest that interaction of active structures in the SAF zone may inhibit the nucleation of large earthquakes in this region. The ESS may cross the northern Coachella

  5. New high-resolution seismic imaging of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) in Bardibas (central Nepal) reveals blind fault strands and buried strath surfaces: implications for paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R. V.; Hubbard, J.; Liberty, L. M.; Foster, A. E.; Sapkota, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    The MFT is thought to accommodate most of the shortening across the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand the geometry and kinematics of this fault, we acquired ten high resolution seismic profiles using Vibroseis in 2014 and 2015 around the town of Bardibas (Fig. 1), where the M8.4 1934 earthquake ruptured to the surface (Sapkota et al., 2012). The profiles follow dry riverbeds in the area and data were processed using standard CMP processing methods. In this region, two fault strands overlap (Bollinger et al., 2014). Our data show that the southern strand (Bardibas thrust) is blind. The fault tip is buried several hundred meters below the surface and projects to the surface 1 km south of the topographic break. In contrast, the Patu thrust to the north is surface-emergent. A few km west, we observe a beveling surface in the hanging wall of the Bardibas thrust that underlies alluvial fan deposits. This suggests that while tectonic uplift may raise strath terraces above present river level, they can also be buried due to changes in local base level and sediment supply. The relative rates of these processes determine the morphology we observe at present. Because of the long recurrence intervals on these faults ( 700 yrs), trenching and terraces are the main tools available to understand their slip history. However, blind fault strands cannot be studied by trenching. The observed unconformity also raises concerns about how uplifted terraces are interpreted. We propose that these techniques be complemented with subsurface imaging, combined with shallow drilling to date deformed surfaces. Such efforts have successfully improved our understanding of the blind Ventura fault in southern California (Hubbard et al., 2015; McAuliffe et al., 2015). It should not be surprising that parts of the MFT are blind: many strands preserve asymmetrical anticlines, characteristic of fault propagation folding, in their hanging walls. As the fault system evolves, we expect some fault

  6. Implementing a strand of a scalable fault-tolerant quantum computing fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jerry M; Gambetta, Jay M; Magesan, Easwar; Abraham, David W; Cross, Andrew W; Johnson, B R; Masluk, Nicholas A; Ryan, Colm A; Smolin, John A; Srinivasan, Srikanth J; Steffen, M

    2014-06-24

    With favourable error thresholds and requiring only nearest-neighbour interactions on a lattice, the surface code is an error-correcting code that has garnered considerable attention. At the heart of this code is the ability to perform a low-weight parity measurement of local code qubits. Here we demonstrate high-fidelity parity detection of two code qubits via measurement of a third syndrome qubit. With high-fidelity gates, we generate entanglement distributed across three superconducting qubits in a lattice where each code qubit is coupled to two bus resonators. Via high-fidelity measurement of the syndrome qubit, we deterministically entangle the code qubits in either an even or odd parity Bell state, conditioned on the syndrome qubit state. Finally, to fully characterize this parity readout, we develop a measurement tomography protocol. The lattice presented naturally extends to larger networks of qubits, outlining a path towards fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  7. Faults

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  8. Late Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the southern Marmara shelf and sub-basins: middle strand of the North Anatolian fault, southern Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Denizhan; Öztürk, Kurultay; Yaltırak, Cenk; Alpar, Bedri; Tur, Hüseyin

    2014-03-01

    Although there are many research studies on the northern and southern branches of the North Anatolian fault, cutting through the deep basins of the Sea of Marmara in the north and creating a series of pull-apart basins on the southern mainland, little data is available about the geometrical and kinematical characteristics of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault. The first detailed geometry of the middle strand of the North Anatolian fault along the southern Marmara shelf, including the Gemlik and Bandırma Bay, will be given in this study, by a combined interpretation of different seismic data sets. The characteristic features of its segments and their importance on the paleogeographic evolution of the southern shelf sub-basins were defined. The longest one of these faults, the Armutlu-Bandırma segment, is a 75-km long dextral strike-slip fault which connects the W-E trending Gençali segment in the east and NE-SW trending Kapıdağ-Edincik segment in the west. In this context, the Gemlik Bay opened as a pull-apart basin under the control of the middle strand whilst a new fault segment developed during the late Pleistocene, cutting through the eastern rim of the bay. In this region, a delta front forming the paleoshoreline of the Gemlik paleolake was cut and shifted approximately 60 ± 5 m by the new segment. The same offset on this fault was also measured on a natural scarp of acoustic basement to the west and integrated with this paleoshoreline forming the slightly descending topset-foreset reflections of the delta front. Therefore the new segment is believed to be active at least for the last 30,000 years. The annual lateral slip rate representing this period of time will be 2 mm, which is quite consistent with modern GPS measurements. Towards the west, the Bandırma Bay is a rectangular transpressional basin whilst the Erdek Bay is a passive basin under the control of NW-SE trending faults. When the water level of the paleo-Marmara lake dropped down

  9. Constraining Basin Geometry and Fault Kinematics on the Santo Tomas Segment of the Agua Blanca Fault Through a Combined Geophysical and Structural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A.; Wetmore, P.; Fletcher, J.; Connor, C. B.; Callihan, S.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Santo Tomas basin, located in northern Baja California, formed at a right step in the dextral Agua Blanca fault (ABF). The ABF extends for more than 120km east from Punta Banda, with an east-west strike, and represents the southernmost fault in the San Andreas system of faulting. The basin is located roughly 40km south of Ensenada where the Agua Blanca fault intersects the Maximos fault. A detailed geophysical analysis defines the basin geometry, and helps to constrain the distribution and offset of mapped and concealed faults. Geophysical and structural data sets are combined to constrain the kinematic evolution of the Santo Tomas basin, including determining the relative amount of dip-slip and strike-slip motion on basin-bounding faults. Gravity data was collected over seven transects across and along the axis of the basin at 500 meter intervals, with 200 meter intervals at locations of known or inferred faults. Magnetic data were taken over the same lines, and are used in conjunction with gravity data to constrain the locations, geometries and displacements of intrabasinal faults. The combined gravity and magnetic data are modeled using Geosoft Oasis montaj software to create 2 3/4D models along profiles across the study area. Modeling of the geophysical data combined with structural mapping indicates that the Santo Tomas basin is bound by two major strike-slip faults, the ABF on the northeastern side and the Maximos fault on south, Based on offset markers, most of the strike-slip motion appears to be concentrated on the ABF on the north side of the basin. The ABF fault is characterized by multiple subparallel fault strands that appear to coalesce into single strands to the northwest and southeast of the basin. The Maximos is characterized by a single strand throughout the basin and it exhibits a minor dip-slip component. Basin sediments thicken slightly against the Maximos fault to as much as 1km. A third fault, cutting across the basin southeast of the

  10. Long Valley caldera and the UCERF depiction of Sierra Nevada range-front faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Long Valley caldera lies within a left-stepping offset in the north-northwest-striking Sierra Nevada range-front normal faults with the Hilton Creek fault to the south and Hartley Springs fault to the north. Both Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) 2 and its update, UCERF3, depict slip on these major range-front normal faults as extending well into the caldera, with significant normal slip on overlapping, subparallel segments separated by ∼10  km. This depiction is countered by (1) geologic evidence that normal faulting within the caldera consists of a series of graben structures associated with postcaldera magmatism (intrusion and tumescence) and not systematic down-to-the-east displacements consistent with distributed range-front faulting and (2) the lack of kinematic evidence for an evolving, postcaldera relay ramp structure between overlapping strands of the two range-front normal faults. The modifications to the UCERF depiction described here reduce the predicted shaking intensity within the caldera, and they are in accord with the tectonic influence that underlapped offset range-front faults have on seismicity patterns within the caldera associated with ongoing volcanic unrest.

  11. Paleoseismology of the 1966 Varto Earthquake (Ms 6.8) and Structure of the Varto Fault Zone, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.; Saber, R.; Yesilyurt, N.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is a region of active faulting and contains several strike-slip fault zones, which have generated both historical and recent large earthquakes. Two active fault zones in Turkey, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), divide the area into the Anatolian micro-plate accommodating WSW-directed movement. The southeastern continuation of the NAFZ is often referred to the Varto Fault Zone (VFZ). The VFZ cuts mainly Pliocene volcano-sedimentary units and/or Quaternary deposits and is characterized by multiple fault strands and multiple, closely spaced, active seismogenic zones. Fault motions in the zone are primarily right-lateral, with a subordinate component of NNW-SSE shortening. Study area is Varto region in which indications of active faulting are very well preserved. We recognized three coseismic ruptures from five trench exposures. It is referred to these as events 1 (youngest) through 3 (oldest). The best evidence of event 3 comes from fault traces and its upward terminations. The major components of this fault are fault core and damage zone. The fault is not just one plane of discontinuity and bifurcates and creates additional slip surfaces, which propagate out of the plane of the original fault. Event 2 and event 1, referring to 1946 and 1966 earthquakes, are characterized primarily by discrete, regularly spaced normal faults with and 55-80 cm and 105-270 cm throws, respectively and geometry of growth strata. The VFZ in the study area include typical structures of strike-slip fault zone. It forms a number of parallel and slightly sub-parallel strands striking N50°-72°W including contractional and extensional brittle structures. Several meters to tens of meters wavelength active folds with ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE trending fold axis. These folds deform the Plio-Quaternary units and show classic asymmetry associated with both a south- and north-vergent fault propagation fold. Meso-scale normal faults are also well

  12. The influence of joint parameters on normal fault evolution and geometry: a parameter study using analogue modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; von Hagke, Christoph; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    Dilatant faults often form in rocks containing pre-existing joints, but the effects of joints on fault segment linkage and fracture connectivity is not well understood. Studying evolution of dilatancy and influence of fractures on fault development provides insights into geometry of fault zones in brittle rocks and will eventually allow for predicting their subsurface appearance. In an earlier study we recognized the effect of different angles between strike direction of vertical joints and a basement fault on the geometry of a developing fault zone. We now systematically extend the results by varying geometric joint parameters such as joint spacing and vertical extent of the joints and measuring fracture density and connectivity. A reproducibility study shows a small error-range for the measurements, allowing for a confident use of the experimental setup. Analogue models were carried out in a manually driven deformation box (30x28x20 cm) with a 60° dipping pre-defined basement fault and 4.5 cm of displacement. To produce open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper were mounted in the box to a depth of 5 cm at a spacing of 2.5 cm. We varied the vertical extent of the joints from 5 to 50 mm. Powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely (column height of 19 cm), and the paper was removed. During deformation we captured structural information by time-lapse photography that allows particle imaging velocimetry analyses (PIV) to detect localized deformation at every increment of displacement. Post-mortem photogrammetry preserves the final 3-dimensional structure of the fault zone. A counterintuitive result is that joint depth is of only minor importance for the evolution of the fault zone. Even very shallow joints form weak areas at which the fault starts to form and propagate. More important is joint spacing. Very large joint spacing leads to faults and secondary fractures that form subparallel to the basement fault. In contrast, small

  13. Paleoseismic evidence for late Holocene tectonic deformation along the Saddle mountain fault zone, Southeastern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Sherrod, Brian; Hughes, Jonathan F.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Czajkowski, Jessica L.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Contreras, Trevor A.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Carson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Trench and wetland coring studies show that northeast‐striking strands of the Saddle Mountain fault zone ruptured the ground about 1000 years ago, generating prominent scarps. Three conspicuous subparallel fault scarps can be traced for 15 km on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) imagery, traversing the foothills of the southeast Olympic Mountains: the Saddle Mountain east fault, the Saddle Mountain west fault, and the newly identified Sund Creek fault. Uplift of the Saddle Mountain east fault scarp impounded stream flow, forming Price Lake and submerging an existing forest, thereby leaving drowned stumps still rooted in place. Stratigraphy mapped in two trenches, one across the Saddle Mountain east fault and the other across the Sund Creek fault, records one and two earthquakes, respectively, as faulting juxtaposed Miocene‐age bedrock against glacial and postglacial deposits. Although the stratigraphy demonstrates that reverse motion generated the scarps, slip indicators measured on fault surfaces suggest a component of left‐lateral slip. From trench exposures, we estimate the postglacial slip rate to be 0.2  mm/yr and between 0.7 and 3.2  mm/yr during the past 3000 years. Integrating radiocarbon data from this study with earlier Saddle Mountain fault studies into an OxCal Bayesian statistical chronology model constrains the most recent paleoearthquake age of rupture across all three Saddle Mountain faults to 1170–970 calibrated years (cal B.P.), which overlaps with the nearby Mw 7.5 1050–1020 cal B.P. Seattle fault earthquake. An earlier earthquake recorded in the Sund Creek trench exposure, dates to around 3500 cal B.P. The geometry of the Saddle Mountain faults and their near‐synchronous rupture to nearby faults 1000 years ago suggest that the Saddle Mountain fault zone forms a western boundary fault along which the fore‐arc blocks migrate northward in response to margin‐parallel shortening across the Puget Lowland.

  14. Cataclastic faults along the SEMP fault system (Eastern Alps, Austria) — A contribution to fault zone evolution, internal structure and paleo-stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausegger, Stefan; Kurz, Walter

    2013-11-01

    In this study three different sites along the ENE-trending, sinistral Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg [SEMP] fault zone were investigated with respect to brittle fault zone evolution and fault re-activation. All sites crop out in Triassic carbonates (Ladinian Wetterstein limestone/-dolomite). Simultaneously (re-) activated faults were investigated with focus on fault-slip data and structural inventory of each individual fault zone. Configuration of (internal) structural elements, fault core thickness, strike direction and slip sense in addition to particle analysis of fault core cataclasites add up to three different fault types (Fault Types I, II and III). Fault Type I is classified by a complex internal fault core structure with thicknesses up to several 10s of meters and generally evolve in a strike direction of maximum shear stress (τmax). Type II faults, characterized by cataclastic fault cores with thicknesses up to 1 m, as well as Type III faults (thin solitary cataclastic layers) evolve sub-parallel to the main fault direction and in orientation according to R, R' or X shear fractures with variable (σn/τ) ratio. Progressive development from Type III to Type II and Type I faults is consistent with increasing displacement and increasing fault core width. Fault type classification and related paleostress analysis provide evidence from field observation compared to theoretical and analog models of Mohr-Coulomb fracture evolution.

  15. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, B. [Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area.

  16. Joint development in perturbed stress fields near faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, K. D.; Rives, T.; Petti, J.-P.; Hencher, S. R.; Lumsden, A. C.

    1992-09-01

    Field evidence is presented for complex spatial and temporal perturbations of an otherwise systematic joint pattern around faults from well exposed faulted rock platforms. Joints propagating in perturbed stress fields will curve to follow the directions of the stress field trajectories. A progressive change in joint direction is observed from unperturbed regions away from faults, to strongly perturbed zones adjacent to faults. This indicates that the joint pattern can reflect perturbations of the regional stress field around faults. In the examples, the stress field perturbations are probably due to points of high friction on the fault plane which concentrate stress and distort the stress field in the surrounding rock. The corresponding joints converge at these points and are sub-parallel to the fault along the remainder of the fault plane. The possibility that a fault plane acts as a free surface contained within an elastic body is considered. In this situation the fault plane induces a rotation of the principal stress axes to become either perpendicular or parallel to the fault. The free surface model seems to explain the metre-scale curvature of joints in the vicinity of existing joints, but at the kilometre scale of a large fault plane the model becomes unrealistic unless the fault is open at the Earth's surface. Two examples are investigated from the Lias of Great Britain; at Nash Point and Robin Hood's Bay. Both comprise sub-horizontal strata of relatively homogeneous lithology and bed thickness, which provide striking examples of joints developed near faults.

  17. Structure and flow properties of syn-rift border faults: The interplay between fault damage and fault-related chemical alteration (Dombjerg Fault, Wollaston Forland, NE Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Thomas B.; Rotevatn, Atle; Peacock, David C. P.; Henstra, Gijs A.; Midtkandal, Ivar; Grundvåg, Sten-Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Structurally controlled, syn-rift, clastic depocentres are of economic interest as hydrocarbon reservoirs; understanding the structure of their bounding faults is of great relevance, e.g. in the assessment of fault-controlled hydrocarbon retention potential. Here we investigate the structure of the Dombjerg Fault Zone (Wollaston Forland, NE Greenland), a syn-rift border fault that juxtaposes syn-rift deep-water hanging-wall clastics against a footwall of crystalline basement. A series of discrete fault strands characterize the central fault zone, where discrete slip surfaces, fault rock assemblages and extreme fracturing are common. A chemical alteration zone (CAZ) of fault-related calcite cementation envelops the fault and places strong controls on the style of deformation, particularly in the hanging-wall. The hanging-wall damage zone includes faults, joints, veins and, outside the CAZ, disaggregation deformation bands. Footwall deformation includes faults, joints and veins. Our observations suggest that the CAZ formed during early-stage fault slip and imparted a mechanical control on later fault-related deformation. This study thus gives new insights to the structure of an exposed basin-bounding fault and highlights a spatiotemporal interplay between fault damage and chemical alteration, the latter of which is often underreported in fault studies. To better elucidate the structure, evolution and flow properties of faults (outcrop or subsurface), both fault damage and fault-related chemical alteration must be considered.

  18. Surface breakthrough of a basement fault by repeated seismic slip episodes: The Ostler Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisetti, Francesca C.; Gorman, Andrew R.; Sibson, Richard H.

    2007-12-01

    The Ostler Fault is one of the major active reverse faults in the piedmont of the Southern Alps, SE of the Alpine Fault. We present a new geological and morphotectonic map of the southern Ostler Fault, integrated with two seismic reflection profiles across the active central segments of the fault. Segmented, subparallel scarps define a N-S belt (˜40 km long and 2-3 km wide) of pure reverse faults, which upthrow and back-tilt a panel of Plio-Pleistocene terrestrial units (2.4-1.0 Ma) plus the overlying glacial outwash (chronology of newly faulted markers, and tectonically controlled diversion of paleodrainages, all indicate progressive S to N breakthrough of the surface trace of the Ostler Fault in the last 2.4 Ma. The new seismic data define a main fault segment dipping 50°-60°W to depths of ˜1.5 km, with a vertical throw of 800 m, and a shortening of ˜30%. The fault geometry and kinematics and the subsurface data favor the interpretation that the Ostler Fault propagated updip across the Plio-Quaternary terrestrial sequence as the emerging, high-angle splay of an inherited Late Cretaceous-Paleocene normal fault, that underwent repeated cycles of compressional reactivation in the last 2.4 Ma.

  19. Influence of fault trend, bends, and convergence on shallow structure and geomorphology of the Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Watt, Janet T.

    2012-01-01

    We mapped an ∼94-km-long portion of the right-lateral Hosgri fault zone in offshore central California using a dense network of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, marine magnetic data, and multibeam bathymetry. These data document the location, length, and continuity of multiple fault strands, highlight fault-zone heterogeneity, and demonstrate the importance of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergence in the development of shallow structure and tectonic geomorphology along strike-slip faults.

  20. Melting and dehydration within mantle plumes and the formation of sub-parallel volcanic trends at intra-plate hotspots: Analysis of physical properties on spatial and temporal evolution of viscous plug formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundargi, R.; Hall, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent volcanism associated with the Hawaiian hotspot has long been recognized as occurring along two physically distinct, sub-parallel volcanic chains, known as the Loa and Kea trends [e.g., Jackson, 1972]. Recently, several additional intra-plate hotspots, including Samoa [Workman et al., 2004], Marquesas [Chauvel et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2011], and Societies [Payne et al., in press], have been shown to exhibit dual-chain volcanism similar to that at Hawaii. Despite the prevalence of this pattern of volcanism at hotspots, its cause is not well understood. Previous explanations for the presence of dual-chain volcanism at Hawaii focused on magma migration to explain the spatial distribution of volcanism. In particular, Hieronymus and Bercovici [1999] developed a model in which lithospheric flexure induced by loading from the growth of volcanic edifices alters magma migration pathways through the lithosphere over time. In this model, a perturbation to the magma supply, such as might be expected as the result of a change in plate motion, can result in the surface expression of magmatism being focused into two sub-parallel chains. Here, we investigate an alternative hypothesis for the formation of dual-chain volcanism, in which melting and dehydration of upwelling peridotite within a plume conduit leads to the creation of a plug of viscous, buoyant residuum that inhibits upward flow at the center of the plume conduit near the base of the lithosphere. This suppresses the rate of melt generation above the center of the conduit and results in a bifurcated distribution of melt production. We report on a series of 3-D numerical experiments in which mantle upwelling within a plume conduit impinges on the base of an overriding oceanic plate far from any plate boundaries. The experiments were conducted using CitcomCU. Melting and dehydration were modeled using a Lagrangian particle method, and a diffusion creep rheology that explicitly includes the effects of water on

  1. Structural character of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Braun, C.A.; Linden, R.M.; Martin, L.G.; Ross-Brown, D.M.; Blackburn, R.L. [SAIC, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Detailed structural mapping of an area that straddles the southern part of the Ghost Dance Fault has revealed the presence of several additional subparallel to anastomosing faults. These faults, mapped at a scale of 1:240, are: (1) dominantly north-trending, (2) present on both the upthrown and downthrown sides of the surface trace of the Ghost Dance fault, (3) near-vertical features that commonly offset strata down to the west by 3 to 6 m (10 to 20 ft), and (4) commonly spaced 15 to 46 m (50 to 150 ft) apart. The zone also exhibits a structural fabric, containing an abundance of northwest-trending fractures. The width of the zone appears to be at least 213 m (700 ft) near the southernmost boundary of the study area but remains unknown near the northern extent of the study area, where the width of the study area is only 183 m (600 ft).

  2. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  3. Faults Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  4. Fault Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis prob-lems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem setup introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis pr...

  5. The Geomorphological Developments Along the East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, R.; Caglayan, A.; Isik, V.; Seyitoglu, G.

    2014-12-01

    The collision of Eurasia with Arabia has given rise to intracontinental shortening in SE Turkey and development of large scale fault zones. The East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), a major active fault zone over 700 km in length with NE-striking, defines the boundary zone between Eurasia plate and Anatolian micro-plate. Although the northeastern continuation of the zone merges into the North Anatolian Fault Zone at Karliova region, the southwestern continuation has been the subject of some debate. The zone is characterized by numerous, complex faults and segmented surface ruptures. It cuts and offsets several distinctive units in east and southeast Turkey. The portion of the EAFZ examined in this study extends from Celikhan to Turkoglu. Active fault strands in this portion of the EAFZ is termed the Erkenek and Golbasi segments. The zone is made of several NE-SW closely spaced strands cut across Mesozoic-to-Tertiary variable rock units and structures, indicating inception of strike-slip motion in Quaternary and characterized by a series of basins. Fault-related several morphological features have been mapped are within the study area, suggesting the left-lateral motion of fault strands along this part of the EAFZ. Offset streams, beheaded channels, pressure and shutter ridges, linear valleys and ridges and sag ponds are prominent morpho-tectonic features. Offset streams have been measured as few meters to hundreds of meters and show sinistral displacement along the fault zone. Fault scarps, several tens of metres high, are developed in fan deposits along the length of the fault strands. Forming the set of linear sag ponds in Golbasi reveals extentional activity of the EAFZ in this area. Motion of fault strands formed linear valleys and ridges parallel to the faults which is most remarkable features. Our geomorphic studies demonstrated the ongoing activity of the the EAFZ between Celikhan to Turkoglu regions.

  6. Kinematic fault slip model from joint inversion of teleseismic, GPS, InSAR and subpixel-correlation measurements of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake and postseismic deformation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Wei, S.; Leprince, S.; Sladen, A.; Simons, M.; Avouac, J.; Briggs, R. W.; Hudnut, K. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Hensley, S.; Hauksson, E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Herring, T.; Akciz, S. O.

    2010-12-01

    We use interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images (InSAR) and pixel tracking by subpixel correlation of SAR and optical images to map the fault ruptures and surface deformation of the 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) in Baja California, Mexico. We then combine sampled InSAR and subpixel correlation results with GPS offsets at PBO stations and teleseismic waveforms in a joint inversion to produce a kinematic fault slip model. Pixel-tracking measurements from SPOT 2.5 m panchromatic images and from Envisat ASAR and ALOS PALSAR images measure large ground displacements close to fault ruptures, with a strong discontinuity where the rupture reached the surface. Optical image subpixel correlation measures horizontal displacements in both the east-west and north-south directions and shows the earthquake ruptured the Pescadores Fault in the southern Sierra Cucapah and the Borrego Fault in the central and northern edge of the mountain range. At the south end of the Sierra Cucapah, the fault ruptures fork into two subparallel strands with substantial slip on both visible. SAR image subpixel correlation measures horizontal deformation in the along-track direction of the satellite (approximately north or south) and in the radar line-of-sight direction. SAR along-track offsets, especially on ALOS images, show that there is a large amount of right-lateral slip (1-3 m) on a previously unmapped system of faults extending about 60 km to the southeast of the epicenter beneath the Colorado River Delta named the Indiviso Fault system. Aftershocks also extend approximately the same distance to the southeast. InSAR analyses of Envisat, ALOS and UAVSAR images, measure the surface displacements in the same radar line-of-sight as the range pixel tracking, but with much greater precision. Combination of SAR images from different directions allows the separation of the vertical and east components of the deformation, revealing the large normal fault

  7. The implications of fault zone transformation on aseismic creep: Example of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduri, Maor; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Renard, François; ćakir, Ziyadin; Lasserre, Cécile

    2017-06-01

    Aseismic creep is observed at surface along several segments of the North Anatolian right-lateral active fault in Turkey, a major plate boundary between Eurasia and Anatolia. Identifying the mechanisms that control creep and their temporal and spatial change represents a major challenge for predicting the mechanical evolution of active faults, the interplay between creep and earthquakes, and the link between short-term observations from geodesy and the long-term fault zone evolution. We combine geological observations, laboratory analyses, and imaging techniques, shedding new light on the mechanism of fault creep along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and its time-dependent change. A clear correlation is shown between shallow creep and near-surface fault gouge composition: locked segments of the NAF are mostly composed of massive limestones without clay gouges, whereas creeping segments comprise clay gouges that contain low-friction minerals. Such fault gouges appear to result from a progressive change of initial volcanic host rocks during their deformation. Anastomosing cleavage develops during the first stage of displacement, leading to layering, oblique at first and then subparallel to the fault, which accommodates part of the aseismic creep by pressure solution. Soluble minerals are dissolved, leading to passive concentration of phyllosilicates in the gouges where alteration transformations by fluid flow produce low friction minerals. At the same time damage zones are fractured and fractures are sealed by carbonates. As a result, these mineralogical and structural transformations weaken the gouge and strengthen the damage zone leading to the change from diffuse to localized seismic-aseismic zones.

  8. Quaternary faulting in the Tatra Mountains, evidence from cave morphology and fault-slip analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tectonically deformed cave passages in the Tatra Mts (Central Western Carpathians indicate some fault activity during the Quaternary. Displacements occur in the youngest passages of the caves indicating (based on previous U-series dating of speleothems an Eemian or younger age for those faults, and so one tectonic stage. On the basis of stress analysis and geomorphological observations, two different mechanisms are proposed as responsible for the development of these displacements. The first mechanism concerns faults that are located above the valley bottom and at a short distance from the surface, with fault planes oriented sub-parallel to the slopes. The radial, horizontal extension and vertical σ1 which is identical with gravity, indicate that these faults are the result of gravity sliding probably caused by relaxation after incision of valleys, and not directly from tectonic activity. The second mechanism is tilting of the Tatra Mts. The faults operated under WNW-ESE oriented extension with σ1 plunging steeply toward the west. Such a stress field led to normal dip-slip or oblique-slip displacements. The faults are located under the valley bottom and/or opposite or oblique to the slopes. The process involved the pre-existing weakest planes in the rock complex: (i in massive limestone mostly faults and fractures, (ii in thin-bedded limestone mostly inter-bedding planes. Thin-bedded limestones dipping steeply to the south are of particular interest. Tilting toward the N caused the hanging walls to move under the massif and not toward the valley, proving that the cause of these movements was tectonic activity and not gravity.

  9. Finding faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, J.; Duke, J. [Surpac Minex Group (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    The Surpac Minex Group has been building a geologic model to represent the coal seam structure at the Carbones del Cerrejon LLC mine in north eastern Colombia which is bonded by major reserve and normal faults. This is being achieved through a new software faulting tool. The tool combines existing Minex modelling with new fault interpretation tools. New software that permits 3-D photogrammetry and seismic data can also be incorporated. 6 figs.

  10. The evolution of faults formed by shearing across joint zones in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rodrick; Aydin, Atilla

    2004-05-01

    The evolution of strike-slip and normal faults formed by slip along joint zones is documented by detailed field studies in the Jurassic Aztec Sandstone in the Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, USA. Zones of closely spaced planar sub-parallel joints arranged en échelon are sheared, forming faults. Fracturing occurs as a result of shearing, forming new joints. Later shearing along these joints leads to successively formed small faults and newer joints. This process is repeated through many generations of fracturing with increasing fault slip producing a hierarchical array of structures. Strain localization produced by shearing of joint zones at irregularities in joint traces, fracture intersections, and in the span between adjacent sheared joints results in progressive fragmentation of the weakened sandstone, which leads to the formation of gouge along the fault zone. The length and continuity of the gouge and associated slip surfaces is related to the slip magnitude and fault geometry with slip ranging from several millimeters to about 150 m. Distributed damage in a zone surrounding the gouge core is related to the original joint zone configuration (step sense, individual sheared joint overlaps and separation), shear sense, and slip magnitude. Our evolutionary model of fault development helps to explain some outstanding issues concerning complexities in faulting such as, the variability in development of fault rock and fault related fractures, and the failure processes in faults.

  11. Stranded Specimen Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal and Turtle Division collects data about individual cetaceans and sea turtles that come ashore, or strand on the beach. The date and location of...

  12. Alaska Beluga Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NMFS is mandated by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to collect reports of marine mammal stranding events. This particular catalogue item is specific to the...

  13. Searching circular DNA strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo [Department of Technology Management, Holon Institute of Technology, Holon 58102 (Israel); Koren, Tal [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Klafter, Joseph [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2007-02-14

    We introduce and explore a model of an ensemble of enzymes searching, in parallel, a circular DNA strand for a target site. The enzymes performing the search combine local scanning-conducted by a 1D motion along the strand-and random relocations on the strand-conducted via a confined motion in the medium containing the strand. Both the local scan mechanism and the relocation mechanism are considered general. The search durations are analysed, and their limiting probability distributions-for long DNA strands-are obtained in closed form. The results obtained (i) encompass the cases of single, parallel and massively parallel searches, taking place in the presence of either finite-mean or heavy-tailed relocation times, (ii) are applicable to a wide spectrum of local scan mechanisms including linear, Brownian, selfsimilar, and sub-diffusive motions (iii) provide a quantitative theoretical justification for the necessity of the relocation mechanism, and (iv) facilitate the derivation of optimal relocation strategies.

  14. Ten kilometer vertical Moho offset and shallow velocity contrast along the Denali fault zone from double-difference tomography, receiver functions, and fault zone head waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A. A.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Tape, C.; Ruppert, N.; Ross, Z. E.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the structure of the Denali fault system in the crust and upper mantle using double-difference tomography, P-wave receiver functions, and analysis (spatial distribution and moveout) of fault zone head waves. The three methods have complementary sensitivity; tomography is sensitive to 3D seismic velocity structure but smooths sharp boundaries, receiver functions are sensitive to (quasi) horizontal interfaces, and fault zone head waves are sensitive to (quasi) vertical interfaces. The results indicate that the Mohorovičić discontinuity is vertically offset by 10 to 15 km along the central 600 km of the Denali fault in the imaged region, with the northern side having shallower Moho depths around 30 km. An automated phase picker algorithm is used to identify 1400 events that generate fault zone head waves only at near-fault stations. At shorter hypocentral distances head waves are observed at stations on the northern side of the fault, while longer propagation distances and deeper events produce head waves on the southern side. These results suggest a reversal of the velocity contrast polarity with depth, which we confirm by computing average 1D velocity models separately north and south of the fault. Using teleseismic events with M ≥ 5.1, we obtain 31,400 P receiver functions and apply common-conversion-point stacking. The results are migrated to depth using the derived 3D tomography model. The imaged interfaces agree with the tomography model, showing a Moho offset along the central Denali fault and also the sub-parallel Hines Creek fault, a suture zone boundary 30 km to the north. To the east, this offset follows the Totschunda fault, which ruptured during the M7.9 2002 earthquake, rather than the Denali fault itself. The combined results suggest that the Denali fault zone separates two distinct crustal blocks, and that the Totschunda and Hines Creeks segments are important components of the fault and Cretaceous-aged suture zone structure.

  15. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  16. Op het strand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    SAMENVATTING Het woord spiaggia ‘strand’ wordt besproken binnen het veld van woorden die een scheiding tussen land en water aangeven. Hierbij worden historisch verschillende scenario’s (frames) onderscheiden, al naar de functie de het strand destijds had. Spiaggia wordt vergeleken met zijn

  17. Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Strand SPA & Konverentsikeskus on Pärnu suurim äri- ja konverentsiklientidele suunatud hotell, mis klientide seas on hinnatud just selle kompleksuse tõttu, kuna kõik, mida külaline vajab ja soovib, on olemas ühe katuse all

  18. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  19. Strain partitioning and stress perturbation around stepovers and bends of strike-slip faults: Numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Mian; Ye, Jiyang; Cao, Jianling; Jing, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Stepovers and bends along strike-slip faults are where push-up ranges and pull-apart basins are formed. They are also commonly where fault ruptures terminate. Field study and analogue models suggest that the configuration of faults plays a key role in crustal deformation around bends and stepovers, but the related mechanics of stress perturbation, strain partitioning, and fault evolution remains poorly understood. Here we present results of systematical mechanical models of stress changes and strain partitioning around simple stepovers and bends, using three-dimensional viscoelasto-plastic finite element code. Our model predicts elevated deviatoric stress around all stepovers and bends, with higher stresses around the restraining ones. Narrow stepovers localize strain between the fault gaps to form connecting faults, whereas wide stepovers localize strain on the tips of fault segments so the stepovers may evolve into subparallel faults. We explored how various configurations of stepovers and bends change the stress field and strain distribution, and show that these results can help explain some key differences between the pull-apart basins in the Dead Sea Trough and Death Valley, and the push-up ranges along the San Andreas Fault.

  20. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  1. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  2. Sea Turtle Stranding Network Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network (STSSN) was formally established in 1980 to collect information on and document the stranding of marine turtles along...

  3. Oblique strike-slip faulting of the Cascadia submarine forearc: The Daisy Bank fault zone off central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Chris; Kulm, LaVerne D.; Yeats, Robert S.; Hummon, Cheryl; Huftile, Gary J.; Niem, Alan R.; McNeill, Lisa C.

    The Cascadia submarine forearc off Oregon and Washington is deformed by numerous active WNW-trending, left-lateral strike-slip faults. The kinematics of this set of sub-parallel left-lateral faults suggests clockwise block rotation of the forearc driven by oblique subduction. One major left-lateral strike-slip fault, the 94 km-long Daisy Bank fault, located off central Oregon, was studied in detail using high-resolution AMS 150 kHz and SeaMARC-lA sidescan sonar, swath bathymetry, multichannel seismic reflection profiles and a submersible. The Daisy Bank fault zone cuts the sediments and basaltic basement of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, and the overriding North American plate, extending from the abyssal plain to the upper slope-outer shelf region. The Daisy Bank fault, a near-vertical left-lateral fault striking 292°, is a wide structural zone with multiple scarps observed in high-resolution sidescan images. From a submersible, we observe that these scarps offset late Pleistocene gray clay and overlying olive green Holocene mud, dating fault activity as post-12 ka on the upper slope. Vertical separation along individual fault scarps ranges from a few centimeters to 130 meters. Using a retrodeformation technique with multichannel reflection records, we calculate a net slip of 2.2±0.5 km. Fault movement commenced at about 380±50 ka near the western fault tip, based upon an analysis of growth strata and correlation with deep-sea drill hole biostratigraphy. We calculate a slip rate of 5.7±2.0 mm/yr. for the Daisy Bank fault at its western end on the Juan de Fuca plate. The motion of the set of oblique faults, including the Daisy Bank fault, may accommodate a significant portion of the oblique component of plate motion along the central Cascadia margin. We propose a block rotation model by which the seawardmost part of the forearc rotates clockwise and translates northward.

  4. Motion in the north Iceland volcanic rift zone accommodated by bookshelf faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.; White, Robert S.; Greenfield, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Along mid-ocean ridges the extending crust is segmented on length scales of 10-1,000km. Where rift segments are offset from one another, motion between segments is accommodated by transform faults that are oriented orthogonally to the main rift axis. Where segments overlap, non-transform offsets with a variety of geometries accommodate shear motions. Here we use micro-seismic data to analyse the geometries of faults at two overlapping rift segments exposed on land in north Iceland. Between the rift segments, we identify a series of faults that are aligned sub-parallel to the orientation of the main rift. These faults slip through left-lateral strike-slip motion. Yet, movement between the overlapping rift segments is through right-lateral motion. Together, these motions induce a clockwise rotation of the faults and intervening crustal blocks in a motion that is consistent with a bookshelf-faulting mechanism, named after its resemblance to a tilting row of books on a shelf. The faults probably reactivated existing crustal weaknesses, such as dyke intrusions, that were originally oriented parallel to the main rift and have since rotated about 15° clockwise. Reactivation of pre-existing, rift-parallel weaknesses contrasts with typical mid-ocean ridge transform faults and is an important illustration of a non-transform offset accommodating shear motion between overlapping rift segments.

  5. Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Wang, J.; Pierce, M. E.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake Andrea Donnellan, Jay Parker, Brian Hawkins, Scott Hensley, Cathleen Jones, Susan Owen, Angelyn Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang Indiana University John Rundle University of California, Davis The South Napa to Santa Rosa area has been observed with NASA's UAVSAR since late 2009 as part of an experiment to monitor areas identified as having a high probability of an earthquake. The M 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014. The area was flown 29 May 2014 preceeding the earthquake, and again on 29 August 2014, five days after the earthquake. The UAVSAR results show slip on a single fault at the south end of the rupture near the epicenter of the event. The rupture branches out into multiple faults further north near the Napa area. A combined inversion of rapid GPS results and the unwrapped UAVSAR interferogram indicate nearly pure strike slip motion. Using this assumption, the UAVSAR data show horizontal right-lateral slip across the fault of 19 cm at the south end of the rupture and increasing to 70 cm northward over a distance of 6.5 km. The joint inversion indicates slip of ~30 cm on a network of sub-parallel faults is concentrated in a zone about 17 km long. The lower depths of the faults are 5-8.5 km. The eastern two sub-parallel faults break the surface, while three faults to the west are buried at depths ranging from 2-6 km with deeper depths to the north and west. The geodetic moment release is equivalent to a M 6.1 event. Additional ruptures are observed in the interferogram, but the inversions suggest that they represent superficial slip that does not contribute to the overall moment release.

  6. A Controllable Earthquake Rupture Experiment on the Homestake Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L. C.; Garagash, D.; Reches, Z.; Martel, S. J.; Gwaba, D.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fault-slip is typically simulated in the laboratory at the cm-to-dm scale. Laboratory results are then up-scaled by orders of magnitude to understand faulting and earthquakes processes. We suggest an experimental approach to reactivate faults in-situ at scales ~10-100 m using thermal techniques and fluid injection to modify in situ stresses and the fault strength to the point where the rock fails. Mines where the modified in-situ stresses are sufficient to drive faulting, present an opportunity to conduct such experiments. During our recent field work in the former Homestake gold mine in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, we found a large fault present on multiple mine levels. The fault is subparallel to the local foliation in the Poorman formation, a Proterozoic metamorphic rock deformed into regional-scale folds with axes plunging ~40° to the SSE. The fault extends at least 1.5 km along strike and dip, with a center ~1.5 km deep. It strikes ~320-340° N, dips ~45-70° NE, and is recognized by a ~0.3-0.5 m thick distinct gouge that contains crushed host rock and black material that appears to be graphite. Although we could not find clear evidence for fault displacement, secondary features suggest that it is a normal fault. The size and distinct structure of this fault make it a promising target for in-situ experimentation of fault strength, hydrological properties, and slip nucleation processes. Most earthquakes are thought to be the result of unstable slip on existing faults, Activation of the Homestake fault in response to the controlled fluid injection and thermally changing background stresses is likely to be localized on a crack-like patch. Slow patch propagation, moderated by the injection rate and the rate of change of the background stresses, may become unstable, leading to the nucleation of a small earthquake (dynamic) rupture. This controlled instability is intimately related to the dependence of the fault strength on the slip process and has been

  7. DNA strand displacement, strand annealing and strand swapping by the Drosophila Bloom's syndrome helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Brian T; Rio, Donald C

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Bloom's syndrome helicase homolog (mus309/DmBLM) indicates that DmBLM is required for the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway of homologous recombination. Here we report the first biochemical study of DmBLM. Recombinant, epitope-tagged DmBLM was expressed in Drosophila cell culture and highly purified protein was prepared from nuclear extracts. Purified DmBLM exists exclusively as a high molecular weight ( approximately 1.17 MDa) species, is a DNA-dependent ATPase, has 3'-->5' DNA helicase activity, prefers forked substrate DNAs and anneals complementary DNAs. High-affinity DNA binding is ATP-dependent and low-affinity ATP-independent interactions contribute to forked substrate DNA binding and drive strand annealing. DmBLM combines DNA strand displacement with DNA strand annealing to catalyze the displacement of one DNA strand while annealing a second complementary DNA strand.

  8. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  9. Analysis of the growth of strike-slip faults using effective medium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2009-10-15

    Increases in the dimensions of strike-slip faults including fault length, thickness of fault rock and the surrounding damage zone collectively provide quantitative definition of fault growth and are commonly measured in terms of the maximum fault slip. The field observations indicate that a common mechanism for fault growth in the brittle upper crust is fault lengthening by linkage and coalescence of neighboring fault segments or strands, and fault rock-zone widening into highly fractured inner damage zone via cataclastic deformation. The most important underlying mechanical reason in both cases is prior weakening of the rocks surrounding a fault's core and between neighboring fault segments by faulting-related fractures. In this paper, using field observations together with effective medium models, we analyze the reduction in the effective elastic properties of rock in terms of density of the fault-related brittle fractures and fracture intersection angles controlled primarily by the splay angles. Fracture densities or equivalent fracture spacing values corresponding to the vanishing Young's, shear, and quasi-pure shear moduli were obtained by extrapolation from the calculated range of these parameters. The fracture densities or the equivalent spacing values obtained using this method compare well with the field data measured along scan lines across the faults in the study area. These findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the fracture density/spacing distribution around faults and the transition from discrete fracturing to cataclastic deformation associated with fault growth and the related instabilities.

  10. Possible Connections Between the Coronado Bank Fault Zone and the Newport-Inglewood, Rose Canyon, and Palos Verdes Fault Zones Offshore San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection and deep-tow Huntec data collected by the USGS were interpreted to map the Coronado Bank fault zone (CBFZ) offshore San Diego County, California. The CBFZ is comprised of several major strands (eastern, central, western) that change in both orientation and degree of deformation along strike. Between Coronado Bank and San Diego, the CBFZ trends N25W and occupies a narrow 7 km zone. Immediately north of La Jolla submarine canyon (LJSC), the easternmost strand changes orientation to almost due north and appears to be offset in a right-lateral sense across the canyon axis. The strand merges with a prominent fault that follows the base of the continental slope in about 600 m water depth. The central portion of the CBFZ is mapped as a negative flower structure and deforms seafloor sediment as far north as 15 km north of LJSC. Farther north, this structure is buried by more than 400 m of basin sediment. Along the eastern edge of the Coronado Bank, the western portion of the CBFZ is characterized by high angle normal faults that dip to the east. North of the Coronado Bank, the western segment follows the western edge of a basement high; it cuts through horizontal basin reflectors and in places deforms the seafloor. We mapped an additional splay of the CBFZ that trends N40W; it is only observed north and west of LJSC. Although the predominant trend of the CBFZ is about N40W, along strike deviations from this orientation of some of the strands indicate that these strands connect with other offshore fault zones in the area. Based on the limited data available, the trend of the CBFZ south of Coronado Bank suggests that it might connect with the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) that has been mapped in San Diego Bay. North of Coronado Bank, the CBFZ is a much broader fault zone (about 25 km wide) composed of diverging fault strands. The westernmost strand may merge with the western strand of the Palos Verdes fault zone (PVFZ) south of

  11. Left-Lateral Strike-Slip Faulting in the East Alborz, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J.; Walker, R.; Jackson, J.; Bolourchi, M. J.; Eshraghi, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The East Alborz mountains of NE Iran are actively deforming as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. We combine observations of the geomorphology made using high resolution satellite, topographic and field data, with historical and recent seismicity to map major active faults in this poorly studied region. Deformation on the north side of the range occurs by range-normal shortening on the Khazar thrust fault, which separates Central Iran from the South Caspian. South of the range, deformation involves both left-lateral slip on the previously undocumented Shahrud fault system, which comprises several range-bounding fault segments, and shortening on (probably minor) thrust faults. Faulting south of the range is responsible for major historical earthquakes at Damghan (856AD) and Shahrud (1890). Deformation accommodated across the East Alborz is estimated from the difference in GPS velocities north and south of the range. South of the Alborz, northward GPS velocities across Central Iran decrease eastwards and the strike of the deforming belt changes to become more sub-parallel to the direction of South Caspian- Iran relative motion. This reduces the shortening component across the East Alborz, resulting in lower elevations between 54--57°E. West of 55.5°E, the more arc-normal shortening is achieved by partitioning of deformation onto the Khazar thrust (~1 mm/yr) and the Astaneh and Firuzkuh strike-slip faults (~3 mm/yr). East of 55.5°E, the Khazar fault ends and East Alborz deformation is accommodated primarily on the left-lateral Shahrud fault system, which may slip up to 3~mm/yr. Due to the long gap in seismicity along the eastern Shahrud fault system, the city of Jajarm (15,000 pop.) is considered at high risk from future earthquakes.

  12. Advanced Seismic Imaging Techniques Characterize the Alpine Fault at Whataroa (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, V.; Buske, S.; Lukács, A.; Gorman, A. R.; Bannister, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The plate-bounding Alpine Fault in New Zealand is a large transpressive continental fault zone that is late in its earthquake cycle. The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) aims to deliver insight into the geological structure of this fault zone and its evolution by drilling and sampling the Alpine Fault at depth. We have acquired and processed reflection seismic data to image the subsurface around the drill site. The resulting velocity models and seismic images of the upper 5 km show complex subsurface structures around the Alpine Fault zone. The most prominent feature is a strong reflector at depths of 1.2-2.2 km with a dip of ~40° to the southeast below the DFDP-2 borehole, which we assume to be the main trace of the Alpine Fault. The reflector exhibits varying lateral reflectivity along its extent. Additionally, subparallel reflectors are imaged that we interpret as secondary branches of the main fault zone. The derived P-wave velocity models reveal a 400-600 m thick sedimentary layer with velocities of ~2.3 km/s above a schist basement with velocities of 4.5-5.5 km/s. A pronounced low-velocity layer with velocities of approximately 3.5 km/s can be observed within the basement at 0.8-2 km depth. Small-scale low-velocity anomalies appear at the top of the basement and can be correlated to the fault zone. The results provide a reliable basis for a seismic site characterization at the DFDP-2 drill site that can be used for further structural and geological investigations of the architecture of the Alpine Fault in this area.

  13. Transpressional rupture of an unmapped fault during the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Calais, Éric

    2010-10-24

    On 12 January 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti. The disaster killed more than 200,000 people and caused an estimated $8 billion in damages, about 100% of the country?s gross domestic product. The earthquake was initially thought to have ruptured the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault of the southern peninsula of Haiti, which is one of two main strike-slip faults inferred to accommodate the 2cmyr -1 relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates. Here we use global positioning system and radar interferometry measurements of ground motion to show that the earthquake involved a combination of horizontal and contractional slip, causing transpressional motion. This result is consistent with the long-term pattern of strain accumulation in Hispaniola. The unexpected contractional deformation caused by the earthquake and by the pattern of strain accumulation indicates present activity on faults other than the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We show that the earthquake instead ruptured an unmapped north-dipping fault, called the Léogâne fault. The Léogâne fault lies subparallel tog-but is different fromg-the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We suggest that the 2010 earthquake may have activated the southernmost front of the Haitian fold-and-thrust belt as it abuts against the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. As the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault did not release any significant accumulated elastic strain, it remains a significant seismic threat for Haiti and for Port-au-Prince in particular. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.

    2009-01-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  15. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  16. Hydrogeological properties of fault zones in a karstified carbonate aquifer and their impact on groundwater circulation (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Helene; Schröckenfuchs, Theresa Christina; Decker, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a comparative, field-based hydrogeological characterization of exhumed, inactive fault zones in low porosity Triassic dolostones and limestones of the Hochschwab massif, a carbonate unit of high economic importance supplying 60% of the drinking water of Austria`s capital Vienna. The hydrogeology (groundwater storage and flow) of the massif has been reported to be essentially governed by karstified, large-scale faults. Previous work has shown that faults that formed during the Oligocene to Miocene lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps act as groundwater pathways draining the karst massif preferably in E-W-direction. We present hydrogeological relevant data from these types of fault zones and a conceptual model, which supports the idea that fault-zone networks also have the potential to contribute significantly to the storage capacity of the aquifer. With respect to fault zone architecture and rock content, four types of faults are presented: (1) faults with single stranded, minor fault cores, (2) faults with single stranded, permeable fault cores, (3) faults with single stranded, impermeable fault cores, and (4) faults with multiple stranded, permeable fault cores. Within these faults cataclastic rocks and strongly cemented cataclastic breccias form low-permeability ( 3%) with respect to the country rock ( 3% and permeabilities > 1000 mD form high-permeability domains. Our data illustrates significant differences in the architectural build-up of fault zones in dolostone (multiple-stranded cataclastic fault cores of weak lateral continuity, high volumes of intensely fractured rock) and limestone (laterally distinct, single-stranded fault cores, Riedel-shear fractures dominating fracture patterns). Karstic carbonate dissolution occurs preferentially along faults cores in limestones and, to a lesser degree, dolostones creating superposed high-permeability conduits. All faults contain domains of brecciated and highly fractured rocks along their

  17. Uniform pattern of normal faulting at the temporally distributed centers of eruption along the path of the Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Armita; Babaie, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    The northeasterly migration of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) has led both to the successive eruption of lava from a temporally ordered set of calderas, and related thermally-induced normal faulting along the Snake River Plain (SRP) over the past 16.6 Ma. We have applied a series of structural and statistical methods to analyze the spatial distribution and orientation of the normal faults to understand the kinematics of the mid-Tertiary-Quaternary faulting event along the SRP in the northern Rockies. The azimuths of the linear directional mean (LDM) and the directional (autocorrelation) anisotropy ellipses in the semivariograms, applying Ordinary Kriging, for different sets of normal fault traces give an estimate for the horizontal component of extension for normal faulting. The sub-parabolic spatial pattern of the normal fault LDMs, and their sub-parallel alignment with the minor axes of the Standard Deviation Ellipses (SDEs) in and around different caldera, suggest uniform normal faulting during thermally-induced extensions along the SRP. The asymmetric, sub-parabolic distribution of the spatial trajectories (form lines) of the LDMs and the major axes of the directional (anisotropy) ellipses of the traces of normal faults in the youngest three calderas are similar to the reported parabolic distribution of earthquake epicenters along active normal faults around the YHS. The parallelism of the axis of the sub-parabolic pattern with the trajectories of the LDMs, the major axes of the directional anisotropy ellipses, and the deduced extension directions for each caldera, suggest systematic and progressive normal faulting due to the thermal regime of the hotspot as it migrated to the northeast. This implies that the age of normal faulting progressively decreases to the northeast.

  18. The East Anatolian Fault Zone: Seismotectonic setting and spatiotemporal characteristics of seismicity based on precise earthquake locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, F.; Bohnhoff, M.; Eken, T.; Janssen, C.; Kilic, T.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    The East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) represents a plate boundary extending over approx. 500 km between the Arabian and Anatolian plates. Relative plate motion occurs with slip rates ranging from 6 to 10 mm/yr and has resulted in destructive earthquakes in eastern Turkey as documented by historical records. In this study, we investigate the seismic activity along the EAFZ and fault kinematics based on recordings from a densified regional seismic network providing the best possible azimuthal coverage for the target region. We optimize a reference 1-D velocity model using a grid-search approach and re-locate hypocenters using the Double-Difference earthquake relocation technique. The refined hypocenter catalog provides insights into the kinematics and internal deformation of the fault zone down to a resolution ranging typically between 100 and 200 m. The distribution of hypocenters suggests that the EAFZ is characterized by NE-SW and E-W oriented sub-segments that are sub-parallel to the overall trend of the fault zone. Faulting mechanisms are predominantly left-lateral strike-slip and thus in good correlation with the deformation pattern derived from regional GPS data. However, we also observe local clusters of thrust and normal faulting events, respectively. While normal faulting events typically occur on NS-trending subsidiary faults, thrust faulting is restricted to EW-trending structures. This observation is in good accordance with kinematic models proposed for evolving shear zones. The observed spatiotemporal evolution of hypocenters indicates a systematic migration of micro- and moderate-sized earthquakes from the main fault into adjacent fault segments within several days documenting progressive interaction between the major branch of the EAFZ and its secondary structures. Analyzing the pre versus post-seismic phase for M > 5 events we find that aftershock activities are initially spread to the entire source region for several months but start to cluster at

  19. SYNTHETIC STRANDS OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Joyce E.; Lieberman, Melvyn; Roggeveen, Anne E.; Kirk, R. Gary

    1972-01-01

    Spontaneously active bundles of cardiac muscle (synthetic strands) were prepared from isolated cells of 11–13-day old embryonic chick hearts which were disaggregated with trypsin. Linear orientation of the cells was obtained by plating them on agar-coated culture dishes in which either grooves were cut in the agar film or a thin line of palladium was deposited over the agar. The influence of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions was observed with time lapse cinematography and the formation of the synthetic strand was shown to involve both random and guided cell movements, enlargement of aggregates by accretion and coalescence, and the compact linear arrangement of cells along paths of preferential adhesion. Electron microscope investigations of these strands showed that a dispersed population of heart cells organized into an inner core of muscle cells and an outer sheath of fibroblast-like cells. The muscle cells contained well-developed, but widely spaced myofibrils, a developing sarcoplasmic reticulum associated in part with the myofibrils and in part with the sarcolemma, an abundance of nonmembrane bound ribosomes and glycogen, and a prominent Golgi complex. Numerous specialized contacts were observed between the muscle cells in the strand, e.g., fasciae adherentes, desmosomes, and nexuses. A distinct type of muscle cell characterized by its pale appearance was regularly observed in the strand and was noted to be similar to Purkinje cells described in the adult avian conduction system and in developing chick myocardium. The present findings were compared with other observations of the developing myocardium, in situ, and it was concluded that, by a number or criteria, the muscle cells of the strand were differentiating normally and suitably organized for electrophysiological studies. PMID:4656702

  20. Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes at the Spring Lake and North Creek Sites on the Wasatch Fault Zone: Evidence for complex rupture of the Nephi Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duross, Christopher; Hylland, Michael D.; Hiscock, Adam; Personius, Stephen; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.; Beukelman, Gregg; McDonald, Geg N; Erickson, Ben; McKean, Adam; Angster, Steve; King, Roselyn; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The Nephi segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) comprises two fault strands, the northern and southern strands, which have evidence of recurrent late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes. We excavated paleoseismic trenches across these strands to refine and expand their Holocene earthquake chronologies; improve estimates of earthquake recurrence, displacement, and fault slip rate; and assess whether the strands rupture separately or synchronously in large earthquakes. Paleoseismic data from the Spring Lake site expand the Holocene record of earthquakes on the northern strand: at least five to seven earthquakes ruptured the Spring Lake site at 0.9 ± 0.2 ka (2σ), 2.9 ± 0.7 ka, 4.0 ± 0.5 ka, 4.8 ± 0.8 ka, 5.7 ± 0.8 ka, 6.6 ± 0.7 ka, and 13.1 ± 4.0 ka, yielding a Holocene mean recurrence of ~1.2–1.5 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~0.5–0.8 mm/yr. Paleoseismic data from the North Creek site help refine the Holocene earthquake chronology for the southern strand: at least five earthquakes ruptured the North Creek site at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka (2σ), 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, 2.6 ± 0.9 ka, 4.0 ± 0.1 ka, and 4.7 ± 0.7 ka, yielding a mean recurrence of 1.1–1.3 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~1.9–2.0 mm/yr. We compare these Spring Lake and North Creek data with previous paleoseismic data for the Nephi segment and report late Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.0–1.2 kyr for the northern strand and ~1.1–1.3 kyr for the southern strand. The northern and southern strands have similar late Holocene earthquake histories, which allow for models of both independent and synchronous rupture. However, considering the earthquake timing probabilities and per-event vertical displacements, we have the greatest confidence in the simultaneous rupture of the strands, including rupture of one strand with spillover rupture to the other. Ultimately, our results improve the surface-faulting earthquake history of the Nephi segment and enhance our understanding of how structural barriers

  1. Library construction for ancient genomics: single strand or double strand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Lizzo, Giulia; Daligault, Julien; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    A novel method of library construction that takes advantage of a single-stranded DNA ligase has been recently described and used to generate high-resolution genomes from ancient DNA samples. While this method is effective and appears to recover a greater fraction of endogenous ancient material, there has been no direct comparison of results from different library construction methods on a diversity of ancient DNA samples. In addition, the single-stranded method is limited by high cost and lengthy preparation time and is restricted to the Illumina sequencing platform. Here we present in-depth comparisons of the different available library construction methods for DNA purified from 16 ancient and modern faunal and human remains, covering a range of different taphonomic and climatic conditions. We further present a DNA purification method for ancient samples that permits the concentration of a large volume of dissolved extract with minimal manipulation and methodological improvements to the single-stranded method to render it more economical and versatile, in particular to expand its use to both the Illumina and the Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. We show that the single-stranded library construction method improves the relative recovery of endogenous to exogenous DNA for most, but not all, of our ancient extracts.

  2. Field Evidences for Fault Surface Lubrication by Friction-Induced Melts During Coseismic Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Toro, G.; Teza, G.

    2003-12-01

    Lubrication by friction-induced melts has been proposed as a mechanism for fault weakening during earthquakes. Field evidence for melt lubrication of the fault surfaces is lacking, however, although the andesitic/basaltic composition (i.e. low-viscosity melts) of the matrix of many tectonic pseudotachylytes (solidified friction-induced melts) suggests low dynamic shear strength during coseismic slip. The Gole Larghe Fault Zone is an exhumed seismic source crosscutting the Adamello tonalites (Italian Southern Alps) and is exposed in a glacially polished area. In the fault zone, displacement is partitioned in more than 100 subparallel faults. Fault rocks are an association of pseudotachylytes and cataclasites produced at 6-8 km depth and 250-300 oC. Given the large extent of the outcrop and the large number of structural markers within the tonalites, it has been possible to reproduce the 2D profile (i.e. intersection of the fault surface with the outcrop surface) of 25 different pseudotachylyte-bearing faults and to relate the fault profile with the displacement accommodated by each fault. Two lines of field evidence suggest that shear strength is low during coseismic slip: 1) A maximum shear stress of only 20 MPa has been estimated from the amount of mechanical work converted to heat during coseismic slip to produce the measured volume of pseudotachylyte in single-jerk faults. Although a shear strength of 20 MPa is a minimum estimate since part of the displacement has been accommodated without production of pseudotachylytes, such strengths are very small considering the depth where seismic faulting has occurred. 2) The fractal dimension (measured with a box-counting method) of the 2D profile of pseudotachylyte-bearing faults increases from 1.0 to a constant value of 1.15 with increasing displacement. In experimentally generated friction melts, the fractal dimension of molten surfaces increases from 1.0 to 1.1 when, with increasing slip, a steady state value for the

  3. The GEM fault database: an update on design and approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, M.; Grant, L.; Donnellan, A.; McLeod, D.

    2003-04-01

    We are developing a fault database for California, USA that includes geological and paleoseismic data. This abstract describes our approach to designing the database. The fault database is part of a larger database system that must manage a variety of types of earthquake science data and information. One of the most critical aspects of our proposed system is that it must support interoperability for a variety of application programs, tools, and simulation packages, as well as heterogeneous data. Our system must also be designed to handle real and simulated data. For hypothesis testing and predictive simulation, it is important to separate nonprimary parameters from primary observations, and to know the source of input data. Our goal is to design and develop a database that includes primary geologic and paleoseismic fault parameters, as well as separate nonprimary fault parameters, with all data referenced to the original source. The fault database should accommodate primary observational parameters such as fault location and geometry, kinematic indicators, slip rate, rupture history and recurrence observations, and measurements of displacement. Nonprimary parameters include fault names, strand names, segments, characteristic recurrence interval, and magnitude. Our database will include simulated faults, mapped faults, and hypothesized faults for testing through our simulations. The separation of primary and nonprimary data will allow assimilation of data into models with minimal bias. An XML scheme will be utilized to describe parameters of faults and input data. The fault database will eventually be supported by a state-of-the-art commercially-available general-purpose database management system (DBMS). Initially, our database system will be developed on a public domain DBMS. We have developed extended entity relationships, which will be mapped to a relational database and will initially be implemented in MySQL.

  4. Fault zones in Triassic Muschelkalk limestones of the Upper Rhine Graben: Infrastructure characterization and permeability structure analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Philipp, Sonja L.

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of fault zones is of particular importance in geothermal reservoirs since there may be great effects on fluid flow. Fault zones generally consist of two major hydromechanical units: the fault core and the damage zone, surrounded by the unaffected host rock. To improve predictions of fracture system parameters for each unit and resulting estimations of reservoir permeabilities at depths, we perform outcrop analogue studies. We analyze Middle Triassic Muschelkalk limestones that form one potential geothermal reservoir formation in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), in quarries on its eastern graben shoulder. We measure the orientations and displacements of various fault zones and characterize the fracture systems within the fault zone units and the host rock. Important features in terms of reservoir permeability are the fracture aperture, the fracture connectivity and the fracture vertical extension. Fractures have to be connected to create a hydraulically relevant flow path and non-stratabound fractures could create a hydraulic connectivity between multiple layers. We observed a decreasing fracture length with increasing distance to the fault core but a better connectivity between shorter fractures in the well-developed damage zones. Our studies show, however, that the differing mechanical properties in the analyzed limestone-marl alternations are significant for the fracture propagation, even in the fault zones. Based on the field data we use analytical models to estimate the permeabilities of the analyzed fracture systems. Results show increased fracture frequencies in the fault zone damage zones and larger fracture apertures parallel or subparallel to fault zone strike and to the URG that lead to enhanced permeabilities compared with other fracture orientations. Mineralized fractures accumulated in directions parallel or subparallel to fault zone strike as well as observed mineralizations in some fault cores indicate a fluid flow along the fault

  5. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  6. Groundwater penetrating radar and high resolution seismic for locating shallow faults in unconsolidated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)]|[South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.; Waddell, M.G. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.; Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps Ltd., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediments, particularly in coastal plain settings, are very difficult to discern during subsurface exploration yet have critical impact to groundwater flow, contaminant transport and geotechnical evaluations. This paper presents a case study using cross-over geophysical technologies in an area where shallow faulting is probable and known contamination exists. A comparison is made between Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data, ground penetrating radar, and high resolution seismic data. Data from these methods were verified with a cone penetrometer investigation for subsurface lithology and compared to existing monitoring well data. Interpretations from these techniques are compared with actual and theoretical shallow faulting found in the literature. The results of this study suggests that (1) the CPT study, combined with the monitoring well data may suggest that discontinuities in correlatable zones may indicate that faulting is present (2) the addition of the Wenner and dipole-dipole data may further suggest that offset zones exist in the shallow subsurface but not allow specific fault planes or fault stranding to be mapped (3) the high resolution seismic data will image faults to within a few feet of the surface but does not have the resolution to identify the faulting on the scale of our models, however it will suggest locations for upward continuation of faulted zones (4) offset 100 MHz and 200 MHz CMP GPR will image zones and features that may be fault planes and strands similar to our models (5) 300 MHz GPR will image higher resolution features that may suggest the presence of deeper faults and strands, and (6) the combination of all of the tools in this study, particularly the GPR and seismic may allow for the mapping of small scale, shallow faulting in unconsolidated sediments.

  7. Iowa Bedrock Faults

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This fault coverage locates and identifies all currently known/interpreted fault zones in Iowa, that demonstrate offset of geologic units in exposure or subsurface...

  8. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  9. Microwave drying of wood strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanben Du; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of microwave drying of wood strands with different initial moisture contents and geometries were investigated using a commercial small microwave oven under different power inputs. Temperature and moisture changes along with the drying efficiency were examined at different drying scenarios. Extractives were analyzed using gas chromatography=mass...

  10. Surface faulting during the August 24, 2016, central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz A. Livio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present some preliminary results on the mapping of coseismically-induced ground ruptures following the Aug. 24, 2016, Central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0. The seismogenic source, as highlighted by InSAR and seismological data, ruptured across two adjacent structures: the Vettore and Laga faults. We collected field data on ground breaks along the whole deformed area and two different scenarios of on-fault coseismic displacement arise from these observations. To the north, along the Vettore fault, surface faulting can be mapped quite continuously along a well-defined fault strand while such features are almost absent to the south, along the Laga fault, where flysch-like marly units are present. A major lithological control, affects the surface expression of faulting, resulting in a complex deformation pattern.

  11. Software fault tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinov, Tofik Hasanaga; Mostafa, Jalilian Shahrukh

    2009-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce errorfree software, software fault tolerance is and will contiune to be an important consideration in software system. The root cause of software design errors in the complexity of the systems. This paper surveys various software fault tolerance techniquest and methodologies. They are two gpoups: Single version and Multi version software fault tolerance techniques. It is expected that software fault tolerance research will benefit from this research...

  12. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out that there...

  13. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  14. The effect of fault segmentation on the dynamics of fast-slipping oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P. M.; Behn, M. D.; Lin, J.; Grove, T. L.; Montési, L. G.

    2007-12-01

    The majority of oceanic transform faults (OTFs) systems along the fast-spreading equatorial East Pacific Rise are segmented into two or more strike-slip fault strands as a result of plate motion reorganization. Fresh basaltic lava sampled from these locations (e.g., the Siqueiros and Garrett OTFs) indicate that active crustal accretion is occurring within these transform systems. New Residual Mantle Bouguer gravity Anomalies (RMBA) calculated along fast-slipping OTFs are found to be more negative than the RMBA values along adjacent ridge segments. One possible explanation for these observations is enhanced magmatic upwelling and crustal accretion at intra- transform spreading centers (ITSC) and within the transform valley of the fast-slipping OTFs. In this study, we examine two end-member 3-D thermal models (constant viscosity rheology versus visco-plastic rheology) to explore mantle flow and melt extraction beneath segmented transform faults. Melt fraction is calculated using the parameterized fractional melting model of Kinzler and Grove (JGR, 1992a, 1992b, and 1993), and the fractional crystallization models of Yang et al. (Cont. Min. Pet., 1996). We evaluate the sensitivity of these models to various parameters including transform fault geometry, mantle potential temperature, and initial mantle composition. Preliminary results for a 100 km-long transform fault, slipping at 100 mm/yr, segmented by a single 10 km-long ITSC indicate that incorporating a visco-plastic rheology results in an approximately 35 percent decrease in the brittle fault area (Siqueiros transform fault and make direct comparisons between predicted crustal thickness and melt composition with gravity-derived crustal thickness variations and major element analyses of glass samples recovered from the Siqueiros transform fault domain.

  15. Geometry and kinematics of the eastern Lake Mead fault system in the Virgin Mountains, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Sue; Campagna, David J.; Anderson, R. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Mead fault system is a northeast-striking, 130-km-long zone of left-slip in the southeast Great Basin, active from before 16 Ma to Quaternary time. The northeast end of the Lake Mead fault system in the Virgin Mountains of southeast Nevada and northwest Arizona forms a partitioned strain field comprising kinematically linked northeast-striking left-lateral faults, north-striking normal faults, and northwest-striking right-lateral faults. Major faults bound large structural blocks whose internal strain reflects their position within a left step-over of the left-lateral faults. Two north-striking large-displacement normal faults, the Lakeside Mine segment of the South Virgin–White Hills detachment fault and the Piedmont fault, intersect the left step-over from the southwest and northeast, respectively. The left step-over in the Lake Mead fault system therefore corresponds to a right-step in the regional normal fault system.Within the left step-over, displacement transfer between the left-lateral faults and linked normal faults occurs near their junctions, where the left-lateral faults become oblique and normal fault displacement decreases away from the junction. Southward from the center of the step-over in the Virgin Mountains, down-to-the-west normal faults splay northward from left-lateral faults, whereas north and east of the center, down-to-the-east normal faults splay southward from left-lateral faults. Minimum slip is thus in the central part of the left step-over, between east-directed slip to the north and west-directed slip to the south. Attenuation faults parallel or subparallel to bedding cut Lower Paleozoic rocks and are inferred to be early structures that accommodated footwall uplift during the initial stages of extension.Fault-slip data indicate oblique extensional strain within the left step-over in the South Virgin Mountains, manifested as east-west extension; shortening is partitioned between vertical for extension-dominated structural

  16. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems....... These inputs are disturbance inputs, reference inputs and auxilary inputs. The diagnosis of the system is derived by an evaluation of the signature from the inputs in the residual outputs. The changes of the signatures form the external inputs are used for detection and isolation of the parametric faults....

  17. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  18. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... can occur simultaneously, whereas faults belonging to different fault sets appear disjoint in time. The proposed fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme consists of three steps. A fault detection (FD) step is followed by a fault set isolation (FSI) step. Here the fault set is isolated wherein...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step....

  19. Tsunami simulations of the 1867 Virgin Island earthquake: Constraints on epicenter location and fault parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Roy; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2010-01-01

    The 18 November 1867 Virgin Island earthquake and the tsunami that closely followed caused considerable loss of life and damage in several places in the northeast Caribbean region. The earthquake was likely a manifestation of the complex tectonic deformation of the Anegada Passage, which cuts across the Antilles island arc between the Virgin Islands and the Lesser Antilles. In this article, we attempt to characterize the 1867 earthquake with respect to fault orientation, rake, dip, fault dimensions, and first tsunami wave propagating phase, using tsunami simulations that employ high-resolution multibeam bathymetry. In addition, we present new geophysical and geological observations from the region of the suggested earthquake source. Results of our tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison limit the earthquake source to be along the northern wall of the Virgin Islands basin, as suggested by Reid and Taber (1920), or on the carbonate platform north of the basin, and not in the Virgin Islands basin, as commonly assumed. The numerical simulations suggest the 1867 fault was striking 120°–135° and had a mixed normal and left-lateral motion. First propagating wave phase analysis suggests a fault striking 300°–315° is also possible. The best-fitting rupture length was found to be relatively small (50 km), probably indicating the earthquake had a moment magnitude of ∼7.2. Detailed multibeam echo sounder surveys of the Anegada Passage bathymetry between St. Croix and St. Thomas reveal a scarp, which cuts the northern wall of the Virgin Islands basin. High-resolution seismic profiles further indicate it to be a reasonable fault candidate. However, the fault orientation and the orientation of other subparallel faults in the area are more compatible with right-lateral motion. For the other possible source region, no clear disruption in the bathymetry or seismic profiles was found on the carbonate platform north of the basin.

  20. First palaeoseismological data on the Santa Marta Fault System, Northern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idárraga, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Santa Marta Fault System (SMFS) is a NNW-striking major structural feature that controls the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta (northern Colombia), the world's highest coastal relief. Morphotectonically, the SMFS exhibits an arrangement of parallel to subparallel fault traces. These traces are associated with a set of offset streams indicating a left-lateral component for displacement. NE-trending compressive structures as reverse faults (e.g. the Orihueca and San Pedro faults) and folds (the Fundación Anticline), and NW-trending distensive structures as normal faults are present too. These structures are consistent with a left-lateral shear zone striking NNW. An unlitified ruditic deposit with tectonic deformation crops out at the Riofrío site; this deposit consists of a series of debris slope layers linked to a deyection cone. The documented deformation in this outcrop is characterized by a tilting of the sequence to NE (against the direction of deposition) and by the presence of inverse faulting in which the coseismic displacement could have been distributed across distensive structures (normal faults and opened fractures). A magnitude (Mw) of 6.4 was calculated for the compressive event based on the displacement measured on the outcrop; this value corresponds to a minimum magnitude. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to date the deposits to constrain the tectonic events in time. The results of this research constitute the first data on the palaeoseismology of the SMFS, and are an important basis for future paleoseismic studies that allow calculating the seismic hazard of the region and giving an approximation of the Plio-Quaternary evolution of the South American northwestern corner.

  1. Age and isotopic systematics of Cretaceous borehole and surface samples from the greater Los Angeles Basin region: Implications for the types of crust that might underlie Los Angeles and their distribution along late Cenozoic fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Nine U-Pb zircon ages were determined on plutonic rocks sampled from surface outcrops and rock chips of drill core from boreholes within the greater Los Angeles Basin region. In addition, lead-strontium-neodymium (Pb-Sr-Nd) whole-rock isotopic data were obtained for eight of these samples. These results help to characterize the crystalline basement rocks hidden in the subsurface and provide information that bears on the tectonic history of the myriad of fault systems that have dissected the Los Angeles region over the past 15 m.y. Seven of the nine samples have U-Pb ages ranging from 115 to 103 Ma and whole-rock Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics that indicate the crystalline basement underneath the greater Los Angeles Basin region is mostly part of the Peninsular Ranges batholith. Furthermore, these data are interpreted as evidence for (1) the juxtaposition of mid-Cretaceous, northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges in the San Fernando Valley, probably along the Verdugo fault; (2) the juxtaposition of older northwestern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks against younger northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks in the northern Puente Hills, implying transposition of northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith rocks to the west along unrecognized faults beneath the Chino Basin; and (3) juxtaposition of northern Peninsular Ranges batholith plutonic rocks against Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Transverse Ranges along the San Jose fault in the northern San Jose Hills at Ganesha Park. These mainly left-lateral strike-slip faults of the eastern part of the greater Los Angeles Basin region could be the result of block rotation within the adjacent orthogonal, right-lateral, Elsinore-Whittier fault zone to the west and the subparallel San Jacinto fault zone to the east. The San Andreas fault system is the larger, subparallel, driving force further to the east.

  2. Deformation rates across the San Andreas Fault system, central California determined by geology and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Sarah J.

    The San Andreas fault system is a transpressional plate boundary characterized by sub-parallel dextral strike-slip faults separating internally deformed crustal blocks in central California. Both geodetic and geologic tools were used to understand the short- and long-term partitioning of deformation in both the crust and the lithospheric mantle across the plate boundary system. GPS data indicate that the short-term discrete deformation rate is ˜28 mm/yr for the central creeping segment of the San Andreas fault and increases to 33 mm/yr at +/-35 km from the fault. This gradient in deformation rates is interpreted to reflect elastic locking of the creeping segment at depth, distributed off-fault deformation, or some combination of these two mechanisms. These short-term fault-parallel deformation rates are slower than the expected geologic slip rate and the relative plate motion rate. Structural analysis of folds and transpressional kinematic modeling were used to quantify long-term distributed deformation adjacent to the Rinconada fault. Folding accommodates approximately 5 km of wrench deformation, which translates to a deformation rate of ˜1 mm/yr since the start of the Pliocene. Integration with discrete offset on the Rinconada fault indicates that this portion of the San Andreas fault system is approximately 80% strike-slip partitioned. This kinematic fold model can be applied to the entire San Andreas fault system and may explain some of the across-fault gradient in deformation rates recorded by the geodetic data. Petrologic examination of mantle xenoliths from the Coyote Lake basalt near the Calaveras fault was used to link crustal plate boundary deformation at the surface with models for the accommodation of deformation in the lithospheric mantle. Seismic anisotropy calculations based on xenolith petrofabrics suggest that an anisotropic mantle layer thickness of 35-85 km is required to explain the observed shear wave splitting delay times in central

  3. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cardelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  4. Three-dimensional fault framework of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Assignment of the South Napa earthquake to a mapped fault is difficult, as it occurred where three large, northwest-trending faults converge and may interact in the subsurface. The surface rupture did not fall on the main trace of any of these faults, but instead between the Carneros and West Napa faults and northwest along strike from the northern mapped end of the Franklin Fault. The 2014 rupture plane appears to be nearly vertical, based on focal mechanisms of the mainshock and connection of the surface trace/rupture to the relocated hypocenter (J. Hardebeck, USGS). 3D surfaces constructed from published data show that the Carneros Fault is a steeply west-dipping fault that runs just west of the near-vertical 2014 rupture plane. The Carneros Fault does not appear to have been involved in the earthquake, although relocated aftershocks suggest possible minor triggered slip. The main West Napa Fault is also steeply west-dipping and that its projection intersects the 2014 rupture plane at around the depth of the mainshock hypocenter. UAVSAR data (A. Donnellan, JPL) and relocated aftershocks suggest that the main West Napa Fault experienced triggered slip/afterslip along a length of roughly 20 km. It is possible that the 2014 rupture took place along a largely unrecognized westerly strand of the West Napa Fault. The Franklin Fault is a steeply east-dipping fault (with a steeply west-dipping subordinate trace east of Mare Island) that has documented late Quaternary offset. Given the generally aligned orientation of the 3D fault surfaces, an alternative interpretation is that the South Napa earthquake occurred on the northernmost reach of the Franklin Fault within it's 3D junction with the West Napa Fault. This interpretation is supported, but not proven, by a short but prominent linear feature in the UAVSAR data at Slaughterhouse Point west of Vallejo, along trend south-southeast of the observed coseismic surface rupture.

  5. How Faults Shape the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents fault activity with an emphasis on earthquakes and changes in continent shapes. Identifies three types of fault movement: normal, reverse, and strike faults. Discusses the seismic gap theory, plate tectonics, and the principle of superposition. Vignettes portray fault movement, and the locations of the San Andreas fault and epicenters of…

  6. Aseismic Slip Events along the Southern San Andreas Fault System Captured by Radar Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, P

    2001-10-01

    A seismic slip is observed along several faults in the Salton Sea and southernmost Landers rupture zone regions using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data spanning different time periods between 1992 and 1997. In the southernmost Landers rupture zone, projecting south from the Pinto Mountain Fault, sharp discontinuities in the interferometric phase are observed along the sub-parallel Burnt Mountain and Eureka Peak Faults beginning three months after the Landers earthquake and is interpreted to be post-Landers after-slip. Abrupt phase offsets are also seen along the two southernmost contiguous 11 km Durmid Hill and North Shore segments of the San Andreas Fault with an abrupt termination of slip near the northern end of the North Shore Segment. A sharp phase offset is seen across 20 km of the 30 km-long Superstition Hills Fault before phase decorrelation in the Imperial Valley along the southern 10 km of the fault prevents coherent imaging by InSAR. A time series of deformation interferograms suggest most of this slip occurred between 1993 and 1995 and none of it occurred between 1992 and 1993. A phase offset is also seen along a 5 km central segment of the Coyote Creek fault that forms a wedge with an adjoining northeast-southwest trending conjugate fault. Most of the slip observed on the southern San Andreas and Superstition Hills Faults occurred between 1993 and 1995--no slip is observed in the 92-93 interferograms. These slip events, especially the Burnt Mountain and Eureka Peak events, are inferred to be related to stress redistribution from the June, 1992 M{sub w} = 7.3 Landers earthquake. Best-fit elastic models of the San Andreas and Superstition Hills slip events suggest source mechanisms with seismic moments over three orders of magnitude larger than a maximum possible summation of seismic moments from all seismicity along each fault segment during the entire 4.8-year time interval spanned by the InSAR data. Aseismic moment releases of this

  7. Splay Faults and Associated Mass Transport Deposits in the Manila Accretionary Wedge near Taiwan: Implications for Geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A. T.; Liu, C. S.; Dirgantara, F.

    2015-12-01

    Plate interface megathrusts are major seismogenic faults in subduction zone, capable of generating great earthquakes with widespread submarine landslides and damaging tsunami. Upward branching of megathrusts results in splay faults in the accretionary wedge. Reflection seismic data across the accretionary wedge off southern Taiwan, reveal at least two strands of splay faults as well as multiple stacked mass transport deposits (MTDs) nearby the faults. With the help of sediment coring and age datings in the vicinity of the splay fault, implications for temporal evolution of the mass wasting processes and episodic activities of splay faults are discussed in this paper. Seismic data show two branches of arcward and gently-dipping splay faults with two slope basins lying in the footwall and hangingwall of the faults, respectively. The older and buried splay fault is inactive as the fault tip is covered by up to 1000 m thick sediments in the footwall slope basin, indicating that it ceased to be active around 0.5 Ma ago. Repeated slip of this fault prior to ~0.5 Ma ago may also result in 4 stacked and multiple mass transport deposits (MTDs) of up to 700-m thick found in vicinity of this fault. This fossil splay fault is characterized by reflection polarity similar to that of seafloor, indicative of low water saturation along the fault zone and hence not an active fluid conduit. The younger and overlying splay fault cuts through the seafloor and the emergent fault tip lying at the toe of steep slope (~ 15 degree) with significant slope break. There is also a 500-m horizontal offset, between the buried paleo-seafloor in the footwall and the present-day seafloor on the hangingwall. The reflection polarity of this fault zone is reversed to that of seafloor, indicating fluid rich for this fault patch. These lines of evidence suggest that this young splay fault is an active fault with active fluid circulation along the fault. Our results indicate that the old splay fault

  8. Uncovering dynamic fault trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junges, Sebastian; Guck, Dennis; Katoen, Joost P.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    Fault tree analysis is a widespread industry standard for assessing system reliability. Standard (static) fault trees model the failure behaviour of systems in dependence of their component failures. To overcome their limited expressive power, common dependability patterns, such as spare management,

  9. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... that carried the control system designer through the steps necessary to consider fault handling in an early design phase. It was shown how an existing control loop with interface to the plant wide control system could be extended with three additional modules to obtain fault tolerance: Fault detection...

  10. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  11. Fault damage zone origin of the Teufelsmauer, Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Christian; Schultz, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of fractures as porosity-reducing deformation bands pervading all sandstone segments of the Teufelsmauer, Subhercynian Creatceous Basin, Germany, motivates a study relating the observed macroscopic and microscopic deformation to the damage zone of the nearby Harz border fault. Deformation bands, confirmed and documented by several porosity-reducing micro-mechanisms, such as cataclasis, particulate flow, pressure solution and a heavy quartz cementation, were mapped and analyzed in terms of the kinematics and deformation intensities expressed by them. Deformation band kinematics are uniform throughout the entire basin and consistent with the large-scale tectonic structures of the area. A strain intensity study highlights two narrow but long zones of deformation bands, sub-parallel to the Harz border fault. Deformation band kinematics, strain intensity, as well as micro-mechanisms are all consistent with a continuous but internally diverse deformation band damage zone of the entire Teufelsmauer structure along the Harz border fault, bringing new insights into the tectonic evolution and the origin of the heavy quartz cementation of the sandstones in the Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin.

  12. Two new beta-strand mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J H; Waldman, A S; Nowick, J S

    1999-01-01

    In a previous report, Nowick and co-workers described beta-strand mimic A, which duplicates the structure and hydrogen-bonding pattern of one edge of a tetrapeptide in a beta-strand conformation (Nowick, J. S.; Pairish, M.; Lee, I. Q.; Holmes, D. L.; Ziller, J. W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 5413). Beta-strand mimic A is composed of a 5-amino-2-methoxybenzoic acid unit linked to a 5-hydrazino-2-methoxybenzamide unit by means of an acylhydrazine group. This paper introduces two related beta-strand mimics (B and C) and reports their comparison to beta-strand mimic A. Beta-strand mimic B is composed of a 5-amino-2-methoxybenzoic acid unit linked by a diacylhydrazine group to a fumaramide unit; beta-strand mimic C is composed of a 5-amino-2-methoxybenzoic acid unit linked by a diacylhydrazine group to a peptide. Beta-strand mimics A-C were connected to tripeptide (Phe-Ile-Leu) groups by means of 1,2-diaminoethane diurea turn units to form artificial beta-sheets 1-3. 1H NMR studies, involving ROESY, chemical shift, coupling constant, and variable temperature experiments, reveal that 1-3 adopt hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-sheet conformations and establish that all three templates are viable beta-strand mimics.

  13. Static stress transfer within the Cephalonia Transfer Fault Zone (CTFZ) during the 2014 seismic sequence in Cephalonia and the 2015 earthquake in Lefkada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboras, Sotiris; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Pavlides, Spyros; Karastathis, Vassilis; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The 2014 seismic sequence in Cephalonia and the following 2015 earthquake in Lefkada Islands, Greece, showed that the Cephalonia Transfer Fault Zone (CTFZ), which runs along the western coasts of both islands, comprises a wide fault zone of parallel to sub-parallel fault segments. The January-February 2014 sequence of Cephalonia consisted of three moderate to strong events. According to published focal mechanisms, the first strongest shock (January 26, Mw 6.1) was produced by a W-dipping, oblique (right-lateral reverse) fault, the second (January 26, Mw 5.3) by a ENE-dipping, pure reverse fault and the third by a ESE-dipping, almost pure right-lateral strike slip fault. The November 17 2015 (Mw 6.4) Lefkada earthquake was produced by a WNW-dipping, roughly vertical, almost pure right-lateral strike-slip fault. None of the shocks above produced any direct coseismic ground rupture, while published relocated hypocentral locations for the Cephalonia sequence revealed various depths indicating a complex fault pattern. Based on published seismological, geological and satellite data (i.e. InSAR), the respective seismic sources were modelled in order to calculate the static stress changes i) during the Cephalonia and Lefkada sequences, and ii) after the sequences for the surrounding faults from the Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources (GreDaSS). Results showed that the February 3 2014 Cephalonia fault was variously affected by the rupture of the two January 26 faults. Stress change distribution on the fault plane showed that both stress drop and rise occurred. The November 17 2015 Lefkada fault was slightly loaded after the rupture of the whole Cephalonia fault system due to the great distance. The post-sequence stress changes variously affect the surrounding faults: the southern segment of the CTFZ is relieved from stresses, while the central ones show a mixed situation. The large northern segment, offshore from Lefkada Island, is mainly under stress drop. Stress drop is

  14. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  15. Fault-tolerant design

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This textbook serves as an introduction to fault-tolerance, intended for upper-division undergraduate students, graduate-level students and practicing engineers in need of an overview of the field.  Readers will develop skills in modeling and evaluating fault-tolerant architectures in terms of reliability, availability and safety.  They will gain a thorough understanding of fault tolerant computers, including both the theory of how to design and evaluate them and the practical knowledge of achieving fault-tolerance in electronic, communication and software systems.  Coverage includes fault-tolerance techniques through hardware, software, information and time redundancy.  The content is designed to be highly accessible, including numerous examples and exercises.  Solutions and powerpoint slides are available for instructors.   ·         Provides textbook coverage of the fundamental concepts of fault-tolerance; ·         Describes a variety of basic techniques for achieving fault-toleran...

  16. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2006-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...

  17. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  18. Activation of Fault Structures South of the La Habra Earthquake Rupture As Evidenced By UAVSAR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Hauksson, E.

    2014-12-01

    The 28 March, 2014 M 5.2 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left-lateral oblique thrust fault at the northeastern margin of the LA Basin, where regional right-lateral shear is accommodated by major northwest trending faults of the Peninsular Ranges, and north-south shortening is accommodated by north-dipping thrust faults and east-west trending folds of the Transverse Ranges. The La Habra mainshock location and focal mechanism is northwest of but sub-parallel to the Puente Hills thrust fault. Relocated seismicity highlights a northeast-trending rupture plane consistent with the magnitude and focal mechanism of the event. NASA's UAVSAR L-Band radar instrument was flown for north and south looking lines before the earthquake on 22 January 2014. The north looking line was reflown three days after the earthquake on 31 March, 2014, and the south looking line was reflown a week later on 4 April 2014. The UAVSAR Repeat Pass Interferogram (RPI) products show deformation consistent with the location of the mainshock beneath the town of La Habra. The results also show considerable aseismic northward horizontal deformation with minor uplift in the West Coyote Hills, south of the relocated seismicity. Inversion of the combined interferograms is consistent with south dipping low-angle (7°) shallow slip that corresponds to bedding plane attitudes and a mapped unconformity. The entire West Coyote Hills show 37 mm of modeled northward slip with an additional 34 mm of modeled slip concentrated near the Coyote Hills Park northeast of the intersection of Rosecrans Avenue and North Gilbert Street. A narrow band of shortening was also observed with UAVSAR, and confirmed with on-the-ground field observations, at the Trojan Way Kink Band, nearly one fault dimension southwest of the main rupture.

  19. Kinematic Analysis of Fault-Slip Data in the Central Range of Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Sapiie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.1.1-16Most of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution in New Guinea is a result of obliquely convergent motion that ledto an arc-continent collision between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The Gunung Bijih (Ertsberg Mining District(GBMD is located in the Central Range of Papua, in the western half of the island of New Guinea. This study presentsthe results of detailed structural mapping concentrated on analyzing fault-slip data along a 15-km traverse of theHeavy Equipment Access Trail (HEAT and the Grasberg mine access road, providing new information concerning thedeformation in the GBMD and the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Central Range. Structural analysis indicatesthat two distinct stages of deformation have occurred since ~12 Ma. The first stage generated a series of en-echelonNW-trending (π-fold axis = 300° folds and a few reverse faults. The second stage resulted in a significant left-lateralstrike-slip faulting sub-parallel to the regional strike of upturned bedding. Kinematic analysis reveals that the areasbetween the major strike-slip faults form structural domains that are remarkably uniform in character. The changein deformation styles from contractional to a strike-slip offset is explained as a result from a change in the relativeplate motion between the Pacific and Australian Plates at ~4 Ma. From ~4 - 2 Ma, transform motion along an ~ 270°trend caused a left-lateral strike-slip offset, and reactivated portions of pre-existing reverse faults. This action had aprofound effect on magma emplacement and hydrothermal activity.

  20. Unraveling the strands of Saturn's F ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C.D.; Gordon, M.K.; Giuliatti, Winter S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Several high-resolution Voyager 2 images of Saturn's F ring show that it is composed of at least four separate, non-intersecting strands extending ~45?? in longitude. Voyager 1 images show that the two brightest strands appear to intersect, giving rise to a "braided" morphology. From a study of all available Voyager images the detectable radial structure is cataloged and reviewed. Previous indications that there is fine material interior to the orbit of the F ring are confirmed. Evidence is presented that a model of four strands with comparable eccentricities and nearly aligned perichrones is consistent with all the Voyager observations. The observed perichrone offset of the two brightest strands suggests a minimum radial separation of ~20 km, which implies intersection of these strands when their finite radial widths are taken into account. The longitude range of such an intersection includes that observed in the Voyager 1 "braid" images. The proximity of these two strands at some longitudes may account for the apparent differences in the ring between the Voyager encounters, as well as provide a source for the short-lived features detected in the Hubble Space Telescope images of the F ring. There is no evidence that the locations of the individual strands are determined by resonant perturbations with known satellites. It is proposed that the radial structure is formed by the localized action of small satellites orbiting within the strand region. ?? 1997 Academic Press.

  1. DNA Strand Patterns on Aluminium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahhosseini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS applications in general.

  2. Quaternary Fault Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  3. Quaternary basin formation along the Dien Bien Phu fault zone and its neotectonic implication of northwestern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Chung, L.; Li, P.; Lam, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Dien Bien Phu (DBP) fault zone is one of the most conspicuous fault systems in the Indochina, extending over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China through the NW Vietnam into Laos. Recent Global Positioning system (GPS) data in China yielded that the present clockwise rotation of the southeastern Tibet block geologically corresponds to a region of left-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault and Dien Bien Phu fault, which appear to have accommodated clockwise rotation; whereas other GPS data from the network of Southeast Asia proposed that Indochina constitutes a stable tectonic block moving approximately east with respect to Eurasia. Although above GPS data show insignificant differential motion along DBP fault, active sinistral slip can be identified by clear geomorphic features, focal solutions and seismicity distribution in a NNE-striking zone parallel to the fault zone. Mapping of surface fault traces along the DBP fault zone using field outcrops, geophysical data, and geomorphologic features recognized by the aerial photos, SRTM, ASTER imageries and derived digital elevation models shows that virtually all active faults are reactivated structures sub-parallel to chronostratigraphic boundary. Along the DBF fault, three larger basins have been developed by different kinematics from north to south. The northern one at Chan Nua is rhomboidal in shape with a dimension of 2.5 km?.5 km, which can be defined as a pull-apart basin resulted by the strike-slip motion of the DBP fault. The fault configuration associated with the central one changes to two parallel sinistral and sinistral-normal faults forming a narrow subsiding weak zone (10 km?.5 km) filled with Quaternary deposits. The southern one is, however, created by that the main DBP fault bends the strike from NNE to NE where branches out a sinistral- normal fault with N-striking controlling a half-graben basin (17 km? km) filled with Quaternary deposits about 200 m in depth above

  4. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  5. Seismic constraints on the architecture of the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault: Implications for the length and magnitude of future earthquake ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, Valerie; Bormann, Jayne; Driscoll, Neal; Harding, Alistair; Kent, Graham; Wesnousky, Steve

    2017-03-01

    The Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon (NIRC) fault zone is an active strike-slip fault system within the Pacific-North American plate boundary in Southern California, located in close proximity to populated regions of San Diego, Orange, and Los Angeles counties. Prior to this study, the NIRC fault zone's continuity and geometry were not well constrained. Nested marine seismic reflection data with different vertical resolutions are employed to characterize the offshore fault architecture. Four main fault strands are identified offshore, separated by three main stepovers along strike, all of which are 2 km or less in width. Empirical studies of historical ruptures worldwide show that earthquakes have ruptured through stepovers with this offset. Models of Coulomb stress change along the fault zone are presented to examine the potential extent of future earthquake ruptures on the fault zone, which appear to be dependent on the location of rupture initiation and fault geometry at the stepovers. These modeling results show that the southernmost stepover between the La Jolla and Torrey Pines fault strands may act as an inhibitor to throughgoing rupture due to the stepover width and change in fault geometry across the stepover; however, these results still suggest that rupture along the entire fault zone is possible.

  6. Petrologic-geodynamic models of the geochemical evolution of the segmented Siqueiros transform fault (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P. M.; Perfit, M. R.; Fornari, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent investigations of the dynamics of fast-slipping oceanic transform faults have illustrated the highly transient nature of these systems. Rather than focusing deformation along single long-lived fault strands, many fast-slipping transform fault systems exhibit complex plate boundaries and tectonic histories. Along the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) plate motion reorganizations have resulted in the segmentation of 8 of the 9 major transform fault systems. We focus our investigation on the Siqueiros transform fault, which has been the site of detailed surveying and sampling along its four intra-transform spreading centers (ITSCs) and connecting fault strands. The structural history of the Siqueiros transform fault is complex with several counterclockwise changes in spreading direction of the EPR causing transtension within the fault domain, resulting in the formation of four ITSCs at discrete time intervals. Geochemical analyses of lavas from the western portion of Siqueiros generally fit into a similar compositional space as the northern EPR ridge axis lavas, while lavas collected from the eastern Siqueiros appear more closely linked in composition to rocks from the adjacent EPR south of the transform. However, no systematic along-transform chemical gradient is observed and a few lavas collected along the eastern Siqueiros are more similar in composition to the northern EPR ridge segment. Furthermore, the only E-MORB from the transform domain were recovered from the western ridge-transform intersection. In contrast, some of the most incompatible depleted and primitive basalts erupted along one of the western fault strands. These geochemical observations suggest that the Siqueiros transform preserves small-scale mantle heterogeneities beneath the transform domain. We utilize time-dependent, three-dimensional petrologic-geodynamic models to investigate the chemical evolution of the mantle beneath the Siqueiros transform fault in response to changes in

  7. Carlsbad, San Onofre, and San Mateo Fault Zones: Possible Right-Lateral Offset Along the Slope-Basin Transition, Offshore Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Maier, K. L.; Brothers, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Several poorly understood faults are exposed along the mid- and lower slope offshore southern California from Encinitas to San Clemente. From south to north, these faults have been referred to as the Carlsbad, San Onofre, and San Mateo fault zones, which are generally characterized as nearly vertical to steeply east-dipping faults with a reverse slip component. The U.S. Geological Survey collected high-resolution seismic reflection and bathymetric data from 2009-2012 to better characterize these faults. From offshore Encinitas to Oceanside, these data reveal a complex and variable fault zone that structurally controls the slope-basin transition. In this area, the faults show both reverse as well as normal offset, but may also include an unknown amount of strike-slip offset. North of Oceanside, however, faulting shows clear evidence of right-lateral slip, offsetting submarine channels near the base of the slope by approximately 60 m. North of these offset channels, the base of the slope bends about 30° to the west, following the trend of the San Mateo fault zone, but fault strands on strike with those that offset the channels trend obliquely up slope, appearing to merge with the Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ) on the shelf. These fault strands consist of several en echelon left-stepping segments separated by "pop-up" structures, which imply a significant component of right-lateral offset along this fault zone, and thus may serve to transfer right-lateral slip from faults along the base of the slope to the NIFZ. This fault zone also separates structures associated with the San Mateo fold and thrust belt to the west from undeformed slope sediments to the east. The existence of significant right-lateral slip on faults along the slope and slope-basin transition has implications for assessing seismic hazards associated with the NIFZ, and also provides constraints on possible reverse motion on the hypothesized Oceanside Thrust.

  8. Unlocking of the North Anatolian Fault prior to the 2014 M 6.9 North Aegean Earthquake: Evidence from seismological and geodetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Fatih; Ozener, Haluk; Dogru, Asli; Aktug, Bahadir

    2017-04-01

    We integrated long-term microseismicity and near-fault GPS measurements to elaborate on generation process of the 2014 M 6.9 Aegean Earthquake. The mainshock ruptured part of the westernmost segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), Turkey. We observed that the 2014 M 6.9 Aegean earthquakes were preceded by almost a decade-long period of enhanced microearthquake activity representing a front-edge fracturing process preparing the failure. Microseismicity-derived pre-seismic low-slip patches are interpreted to represent locked fault sections rather than a pure a-seismic creep. The nucleation of the mainshock occurred at low-slip patches where the lowest pre-slip has been accommodated along the ruptured fault section. For the time period of 2006-2014, acceleration in microseismicity delays for one year with respect to the increase in GPS-derived tectonic motion. This verifies that the tectonic loading drives the acceleration in microseismicity. The direction of GPS-derived velocity field rotates systematically from 234° to 244° clockwise, which tends smoothly to be sub-parallel to the local fault strike. This rotation corresponds to upward migration of locking depth from 13.0 km to 8.0 km within a time period of eight years suggesting unlocking of the NAF prior to the 2014 M 6.9 North Aegean Earthquake.

  9. Regional Survey of Structural Properties and Cementation Patterns of Fault Zones in the Northern Part of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico - Implications for Ground-Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need to document and evaluate the types and variability of fault zone properties that potentially affect aquifer systems in basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, we systematically characterized structural and cementation properties of exposed fault zones at 176 sites in the northern Albuquerque Basin. A statistical analysis of measurements and observations evaluated four aspects of the fault zones: (1) attitude and displacement, (2) cement, (3) lithology of the host rock or sediment, and (4) character and width of distinctive structural architectural components at the outcrop scale. Three structural architectural components of the fault zones were observed: (1) outer damage zones related to fault growth; these zones typically contain deformation bands, shear fractures, and open extensional fractures, which strike subparallel to the fault and may promote ground-water flow along the fault zone; (2) inner mixed zones composed of variably entrained, disrupted, and dismembered blocks of host sediment; and (3) central fault cores that accommodate most shear strain and in which persistent low- permeability clay-rich rocks likely impede the flow of water across the fault. The lithology of the host rock or sediment influences the structure of the fault zone and the width of its components. Different grain-size distributions and degrees of induration of the host materials produce differences in material strength that lead to variations in width, degree, and style of fracturing and other fault-related deformation. In addition, lithology of the host sediment appears to strongly control the distribution of cement in fault zones. Most faults strike north to north-northeast and dip 55? - 77? east or west, toward the basin center. Most faults exhibit normal slip, and many of these faults have been reactivated by normal-oblique and strike slip. Although measured fault displacements have a broad range, from 0.9 to 4,000 m, most are host the greatest concentrations

  10. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  11. Faults in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Thomas, Gaël; Saha, Suman

    2011-01-01

    a major problem? To answer these questions, we have transported the experiments of Chou et al. to Linux versions 2.6.0 to 2.6.33, released between late 2003 and early 2010. We find that Linux has more than doubled in size during this period, but that the number of faults per line of code has been......In 2001, Chou et al. published a study of faults found by applying a static analyzer to Linux versions 1.0 through 2.4.1. A major result of their work was that the drivers directory contained up to 7 times more of certain kinds of faults than other directories. This result inspired a number...... decreasing. And, even though drivers still accounts for a large part of the kernel code and contains the most faults, its fault rate is now below that of other directories, such as arch (HAL) and fs (file systems). These results can guide further development and research efforts. To enable others...

  12. Fault Detection for Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault-relevant KPCA algorithm is proposed. Then the fault detection approach is proposed based on the fault-relevant KPCA algorithm. The proposed method further decomposes both the KPCA principal space and residual space into two subspaces. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, the fault subspace is separated based on the fault-relevant influence. This method can find fault-relevant principal directions and principal components of systematic subspace and residual subspace for process monitoring. The proposed monitoring approach is applied to Tennessee Eastman process and penicillin fermentation process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.

    2000-01-01

    availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault......Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...

  14. The stranding anomaly as population indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltier, Helene; Baagøe, Hans J.; Camphuysen, Kees C. J.

    2013-01-01

    credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform...... conditions did not explain observed seasonal variations of porpoise strandings. Long-term stranding anomalies increased first in the southern North Sea, the Channel and Bay of Biscay coasts, and finally the eastern North Sea. The hypothesis of changes in porpoise distribution was consistent with local visual...... surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005). This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna....

  15. Alaska Marine Mammal Strandings/Entanglements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database represents a summary of information on stranded marine mammals reported to NMFS throughout the State of Alaska in fulfillment of Title IV of the Marine...

  16. Offset of latest pleistocene shoreface reveals slip rate on the Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dartnell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the regional Hosgri–San Gregorio dextral strike‐slip fault system, which extends primarily in the offshore for about 400 km in central California. Between Morro Bay and San Simeon, high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry reveals that the eastern strand of the Hosgri fault is crossed by an ∼265  m wide slope interpreted as the shoreface of a latest Pleistocene sand spit. This sand spit crossed an embayment and connected a western fault‐bounded bedrock peninsula and an eastern bedrock highland, a paleogeography resembling modern coastal geomorphology along the San Andreas fault. Detailed analysis of the relict shoreface with slope profiles and slope maps indicates a lateral slip rate of 2.6±0.9  mm/yr, considered a minimum rate for the Hosgri given the presence of an active western strand. This slip rate indicates that the Hosgri system takes up the largest share of the strike‐slip fault budget and is the most active strike‐slip fault west of the San Andreas fault in central California. This result further demonstrates the value and potential of high‐resolution bathymetry in characterization of active offshore faults.

  17. Analysis of stranded information using an automated procedure for strand specific RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, Benjamín; Emanuelsson, Olof; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2014-07-28

    Strand specific RNA sequencing is rapidly replacing conventional cDNA sequencing as an approach for assessing information about the transcriptome. Alongside improved laboratory protocols the development of bioinformatical tools is steadily progressing. In the current procedure the Illumina TruSeq library preparation kit is used, along with additional reagents, to make stranded libraries in an automated fashion which are then sequenced on Illumina HiSeq 2000. By the use of freely available bioinformatical tools we show, through quality metrics, that the protocol is robust and reproducible. We further highlight the practicality of strand specific libraries by comparing expression of strand specific libraries to non-stranded libraries, by looking at known antisense transcription of pseudogenes and by identifying novel transcription. Furthermore, two ribosomal depletion kits, RiboMinus and RiboZero, are compared and two sequence aligners, Tophat2 and STAR, are also compared. The, non-stranded, Illumina TruSeq kit can be adapted to generate strand specific libraries and can be used to access detailed information on the transcriptome. The RiboZero kit is very effective in removing ribosomal RNA from total RNA and the STAR aligner produces high mapping yield in a short time. Strand specific data gives more detailed and correct results than does non-stranded data as we show when estimating expression values and in assembling transcripts. Even well annotated genomes need improvements and corrections which can be achieved using strand specific data. Researchers in the field should strive to use strand specific data; it allows for more confidence in the data analysis and is less likely to lead to false conclusions. If faced with analysing non-stranded data, researchers should be well aware of the caveats of that approach.

  18. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-07

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  19. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...... the challenge model and the requirements for challenge participants. In addition, it motivates many of the faults by citing publications that give field data from wind turbine control tests....

  20. Constraining fault growth rates and fault evolution in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, G.; Bull, J. M.; Barnes, P.M.; Taylor, S.K.; Horgan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how faults propagate, grow and interact in fault systems is important because they are primarily responsible for the distribution of strain in the upper crust. They localise deformation and stress release, often producing surface displacements that control sedimentation and fluid flow either by acting as conduits or barriers. Identifying fault spatial distribution, quantifying activity, evaluating linkage mechanism, and estimating fault growth rates are key components in seismic...

  1. Are quartz LPOs predictably oriented with respect to the shear zone boundary?: A test from the Alpine Fault mylonites, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.

    2016-03-01

    The Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has a known slip kinematics. Within ˜1 km of the fault, the mylonitic foliation is subparallel to the boundary of the amphibolite-facies ductile shear zone in which it formed. Using EBSD, we analyzed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations [LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the Alpine Fault. All LPOs feature a strongest girdle of [c]-axes that is forward-inclined ˜28 ± 4° away from the pole to the fault. A maximum of axes is inclined at the same angle relative the fault. The [c]-axis girdle is perpendicular to extensional (C') shear bands and the maximum is parallel to their slip direction. [c]-axis girdles do not form perpendicular to the SZB. Schmid factor analysis suggests that σ1 was arranged at 60-80° to the Alpine Fault. These observations indicate ductile transpression in the shear zone. The inclined arrangement of [c]-axis girdles, axes, and C' planes relative to the fault can be explained by their alignment relative to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate in a general shear zone, a significant new insight regarding shear zones and how LPO fabrics may generally develop within them. For the Alpine mylonite zone, our data imply a kinematic vorticity number (Wk) of ˜0.7 to ˜0.85. Inversions of seismic focal mechanisms in the brittle crust of the Southern Alps indicate that σ1 is oriented ˜60° to the Alpine Fault; that shear bands form at ˜30° to this direction, and that σ2 and σ3 flip positions between the brittle and ductile parts of the crust.

  2. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  3. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  4. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR) ...

  5. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  6. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  7. Fault management and systems knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  8. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can...

  9. Normal Fault Growth on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. P.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Ferrill, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Displacement versus length relationships of faults on Earth and Mars have been used to describe and interpret the evolution of faults and fault systems, infer differences in the relative strengths of strata, and evaluate variations in fault-system response to differences in gravity from planet to planet. In this presentation, we focus on maximum throw versus trace length (Dmax/L) of continuously mappable faults and Dmax/L of individual fault segments. Fault analyses on Mars have the advantage of a planetary surface devoid of vegetation and largely unaffected by weathering and erosion. Areas on the flanks of Alba Patera, Mars, were chosen because they are well imaged by all generations of data coverage, contain fault systems that have a range of developmental characteristics, and formed in a relatively simple tectonic setting dominated by extension. Footwall and hanging wall cutoff traces of more than 300 faults were interpreted using Viking imagery and ArcGIS software. Throw was obtained by calculating the elevation difference between adjacent footwall and hanging wall points using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data. Throw versus along-strike trace length plots were constructed for each interpreted fault. Single fault segments are defined as having one well-defined displacement maximum bounded by two near-zero displacement minima. Segments within a multi-segment fault were identified by counting displacement maxima along the fault trace. The number of segments incorporated into multi-segment faults is positively correlated with the fault trace length. In a plot of Dmax versus L, whole faults are distributed approximately along a locus of Dmax = K × Ln, where K = 5 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-2 and n = 1. This is in agreement with previous studies of faults on Mars. Single fault segments form a distinct population whose distribution is described approximately by the same equation but where K = 1.7 × 10-3. Dmax/L ratios for multi-segment faults represent an apparently self

  10. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  11. Normal faulting of the Daiichi-Kashima Seamount in the Japan Trench revealed by the Kaiko I cruise, Leg 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Cadet, J.-P.; Aubouin, J.; Boulegue, J.; Dubois, J.; von, Huene R.; Jolivet, L.; Kanazawa, T.; Kasahara, J.; Koizumi, K.-i.; Lallemand, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Pautot, G.; Suyehiro, K.; Tani, S.; Tokuyama, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed topographic and geophysical survey of the Daiichi-Kashima Seamount area in the southern Japan Trench, northwestern Pacific margin, clearly defines a high-angle normal fault which splits the seamount into two halves. A fan-shaped zone was investigated along 2-4 km spaced, 100 km long subparallel tracks using narrow multi-beam (Seabeam) echo-sounder with simultaneous measurements of gravity, magnetic total field and single-channel seismic reflection records. Vertical displacement of the inboard half was clearly mapped and its normal fault origin was supported. The northern and southern extensions of the normal fault beyond the flank of the seamount were delineated. Materials on the landward trench slope are displaced upward and to sideways away from the colliding seamount. Canyons observed in the upper landward slope terminate at the mid-slope terrace which has been uplifted since start of subduction of the seamount. Most of the landward slope except for the landward walls aside the seamount comprises only a landslide topography in a manner similar to the northern Japan Trench wall. This survey was conducted on R/V "Jean Charcot" as a part of the Kaiko I cruise, Leg 3, in July-August 1984 under the auspices of the French-Japanese scientific cooperative program. ?? 1987.

  12. Active Strike-Slip Faulting in the Inner Continental Borderland, Southern California: Results From New High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. E.; Ryan, H. F.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The inner Continental Borderland offshore of southern California accommodates about 7 mm/yr of slip between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly half of this total has previously been thought to be taken up on the Palos Verdes (PV) and Coronado Bank (CB) fault zones, which have been modeled as a single, continuous fault zone in recent seismic hazard assessments for southern California. Although these faults lie roughly on strike with each other, a connection between these faults has not been clearly demonstrated. Newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection data indicate that the PV fault terminates southwest of Lasuen Knoll in a horsetail splay that becomes progressively buried to the south. The lack of a connection between the PV and CB fault zones implies that a significant amount of slip must be taken up elsewhere in the inner Continental Borderland. Two other significant offshore faults, the San Diego Trough (SDT) and San Pedro Basin (SPB) fault zones, lie about 10-15 km southwest of and sub parallel to the trace of the PV and CB faults. The SDT fault zone extends from south of the Mexican border near Punta Santo Tomas for about 150 km northward to near Crespi Knoll. The SPB fault zone extends northward from off Santa Catalina Island to near Point Dume. The new seismic reflection data reveal a previously unmapped but apparently active fault zone along strike and in the area between the known strands of the SDT and the SPB fault zones. This newly recognized fault links the SDT and SPB faults, forming a continuous, active fault zone that extends about 250 km along the inner Continental Borderland. Although there are no slip rate data available for this fault zone, its overall length, continuity, and active character suggest that a significant portion of the plate motion that occurs offshore is accommodated along the SDT-SPB fault zone, which may pose a more significant seismic hazard than previously recognized.

  13. The engine fuel system fault analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Song, Hanqiang; Yang, Changsheng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    For improving the reliability of the engine fuel system, the typical fault factor of the engine fuel system was analyzed from the point view of structure and functional. The fault character was gotten by building the fuel system fault tree. According the utilizing of fault mode effect analysis method (FMEA), several factors of key component fuel regulator was obtained, which include the fault mode, the fault cause, and the fault influences. All of this made foundation for next development of fault diagnosis system.

  14. Formal fault tree semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Schellhorn, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Formal fault tree semantics / G. Schellhorn, A. Thums, and W. Reif. - In: IDPT : Proceedings of the Sixth World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology : June 23 - 27, 2003, Pasadena, California / SDPS, Society for Design & Process Science. - 2002. - 1CD-ROM

  15. Diagnosing Intermittent Faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemund, A.J.C.; Abreu, R.F.; Zoeteweij, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this working report we outline how to determine the intermittency parameters gj from the activity matrix A (context: DX’08 paper Abreu, Zoeteweij, Van Gemund). We start with the single fault (SF) case and show that averaging over the error vector e is the exact way. We also show that in this way

  16. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  17. Detecting Faults from Encoded Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fault detection for linear continuous-time systems via encoded information is considered. The encoded information is received at a remote location by the monitoring deiice and assessed to infer the occurrence of the fault. A class of faults is considered which allows to use a simple

  18. An S-Transform and Support Vector Machine (SVM-Based Online Method for Diagnosing Broken Strands in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caxin Sun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During their long-term outdoor field service, overhead transmission lines will be exposed to strikes by lightning, corrosion by chemical contaminants, ice-shedding, wind vibration of conductors, line galloping, external destructive forces and so on, which will generally cause a series of latent faults such as aluminum strand fracture. This may lead to broken transmission lines which will have a very strong impact on the safe operation of power grids that if the latent faults cannot be recognized and fixed as soon as possible. The detection of broken strands in transmission lines using inspection robots equipped with suitable detectors is a method with good prospects. In this paper, a method for detecting broken strands in transmission lines using an eddy current transducer (ECT carried by a robot is developed, and an approach for identifying broken strands in transmission lines based on an S-transform is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes the S-transform to extract the module and phase information at each frequency point from detection signals. Through module phase and comparison, the characteristic frequency points are ascertained, and the fault information of the detection signal is constructed. The degree of confidence of broken strand identification is defined by the Shannon fuzzy entropy (SFE-BSICD. The proposed approach combines module information while utilizing phase information, SFE-BSICD, and the energy, so the reliability is greatly improved. These characteristic qualities of broken strands in transmission lines are used as the input of a multi-classification SVM, allowing the number of broken strands to be determined. Through experimental field verification, it can be shown that the proposed approach displays high accuracy and the SFE-BSICD is defined reasonably.

  19. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  20. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  1. Stranding of two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the "North Sea trap" at Henne Strand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Alstrup, Aage K. O.; Hansen, Jørgen H.

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014 two male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded at Henne Strand, Denmark. One whale (MCE 1644) was found dead, while the other (MCE 1645) was still alive, but drowned during the high tide. To increase our knowledge of sperm whales, conduct forage investigations, post-mort...

  2. Shear zones formed along long, straight traces of fault zones during the 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arvid M.; Fleming, Robert W.; Cruikshank, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    Surface rupturing during the 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake, east of Los Angeles, accommodated right-lateral offsets up to about 6 m along segments of distinct, en-echelon fault zones with a total length of 80 km. The offsets were accommodated generally not by faults—distinct slip surfaces—but rather by shear zones, tabular bands of localized shearing. Along simple stretches of fault zones at Landers the rupture is characterized by telescoping of shear zones and intensification of shearing: broad shear zones of mild shearing, containing narrow shear zones of more intense shearing, containing even narrower shear zones of very intense shearing, which may contain a fault. Thus the ground ruptured across broad belts of shearing with clearly defined, subparallel walls, oriented NW. Each broad belt consists of a broad zone of mild shearing, extending across its entire width (50 to 200 m), and much narrower (a few meters wide) shear zones that accommodate most of the offset of the belt and are portrayed by en-echelon tension cracks. In response to right-lateral shearing, the slices of ground bounded by the tension cracks rotated in a clockwise sense, producing left-lateral shearing, and the slices were forced against the walls of the shear zone, producing thrusting. Even narrower shear zones formed within the narrow shear zones. Although these probably are guides to right-lateral fault segments below, the surface rupturing during the earthquake is characterized not by faulting, but by the formation of shear zones at various scales.

  3. Late Quaternary Deformation Along the Wairarapa Fault, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, E. R.; Little, T. A.

    2006-12-01

    have been abandoned in the Holocene, with deformation occuring both west and east of this fault. Thus southern end of the Wairarapa fault consists of at least three active structures: 1) A western oblique-slip fault (or fault zone) that has ruptured repeatedly in the Holocene, including 1855, uplifting the Rimutaka anticline and accommodating large-magnitude strike-slip. Details of the 1855 event are obscured by landsliding in the Rimutaka range but the uplift is recorded by a flight of beach ridges at Turakirae Head; 2) a middle strike-slip strand that in part coincides with the projected trace of the abandoned WH thrust: 3) an eastern blind thrust that initiated after 9 ka and that has an unknown rupture history. Uplift with respect to sea level on the middle and eastern strands of the WH fault zone totals ~1mm/yr over the last 125 ka, and is indistinguishable in rate from that measured along the main (strike- slip) part of the Wairarapa fault to the north. To the west of the WH fault, the crest of the Rimutaka anticline at the coast is uplifting at 3 times this rate, (McSaveny et al., in press). The relationship between this locally enhanced rate of coastal uplift at the southern end of the Wairarapa fault zone, and the WH fault is apparently complex and changing rapidly in time, but has important implications for understanding seismic hazard and tectonics of this part of the Hikurangi margin.

  4. Fault linkage and continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Derren; Lymer, Gaël; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The magma-poor rifted margin off the west coast of Galicia (NW Spain) has provided some of the key observations in the development of models describing the final stages of rifting and continental breakup. In 2013, we collected a 68 x 20 km 3D seismic survey across the Galicia margin, NE Atlantic. Processing through to 3D Pre-stack Time Migration (12.5 m bin-size) and 3D depth conversion reveals the key structures, including an underlying detachment fault (the S detachment), and the intra-block and inter-block faults. These data reveal multiple phases of faulting, which overlap spatially and temporally, have thinned the crust to between zero and a few km thickness, producing 'basement windows' where crustal basement has been completely pulled apart and sediments lie directly on the mantle. Two approximately N-S trending fault systems are observed: 1) a margin proximal system of two linked faults that are the upward extension (breakaway faults) of the S; in the south they form one surface that splays northward to form two faults with an intervening fault block. These faults were thus demonstrably active at one time rather than sequentially. 2) An oceanward relay structure that shows clear along strike linkage. Faults within the relay trend NE-SW and heavily dissect the basement. The main block bounding faults can be traced from the S detachment through the basement into, and heavily deforming, the syn-rift sediments where they die out, suggesting that the faults propagated up from the S detachment surface. Analysis of the fault heaves and associated maps at different structural levels show complementary fault systems. The pattern of faulting suggests a variation in main tectonic transport direction moving oceanward. This might be interpreted as a temporal change during sequential faulting, however the transfer of extension between faults and the lateral variability of fault blocks suggests that many of the faults across the 3D volume were active at least in part

  5. Late Quaternary slip rate determination by CRN dating on the Haiyuan fault, China, and implication for complex geometry fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrau, Rémi; Klinger, Yann; Van der Woerd, Jérôme; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Li, Zhanfei; Xu, Xiwei

    2017-04-01

    partly explain the faster rates on the western single stranded Haiyuan fault. In addition we constrained 0.55±0.1 mm/yr of uplift rate along the Hasi Shan, where the fault strike veers southward, indicating slip partitioning. Our slip rate along the Hasi Shan segment is consistent with most of the long-term and short-term slip rates ( 5 mm/yr) measured along the central and eastern parts of the Haiyuan fault. However the discrepancy with other studies to the west highlights the major implication of complex geometries on the slip distribution over large fault systems.

  6. Evidence for multiple cycles of strand invasion during repair of double-strand gaps in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mitch; Adams, Melissa; Staeva-Vieira, Eric; Sekelsky, Jeff J

    2004-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), a major source of genome instability, are often repaired through homologous recombination pathways. Models for these pathways have been proposed, but the precise mechanisms and the rules governing their use remain unclear. In Drosophila, the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model can explain most DSB repair. To investigate SDSA, we induced DSBs by excision of a P element from the male X chromosome, which produces a 14-kb gap relative to the sister chromatid. In wild-type males, repair synthesis tracts are usually long, resulting in frequent restoration of the P element. However, repair synthesis is often incomplete, resulting in internally deleted P elements. We examined the effects of mutations in spn-A, which encodes the Drosophila Rad51 ortholog. As expected, there is little or no repair synthesis in homozygous spn-A mutants after P excision. However, heterozygosity for spn-A mutations also resulted in dramatic reductions in the lengths of repair synthesis tracts. These findings support a model in which repair DNA synthesis is not highly processive. We discuss a model wherein repair of a double-strand gap requires multiple cycles of strand invasion, synthesis, and dissociation of the nascent strand. After dissociation, the nascent strand may anneal to a complementary single strand, reinvade a template to be extended by additional synthesis, or undergo end joining. This model can explain aborted SDSA repair events and the prevalence of internally deleted transposable elements in genomes.

  7. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  8. Recent faulting in the Gulf of Santa Catalina: San Diego to Dana Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, H.F.; Legg, M.R.; Conrad, J.E.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret seismic-reflection profiles to determine the location and offset mode of Quaternary offshore faults beneath the Gulf of Santa Catalina in the inner California Continental Borderland. These faults are primarily northwest-trending, right-lateral, strike-slip faults, and are in the offshore Rose Canyon-Newport-Inglewood, Coronado Bank, Palos Verdes, and San Diego Trough fault zones. In addition we describe a suite of faults imaged at the base of the continental slope between Dana Point and Del Mar, California. Our new interpretations are based on high-resolution, multichannel seismic (MCS), as well as very high resolution Huntec and GeoPulse seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1998 to 2000 and MCS data collected by WesternGeco in 1975 and 1981, which have recently been made publicly available. Between La Jolla and Newport Beach, California, the Rose Canyon and Newport-Inglewood fault zones are multistranded and generally underlie the shelf break. The Rose Canyon fault zone has a more northerly strike; a left bend in the fault zone is required to connect with the Newport-Inglewood fault zone. A prominent active anticline at mid-slope depths (300-400 m) is imaged seaward of where the Rose Canyon fault zone merges with the Newport-Inglewood fault zone. The Coronado Bank fault zone is a steeply dipping, northwest-trending zone consisting of multiple strands that are imaged from south of the U.S.-Mexico border to offshore of San Mateo Point. South of the La Jolla fan valley, the Coronado Bank fault zone is primarily transtensional; this section of the fault zone ends at the La Jolla fan valley in a series of horsetail splays. The northern section of the Coronado Bank fault zone is less well developed. North of the La Jolla fan valley, the Coronado Bank fault zone forms a positive flower structure that can be mapped at least as far north as Oceanside, a distance of ??35 km. However, north of Oceanside, the Coronado Bank

  9. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  10. Strand displacement and duplex invasion into double-stranded DNA by pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohländer, Peggy R; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-09-21

    The so-called acpcPNA system bears a peptide backbone consisting of 4'-substituted proline units with (2'R,4'R) configuration in an alternating combination with (2S)-amino-cyclopentane-(1S)-carboxylic acids. acpcPNA forms exceptionally stable hybrids with complementary DNA. We demonstrate herein (i) strand displacements by single-stranded DNA from acpcPNA-DNA hybrids, and by acpcPNA strands from DNA duplexes, and (ii) strand invasions by acpcPNA into double-stranded DNA. These processes were studied in vitro using synthetic oligonucleotides and by means of our concept of wavelength-shifting fluorescent nucleic acid probes, including fluorescence lifetime measurements that allow quantifying energy transfer efficiencies. The strand displacements of preannealed 14mer acpcPNA-7mer DNA hybrids consecutively by 10mer and 14mer DNA strands occur with rather slow kinetics but yield high fluorescence color ratios (blue : yellow or blue : red), fluorescence intensity enhancements, and energy transfer efficiencies. Furthermore, 14mer acpcPNA strands are able to invade into 30mer double-stranded DNA, remarkably with quantitative efficiency in all studied cases. These processes can also be quantified by means of fluorescence. This remarkable behavior corroborates the extraordinary versatile properties of acpcPNA. In contrast to conventional PNA systems which require 3 or more equivalents PNA, only 1.5 equivalents acpcPNA are sufficient to get efficient double duplex invasion. Invasions also take place even in the presence of 250 mM NaCl which represents an ionic strength nearly twice as high as the physiological ion concentration. These remarkable results corroborate the extraordinary properties of acpcPNA, and thus acpcPNA represents an eligible tool for biological analytics and antigene applications.

  11. Structural and Petrophysical Characterization of Fault Zones in Shales: Example from the Tournemire Url (sw, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DICK, P.; Du Peloux de Saint Romain, A.; Moreno, E.; Homberg, C.; Renel, F.; Dauzères, A.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.

    2013-12-01

    ). An AMS study on 205 samples indicates a progressive variation in the magnetic fabric from a strongly oblate fabric (>95%) in the damaged and undisturbed zone, to a moderately oblate fabric (≈83%) in the fault gouge. These results are consistent with the structural data observed in the URL: development of a magnetic foliation (sub-parallel to bedding) in the undisturbed zone and a NNW-SSE trending magnetic lineation in the fault gouge. A systematic decrease in the mass-normalized magnetic susceptibility is also observed within the fault gouge. The lower magnetic susceptibility might be the result of cemented portions of the fault zone or dissolution of magnetic minerals due to fluid circulation concentrated in the fault core. Preliminary results indicate a correlation between magnetic susceptibility and porosity-permeability variations within the Tournemire clay-based shear zones.

  12. 6. 6 kV/1. 5 kA-class superconducting fault current limiter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, D.; Yoneda, E.S.; Tsurunaga, K.; Tada, T. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)); Hara, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Yamamoto, T. (Engineering Research Center, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Nishi-Tsutsujigaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182 (JP))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors have developed and tested a 6.6 kV/1.5 kA-class fault current limiter wound with a 42-strand AC superconducting wire having ultra-fine MbTi filaments in a high resistivity matrix. In experiments, voltages up to 7.2 kV were applied to the limiter with phase angles of 0, 45, and 90 degrees. The limiter was able to limit the fault current to 1.8 kA successfully from the 55 kA short-circuit current that would flow in a circuit without limiter.

  13. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  14. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... depends on the cause. A family history of baldness, medical conditions or their treatments, and many other ...

  15. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. The (not so immortal strand hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tomasetti

    2015-03-01

    Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.

  17. Untangling the Strands of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Ira C.

    1979-01-01

    Explores trends in the Court's interpretation of the libertarian and egalitarian dimensions of the Fourteenth Amendment and offers a theory of the two strands. Available from Michigan Law Review, Hutchins Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; single issues $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  18. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to

  19. SAKAMATA : A tool to avoid whale strandings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Verboom, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    World-wide a concern exists about the influence of man-made noise on marine life, and particularly of high power sonar. Most concern lies with marine mammals that use acoustics for hunting, communication and/or navigation. This concern is fed by recent strandings of whales that could be related to

  20. Neurobrucellosis in stranded dolphins, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María; Moreno, Edgardo

    2008-09-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission.

  1. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan

    2017-05-31

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  2. Twinning and Fracturing During Cataclasis in Carbonate Fault Gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, M.; Smith, S. A. F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Negrini, M.; Fondriest, M.; Di Toro, G.

    2016-12-01

    Gouges and cataclasites are a common product of faulting in the brittle upper crust. Natural fault gouges often contain minerals with strong anisotropies, such as cleavage in phyllosilicates and twinning in carbonates. A proper understanding of the role of such anisotropies during shearing is important to develop realistic microphysical models of brittle fragmentation and grain size reduction. Here we present initial results of microstructural and coupled EDS-EBSD analysis on mixtures (50/50wt%) of calcite-dolomite gouges deformed experimentally in a rotary shear apparatus (SHIVA, INGV-Rome) under constant normal stress of 17.5 MPa and slip rates of 30 µm/s to 1 m/s. Simultaneous collection of EDS and EBSD data allowed twin and phase identification (calcite and dolomite) at spatial scales approaching 1 µm. A new workflow was implemented in MTEX allowing EDS-EBSD data to be cleaned and post-processed to correctly index calcite and dolomite in >95% of cases. At all investigated slip velocities, twins in calcite grains are mainly oriented in a direction consistent with the imposed shear sense. Microfractures are closely spaced and mainly oriented along synthetic R'-type shear planes. Only in a few cases were microfractures observed to exploit calcite twin planes. Fracturing results in elongate clast shapes (in 2D) and quantitative image analysis shows the development of two clast-shape preferred orientations: 1) clasts with long-axes subparallel to the principal R'-type fracture set, and 2) clasts with long axes subperpendicular to the principal R'-type fracture set. This may be explained by systematic fracturing of clasts along R'- planes and subsequent rotation of the newly formed, elongate grains in to a "stable" orientation during cataclastic flow. Fracturing, followed by the formation and rolling of elongate clasts would promote dilation during cataclasis and a progressive change in the frictional properties of the carbonate gouge. Incorporating these

  3. Refining interseismic fault slip and shallow creep on the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, California, using UAVSAR, satellite InSAR and GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, G.; Delbridge, B. G.; Materna, K.; Johnson, C. W.; Chaussard, E.; Jones, C. E.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the role of the Hayward/Calaveras fault junction in major earthquake ruptures in the East San Francisco Bay Area is a major challenge in trying to assess the regional seismic hazard. We use updated GPS velocities, and surface geodetic measurements from both traditional space-based InSAR and the NASA JPL's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) system to quantify the deep long-term interseismic deformation and shallow temporally variable fault creep. Here, we present a large data set of interseismic deformation over the Hayward/Calaveras fault system, combining far-field deformation from 1992-2011 ERS and Envisat InSAR data, near-field deformation from 2009-2016 UAVSAR data and 1997-2016 regional GPS measurements from the Bay Area Velocity Unification model (BAVU4) in both near-field and far field. We perform a joint inversion of the data to obtain the long-term slip on deep through-going dislocations and the distribution of shallow creep on a 3D model of the Hayward and Calaveras faults. Spatially adaptative weights are given to each data set in order to account for its importance in constraining slip at different depths. The coherence and resolution of the UAVSAR data allow us to accurately resolve the near-field fault deformation, thus providing stronger constraints on the location of active strands of the southern Hayward and Calaveras faults and their shallow interseismic creep distribution.

  4. Multi-method Feasibility Study of Geophysical Methods to Accurately Delineate the Mt. General Fault in Hinkley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J. J.; Grannell, R.; Martin, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Barstow, California is in the immediate vicinity of the dextral Mt. General, Lenwood and Harper Lake faults.These faults exhibit a lack of surface expression common to faults in the Central Mojave, in which the faults are occluded by Quaternary alluvial fill resulting in large sections of the fault strand to be inferred near high risk localities. The three quaternary right-lateral strike slip faults belong to the Lenwood-Lockhart and Harper Lake fault zones. These fault zones associated with the Eastern California Shear Zone, a predominantly discontinuous northwest striking dextral shear zone that accommodates approximately 25% of interplate motion along the Pacific and North American plate boundary from the San Andreas bend on the south and Walker Lane shear zone to the northwest. The proximity of the inferred fault to high density population centers and critical infrastructure pose considerable risk to the inhabitants of Southern California, where precise knowledge of fault locations is critical. A feasibility study using various complementary geophysical methods was conducted to assess which, if any, provide the highest likelihood in accurately delineating a fault trace in the subsurface. The study focused on the Mt. General fault in Hinkley, CA. Two-dimensional gravity, magnetic, seismic refraction, and electrical resistivity along the same bounded location were collected, modeled, and interpreted. Gravity and magnetic results revealed anomalies across the inferred fault. Likewise, a seismic refraction model show a clear velocity contrast. Additionally, the electrical resistivity model showed a decrease in resistivity across the fault zone implying a groundwater barrier, complementing results from the other methods. Furthermore, overlaying the profiles shows clear evidence of a fault scarp. The success of the feasibility study in delineating the Mt. General fault zone shows that adopting a multi-method approach to the Lenwood-Lockhart and Harper Lake fault zone

  5. Slow Active Intraplate Faults: The Paleoseismology Of The Irtysh Fault Zone, Eastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, S.; Reicherter, K. R.; Avagyan, A.; Belyashov, A.; Pestov, E.; Eutizio, V.; Arakelyan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Asian plate interiors are known to host strong earthquakes with magnitudes up to M 8, especially around the border area between Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan and China. Their recurrence times are long, because of the low slip rates of faults smaller than 1 mm/yr. Geodynamically, our study region in eastern Kazakhstan is set in the frame of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone situated on the Eurasian craton. Major plate tectonic forces are induced by the indentation of the Indian plate into Eurasia. As a consequence, in the foreland a set of very long and large strike-slip fault zones developed, the western of which all have in common a dextral sense of shear. The more than 250 km long Irtysh Fault Zone (IFZ) marks a major tectonic block boundary separating two different units with granitoid intrusions, Silurian-Devonian magmatic rocks, and, thick deposits of Late Paleozoic age with coal measures of the Carboniferous and Permian. The formation of the IFZ probably dates back into Paleozoic times, it was repeatedly reactivated in later times. The IFZ is one potential source of large earthquakes in easternmost Kazakhstan. Tectonic-morphological analyses revealed the occurrence of a set of lineaments offsetting or deflecting streamlets and lithology. Geophysical data (GPR and seismics) helped to identify fault strands and trenching sites. Across three main segments, all longer than 50 km, a series of paleoseismic trenches was excavated. Within the trenches, faulted Holocene-Late Pleistocene deposits with organic soils, loess layers and colluvium directly overlying the Paleozoic rocks were encountered and 14C-dated. Astonishingly, no older Pleistocene rocks have been found suggesting complete erosion during/after glacial periods. Our findings lead to the conclusions that the IFZ and all segments are clearly active during the Holocene with surface ruptures displacements of around 2.0±0.2 meters, suggesting events with a magnitude around M≈7 along the individual

  6. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  7. Seismological Studies for Tensile Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Bin Ou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A shear slip fault, an equivalence of a double couple source, has often been assumed to be a kinematic source model in ground motion simulation. Estimation of seismic moment based on the shear slip model indicates the size of an earthquake. However, if the dislocation of the hanging wall relative to the footwall includes not only a shear slip tangent to the fault plane but also expansion and compression normal to the fault plane, the radiating seismic waves will feature differences from those out of the shear slip fault. Taking account of the effects resulting from expansion and compression to a fault plane, we can resolve the tension and pressure axes as well as the fault plane solution more exactly from ground motions than previously, and can evaluate how far a fault zone opens or contracts during a developing rupture. In addition to a tensile angle and Poisson¡¦s ratio for the medium, a tensile fault with five degrees of freedom has been extended from the shear slip fault with only three degrees of freedom, strike, dip, and slip.

  8. SEISMOLOGY: Watching the Hayward Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R W

    2000-08-18

    The Hayward fault, located on the east side of the San Francisco Bay, represents a natural laboratory for seismologists, because it does not sleep silently between major earthquakes. In his Perspective, Simpson discusses the study by Bürgmann et al., who have used powerful new techniques to study the fault. The results indicate that major earthquakes cannot originate in the northern part of the fault. However, surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred in the area, suggesting that they originated to the north or south of the segment studied by Bürgmann et al. Fundamental questions remain regarding the mechanism by which plate tectonic stresses are transferred to the Hayward fault.

  9. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  10. Physical fault tolerance of nanoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkopek, Thomas; Roychowdhury, Vwani P; Antoniadis, Dimitri A; Damoulakis, John N

    2011-04-29

    The error rate in complementary transistor circuits is suppressed exponentially in electron number, arising from an intrinsic physical implementation of fault-tolerant error correction. Contrariwise, explicit assembly of gates into the most efficient known fault-tolerant architecture is characterized by a subexponential suppression of error rate with electron number, and incurs significant overhead in wiring and complexity. We conclude that it is more efficient to prevent logical errors with physical fault tolerance than to correct logical errors with fault-tolerant architecture.

  11. An Overview of Transmission Line Protection by Artificial Neural Network: Fault Detection, Fault Classification, Fault Location, and Fault Direction Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary power systems are associated with serious issues of faults on high voltage transmission lines. Instant isolation of fault is necessary to maintain the system stability. Protective relay utilizes current and voltage signals to detect, classify, and locate the fault in transmission line. A trip signal will be sent by the relay to a circuit breaker with the purpose of disconnecting the faulted line from the rest of the system in case of a disturbance for maintaining the stability of the remaining healthy system. This paper focuses on the studies of fault detection, fault classification, fault location, fault phase selection, and fault direction discrimination by using artificial neural networks approach. Artificial neural networks are valuable for power system applications as they can be trained with offline data. Efforts have been made in this study to incorporate and review approximately all important techniques and philosophies of transmission line protection reported in the literature till June 2014. This comprehensive and exhaustive survey will reduce the difficulty of new researchers to evaluate different ANN based techniques with a set of references of all concerned contributions.

  12. KARAKTERISTIK ORIENTED STRAND BOARD DARI KAYU AKASIA DAN AFRIKA BERDASARKAN PENYUSUNAN ARAH STRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives arc to evaluate physical and mechanical properties of OSB based on strands orientation; and to evaluate physical and mechanical properties of OSB made from akasia wood (Acacia mangium Wild and afrika wood (Maesopsis eminii Engl. Akasia and afrika wood are used for OSB strand material with phenol formaldehyde (PF as adhesives and addition of paraffin. OSB made in this research is consist of three plies whereas are differed into eight (8 strand orientations. In the making process, hot press was carried out at 160OC and pressure 25kg.cm-2 for 15 minutes. Determination of OSB physical and mechanical properties is referred to JIS A 5908-2003. Result showed that strand orientations has no affect to OSB physical properties except for linicr swelling 24h, but it significantly influence all mechanical properties of OSB. Wood species have an effect on mechanical properties of OSB in the dry test, wet MOE lengthwise test and OSB physical properties, particularly to OSB density and water absorbing capability at 2h and 24h. All of OSB physical properties arc meet JIS A 5908-2003 standard, but not all of the mechanical properties such as dry MOE lengthwise, dry MOE and MOR widthwise. The best physical and mechanical properties is presented by OSB made from akasia wood in strand orientation F, G, Band C whereas all parameters meet JIS A 5908-2003 standard. In comparation with strand orientation B that is frequent used in industry, strand orientation F and G arc proficient to raise the modulus elasticity value (MOE and strength (MOR as much as 167.81-231.65% and 89.73-109.87%, respectively; especially in widthwise board application. Furthermore, strand orientation F and G arc more flexible as structural components

  13. Geothermal and seismic evidence for a southeastern continuation of the three pagodas fault zone into the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinya Putthapiban

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photographic maps and landsat image interpretations suggest the major fault segments of the Three PagodaFault (TPF Zone and Sri Swat Fault (SSF Zone are oriented parallel or sub-parallel in the same NW-SE directions. The KwaeNoi River is running along the TPF in the south whereas the Kwae Yai River is running along the SSF in the north. Thesoutheastern continuation of both faults is obscured by thick Cenozoic sediments. Hence, surface lineaments cannot betraced with confidence. However, based on some interpretations of the airborne magnetic survey data, the trace of such faultsare designated to run through the western part of Bangkok and the northern end of the Gulf of Thailand. Paleo-earthquakesand the presence of hot springs along the fault zones indicate that they are tectonically active. The changes of both physicaland chemical properties of the water from Hin Dart Hot Spring and those of the surface water from a shallow well at Ban KhaoLao during the Great Sumatra–Andaman Earthquake on 26th of December 2004 clearly indicated that the southeastern continuation of the TPF is at least as far south as Pak Tho District, Ratburi. Our new evidence of the alignment of the high heatflow in the upper part of the Gulf of Thailand verified that the TPF also extend into the Gulf via Samut Songkhram Province.Studies of the seismic data from two survey lines along the Western part of the upper Gulf of Thailand acquired by BritoilPlc. in 1986, namely Line A which is approximately 60 km long, starting from Bang Khen passing through Bang Khae andending in Samut Songkhram and Line B is approximately 30 km long starting from Samut Sakon ending in Samut Song Khramsuggest that all the faults or fractures along these seismic profiles are covered by sediments of approximately 230 m thickwhich explain that the fault underneath these seismic lines is quite old and may not be active. The absent of sign or trace ofthe TPF Path to the west suggested that there

  14. Fault Tolerant Distributive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnell, Harris

    1982-12-01

    A fault tolerant design used to enhanced the survivability of a distributive processing system is described. Based on physical limitations, mission duration and maintenance support, the approach has emphasized functional redundancy in place of the traditional hardware or software level redundancy. A top down architecture within the system's hierarchy allows sharing of common resources. Various techniques used to enhance the survivability of the hardware at the equipment, module and component level were analyzed. The intent of the on going work is to demonstrate the ability of a distributive processing system to maintain itself for a long period of time.

  15. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed

  16. Corrosion characteristics of unprotected post-tensioning strands under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of stress condition : and environmental exposure on corrosion of post-tensioned strands during ungrouted periods. : Exposures for periods of up to 4 weeks of stressed, as-received strand placed i...

  17. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  18. Fault linkages and activities in a transition zone of compression to transpression in Hsinchu area, northwestern Taiwan based on 3-D structural geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Hu, J.; Huang, S.; Huang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Taiwan orogenic belt is resulted from the convergence between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. Serious earthquakes occurred in west and northwest flanks of main mountain belt of the island in 1935 and 1999, caused more than 5000 deaths in total. In addition, Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park (HSIP) located in northwest Taiwan is one of the world's most important areas for semiconductor manufacturing. There are more than 400 technology companies in this park, and accounted for 10% of Taiwan's GDP. Consequently, active Hsincheng and Hsinchu faults in study area become the major threat of the industrial park, thus the understanding of complex subsurface seismogenic structures are crucial issue of earthquake hazard assessment and mitigation in Hsinchu area. Several geological cross sections have been constructed and discussed to suggest possible deep structures of these two major faults in previous study. However, how subsurface fault system and folding intersect still remains unclear and the evolution of fault and fold geometry in Hsinchu area is not fully understood. The main purpose of this study is to clarify the spatial linkage between the major thrust faults, folds, and adjacent transverse structures. In this study, we first construct the NW-SE trending cross-section which is sub-parallel to the regional shortening direction, and then balance this cross section to derive the structure evolution in Hsinchu area. We also incorporate several cross-sections and relocated seismicity to get detail 3D fault geometry for the numerical modeling in order to assess the interseismic strain accumulation and seismic potential based on geodetic measurements.

  19. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  20. Fault Monitooring and Fault Recovery Control for Position Moored Tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses fault tolerant control for position mooring of a shuttle tanker operating in the North Sea. A complete framework for fault diagnosis is presented but the loss of a sub-sea mooring line buoyancy element is given particular attention, since this fault could lead to line breakage...... and risky abortion of an oil-loading operation. With signicant drift forces from waves, non-Gaussian elements dominate in residuals and fault diagnosis need be designed using dedicated change detection for the type of distribution encountered. In addition to dedicated diagnosis, an optimal position...... algorithm is proposed to accommodate buoyancy element failure and keep the mooring system in a safe state. Detection properties and fault-tolerant control are demonstrated by high delity simulations...

  1. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  2. Facile synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Double-stranded DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with double-stranded DNA by simple mixing in an aqueous buffer media without unwinding double-stranded. DNA to single-stranded DNA. The GO/dsDNA hydrogels have shown controlled porosity by changing the concentration of the components. The strong binding between dsDNA and graphene is proved by Raman.

  3. Short Communication A stranding of Balaenoptera borealis (Lesson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strandings of baleen whales are uncommon in Patagonia, Argentina. We report on a stranding of an individual sei whale Balaenoptera borealis on the east coast of San Antonio (40°43.5′ S, 64°55.8′ W), Río Negro province, Argentina. It was the eighth reported stranding of this species along the Argentinean coastline.

  4. Subsurface geometry of the San Andreas-Calaveras fault junction: influence of serpentinite and the Coast Range Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Ponce, David A.; Graymer, Russell W.; Jachens, Robert C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    While an enormous amount of research has been focused on trying to understand the geologic history and neotectonics of the San Andreas-Calaveras fault (SAF-CF) junction, fundamental questions concerning fault geometry and mechanisms for slip transfer through the junction remain. We use potential-field, geologic, geodetic, and seismicity data to investigate the 3-D geologic framework of the SAF-CF junction and identify potential slip-transferring structures within the junction. Geophysical evidence suggests that the San Andreas and Calaveras fault zones dip away from each other within the northern portion of the junction, bounding a triangular-shaped wedge of crust in cross section. This wedge changes shape to the south as fault geometries change and fault activity shifts between fault strands, particularly along the Calaveras fault zone (CFZ). Potential-field modeling and relocated seismicity suggest that the Paicines and San Benito strands of the CFZ dip 65° to 70° NE and form the southwest boundary of a folded 1 to 3 km thick tabular body of Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO) within the Vallecitos syncline. We identify and characterize two steeply dipping, seismically active cross structures within the junction that are associated with serpentinite in the subsurface. The architecture of the SAF-CF junction presented in this study may help explain fault-normal motions currently observed in geodetic data and help constrain the seismic hazard. The abundance of serpentinite and related CRO in the subsurface is a significant discovery that not only helps constrain the geometry of structures but may also help explain fault behavior and the tectonic evolution of the SAF-CF junction.

  5. Robustness of localized DNA strand displacement cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Mario; Kopperger, Enzo; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2014-08-26

    Colocalization can strongly alter the kinetics and efficiency of chemical processes. For instance, in DNA-templated synthesis unfavorable reactions are sped up by placing reactants into close proximity onto a DNA scaffold. In biochemistry, clustering of enzymes has been demonstrated to enhance the reaction flux through some enzymatic cascades. Here we investigate the effect of colocalization on the performance of DNA strand displacement (DSD) reactions, an important class of reactions utilized in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. We study colocalization by immobilizing a two-stage DSD reaction cascade comprised of a “sender” and a “receiver” gate onto a DNA origami platform. The addition of a DNA (or RNA) input strand displaces a signal strand from the sender gate, which can then transfer to the receiver gate. The performance of the cascade is found to vary strongly with the distance between the gates. A cascade with an intermediate gate distance of ≈20 nm exhibits faster kinetics than those with larger distances, whereas a cascade with smaller distance is corrupted by excessive intraorigami leak reactions. The 20 nm cascade is found to be considerably more robust with respect to a competing reaction, and implementation of multiple receiver gates further increases this robustness. Our results indicate that for the 20 nm distance a fraction of signal strands is transferred locally to a receiver gate on the same platform, probably involving direct physical contact between the gates. The performance of the cascade is consistent with a simple model that takes “local” and “global” transfer processes into account.

  6. Fault tolerance in "multiprocessor systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    puter architecture; [multiprocessor systems; reconfiguration; system- level diagnosis; VLSI processor arrays. 1. Introduction. Fault-tolerant computing can be defined as the ability to execute specified algorithms correctly inspite of the presence of faults. The complexity of supersystems and the increasing use of such computer ...

  7. The transtensional offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault: Fault zone geometry, late Pleistocene to Holocene sediment deposition, shallow deformation patterns, and asymmetric basin growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Goldfinger, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We mapped an ~120 km offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) between Point Arena and Point Delgada using closely spaced seismic reflection profiles (1605 km), high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (~1600 km2), and marine magnetic data. This new data set documents SAF location and continuity, associated tectonic geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and deformation. Variable deformation patterns in the generally narrow (∼1 km wide) fault zone are largely associated with fault trend and with transtensional and transpressional fault bends.We divide this unique transtensional portion of the offshore SAF into six sections along and adjacent to the SAF based on fault trend, deformation styles, seismic stratigraphy, and seafloor bathymetry. In the southern region of the study area, the SAF includes a 10-km-long zone characterized by two active parallel fault strands. Slip transfer and long-term straightening of the fault trace in this zone are likely leading to transfer of a slice of the Pacific plate to the North American plate. The SAF in the northern region of the survey area passes through two sharp fault bends (∼9°, right stepping, and ∼8°, left stepping), resulting in both an asymmetric lazy Z–shape sedimentary basin (Noyo basin) and an uplifted rocky shoal (Tolo Bank). Seismic stratigraphic sequences and unconformities within the Noyo basin correlate with the previous 4 major Quaternary sea-level lowstands and record basin tilting of ∼0.6°/100 k.y. Migration of the basin depocenter indicates a lateral slip rate on the SAF of 10–19 mm/yr for the past 350 k.y.Data collected west of the SAF on the south flank of Cape Mendocino are inconsistent with the presence of an offshore fault strand that connects the SAF with the Mendocino Triple Junction. Instead, we suggest that the SAF previously mapped onshore at Point Delgada continues onshore northward and transitions to the King Range thrust.

  8. Fault tolerant control for switched linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Dongsheng; Shi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research and novel methodologies on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for switched linear systems. It provides a unified yet neat framework of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of switched systems. It can therefore serve as a useful textbook for senior and/or graduate students who are interested in knowing the state-of-the-art of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control areas, as well as recent advances in switched linear systems.  

  9. The January 2010 Haiti mainshock-aftershock sequence: Positive feedback between faults in strain-partitioned transpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Diehl, T.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Nettles, M.

    2010-12-01

    aftershocks, hypocenters in the western cluster are below the trace of the EPGF and northward, in the compressive quadrant of the sinistral main rupture. Most importantly, the prominent compressional bend and at the western terminus of the rupture accounts for a rise in fault-normal stress that stops the rupture and triggers thrusting on neighboring faults. The data suggest two sub-parallel thrust faults dipping SSW. The one to the north matches the Trois Bayes fault along the southern flank of the Canal du Sud. The one to the south is activated only below the trace of the EPGF, along a narrow west-dipping band. We interpret this activity to be on the Jacmel fault (our name), a regional thrust fault across the southern peninsula of Haiti, but only where this fault intersects the EPGF. Thrust motion on the Jacmel fault warps the EPGF in a constricting bend; slip on the EPGF at this bend raises horizontal compression that drives the thrusting. This positive feedback may account for partitioning along transpression boundaries and is likely to have a critical role in fault segmentation and stress transfer.

  10. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  11. Constraining fault growth rates and fault evolution in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Geoffroy; Bull, Jonathan M.; Barnes, Phil M.; Taylor, Susanna K.; Horgan, Huw

    2000-10-01

    Understanding how faults propagate, grow, and interact in fault systems is important because they are primarily responsible for distributing strain in the upper crust. They localize deformation and stress release, often producing surface displacements that control sedimentation and fluid flow, either by acting as conduits or barriers. Identifying fault spatial distribution, quantifying activity, evaluating linkage mechanisms, and estimating fault growth rates are key components in seismic risk evaluation. Scientists from the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand, and the Southampton Oceanography Centre, United Kingdom, are working on a collaborative project that aims to improve understanding of faulting processes in the Earth's crust.The program comprises two research cruises to survey the Whakatane Graben, New Zealand, which is a zone of intense seismicity active extensional faulting, and rapid subsidence within the back-arc region of the Pacific-Australia plate boundary zone (Figure 1). Few places in the world offer the same opportunity to study the mechanisms by which major crustal faults have grown from small- to large-scale structures capable of generating moderate to large-magnitude earthquakes.

  12. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observed on the left bank of a stream cutting the terrace. Faulting is well revealed by 10–30 cm thick gouge. Lack of any corroborating evidence show- ing displacement of Quaternary deposits makes it difficult to decipher the active nature of the fault. However, the probability cannot be ruled- out. In the outlet of the small ...

  13. Dynamics of Earthquake Faults

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, J M; Shaw, B E

    1993-01-01

    We present an overview of our ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge--Knopoff model of an earthquake fault. We discuss the behavior of the model in the context of current questions in seismology. Some of the topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the magnitude vs. frequency distribution and the distinction between small and large events; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher dimensional models; (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

  14. Characterizing the Effects of Intermittent Faults on a Processor for Dependability Enhancement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao(Saul Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As semiconductor technology scales into the nanometer regime, intermittent faults have become an increasing threat. This paper focuses on the effects of intermittent faults on NET versus REG on one hand and the implications for dependability strategy on the other. First, the vulnerability characteristics of representative units in OpenSPARC T2 are revealed, and in particular, the highly sensitive modules are identified. Second, an arch-level dependability enhancement strategy is proposed, showing that events such as core/strand running status and core-memory interface events can be candidates of detectable symptoms. A simple watchdog can be deployed to detect application running status (IEXE event. Then SDC (silent data corruption rate is evaluated demonstrating its potential. Third and last, the effects of traditional protection schemes in the target CMT to intermittent faults are quantitatively studied on behalf of the contribution of each trap type, demonstrating the necessity of taking this factor into account for the strategy.

  15. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  16. Crystallographic control on early stages of cataclasis in carbonate fault gouges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Matteo; Smith, Steven A. F.; Fondriest, Michele; Spagnuolo, Elena; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Carbonates are a recurring lithology in most of active seismic areas worldwide, such as the Apennines (Italy). Here, typical fault products are gouges and cataclasites made of mixtures of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) that occasionally exhibit a foliation. Natural fault gouges often contain minerals with strong anisotropies, such as cleavage surfaces in phyllosilicates and carbonates. Therefore, the understanding of the role of such anisotropies during shearing is important to develop realistic microphysical models of brittle fragmentation and grain size reduction. Here we present results of microstructural and coupled EDS-EBSD (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - Electron Backscattered Diffraction) analysis on mixtures (50/50wt%) of calcite-dolomite gouges deformed experimentally in a rotary shear apparatus (SHIVA, INGV-Rome) at room temperature under constant normal stress of 17.5 MPa and slip rates of 30 µm/s to 1 m/s. The EDS-EBSD analysis was focused on the gouge layer underlying the slip zone, which has been previously demonstrated to accommodate low finite shear strain during deformation. At all investigated slip rates, calcite develops a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) on the (0001) plane, with the c-axis inclined subparallel to the principal stress and the [-1-120] direction forming a girdle perpendicular to it. Texture strength typically increases with slip rate and appears not to be influenced by the presence of water or foliation development in the gouge during deformation. Misorientation analysis suggests twinning as the principal crystallographic active deformation mechanism. Instead, dolomite grains do not develop a CPO. Microfractures are closely spaced, mainly oriented subparallel to the principal stress and rarely exploit calcite twin planes. The latter typically occur at high angle with respect to fractures, are oriented consistently with the sense of shear and almost orthogonal to the principal stress. Calcite grains

  17. The multiple personalities of Watson and Crick strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graur Dan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetics it is customary to refer to double-stranded DNA as containing a "Watson strand" and a "Crick strand." However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature on the exact meaning of these two terms, and the many usages contradict one another as well as the original definition. Here, we review the history of the terminology and suggest retaining a single sense that is currently the most useful and consistent. Proposal The Saccharomyces Genome Database defines the Watson strand as the strand which has its 5'-end at the short-arm telomere and the Crick strand as its complement. The Watson strand is always used as the reference strand in their database. Using this as the basis of our standard, we recommend that Watson and Crick strand terminology only be used in the context of genomics. When possible, the centromere or other genomic feature should be used as a reference point, dividing the chromosome into two arms of unequal lengths. Under our proposal, the Watson strand is standardized as the strand whose 5'-end is on the short arm of the chromosome, and the Crick strand as the one whose 5'-end is on the long arm. Furthermore, the Watson strand should be retained as the reference (plus strand in a genomic database. This usage not only makes the determination of Watson and Crick unambiguous, but also allows unambiguous selection of reference stands for genomics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John M. Logsdon, Igor B. Rogozin (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky, and William Martin.

  18. Correlation of clayey gouge in a surface exposure of the San Andreas fault with gouge at depth from SAFOD: Implications for the role of serpentinite in fault mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Rymer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium-rich clayey gouge similar to that comprising the two actively creeping strands of the San Andreas Fault in drill core from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) has been identified in a nearby outcrop of serpentinite within the fault zone at Nelson Creek. Each occurrence of the gouge consists of porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rocks dispersed in a fine-grained, foliated matrix of Mg-rich smectitic clays. The clay minerals in all three gouges are interpreted to be the product of fluid-assisted, shear-enhanced reactions between quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite that was tectonically entrained in the fault from a source in the Coast Range Ophiolite. We infer that the gouge at Nelson Creek connects to one or both of the gouge zones in the SAFOD core, and that similar gouge may occur at depths in between. The special significance of the outcrop is that it preserves the early stages of mineral reactions that are greatly advanced at depth, and it confirms the involvement of serpentinite and the Mg-rich phyllosilicate minerals that replace it in promoting creep along the central San Andreas Fault.

  19. Architecture of thrust faults with alongstrike variations in fault-plane dip: anatomy of the Lusatian Fault, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Adamovič, Jiří; Málek, Jiří; Prouza, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 183-208 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : fault architecture * fault plane geometry * drag structures * thrust fault * sandstone * Lusatian Fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  20. Constraints from Mesozoic siliciclastic cover rocks and satellite image analysis on the slip history of regional E-W faults in the southeast Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Gohlke, Steven A.; Tarabees, Elhamy A.; Hogan, John P.

    2017-12-01

    In the southeast Western Desert of Egypt, a prominent set of E-W faults and co-located domes and basins involve sedimentary cover rock as young as the early Eocene. Although earlier Mesozoic slip on faults in southern Egypt has been widely mentioned in the literature and attributed to repeated reactivation of basement faults, evidence is indirect and based on the idea that regional stresses associated with tectonic events in the Syrian Arc would likely have reactivated basement faults in south Egypt in dextral strike slip during the Mesozoic as well as the Cenozoic. Here, we present direct evidence from the rock record for the sequence of development of features along these faults. Southwest of Aswan, a small structural dome in Mesozoic Nubia facies rocks occurs where the Seiyal Fault bends northward from west to east. The dome is cut by strands of the Seiyal Fault and a related set of cataclastic deformation bands showing dominantly right lateral strike slip, as well as by younger calcite veins with related patchy poikilotopic cement. High resolution satellite image analysis of the remote southwest Kharga Valley shows a similar sequence of events: older structural domes and basins located where E-W faults bend northward from west to east, right lateral offset of domes and basins along the E-W faults, and two sets of deformation band faults that lack co-located domes and basins. We suggest that field data, image analysis, and burial depth estimates are best explained by diachronous development of features along the E-W fault system. We propose that Late Mesozoic right lateral strike slip produced domes and basins in Nubia facies rocks in stepover regions above reactivated basement faults. We further suggest that the extensively linked segments of the E-W fault system in Nubia facies rocks, plus the deformation band systems, formed during the late Eocene when basement faults were again reactivated in dominantly right lateral strike slip.

  1. Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Sutherland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, constitutes a globally significant natural laboratory for research into how active plate-bounding continental faults work and, in particular, how rocks exposed at the surface today relate to deep-seated processes of tectonic deformation, seismogenesis, and mineralization. The along-strike homogeneity of the hanging wall, rapid rate of dextral-reverse slip on an inclined fault plane, and relatively shallow depths to mechanical and chemical transitions make the Alpine Fault and the broader South Island plate boundary an important international site for multi-disciplinary research and a realistic target for an ambitious long-term program of scientific drilling investigations.

  2. Fault Monitoring and Fault Recovery Control for Position Moored Tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses fault tolerant control for position mooring of a shuttle tanker operating in the North Sea. A complete framework for fault diagnosis is presented but the loss of a sub-sea mooring line buoyancy element is given particular attention, since this fault could lead to mooring line...... breakage and a high-risk abortion of an oil-loading operation. With significant drift forces from waves, non-Gaussian elements dominate forces and the residuals designed for fault diagnosis. Hypothesis testing need be designed using dedicated change detection for the type of distribution encountered....... In addition to dedicated diagnosis, an optimal position algorithm is proposed to accommodate buoyancy element failure and keep the mooring system in a safe state. Furthermore, even in the case of line breakage, this optimal position strategy could be utilised to avoid breakage of a second mooring line...

  3. Estimates of fault-slip rates in southern California by using non-block viscoelastic sheet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, R. Y.; Johnson, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Fault slip rate estimates from geodetic data are becoming increasingly important for earthquake hazard studies. In order to estimate fault slip rates, GPS-constrained kinematic models such as elastic block models are widely used. However, kinematic block models are inherently non-unique and provide limited insight into the mechanics of deformation. In addition, assumed discrete tectonic blocks may not exist everywhere as not every region of the western US displays mature, through-going geologic structures that naturally divide the crust into tectonic blocks. For example, the eastern California shear zone and regions of the Basin and Range Province are best described as broad zones of interacting, discontinuous fault strands. We build a mechanical model of present-day surface motions in which deformation is a response to plate boundary forces, gravitational loading, and rheological properties of the lithosphere. To model long-term fault-slip rates in the southwestern US, we populate an elastico-visco thin sheet (plane stress) with thin viscous shear zones (faults) and impose far-field plate motions and gravitational loading to compute the long-term fault slip rates and crustal motions. The mechanical model inherently allows slips along through-going and discontinuous faults and the viscosity of the lithospheric sheet relaxes unreasonable stress build-up. The fault zone viscosity provides resistance and directly relates stress to slip rates. We incorporate static stress on the fault due to regional gravitational potential energy derived from Flesch et al. (2007). We calculate long-term fault-slip rates in southern California and incorporate backslip as interseismic deformation due to locking of faults to compare the total present-day deformation field (long-term plus intersesismic) with the GPS-derived velocity field.

  4. Method of locating ground faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L. (Inventor); Rose, Allen H. (Inventor); Cull, Ronald C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  5. Blocking single-stranded transferred DNA conversion to double-stranded intermediates by overexpression of yeast DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Levy, Avner; Dafny, Raz; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers its single-stranded transferred DNA (T-strand) into the host cell nucleus, where it can be converted into double-stranded molecules. Various studies have revealed that double-stranded transfer DNA (T-DNA) intermediates can serve as substrates by as yet uncharacterized integration machinery. Nevertheless, the possibility that T-strands are themselves substrates for integration cannot be ruled out. We attempted to block the conversion of T-strands into double-stranded intermediates prior to integration in order to further investigate the route taken by T-DNA molecules on their way to integration. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants that overexpress three yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein subunits of DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A (RFA) were produced. In yeast, these subunits (RFA1-RFA3) function as a complex that can bind single-stranded DNA molecules, promoting the repair of genomic double strand breaks. Overexpression of the RFA complex in tobacco resulted in decreased T-DNA expression, as determined by infection with A. tumefaciens cells carrying the β-glucuronidase intron reporter gene. Gene expression was not blocked when the reporter gene was delivered by microbombardment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-assisted localization studies indicated that the three-protein complex was predominantly nuclear, thus indicating its function within the plant cell nucleus, possibly by binding naked T-strands and blocking their conversion into double-stranded intermediates. This notion was further supported by the inhibitory effect of RFA expression on the cell-to-cell movement of Bean dwarf mosaic virus, a single-stranded DNA virus. The observation that RFA complex plants dramatically inhibited the transient expression level of T-DNA and only reduced T-DNA integration by 50% suggests that double-stranded T-DNA intermediates, as well as single-stranded T-DNA, play significant roles in the integration process. © 2015

  6. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, B.; SUN, G. D.; ZHANG, L. Y.; WANG, J. G.; HU, J.

    2017-05-01

    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability.

  7. Active fault diagnosis by temporary destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  8. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  9. Active Fault Diagnosis by Temporary Destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  10. Fault Detection for Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur.......Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur....

  11. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where......Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...

  12. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  13. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  14. New insights on single-stranded versus double-stranded DNA library preparation for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Carøe, Christian; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    An innovative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library preparation method has sparked great interest among ancient DNA (aDNA) researchers, especially after reports of endogenous DNA content increases >20-fold in some samples. To investigate the behavior of this method, we generated ssDNA and conventio...

  15. Why double-stranded RNA resists condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Chen, Yujie; Drozdetski, Aleksander; Baker, Nathan; Pollack, Lois; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of multivalent cations to solutions containing double-stranded DNA leads to inter-DNA attraction and eventual condensation. Surprisingly, the condensation is suppressed in double-stranded RNA, which carries the same negative charge as DNA, but assumes a different double helical form. Here, we combine experiment and atomistic simulations to propose a mechanism that explains the variations in condensation of short (25 base-pairs) nucleic acid (NA) duplexes, from B-like form of homopolymeric DNA, to mixed sequence DNA, to DNA:RNA hybrid, to A-like RNA. Circular dichroism measurements suggest that duplex helical geometry is not the fundamental property that ultimately determines the observed differences in condensation. Instead, these differences are governed by the spatial variation of cobalt hexammine (CoHex) binding to NA. There are two major NA-CoHex binding modes—internal and external—distinguished by the proximity of bound CoHex to the helical axis. We find a significant difference, up to 5-fold, in the fraction of ions bound to the external surfaces of the different NA constructs studied. NA condensation propensity is determined by the fraction of CoHex ions in the external binding mode. PMID:25123663

  16. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing in meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S McMahill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies led to the proposal that meiotic gene conversion can result after transient engagement of the donor chromatid and subsequent DNA synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA. Double Holliday junction (dHJ intermediates were previously proposed to form both reciprocal crossover recombinants (COs and noncrossover recombinants (NCOs; however, dHJs are now thought to give rise mainly to COs, with SDSA forming most or all NCOs. To test this model in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we constructed a random spore system in which it is possible to identify a subset of NCO recombinants that can readily be accounted for by SDSA, but not by dHJ-mediated recombination. The diagnostic class of recombinants is one in which two markers on opposite sides of a double-strand break site are converted, without conversion of an intervening heterologous insertion located on the donor chromatid. This diagnostic class represents 26% of selected NCO recombinants. Tetrad analysis using the same markers provided additional evidence that SDSA is a major pathway for NCO gene conversion in meiosis.

  17. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahill, Melissa S; Sham, Caroline W; Bishop, Douglas K

    2007-11-06

    Recent studies led to the proposal that meiotic gene conversion can result after transient engagement of the donor chromatid and subsequent DNA synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA). Double Holliday junction (dHJ) intermediates were previously proposed to form both reciprocal crossover recombinants (COs) and noncrossover recombinants (NCOs); however, dHJs are now thought to give rise mainly to COs, with SDSA forming most or all NCOs. To test this model in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we constructed a random spore system in which it is possible to identify a subset of NCO recombinants that can readily be accounted for by SDSA, but not by dHJ-mediated recombination. The diagnostic class of recombinants is one in which two markers on opposite sides of a double-strand break site are converted, without conversion of an intervening heterologous insertion located on the donor chromatid. This diagnostic class represents 26% of selected NCO recombinants. Tetrad analysis using the same markers provided additional evidence that SDSA is a major pathway for NCO gene conversion in meiosis.

  18. Hole hopping rates in single strand oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Raffaele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Capobianco, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Peluso, Andrea, E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • DNA hole transfer rates have been computed. • Delocalized adenine domains significantly affect hole transfer rates in DNA. • Franck–Condon weighted density of state from DFT normal modes. • DNA application in molecular electronics. - Abstract: The rates of hole transfer between guanine and adenine in single strand DNA have been evaluated by using Fermi’s golden rule and Kubo’s generating function approach for the Franck–Condon weighted density of states. The whole sets of the normal modes and vibrational frequencies of the two nucleobases, obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of calculation, have been considered in computations. The results show that in single strand the pyramidalization/planarization mode of the amino groups of both nucleobases plays the major role. At room temperature, the Franck–Condon density of states extends over a wide range of hole site energy difference, 0–1 eV, giving some hints about the design of oligonucleotides of potential technological interest.

  19. Pre-Earthquake Paleoseismic Trenching in 2014 Along a Mapped Trace of the West Napa Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R. S.; Dawson, T. E.; Mareschal, M.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoseismic trenching in July 2014 across a previously mapped trace of the West Napa fault in eastern Alston Park (EAP) was undertaken with NEHRP funding as part of an effort to better characterize activity of the fault for regional seismic hazard assessments, and as part of an Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning (APEFZ) evaluation. The trench was excavated across a prominent escarpment that had been interpreted by others to represent evidence of Holocene fault activity, based on faults logged in an ~1-m-deep natural drainage exposure. Our trench was located ~3 m south of the drainage exposure and encompassed the interpreted fault zone, and beyond. The trench exposed the same surficial units as the natural exposure, as well as additional Pleistocene and older stratigraphy at depth. Escarpment parallel channeling was evident within deposits along the base of the slope. Faulting was not encountered, and is precluded by unbroken depositional contacts. Our preferred interpretation is that the escarpment in EAP is a result of fluvial and differential erosion, which is consistent with existence of channels along the base of the escarpment and a lack of faulting. The location of surface rupture of the South Napa Earthquake (SNE) of 8/24/14 occurred on fault strands south and west of this study and crosses Alston Park approximately 800 m west of our trench site, at its nearest point. Pre- and post-earthquake UAVSAR from NASA's JPL been useful in identifying major and minor ruptures of the SNE. Based on the imagery, a subtle lineament has been interpreted upslope from the trench. However, field observations along this feature yielded no visible surface deformation and the origin of this lineament is uncertain. The fault rupture pattern expressed by the SNE, as reflected by detailed field mapping and UAVSAR imagery, provides a unique opportunity to better understand the complex nature of the West Napa fault. Our study illustrates the value of subsurface investigations as

  20. Hypermutability of damaged single-strand DNA formed at double-strand breaks and uncapped telomeres in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Sterling, Joan; Storici, Francesca; Resnick, Michael A; Gordenin, Dmitry A

    2008-11-01

    The major DNA repair pathways operate on damage in double-strand DNA because they use the intact strand as a template after damage removal. Therefore, lesions in transient single-strand stretches of chromosomal DNA are expected to be especially threatening to genome stability. To test this hypothesis, we designed systems in budding yeast that could generate many kilobases of persistent single-strand DNA next to double-strand breaks or uncapped telomeres. The systems allowed controlled restoration to the double-strand state after applying DNA damage. We found that lesions induced by UV-light and methyl methanesulfonate can be tolerated in long single-strand regions and are hypermutagenic. The hypermutability required PCNA monoubiquitination and was largely attributable to translesion synthesis by the error-prone DNA polymerase zeta. In support of multiple lesions in single-strand DNA being a source of hypermutability, analysis of the UV-induced mutants revealed strong strand-specific bias and unexpectedly high frequency of alleles with widely separated multiple mutations scattered over several kilobases. Hypermutability and multiple mutations associated with lesions in transient stretches of long single-strand DNA may be a source of carcinogenesis and provide selective advantage in adaptive evolution.

  1. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  2. Detailed Northern Anatolian Fault Zone crustal structure from receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present high resolution images derived from receiver functions of the continental crust in Northern Turkey that is dissected by two fault strands of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The NAFZ is a major continental strike-slip fault system that is comparable in length and slip rate to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Recent large earthquakes occurred towards the western end of the NAFZ in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2). As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we aim to develop a model of NAFZ crustal structure and locate deformation by constraining variations in seismic properties and anisotropy in the upper and lower crust. The crustal model will be an input to test deformation scenarios in order to match geodetic observations from different phases of the earthquake loading cycle. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. This Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was deployed from May 2012 until September 2013 and we selected large events (Mw>5.5) from the high quality seismological dataset to analyze further. Receiver functions were calculated for different frequency bands then collected into regional stacks before being inverted for crustal S-wave velocity structure beneath the entire DANA array footprint. In addition, we applied common conversion point (CCP) migration using a regional velocity model to construct a migrated 3D volume of P-to-S converted and multiple energy in order to identify the major crustal features and layer boundaries. We also performed the CCP migration with transverse receiver functions in order to identify regions of anisotropy within the crustal layers. Our preliminary results show a heterogeneous crust above a flat Moho that is typically at a depth of 33 km. We do not observe a prominent step in the Moho beneath the surface

  3. Coda Wave Attenuation Characteristics for North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertcelik, Fadime; Guleroglu, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    North Anatolian Fault Zone, on which large earthquakes have occurred in the past, migrates regularly from east to west, and it is one of the most active faults in the world. The purpose of this study is to estimate the coda wave quality factor (Qc) for each of the five sub regionsthat were determined according to the fault rupture of these large earthquakes and along the fault. 978 records have been analyzed for 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 Hz frequencies by Single Backscattering Method. Along the fault, the variations in the Qc with lapse time are determined via, Qc = (136±25)f(0.96±0.027), Qc = (208±22)f(0.85±0.02) Qc = (307±28)f(0.72±0.025) at 20, 30, 40 sec lapse times, respectively. The estimated average frequency-dependence quality factor for all lapse time are; Qc(f) = (189±26)f(0.86±0.02) for Karliova-Tokat region; Qc(f) = (216±19)f(0.76±0.018) for Tokat-Çorum region; Qc(f) = (232±18)f(0.76±0.019) for Çorum-Adapazari region; Qc(f) = (280±28)f(0.79±0.021) for Adapazari-Yalova region; Qc(f) = (252±26)f(0.81±0.022) for Yalova-Gulf of Saros region. The coda wave quality factor at all the lapse times and frequencies is Qc(f) = (206±15)f(0.85±0.012) in the study area. The most change of Qc with lapse time is determined at Yalova-Saros region. The result may be related to heterogeneity degree of rapidly decreases towards the deep crust like compared to the other sub region. Moreover, the highest Qc is calculated between Adapazari - Yalova. It was interpreted as a result of seismic energy released by 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Besides, it couldn't be established a causal relationship between the regional variation of Qc with frequency and lapse time associated to migration of the big earthquakes. These results have been interpreted as the attenuation mechanism is affected by both regional heterogeneity and consist of a single or multi strands of the fault structure.

  4. Structural controls on Eocene to Pliocene tectonic and metallogenic evolution of the southernmost Lesser Caucasus, Armenia: paleostress field reconstruction and fault-slip analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of the central segment of the Tethyan belt is dominated by oblique convergence and final collision of Gondwana-derived terranes and the Arabian plate with Eurasia, which created a favorable setting for the formation of the highly mineralized Meghri-Ordubad pluton in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. Regional strike-slip faults played an important role in the control of the porphyry Cu-Mo and epithermal systems hosted by the Meghri-Ordubad pluton. In this contribution we discuss the paleostress and the kinematic environment of the major strike-slip and oblique-slip ore-controlling faults throughout the Eocene subduction to Mio-Pliocene post-collisional tectonic evolution of the Meghri-Ordubad pluton based on detailed structural field mapping of the ore districts, stereonet compilation of ore-bearing fractures and vein orientations in the major porphyry and epithermal deposits, and the paleostress reconstructions. Paleostress reconstructions indicate that during the Eocene and Early Oligocene, the main paleostress axe orientations reveal a dominant NE-SW-oriented compression, which is compatible with the subduction geometry of the Neotethys along Eurasia. This tectonic setting was favorable for dextral displacements along the two major, regional NNW-oriented Khustup-Giratakh and Salvard-Ordubad strike-slip faults. This resulted in the formation of a NS-oriented transrotational basin, known as the Central magma and ore- controlling zone (Tayan, 1998). It caused a horizontal clockwise rotation of blocks. The EW-oriented faults separating the blocks formed as en-échelon antithetic faults (Voghji, Meghrasar, Bughakyar and Meghriget-Cav faults). The Central zone consists of a network of EW-oriented sinistral and NS-oriented subparallel strike-slip faults (Tashtun, Spetry, Tey, Meghriget and Terterasar faults). They are active since the Eocene and were reactivated during the entire tectonic evolution of the pluton, but with different behaviors

  5. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  6. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  7. High-resolution, Two-Dimensional Geophysical Investigation of several small faults at the northern end of the Hat Creek graben, Shasta, Californi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaci, O.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Page, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Several faults were identified as Quaternary in age near the Pit River at the northern end of the Hat Creek graben based on their geomorphic expression. Preliminary paleoseismic trenching confirmed that Fault 3432 had displacements in the late Quaternary indicating that it is with long recurrence, but the style of faulting and its role within the greater geologic context remains unresolved. Detailed site-specific geophysical investigations were performed in order to help characterize the Fault 3432 and plan future paleoseismic investigations. Seven two-dimensional seismic reflection lines were acquired using a distributed networked recording configuration. Standard seismic reflection processing and surface wave processing using IMASW were performed to resolve shallow stratigraphy within Camp Shasta Basin and Burney Mountain Hillside Basin locations. Using this data combined with geomorphology facilitated our mapping and interpretation of fault zone architecture within the study area. In both Camp Shasta and Burney Mountain locations, seismic reflection data helped locate discrete fault strands extending near surface. In addition, our interpretation of seismic profiles show that near-vertical steep faults merge at depth indicating negative flower structure. This fault structure suggests that the dominant style of faulting in the study area is strike slip with a normal component.

  8. Rectifier Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of a Doubly Fed Brushless Starter Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Liwei Shi; Zhou Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rectifier fault diagnosis method with wavelet packet analysis to improve the fault tolerant four-phase doubly fed brushless starter generator (DFBLSG) system reliability. The system components and fault tolerant principle of the high reliable DFBLSG are given. And the common fault of the rectifier is analyzed. The process of wavelet packet transforms fault detection/identification algorithm is introduced in detail. The fault tolerant performance and output voltage experi...

  9. Transition Fault and the Yakutat-Pacific-North American Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G. L.; Norton, I. O.; Pavlis, T. L.; Reece, R.; van Avendonk, H.; Worthington, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the Gulf of Alaska the Pacific Plate, Yakutat Terrane, and North American Plate interact in a complexly deformed zone on the continental slope near Kayak Island. This zone can be viewed as a fault-trench-trench (FTT) triple junction that can only be stable if the two trench segments are aligned. In this case the trench segments are: the deformation front along which the Pacific Plate subducts beneath North America (the Aleutian Trench) and the deformation front along which the Yakutat Terrane subducts at a more westerly direction (when compared to the Pacific subduction) beneath North America (the Pamplona Zone). These two deformation fronts are, to a first order, locally aligned. The complex member of the system is the Transition Fault which is a long-lived strike-slip fault separating the 15-30 km thick Yakutat oceanic plateau crust from the 5-7 km thick Pacific Plate crust, which is itself deforming along the north-south trending Gulf of Alaska Shear Zone (GASZ). A series of seismic reflection profiles crossing the Transition Fault allow us to examine the evolution of deformation as a function of proximity to the triple junction. East of the triple junction and the GASZ, the Transition Fault is a single near vertical strike-slip zone. Moving west to the area where the GASZ interacts with the Transition Fault, three seismic profiles show that the Fault bifurcates into a southern transpressional strand with a few 100 meters of seafloor relief and a northern strike-slip dominated strand. West of the GASZ and within the region proximal to the triple junction, two seismic lines show that the Transition Fault is expressed as a southern transpressional structure with significant amounts shortening (seafloor expression increased to ~1.8 km) and a northern dominantly strike-slip fault with minor transpression. Mapping the top of basement shows that the southern arm lies within and deforms the Pacific oceanic crust with the top of ocean crust reflection to the north

  10. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  11. Fault detection and isolation for complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Shi; Bayuaji, Luhur; Samad, R.; Mustafa, M.; Abdullah, N. R. H.; Zain, Z. M.; Pebrianti, Dwi

    2017-07-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) is a method to monitor, identify, and pinpoint the type and location of system fault in a complex multiple input multiple output (MIMO) non-linear system. A two wheel robot is used as a complex system in this study. The aim of the research is to construct and design a Fault Detection and Isolation algorithm. The proposed method for the fault identification is using hybrid technique that combines Kalman filter and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Kalman filter is able to recognize the data from the sensors of the system and indicate the fault of the system in the sensor reading. Error prediction is based on the fault magnitude and the time occurrence of fault. Additionally, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is another algorithm used to determine the type of fault and isolate the fault in the system.

  12. Where's the Hayward Fault? A Green Guide to the Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes self-guided field trips to one of North America?s most dangerous earthquake faults?the Hayward Fault. Locations were chosen because of their easy access using mass transit and/or their significance relating to the natural and cultural history of the East Bay landscape. This field-trip guidebook was compiled to help commemorate the 140th anniversary of an estimated M 7.0 earthquake that occurred on the Hayward Fault at approximately 7:50 AM, October 21st, 1868. Although many reports and on-line resources have been compiled about the science and engineering associated with earthquakes on the Hayward Fault, this report has been prepared to serve as an outdoor guide to the fault for the interested public and for educators. The first chapter is a general overview of the geologic setting of the fault. This is followed by ten chapters of field trips to selected areas along the fault, or in the vicinity, where landscape, geologic, and man-made features that have relevance to understanding the nature of the fault and its earthquake history can be found. A glossary is provided to define and illustrate scientific term used throughout this guide. A ?green? theme helps conserve resources and promotes use of public transportation, where possible. Although access to all locations described in this guide is possible by car, alternative suggestions are provided. To help conserve paper, this guidebook is available on-line only; however, select pages or chapters (field trips) within this guide can be printed separately to take along on an excursion. The discussions in this paper highlight transportation alternatives to visit selected field trip locations. In some cases, combinations, such as a ride on BART and a bus, can be used instead of automobile transportation. For other locales, bicycles can be an alternative means of transportation. Transportation descriptions on selected pages are intended to help guide fieldtrip planners or participants choose trip

  13. Geometry of the Nojima fault at Nojima-Hirabayashi, Japan - II. Microstructures and their implications for permeability and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.; Ito, H.; Ikeda, R.; Tanaka, H.; Omura, K.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of damage-zone granodiorite and fault core from two drillholes into the active, strike-slip Nojima fault zone display microstructures and alteration features that explain their measured present-day strengths and permeabilities and provide insight on the evolution of these properties in the fault zone. The least deformed damage-zone rocks contain two sets of nearly perpendicular (60-90?? angles), roughly vertical fractures that are concentrated in quartz-rich areas, with one set typically dominating over the other. With increasing intensity of deformation, which corresponds generally to increasing proximity to the core, zones of heavily fragmented rock, termed microbreccia zones, develop between prominent fractures of both sets. Granodiorite adjoining intersecting microbreccia zones in the active fault strands has been repeatedly fractured and locally brecciated, accompanied by the generation of millimeter-scale voids that are partly filled with secondary minerals. Minor shear bands overprint some of the heavily deformed areas, and small-scale shear zones form from the pairing of closely spaced shear bands. Strength and permeability measurements were made on core collected from the fault within a year after a major (Kobe) earthquake. Measured strengths of the samples decrease regularly with increasing fracturing and fragmentation, such that the gouge of the fault core and completely brecciated samples from the damage zone are the weakest. Permeability increases with increasing disruption, generally reaching a peak in heavily fractured but still more or less cohesive rock at the scale of the laboratory samples. Complete loss of cohesion, as in the gouge or the interiors of large microbreccia zones, is accompanied by a reduction of permeability by 1-2 orders of magnitude below the peak values. The core samples show abundant evidence of hydrothermal alteration and mineral precipitation. Permeability is thus expected to decrease and strength to increase somewhat

  14. Fault Recoverability Analysis via Cross-Gramian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    with feedback control. Fault recoverability provides important and useful information which could be used in analysis and design. However, computing fault recoverability is numerically expensive. In this paper, a new approach for computation of fault recoverability for bilinear systems is proposed......Engineering systems are vulnerable to different kinds of faults. Faults may compromise safety, cause sub-optimal operation and decline in performance if not preventing the whole system from functioning. Fault tolerant control (FTC) methods ensure that the system performance maintains within...

  15. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...... for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. The modeling for each of these fault classes is described. The method allows to design for passive as well as for active fault handling. Also, the related design method can be fitted either to guarantee stability or to achieve graceful...

  16. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...

  17. Investigation of long period crustal deformation on the inactive branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, G.; Ozener, H.

    2009-05-01

    The western part of North Anatolian Fault (NAF) bifurcates around Mudurnu into two fault segments: northern and southern branch. The latter bifurcates again at west of Pamukova and creates middle strand. This study aimed to analyze crustal movement along the middle strand near Iznik which is considered as inactive fault. We focused on a microgeodetic network called General Command of Mapping-Istanbul Technical University (GCM-ITU) network around this segment. In order to obtain displacement values, five campaigns performed on the network which were used in the study. The displacements of the stations were estimated relative to the fixed stations located at the south of the network. The coordinates of the stations were calculated from the triangulation measurements realized in 1941 and 1963, trilateration measurements in 1981, and GPS campaigns in 2004 and 2007. Then, mean displacements of the network ranging between 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr were obtained for these years. In the second part of the study, the GPS data were re-processed by adding three stations from Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET). Details of MAGNET can be found Ergintav et al. (2002). Estimated displacements were ranging between 3 mm/yr and 13 mm/yr for 2004 and 2007. TUBI station of IGS network was taken as stable.

  18. Investigation of long period crustal deformation on the inactive branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akay

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The western part of North Anatolian Fault (NAF bifurcates around Mudurnu into two fault segments: northern and southern branch. The latter bifurcates again at west of Pamukova and creates middle strand. This study aimed to analyze crustal movement along the middle strand near Iznik which is considered as inactive fault. We focused on a microgeodetic network called General Command of Mapping-Istanbul Technical University (GCM-ITU network around this segment. In order to obtain displacement values, five campaigns performed on the network which were used in the study. The displacements of the stations were estimated relative to the fixed stations located at the south of the network. The coordinates of the stations were calculated from the triangulation measurements realized in 1941 and 1963, trilateration measurements in 1981, and GPS campaigns in 2004 and 2007. Then, mean displacements of the network ranging between 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr were obtained for these years.

    In the second part of the study, the GPS data were re-processed by adding three stations from Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET. Details of MAGNET can be found Ergintav et al. (2002. Estimated displacements were ranging between 3 mm/yr and 13 mm/yr for 2004 and 2007. TUBI station of IGS network was taken as stable.

  19. Analysis of guanine oxidation products in double-stranded DNA and proposed guanine oxidation pathways in single-stranded, double-stranded or quadruplex DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morikawa, Masayuki; Kino, Katsuhito; Oyoshi, Takanori; Suzuki, Masayo; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    .... In a previous study using 6-mer DNA d(TGGGGT), which is the shortest oligomer capable of forming quadruplex structures, we demonstrated that guanine oxidation products of quadruplex DNA differ from those of single-stranded DNA...

  20. Fault-tolerant Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    of this work has been to develop and employ concepts and methods that are suitable for use in different automation processes, with applicability in various industrial fields. The requirements for high productivity and quality has resulted in employing additional instrumentation and use of more sophisticated...... control algorithms. The drawback is, however, that these control systems have become more vulnerable to even simple faults in instrumentation. On the other hand, due to cost-optimality requirements, an extensive use of hardware redundancy has been prohibited. Nevertheless, the dependency and availability...... could be increased through enhancing control systems' ability to on-line perform fault detection and reconfiguration when a fault occurs and before a safety system shuts-down the entire process. The main contributions of this research effort are development and experimentation with methodologies...

  1. Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    into the skin. the STRAND INN "I’ve heard ihe service Aere lsqgetbng better a// the lime ! " 96 role to one side stretcher or tarpaulin return to upright... blotches and oval scars on belly. region Habits: Pelagic. 1 5 8 • 6 t1 7 Stranding frequency by region Gervais’ beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus)ś 3x 11

  2. Cetacean strandings along the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.; Veryeri, N.; Cirik, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper provides information on the stranding of cetaceans in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, between 1992 and 2004. The data were collected opportunistically during sightings and stranding data collection for Monk Seals. A total of 12 cetaceans, namely Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

  3. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... suitable for use in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post- tensioned) applications. The product... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade... concrete steel wire strand, provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  4. Manipulating DNA probe presentation via enzymatic cleavage of diluent strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, Christopher K; Milam, Valeria T

    2008-09-01

    We previously reported a system for the controlled redispersion of DNA-linked aggregates using secondary, competitive hybridization events and found that complete redispersion is contingent upon dilution of the active 20 base-long probe strands with 20 base-long nonhybridizing strands. Here, to reduce the steric interference of nonhybridizing or diluent strands on probe activity, we investigate the effect of shorter diluent strands on the hybridization activity of immobilized probes using the following two approaches: (1) simultaneously coupling shorter diluent strands and longer probe strands to microspheres and (2) simultaneously coupling diluent and probe strands of the same base length to microspheres and then clipping diluent strands with the restriction endonuclease AluI. Results indicate that one can reduce the duplex density down by 50-70% of its initial value, depending on the location of the recognition motif along the hybridization segment. In addition, tighter control over the number of probe-target duplexes is achieved with the enzyme-based approach.

  5. Fault slip rate estimates for southwestern US from GPS data and non-block viscoelastic sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, R. Y.; Johnson, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fault slip rate estimates from geodetic data are becoming increasingly important for earthquake hazard studies. In order to estimate fault slip rates, GPS-constrained kinematic models such as elastic block models are widely used. However, kinematic block models are inherently non-unique and provide limited insight into the mechanics of deformation. Furthermore, assumed discrete tectonic blocks may not exist everywhere as not every region of the western US displays mature, through-going geologic structures that naturally divide the crust into tectonic blocks. For example, the eastern California shear zone and regions of the Basin and Range Province are best described as broad zones of interacting, discontinuous fault strands. We are building towards mechanical models of present-day surface motions in which deformation is a response to plate boundary forces, gravitational loading, and rheological properties of the lithosphere. To model fault slip rates in the southwestern US, we populate an elastico-visco thin sheet (plane stress) with thin viscous shear zones (faults) and impose far-field plate motions and gravitational loading to compute the long-term fault slip rates and crustal motions. Interseismic deformation due to locking of faults is modeled with backslip on dislocations in an elastic half-space or in an elastic plate over a viscoelastic half-space. The total present-day deformation field (long-term plus intersesismic) is compared with the GPS-derived velocity field and the model stress tensor is compared with the stress state inferred from stress-inversions of focal mechanism data.

  6. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  7. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  8. 3D multi-scale velocity structure of an active seismogenic normal fault zone (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondriest, Michele; Mitchell, Tom; Vassallo, Maurizio; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Passelegue, Francois; Pischiutta, Marta; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of physical properties of fault zones (e.g., ultrasonic velocities, elastic moduli, porosity and fracture intensity of the fault zone rocks) is a relevant topic in reservoir geology (exploration and exploitation) and fault mechanics, for the modelling of both long-term quasi-static and fast dynamic fault zone evolution with time. Here we characterized the shallow subsurface velocity-elastic structure of the active Vado di Corno normal fault zone (Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines, Italy) which is up to > 300 m thick. Based on a detailed structural mapping of the fault footwall block covering a 2 km long fault segment, four main structural units separated by principal fault strands were recognized: (i) cataclastic unit, (ii) breccia unit, (iii) high-strain damage zone, (iv) low-strain damage zone. The single units were systematically sampled along a transect ( 200 m) orthogonal to the average strike of the fault and characterized in the laboratory in terms of petrophysical properties (i.e., Vp, Vs, static and dynamic elastic moduli, porosity). The cataclastic and breccia units (Vp = 4.68±0.43 kms-1, Vs = 2.68±0.24 kms-1) were significantly "slower" compared to the damage zone units (Vp = 5.43±0.53 kms-1, Vs = 3.20±0.29 kms-1). A general negative correlation between ultrasonic velocity and porosity values was reported. Moreover three dimensional acoustic anisotropy was quantified within the different units with respect to the mapped fault strands, and related to the deformation fabrics (i.e., open fractures, veins) observed at the sample scale. A Vp - Vs seismic refraction tomography was then performed in the field along a profile ( 90 m) across the fault zone. The tomographic results clearly illuminated fault-bounded rock bodies characterized by different velocities (i.e., elastic properties) and geometries which match with the ones deduced from the structural analysis of the fault zone exposures. Fracture intensity measurements (both at

  9. Fault-tolerant system for catastrophic faults in AMR sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano Constantini, A.C.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are widely used in automotive applications considered to be safety-critical applications. Therefore dependability is an important requirement and fault-tolerant strategies must be used to guarantee the correct operation of the sensors even in case of

  10. Solar Dynamic Power System Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct various fault simulation studies for diagnosing the type and location of faults in the power distribution system. Different types of faults are simulated at different locations within the distribution system and the faulted waveforms are monitored at measurable nodes such as at the output of the DDCU's. These fault signatures are processed using feature extractors such as FFT and wavelet transforms. The extracted features are fed to a clustering based neural network for training and subsequent testing using previously unseen data. Different load models consisting of constant impedance and constant power are used for the loads. Open circuit faults and short circuit faults are studied. It is concluded from present studies that using features extracted from wavelet transforms give better success rates during ANN testing. The trained ANN's are capable of diagnosing fault types and approximate locations in the solar dynamic power distribution system.

  11. Finite Fault Database (ANSS ComCat)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A Finite Fault is a modeled representation of the spatial extent, amplitude and duration of fault rupture (slip) of an earthquake, and is generated via the inversion...

  12. Quantifying Fault Networks on Alba Patera, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Sims, D. W.; Franklin, N. M.

    2005-03-01

    Newly developed terrestrial approaches were applied to martian fault networks to quantify the extent and degree of fault network connectivity. These techniques will provide key constraints for martian hydrological models.

  13. Stranding of Two Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the “North Sea Trap” at Henne Strand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Siv; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Jørgen H.

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014 two male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded at Henne Strand, Denmark. One whale (MCE 1644) was found dead, while the other (MCE 1645) was still alive, but drowned during the high tide. To increase our knowledge of sperm whales, conduct forage investigations, post-mort...

  14. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  15. Stability of stacking faults in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranova, Z.I.; Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul' ko, V.B.; Mikhailovskii, I.M.

    1979-12-01

    The atomic configuration of planar lattice defects in tungsten was investigated by field-ion microscopy and thermal etching. Stable stacking faults were observed throughout the investigated temperature range 78--1700/sup 0/K. These faults were studied by field-ion microscopy and mathematical modeling methods. It was found that the existence of stacking faults in bcc crystals was not associated with the action of strong omnidirectional tensile stresses. The crystallographic characteristics of the faults were determined.

  16. Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Roumagnac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although single stranded (ss DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution.

  17. Double Stranded RNA in Human Seminal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Zagoskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, human semen was shown to contain cell-free nucleic acids, such as DNA, long single stranded RNA, and small RNAs–miRNA and piRNA. The RNAs have been suggested to have potential biological roles as communication molecules between cells and in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression in the male reproductive system. Here we demonstrate that human seminal plasma contains a variety of cell-free dsRNAs, describe a robust method to isolate this type of nucleic acid in preparative amounts, and discuss the potential biological roles of these molecules in inheritance. dsRNA plays a role in a variety of biological processes, including gene regulation, is extremely stable and can gain access to cells from the extracellular medium. We suggest that one of the possible functions of dsRNA in human seminal plasma may be to influence human oocytes and therefore, influence the offspring. It also remains possible that these dsRNAs might have potential use as biomarkers for the study of human physiopathological conditions and genetic variation.

  18. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  19. Fault Tolerance Using Group Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaashoek, M.F.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    We propose group communication as an efficient mechanism to support fault tolerance. Our approach is based on an efficient reliable broadcast protocol that requires on average only two messages per broadcast. To illustrate our approach we will describe how the task bag model can be made

  20. Tsunamis and splay fault dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, J.; Oglesby, D.D.; Geist, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The geometry of a fault system can have significant effects on tsunami generation, but most tsunami models to date have not investigated the dynamic processes that determine which path rupture will take in a complex fault system. To gain insight into this problem, we use the 3D finite element method to model the dynamics of a plate boundary/splay fault system. We use the resulting ground deformation as a time-dependent boundary condition for a 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic tsunami calculation. We find that if me stress distribution is homogeneous, rupture remains on the plate boundary thrust. When a barrier is introduced along the strike of the plate boundary thrust, rupture propagates to the splay faults, and produces a significantly larger tsunami man in the homogeneous case. The results have implications for the dynamics of megathrust earthquakes, and also suggest mat dynamic earthquake modeling may be a useful tool in tsunami researcn. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Fault detection using (PI) observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.; Shafai, B.

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem in connection with Proportional Integral (PI) Observers is considered in this paper. A compact formulation of the FDI design problem using PI observers is given. An analysis of the FDI design problem is derived with respectt to the time domain...... properties. A method for design of PI observers applied to FDI is given....

  2. Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Quadrotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, P.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Yu, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for fault detection and diagnosis of actuator loss of effectiveness for a quadrotor helicopter. This paper not only considers the detection of the actuator loss of effectiveness faults, but also addresses the diagnosis of the faults. The detection and estimation of the

  3. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  4. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Vernekar

    A LabVIEW software Virtual Instrument (VI) program was developed to ... study. Artificial faults were generated at different locations of the bearing and they are bearing outer race, inner race, inner and outer race together fault and rolling element (ball) fault. ... validation information of original signal were decom- posed using ...

  5. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  6. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...

  7. Fault estimation - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis problems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem set-up introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis pr...

  8. The minimum scale of grooving on faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candela, T.; Brodsky, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    At the field scale, nearly all fault surfaces contain grooves generated as one side of the fault slips past the other. Grooves are so common that they are one of the key indicators of principal slip surfaces. Here, we show that at sufficiently small scales, grooves do not exist on fault surfaces. A

  9. Fundamental problems in fault detection and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saberi, A.; Stoorvogel, A. A.; Sannuti, P.

    2000-01-01

    A number of different fundamental problems in fault detection and fault identification are formulated in this paper. The fundamental problems include exact, almost, generic and class-wise fault detection and identification. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the fundamental...

  10. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1999-01-01

    Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems....... The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....

  11. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control based on adaptive control approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Qikun; Shi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This book provides recent theoretical developments in and practical applications of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for complex dynamical systems, including uncertain systems, linear and nonlinear systems. Combining adaptive control technique with other control methodologies, it investigates the problems of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for uncertain dynamic systems with or without time delay. As such, the book provides readers a solid understanding of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control based on adaptive control technology. Given its depth and breadth, it is well suited for undergraduate and graduate courses on linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control techniques. Further, it can be used as a reference source for academic research on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control, and for postgraduates in the field of control theory and engineering. .

  12. Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica (1966-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Fonseca

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica are reported for a period of 33 years, with a total of 35 strandings, 13 species and 247 individuals involved. The vast majority of documented strandings occurred on the Pacific coast and correspond to single individuals (32 and 28 strandings respectively. The highest stranding number was in the period from 1990 to 1999 (n=24. Physeter catodon (cachalot or sperm whale is the species with the highest frequency of strandings (n=8 and the family Delphinidae has the majority of species (n=8 and strandings (n=22. No other general tendencies were determined with the existing data.Se informan los casos de encallamientos de cetáceos en Costa Rica. Un total de 35 casos conocidos para 13 especies involucradas y un total de 247 individuos. La gran mayoría de los casos provienen de la costa Pacífica (32 y 28 corresponden a encallamientos individuales. El cachalote, Physeter catodon, es la especie con mayor frecuencia de encallamientos (8 y la familia Delphinidae abarca la mayor cantidad de especies involucradas (8 y de casos de encallamientos (22. No se determinó ninguna otra tendencia general con la información disponible.

  13. Origin of Overstretching Transitions in Single-Stranded Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Zackary N.; Rabbi, Mahir; Lee, David; Manson, Laura; S-Gracz, Hanna; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2013-11-01

    We combined single-molecule force spectroscopy with nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and molecular mechanics simulations to examine overstretching transitions in single-stranded nucleic acids. In single-stranded DNA and single-stranded RNA there is a low-force transition that involves unwinding of the helical structure, along with base unstacking. We determined that the high-force transition that occurs in polydeoxyadenylic acid single-stranded DNA is caused by the cooperative forced flipping of the dihedral angle formed between four atoms, O5’-C5’-C4’-C3’ (γ torsion), in the nucleic acid backbone within the canonical B-type helix. The γ torsion also flips under force in A-type helices, where the helix is shorter and wider as compared to the B-type helix, but this transition is less cooperative than in the B type and does not generate a high-force plateau in the force spectrums of A-type helices. We find that a similar high-force transition can be induced in polyadenylic acid single-stranded RNA by urea, presumably due to disrupting the intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the backbone. We hypothesize that a pronounced high-force transition observed for B-type helices of double stranded DNA also involves a cooperative flip of the γ torsion. These observations suggest new fundamental relationships between the canonical structures of single-and double-stranded DNA and the mechanism of their molecular elasticity.

  14. Fault Diagnosis in HVAC Chillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kihoon; Namuru, Setu M.; Azam, Mohammad S.; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Modern buildings are being equipped with increasingly sophisticated power and control systems with substantial capabilities for monitoring and controlling the amenities. Operational problems associated with heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems plague many commercial buildings, often the result of degraded equipment, failed sensors, improper installation, poor maintenance, and improperly implemented controls. Most existing HVAC fault-diagnostic schemes are based on analytical models and knowledge bases. These schemes are adequate for generic systems. However, real-world systems significantly differ from the generic ones and necessitate modifications of the models and/or customization of the standard knowledge bases, which can be labor intensive. Data-driven techniques for fault detection and isolation (FDI) have a close relationship with pattern recognition, wherein one seeks to categorize the input-output data into normal or faulty classes. Owing to the simplicity and adaptability, customization of a data-driven FDI approach does not require in-depth knowledge of the HVAC system. It enables the building system operators to improve energy efficiency and maintain the desired comfort level at a reduced cost. In this article, we consider a data-driven approach for FDI of chillers in HVAC systems. To diagnose the faults of interest in the chiller, we employ multiway dynamic principal component analysis (MPCA), multiway partial least squares (MPLS), and support vector machines (SVMs). The simulation of a chiller under various fault conditions is conducted using a standard chiller simulator from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). We validated our FDI scheme using experimental data obtained from different types of chiller faults.

  15. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  16. Robust Fault Diagnosis Design for Linear Multiagent Systems with Incipient Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a robust fault estimation observer is studied for linear multiagent systems subject to incipient faults. By considering the fact that incipient faults are in low-frequency domain, the fault estimation of such faults is proposed for discrete-time multiagent systems based on finite-frequency technique. Moreover, using the decomposition design, an equivalent conclusion is given. Simulation results of a numerical example are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  17. Strike-slip Fault Structure in the Salton Trough and Deformation During and After the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake from Geodetic and Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sun, J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Freed, A. M.; Burgmann, R.; Samsonov, S. V.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific-North America plate boundary character changes southward from the strike-slip and transpressional configuration along most of California to oblique rifting in the Gulf of California, with a transitional zone of transtension beneath the Salton Trough in southernmost California and northern Mexico. The Salton Trough is characterized by extremely high heat flow and thin lithosphere with a thick fill of sedimentary material delivered by the Colorado River during the past 5-6 million years. Because of the rapid sedimentation, most of the faults in Salton Trough are buried and reveal themselves when they slip either seismically or aseismically. They can also be located by refraction and reflection of seismic waves. The 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) in Baja California and Sonora, Mexico is probably the largest earthquake in the Salton Trough for at least 120 years, and had primarily right-lateral strike-slip motion. The earthquake ruptured a complex set of faults that lie to the west of the main plate boundary fault, the Cerro Prieto Fault, and shows that the strike-slip fault system in the southern Salton Trough has multiple sub-parallel active faults, similar to southern California. The Cerro Prieto Fault is still likely absorbing the majority of strain in the plate boundary. We study the coseismic and postseismic deformation of the 2010 earthquake with interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images (InSAR) and pixel tracking by subpixel correlation of SAR and optical images. We combine sampled InSAR and subpixel correlation results with GPS (Global Positioning System) offsets at PBO (Plate Boundary Observatory) stations to estimate the likely subsurface geometry of the major faults that slipped during the earthquake and to derive a static coseismic slip model. We constrained the surface locations of the fault segments to mapped locations in the Sierra Cucapah to the northwest of the epicenter. SAR along-track offsets

  18. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  19. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  20. Numerical modelling of the mechanical and fluid flow properties of fault zones - Implications for fault seal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.; Giger, S.B.; Clennell, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Existing fault seal algorithms are based on fault zone composition and fault slip (e.g., shale gouge ratio), or on fault orientations within the contemporary stress field (e.g., slip tendency). In this study, we aim to develop improved fault seal algorithms that account for differences in fault zone

  1. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  2. Updated Long Term Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Central Alborz, Iran: New Constraints From InSAR and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, J. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alborz mountain range, located south of the Caspian Sea, accommodates 30% of the 25 mm/yr convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. The resulting shortening and left lateral motion is distributed over several active fault zones within the Central Alborz. Despite earlier efforts using only GPS data, little is known about the long term rate of vertical deformation and aseismic slip. Several historical earthquakes have affected this region, some of the largest of these events occurred on the Mosha fault which is close to the capital city, Tehran, which has a population of over eight million. Thus, constraining the interseismic slip rates in this region is particularly important. In this study we complement existing horizontal velocities from a regional GPS network, with line of sight velocities from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), to provide additional constraints on the vertical deformation and enhance the spatial coverage. Assuming a seismogenic depth of 30 km, based on microseismicity data, we solve for the geometry and long term slip rates on four major fault strands in this region. We obtain a long term slip rate of ~ 3 mm/yr for the Mosha and North Alborz faults, and ~ 10 mm/yr for the Khazar fault and Parchin faults. These rates and fault geometries are in agreement with earlier works, and fit the GPS data well. However, close to the fault traces there are large residuals in the InSAR data, suggesting that there is shallow creep (Khazar faults are creeping. This new observation of fault creep has direct implications for the seismic hazard in the region. On the Mosha fault we estimate a slip deficit equivalent to a Mw 7.0 event. The combination of InSAR and GPS provide vital information for assessing the interseismic deformation in the Central Alborz, and these results highlight the importance of closer monitoring of this region to better understand the seismic hazard.

  3. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  4. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  5. Tool for Viewing Faults Under Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Herbert, L.; Li, P. Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Multi Surface Light Table (MSLT) is an interactive software tool that was developed in support of the QuakeSim project, which has created an earthquake- fault database and a set of earthquake- simulation software tools. MSLT visualizes the three-dimensional geometries of faults embedded below the terrain and animates time-varying simulations of stress and slip. The fault segments, represented as rectangular surfaces at dip angles, are organized into collections, that is, faults. An interface built into MSLT queries and retrieves fault definitions from the QuakeSim fault database. MSLT also reads time-varying output from one of the QuakeSim simulation tools, called "Virtual California." Stress intensity is represented by variations in color. Slips are represented by directional indicators on the fault segments. The magnitudes of the slips are represented by the duration of the directional indicators in time. The interactive controls in MSLT provide a virtual track-ball, pan and zoom, translucency adjustment, simulation playback, and simulation movie capture. In addition, geographical information on the fault segments and faults is displayed on text windows. Because of the extensive viewing controls, faults can be seen in relation to one another, and to the terrain. These relations can be realized in simulations. Correlated slips in parallel faults are visible in the playback of Virtual California simulations.

  6. Deformation of Sedimentary Rock Across the San Andreas Fault Zone: Mesoscale and Microscale Structures Displayed in Core From SAFOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.; Kirschner, D. L.; Almeida, R.; Evans, J. P.; Guillemette, R. N.; Hickman, S.; Zoback, M.; Ellsworth, W.

    2007-12-01

    processes having operated concurrently and cyclically. The microstructure of wear product along some slip surfaces, and associated mobilization and injections of wear microbreccia, are consistent with dynamic slip and local pore fluid pressurization. Cores from the actively creeping segments at 3194 m and 3301 m MD display a variety of moderately to highly sheared rocks. Disrupted bedding and cataclastic foliations oriented subparallel to the macroscopic orientation of the San Andreas fault are common. Protoliths of the fault rocks include interbedded sandstone, siltstone, shale, and serpentinite. Mesoscale calcite veins are abundant locally, yet are rare in the other cores. Zones of foliated cataclasites record a distributed shear within meters-thick zones, but sharp contacts between different types of cataclasite are also consistent with extremely localized slip having occurred at various stages of deformation. Zones of incohesive cataclasite and scaly fabrics could correlate with current locations of active, aseismic creep.

  7. Rule-based fault diagnosis of hall sensors and fault-tolerant control of PMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Gu, Jing; Feng, Xuning; Lu, Dongbin

    2013-07-01

    Hall sensor is widely used for estimating rotor phase of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM). And rotor position is an essential parameter of PMSM control algorithm, hence it is very dangerous if Hall senor faults occur. But there is scarcely any research focusing on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of Hall sensor used in PMSM. From this standpoint, the Hall sensor faults which may occur during the PMSM operating are theoretically analyzed. According to the analysis results, the fault diagnosis algorithm of Hall sensor, which is based on three rules, is proposed to classify the fault phenomena accurately. The rotor phase estimation algorithms, based on one or two Hall sensor(s), are initialized to engender the fault-tolerant control algorithm. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect 60 Hall fault phenomena in total as well as all detections can be fulfilled in 1/138 rotor rotation period. The fault-tolerant control algorithm can achieve a smooth torque production which means the same control effect as normal control mode (with three Hall sensors). Finally, the PMSM bench test verifies the accuracy and rapidity of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategies. The fault diagnosis algorithm can detect all Hall sensor faults promptly and fault-tolerant control algorithm allows the PMSM to face failure conditions of one or two Hall sensor(s). In addition, the transitions between health-control and fault-tolerant control conditions are smooth without any additional noise and harshness. Proposed algorithms can deal with the Hall sensor faults of PMSM in real applications, and can be provided to realize the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of PMSM.

  8. Active fault diagnosis by controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Two active fault diagnosis methods for additive or parametric faults are proposed. Both methods are based on controller reconfiguration rather than on requiring an exogenous excitation signal, as it is otherwise common in active fault diagnosis. For the first method, it is assumed that the system...... in a way that guarantees the continuity of transition and global stability using a recent result on observer parameterization. An illustrative example inspired by a field study of a drag racing vehicle is given. For the second method, an active fault diagnosis method for parametric faults is proposed...... considered is controlled by an observer-based controller. The method is then based on a number of alternate observers, each designed to be sensitive to one or more additive faults. Periodically, the observer part of the controller is changed into the sequence of fault sensitive observers. This is done...

  9. Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Kinnaert, Michel; Lunze, Jan

    The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process...... the applicability of the presented methods. The theoretical results are illustrated by two running examples which are used throughout the book. The book addresses engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get a survey over the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault...... that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. Design methods for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers are presented for processes that are described by analytical models, by discrete-event models or that can be dealt with as quantised systems. Four case studies on pilot processes show...

  10. Geometry, slip distribution, and kinematics of surface rupture on the Sakarya fault segment during the 17 August 1999 İzmit, Turkey, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R.M.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Fumal, T.E.; Christofferson, S.A.; Rockwell, T.K.; Hartleb, R.D.; Bachhuber, J.; Barka, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mw 7.4 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake ruptured five major fault segments of the dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone. The 26-km-long, N86°W-trending Sakarya fault segment (SFS) extends from the Sapanca releasing step-over in the west to near the town of Akyazi in the east. The SFS emerges from Lake Sapanca as two distinct fault traces that rejoin to traverse the Adapazari Plain to Akyazi. Offsets were measured across 88 cultural and natural features that cross the fault, such as roads, cornfield rows, rows of trees, walls, rails, field margins, ditches, vehicle ruts, a dike, and ground cracks. The maximum displacement observed for the İzmit earthquake (∼5.1 m) was encountered on this segment. Dextral displacement for the SFS rises from less than 1 m at Lake Sapanca to greater than 5 m near Arifiye, only 3 km away. Average slip decreases uniformly to the east from Arifiye until the fault steps left from Sagir to Kazanci to the N75°W, 6-km-long Akyazi strand, where slip drops to less than 1 m. The Akyazi strand passes eastward into the Akyazi Bend, which consists of a high-angle bend (18°-29°) between the Sakarya and Karadere fault segments, a 6-km gap in surface rupture, and high aftershock energy release. Complex structural geometries exist between the İzmit, Düzce, and 1967 Mudurnu fault segments that have arrested surface ruptures on timescales ranging from 30 sec to 88 days to 32 yr. The largest of these step-overs may have acted as a rupture segmentation boundary in previous earthquake cycles.

  11. Analysis on sliding helices and strands in protein structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-06-16

    Holm ... enable identification of conserved core of a protein fold it is not clear if the quality of .... Percentage of pairs of secondary structural elements for various SCOP classes (a) alpha helices (b) beta strands. Number of pairs.

  12. Corrosion performance of prestressing strands in contact with dissimilar grouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To improve the corrosion protection provided to prestressing strands, anti-bleed grouts are used to fill voids in post-tensioning : ducts that result from bleeding and shrinkage of older Portland Cement grouts. Environmental differences caused by exp...

  13. Electrical Interconnection Of Superconducting Strands By Electrolytic CU Deposition.

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Heck, S; Ams, A

    2011-01-01

    The electrical interconnection of Nb3Sn/Cu strands is a key issue for the construction of superconducting devices such as Nb3Sn based insertion devices for third generation light sources. As an alternative connection method for brittle superconducting strands like Nb3Sn/Cu, test joints have been produced by electrolytic deposition of Cu. The resistance of first test joints produced by electrolytic Cu deposition with a strand overlap length of 3 cm at 4.2 K is about 10 n$\\omega$, similar to the resistance measured for joints produced by soft soldering with the same strand overlap length. Interconnection by electrolytic Cu deposition can be done before or after the reaction heat treatment, and it produces a mechanically strong connection. Simulations have been performed with Comsol multiphysics in order to estimate the influence of deposit imperfections on the joint resistance, and to compare the resistance of joints made with different techniques

  14. New insights on Southern Coyote Creek Fault and Superstition Hills Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandt, A. J.; Mellors, R. J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Burgess, M. K.; O'Hare, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent field work has confirmed an extension of the southern Coyote Creek (CCF) branch of the San Jacinto fault in the western Salton trough. The fault marks the western edge of an area of subsidence caused by groundwater extraction, and field measurements suggest that recent strike-slip motion has occurred on this fault as well. We attempt to determine whether this fault connects at depth with the Superstition Hills fault (SHF) to the southeast by modeling observed surface deformation between the two faults measured by InSAR. Stacked ERS (descending) InSAR data from 1992 to 2000 is initially modeled using a finite fault in an elastic half-space. Observed deformation along the SHF and Elmore Ranch fault is modeled assuming shallow (< 5 km) creep. We test various models to explain surface deformation between the two faults.

  15. Mismatch repair balances leading and lagging strand DNA replication fidelity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Lujan

    Full Text Available The two DNA strands of the nuclear genome are replicated asymmetrically using three DNA polymerases, α, δ, and ε. Current evidence suggests that DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε is the primary leading strand replicase, whereas Pols α and δ primarily perform lagging strand replication. The fact that these polymerases differ in fidelity and error specificity is interesting in light of the fact that the stability of the nuclear genome depends in part on the ability of mismatch repair (MMR to correct different mismatches generated in different contexts during replication. Here we provide the first comparison, to our knowledge, of the efficiency of MMR of leading and lagging strand replication errors. We first use the strand-biased ribonucleotide incorporation propensity of a Pol ε mutator variant to confirm that Pol ε is the primary leading strand replicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then use polymerase-specific error signatures to show that MMR efficiency in vivo strongly depends on the polymerase, the mismatch composition, and the location of the mismatch. An extreme case of variation by location is a T-T mismatch that is refractory to MMR. This mismatch is flanked by an AT-rich triplet repeat sequence that, when interrupted, restores MMR to > 95% efficiency. Thus this natural DNA sequence suppresses MMR, placing a nearby base pair at high risk of mutation due to leading strand replication infidelity. We find that, overall, MMR most efficiently corrects the most potentially deleterious errors (indels and then the most common substitution mismatches. In combination with earlier studies, the results suggest that significant differences exist in the generation and repair of Pol α, δ, and ε replication errors, but in a generally complementary manner that results in high-fidelity replication of both DNA strands of the yeast nuclear genome.

  16. The impact of environmental factors on marine turtle stranding rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J.; Mills, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, tropical and subtropical regions have experienced an increased frequency and intensity in extreme weather events, ranging from severe drought to protracted rain depressions and cyclones, these coincided with an increased number of marine turtles subsequently reported stranded. This study investigated the relationship between environmental variables and marine turtle stranding. The environmental variables examined in this study, in descending order of importance, were freshwater discharge, monthly mean maximum and minimum air temperatures, monthly average daily diurnal air temperature difference and rainfall for the latitudinal hotspots (-27°, -25°, -23°, -19°) along the Queensland coast as well as for major embayments within these blocks. This study found that marine turtle strandings can be linked to these environmental variables at different lag times (3–12 months), and that cumulative (months added together for maximum lag) and non-cumulative (single month only) effects cause different responses. Different latitudes also showed different responses of marine turtle strandings, both in response direction and timing.Cumulative effects of freshwater discharge in all latitudes resulted in increased strandings 10–12 months later. For latitudes -27°, -25° and -23° non-cumulative effects for discharge resulted in increased strandings 7–12 months later. Latitude -19° had different results for the non-cumulative bay with strandings reported earlier (3–6 months). Monthly mean maximum and minimum air temperatures, monthly average daily diurnal air temperature difference and rainfall had varying results for each examined latitude. This study will allow first responders and resource managers to be better equipped to deal with increased marine turtle stranding rates following extreme weather events. PMID:28771635

  17. The impact of environmental factors on marine turtle stranding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J.; Paul C. Mills

    2017-01-01

    Globally, tropical and subtropical regions have experienced an increased frequency and intensity in extreme weather events, ranging from severe drought to protracted rain depressions and cyclones, these coincided with an increased number of marine turtles subsequently reported stranded. This study investigated the relationship between environmental variables and marine turtle stranding. The environmental variables examined in this study, in descending order of importance, were freshwater disc...

  18. False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens mass stranding at Long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass stranding of false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens at Long Beach near the village of Kommetjie (34°8.18′ S, 18°9.77′ E) on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, in May 2009 is described. The estimated size of stranded group was 55 animals, which is close to the median size of P. crassidens groups that have ...

  19. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  20. Tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up organ printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2014-01-01

    Organ printing, takes tissue spheroids as building blocks together with additive manufacturing technique to engineer tissue or organ replacement parts. Although a wide array of cell aggregation techniques has been investigated, and gained noticeable success, the application of tissue spheroids for scale-up tissue fabrication is still worth investigation. In this paper, we introduce a new micro-fabrication technique to create tissue strands at the scale of 500-700μm as a "bioink" for future robotic tissue printing. Printable alginate micro-conduits are used as semi-permeable capsules for tissue strand fabrication. Mouse insulinoma beta TC3 cell tissue strands were formed upon 4 days post fabrication with reasonable mechanical strength, high cell viability close to 90%, and tissue specific markers expression. Fusion was readily observed between strands when placing them together as early as 24h. Also, tissue strands were deposited with human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) vascular conduits together to fabricated miniature pancreatic tissue analog. Our study provided a novel technique using tissue strands as "bioink" for scale-up bioprinting of tissues or organs.

  1. Hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mann

    Full Text Available The causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. Because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. We report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. Approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significant hearing deficits with a reduction in sensitivity equivalent to severe (70-90 dB or profound (>90 dB hearing loss in humans. The only stranded short-finned pilot whale examined had profound hearing loss. No impairments were detected in seven Risso's dolphins from three different stranding events, two pygmy killer whales, one Atlantic spotted dolphin, one spinner dolphin, or a juvenile Gervais' beaked whale. Hearing impairment could play a significant role in some cetacean stranding events, and the hearing of all cetaceans in rehabilitation should be tested.

  2. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  3. New fault tolerant matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Edorta; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Inigo; Ormaetxea, Enekoitz; Alegria, Inigo Martinez de; Martin, Jose Luis [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Ibanez, Pedro [TECNALIA, Energy Unit, Parque Tecnologico de Zamudio, E-48170 Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The matrix converter (MC) presents a promising topology that will have to overcome certain barriers (protection systems, durability, the development of converters for real applications, etc.) in order to gain a foothold in the industry. In some applications, where continuous operation must be insured in the case of a system failure, improved reliability of the converter is of particular importance. In this sense, this article focuses on the study of a fault tolerant MC. The fault tolerance of a converter is characterized by its total or partial response in the case of a breakage of any of its components. Taking into consideration that virtually no work has been done on fault tolerant MCs, this paper describes the most important studies in this area. Moreover, a new method is proposed for detecting the breakage of MC semiconductors. Likewise, a new variation of SVM modulation with failure tolerance capacity is presented. This guarantees the continuous operation of the converter and the pseudo-optimum control of a PMSM. This paper also proposes a novel MC topology, which allows the flexible reconfiguration of this converter, when one or several of its semiconductors are damaged. In this way, the MC can continue operating at 100% of its performance without having to double its resources. In this way, it can be said that the solution described in this article represents a step forward towards the development of reliable matrix converters for real applications. (author)

  4. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  5. Three-dimensional geologic framework modeling of faulted hydrostratigraphic units within the Edwards Aquifer, Northern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Cole, James C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a digital, three-dimensional faulted hydrostratigraphic model constructed to represent the geologic framework of the Edwards aquifer system in the area of San Antonio, northern Bexar County, Texas. The model is based on mapped geologic relationships that reflect the complex structures of the Balcones fault zone, detailed lithologic descriptions and interpretations of about 40 principal wells (and qualified data from numerous other wells), and a conceptual model of the gross geometry of the Edwards Group units derived from prior interpretations of depositional environments and paleogeography. The digital model depicts the complicated intersections of numerous major and minor faults in the subsurface, as well as their individual and collective impacts on the continuity of the aquifer-forming units of the Edwards Group and the Georgetown Formation. The model allows for detailed examination of the extent of fault dislocation from place to place, and thus the extent to which the effective cross-sectional area of the aquifer is reduced by faulting. The model also depicts the internal hydrostratigraphic subdivisions of the Edwards aquifer, consisting of three major and eight subsidiary hydrogeologic units. This geologic framework model is useful for visualizing the geologic structures within the Balcones fault zone and the interactions of en-echelon fault strands and flexed connecting fault-relay ramps. The model also aids in visualizing the lateral connections between hydrostratigraphic units of relatively high and low permeability across the fault strands. Introduction The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of water for municipal, agricultural, industrial, and military uses by nearly 1.5 million inhabitants of the greater San Antonio, Texas, region (Hovorka and others, 1996; Sharp and Banner, 1997). Discharges from the Edwards aquifer also support local recreation and tourism industries at Barton, Comal, and San Marcos Springs located

  6. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control with Application on a Wind Turbine Low Speed Shaft Encoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Sardi, Hector Eloy Sanchez; Escobet, Teressa

    2015-01-01

    . This sensor has to be correct as blade pitch actions should be different at different azimuth angle as the wind speed varies within the rotor field due to different phenomena. A scheme detecting faults in this sensor has previously been designed for the application of a high end fault diagnosis and fault...... tolerant control of wind turbines using a benchmark model. In this paper, the fault diagnosis scheme is improved and integrated with a fault accommodation scheme which enables and disables the individual pitch algorithm based on the fault detection. In this way, the blade and tower loads are not increased...

  7. Extended minus-strand DNA as template for R-U5-mediated second-strand transfer in recombinational rescue of primer binding site-modified retroviral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J G; Lund, Anders Henrik; Dybkaer, K

    1998-01-01

    -through of the mutated PBS during minus-strand synthesis, and subsequent second-strand transfer mediated by the R-U5 complementarity of the plus strand and the extended minus-strand DNA acceptor template. Mechanisms for R-U5-mediated second-strand transfer and its possible role in retrovirus replication and evolution......We have previously demonstrated recombinational rescue of primer binding site (PBS)-impaired Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors involving initial priming on endogenous viral sequences and template switching during cDNA synthesis to obtain PBS complementarity in second-strand transfer...

  8. Fault Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control of Modular Multi-level Converter High-voltage DC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    device fault, DC line faults as well as AC grid faults. Special attention is given to the comparison of the corresponding fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control approaches. Further, focus is dedicated to control/protection strategies and topologies with fault ride-though capability for MMC...... of failures and lower the reliability of the MMC-HVDC system. Therefore, research on the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of MMC-HVDC system is of great significance in order to enhance the reliability of the system. This paper provides a comprehensive review of fault diagnosis and fault handling...... strategies of MMC-HVDC systems for the most common faults happened in MMC-HVDC systems covering MMC faults, DC side faults as well as AC side faults. An important part of this paper is devoted to a discussion of the vulnerable spots as well as failure mechanism of the MMC-HVDC system covering switching...

  9. Interseismic strain accumulation across the Ashkabad fault (NE Iran) from MERIS-corrected ASAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    The right-lateral Ashkabad Fault separates deforming NE Iran from the stable Turkmenistan platform to the north, and also facilitates the north-westwards extrusion of the South Caspian block (along with the left-lateral Shahrud fault zone). The fault represents the northernmost boundary of significant deformation of the Arabia-Eurasia collision in NE Iran. The 1948 M 7.3 Ashkabad earthquake, which killed around 110,000 people and was the deadliest earthquake to hit Europe or the Middle East in the 20th Century, also possibly occurred on this fault. However, the slip rate and therefore the seismic hazard that the Ashkabad fault represents are not well known. GPS data in NE Iran are sparse, and there are no direct geological or quaternary rates for the main strand of the fault. We use Envisat ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2010 to measure interseismic strain accumulation across the fault, and hence estimate the slip rate across it. Due to the proximity of this region to the Caspian Sea and the presence of highly variable weather systems, we use data from Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument, as well as modelled weather data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), to correct interferograms for differences in water vapour and atmospheric pressure. We mitigate the effects of remaining noise by summing the 13 corrected interferograms that cover the fault, effectively creating a 30 year interferogram with improved signal-to-noise ratio, and we empirically correct for orbital errors. Our measurements of rates of displacement are consistent with an interseismic model for the Ashkabad fault where deformation occurs at depth on a narrow shear zone below a layer in which the fault is locked. We invert the data to solve for best fitting model parameters, estimating both the slip rate and the depth to which the fault is locked. Our measurements show that the Ashkabad fault is accumulating strain at a rate of 9 mm

  10. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschla, Eric, E-mail: poeschla.eric@mayo.edu

    2013-06-20

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import.

  11. Ability of minus strands and modified plus strands to act as templates in Semliki Forest virus RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Kirsi; Kallio, Katri; Meriläinen, Hanna-Mari; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2016-06-01

    During virus multiplication, the viral genome is recognized and recruited for replication based on specific cis-acting elements. Here, we dissected the important cis-acting sequence elements in Semliki Forest virus RNA by using a trans-replication system. As the viral replicase is expressed from a separate plasmid, the template RNA can be freely modified in this system. We show that the cis-acting element at the beginning of the non-structural protein 1 (nsP1) coding region together with the end of the 3' UTR are the minimal requirements for minus-strand synthesis. To achieve a high level of replication, the native 5' UTR was also needed. The virus-induced membranous replication compartments (spherules) were only detected when a replication-competent template was present with an active replicase and minus strands were produced. No translation could be detected from the minus strands, suggesting that they are segregated from the cytoplasm. Minus strands could not be recruited directly to initiate the replication process. Thus, there is only one defined pathway for replication, starting with plus-strand recognition followed by concomitant spherule formation and minus-strand synthesis.

  12. Acalypha wilkesiana extracts induce apoptosis by causing single strand and double strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S W; Ting, K N; Bradshaw, T D; Zeenathul, N A; Wiart, C; Khoo, T J; Lim, K H; Loh, H S

    2011-11-18

    The seeds of Acalypha wilkesiana have been used empirically by traditional healers in Southwest Nigeria together with other plants as a powder mixture to treat patients with breast tumours and inflammation. There is an increasing interest among researchers in searching for new anticancer drugs from natural resources, particularly plants. This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of Acalypha wilkesiana extracts and the characteristics of DNA damage against brain and lung cancer cells. The antiproliferative activity of Acalypha wilkesiana extracts (ethyl acetate, hexane, and ethanol) was examined on human glioma (U87MG), human lung carcinoma (A549), and human lung fibroblast (MRC5) cells. Cell viability MTT assay revealed that ethyl acetate extract of the plant possessed significant antiproliferative effects against both U87MG (GI(50)=28.03 ± 6.44 μg/ml) and A549 (GI(50)=89.63 ± 2.12 μg/ml) cells (p valueMRC5 cells (GI(50)>300 μg/ml). The ethanol extract showed no antiproliferative effects on any cell line examined. Haematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay confirmed that plant extract-treated cells underwent apoptosis and not necrosis. SCGE comet assays confirmed that plant extracts caused both single strand (SSB) and double strand (DSB) DNA breaks that led to the execution of apoptosis. The extracts (especially ethyl acetate and hexane) of Acalypha wilkesiana possess valuable cytotoxic effects that trigger apoptosis in U87MG and A549 cancer cells through induction of DNA SSBs and DSBs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...... to another type of aircraft with different parameters. Amongst the main findings of this research project is a method to handle faults on the UAV’s pitot tube, which measures the aircraft speed. A set of software redundancies based on GPS velocity information and engine thrust are used to detect abnormal...

  14. New Views on Strand Asymmetry in Insect Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin; Sharkey, Michael J.; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ye, Gong-Yin; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera); the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew) was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms. PMID:20856815

  15. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  16. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  17. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  18. A 3000-year record of surface-rupturing earthquakes at Günalan: variable fault-rupture lengths along the 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey George Fraser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Anatolian Fault is a ca. 1200-km-long, right-lateral, strike-slip fault that forms the northern boundary of the Anatolian plate. A damaging sequence of earthquakes ruptured almost the entire fault in the twentieth century. This study adds to the growing number of paleoseismic investigations of the 350-km-long 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment, which is towards the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Using three paleoseismic trenches located along ca. 2 km of the principal fault strand, this study determines the timing of five earthquakes prior to the 1939 earthquake. The first three of these earthquakes are correlated to historical earthquakes in A.D. 1668, 1254 and 499, and two further events were identified as occurring from 881-673 B.C. and from 1406-1291 B.C. (2v age ranges. By comparing the earthquake timing determined in this study to results from other paleoseismic investigations of the 1939 rupture segment, it becomes clear that this historical rupture segment does not always rupture in unison. This analysis indicates that the A.D. 499 earthquake was the last time the 1939 rupture segment ruptured in unison; partial ruptures of the 1939 rupture segment occur more frequently, and can also produce large magnitude earthquakes (MW >7.

  19. Applying wavelet entropy principle in fault classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Safty, S.; El-Zonkoly, A. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Miami, Alexandria, P.O.1029 (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The ability to detect and classify the type of fault plays a great role in the protection of power system. This procedure is required to be precise with no time consumption. In this paper detection of fault type has been implemented using wavelet analysis together with wavelet entropy principle. The simulation of power system is carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC. Different types of faults were studied obtaining various current waveforms. These current waveforms were decomposed using wavelet analysis into different approximation and details. The wavelet entropies of such decompositions are analyzed reaching a successful methodology for fault classification. The suggested approach is tested using different fault types and proven successful identification for the type of fault. (author)

  20. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the... (June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-464...

  1. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    Active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults is considered in connection with closed loop feedback systems. AFD involves auxiliary signals applied on the closed loop system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD and it is shown that if a limited number of faults can...... occur in the system, a fault separation in the fault signature matrix can be obtained. Then the single elements in the matrix only depend of a reduced number of parametric faults. This can directly be applied for fault isolation. If it is not possible to obtain this separation, it is shown how the fault...... signature matrix can be applied for a dynamical fault isolation, i.e. fault isolation based on the dynamic characteristic of the fault signature matrix as function of the different parametric faults....

  2. An Active Fault-Tolerant Control Method Ofunmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous and Uncertain Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation system for open-frame underwater vehicles with abrupt faults. The proposed system consists of two subsystems: a fault diagnosis subsystem and a fault accommodation sub-system. In the fault diagnosis subsystem a ICMAC(Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network is used to realize the on-line fault identification and the weighting matrix computation. The fault accommodation subsystem uses a control algorithm based on weighted pseudo-inverse to find the solution of the control allocation problem. To illustrate the proposed method effective, simulation example, under multi-uncertain abrupt faults, is given in the paper.

  3. Fault Diagnosis in Deaerator Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy logic based fault diagnosis system for a deaerator in a power plant unit is presented. The system parameters are obtained using the linearised state space deaerator model. The fuzzy inference system is created and rule base are evaluated relating the parameters to the type and severity of the faults. These rules are fired for specific changes in system parameters and the faults are diagnosed.

  4. On concentrated solute sources in faulted aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. I.; Werner, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Finite aperture faults and fractures within aquifers (collectively called 'faults' hereafter) theoretically enable flowing water to move through them but with refractive displacement, both on entry and exit. When a 2D or 3D point source of solute concentration is located upstream of the fault, the plume emanating from the source relative to one in a fault-free aquifer is affected by the fault, both before it and after it. Previous attempts to analyze this situation using numerical methods faced challenges in overcoming computational constraints that accompany requisite fine mesh resolutions. To address these, an analytical solution of this problem is developed and interrogated using statistical evaluation of solute distributions. The method of solution is based on novel spatial integral representations of the source with axes rotated from the direction of uniform water flow and aligning with fault faces and normals. Numerical exemplification is given to the case of a 2D steady state source, using various parameter combinations. Statistical attributes of solute plumes show the relative impact of parameters, the most important being, fault rotation, aperture and conductivity ratio. New general observations of fault-affected solution plumes are offered, including: (a) the plume's mode (i.e. peak concentration) on the downstream face of the fault is less displaced than the refracted groundwater flowline, but at some distance downstream of the fault, these realign; (b) porosities have no influence in steady state calculations; (c) previous numerical modeling results of barrier faults show significant boundary effects. The current solution adds to available benchmark problems involving fractures, faults and layered aquifers, in which grid resolution effects are often barriers to accurate simulation.

  5. Stability of fault during fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelegue, Francois; Brantut, Nicolas; Mitchell, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Our result suggest that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure required to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by fluid pressures that are locally much higher than expected from a static Coulomb stress analysis. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes recently observed in Basel (Mw 3.6, 2006) and in Oklahoma (Mw 5.6, 2016).

  6. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems by using an auxiliary input vector is considered in this paper, i.e. active fault diagnosis (AFD). The active fault diagnosis is based directly on the socalled fault signature matrix, related to the YJBK (Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno...

  7. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    frequently. Therefore, it is important to monitor the power device and capacitor fault to increase the reliability of power electronics. In this chapter, the diagnosis methods for power device fault will be discussed by dividing into open- and short-circuit faults. Then, the condition monitoring methods...... efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most...

  8. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Ll. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: lluis.font@uab.cat; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bach, J. [Unitat de Geodinamica externa, Departament de Geologia, Edifici Cs, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active.

  9. Fault tolerant filtering and fault detection for quantum systems driven by fields in single photon states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qing, E-mail: qing.gao.chance@gmail.com; Dong, Daoyi, E-mail: daoyidong@gmail.com; Petersen, Ian R., E-mail: i.r.petersen@gmai.com [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Rabitz, Herschel, E-mail: hrabitz@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to solve the fault tolerant filtering and fault detection problem for a class of open quantum systems driven by a continuous-mode bosonic input field in single photon states when the systems are subject to stochastic faults. Optimal estimates of both the system observables and the fault process are simultaneously calculated and characterized by a set of coupled recursive quantum stochastic differential equations.

  10. Single-Stranded DNA Uptake during Gonococcal Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Christof; Gangel, Heike; Henseler, Katja; Günther, Niklas; Maier, Berenike

    2016-09-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is naturally competent for transformation. The first step of the transformation process is the uptake of DNA from the environment into the cell. This transport step is driven by a powerful molecular machine. Here, we addressed the question whether this machine imports single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at similar rates. The fluorescence signal associated with the uptake of short DNA fragments labeled with a single fluorescent marker molecule was quantified. We found that ssDNA with a double-stranded DNA uptake sequence (DUS) was taken up with a similar efficiency as dsDNA. Imported ssDNA was degraded rapidly, and the thermonuclease Nuc was required for degradation. In a nuc deletion background, dsDNA and ssDNA with a double-stranded DUS were imported and used as the substrates for transformation, whereas the import and transformation efficiencies of ssDNA with single-stranded DUS were below the detection limits. We conclude that the DNA uptake machine requires a double-stranded DUS for efficient DNA recognition and transports ssDNA and dsDNA with comparable efficiencies. Bacterial transformation enables bacteria to exchange genetic information. It can speed up adaptive evolution and enhances the potential of DNA repair. The transport of DNA through the outer membrane is the first step of transformation in Gram-negative species. It is driven by a powerful molecular machine whose mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show for Neisseria gonorrhoeae that the machine transports single- and double-stranded DNA at comparable rates, provided that the species-specific DNA uptake sequence is double stranded. Moreover, we found that single-stranded DNA taken up into the periplasm is rapidly degraded by the thermonuclease Nuc. We conclude that the secondary structure of transforming DNA is important for the recognition of self DNA but not for the process of transport through the outer membrane. Copyright © 2016, American Society

  11. Accurate strand-specific quantification of viral RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Plaskon

    Full Text Available The presence of full-length complements of viral genomic RNA is a hallmark of RNA virus replication within an infected cell. As such, methods for detecting and measuring specific strands of viral RNA in infected cells and tissues are important in the study of RNA viruses. Strand-specific quantitative real-time PCR (ssqPCR assays are increasingly being used for this purpose, but the accuracy of these assays depends on the assumption that the amount of cDNA measured during the quantitative PCR (qPCR step accurately reflects amounts of a specific viral RNA strand present in the RT reaction. To specifically test this assumption, we developed multiple ssqPCR assays for the positive-strand RNA virus o'nyong-nyong (ONNV that were based upon the most prevalent ssqPCR assay design types in the literature. We then compared various parameters of the ONNV-specific assays. We found that an assay employing standard unmodified virus-specific primers failed to discern the difference between cDNAs generated from virus specific primers and those generated through false priming. Further, we were unable to accurately measure levels of ONNV (- strand RNA with this assay when higher levels of cDNA generated from the (+ strand were present. Taken together, these results suggest that assays of this type do not accurately quantify levels of the anti-genomic strand present during RNA virus infectious cycles. However, an assay permitting the use of a tag-specific primer was able to distinguish cDNAs transcribed from ONNV (- strand RNA from other cDNAs present, thus allowing accurate quantification of the anti-genomic strand. We also report the sensitivities of two different detection strategies and chemistries, SYBR(R Green and DNA hydrolysis probes, used with our tagged ONNV-specific ssqPCR assays. Finally, we describe development, design and validation of ssqPCR assays for chikungunya virus (CHIKV, the recent cause of large outbreaks of disease in the Indian Ocean

  12. Fault detection and fault-tolerant control for nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Linlin Li addresses the analysis and design issues of observer-based FD and FTC for nonlinear systems. The author analyses the existence conditions for the nonlinear observer-based FD systems to gain a deeper insight into the construction of FD systems. Aided by the T-S fuzzy technique, she recommends different design schemes, among them the L_inf/L_2 type of FD systems. The derived FD and FTC approaches are verified by two benchmark processes. Contents Overview of FD and FTC Technology Configuration of Nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of L2 nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of Weighted Fuzzy Observer-Based FD Systems FTC Configurations for Nonlinear Systems< Application to Benchmark Processes Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of engineering with a focus on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control fields The Author Dr. Linlin Li completed her dissertation under the supervision of Prof. Steven X. Ding at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany...

  13. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  14. Strand-biased Gene Distribution in Bacteria Is Related to both Horizontal Gene Transfer and Strand-biased Nucleotide Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Qu, Hongzhu; Wan, Ning; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although strand-biased gene distribution (SGD) was described some two decades ago, the underlying molecular mechanisms and their relationship remain elusive. Its facets include, but are not limited to, the degree of biases, the strand-preference of genes, and the influence of background nucleotide composition variations. Using a dataset composed of 364 non-redundant bacterial genomes, we sought to illustrate our current understanding of SGD. First, when we divided the collection of bacterial genomes into non-polC and polC groups according to their possession of DnaE isoforms that correlate closely with taxonomy, the SGD of the polC group stood out more significantly than that of the non-polC group. Second, when examining horizontal gene transfer, coupled with gene functional conservation (essentiality) and expressivity (level of expression), we realized that they all contributed to SGD. Third, we further demonstrated a weaker G-dominance on the leading strand of the non-polC group but strong purine dominance (both G and A) on the leading strand of the polC group. We propose that strand-biased nucleotide composition plays a decisive role for SGD since the polC-bearing genomes are not only AT-rich but also have pronounced purine-rich leading strands, and we believe that a special mutation spectrum that leads to a strong purine asymmetry and a strong strand-biased nucleotide composition coupled with functional selections for genes and their functions are both at work. PMID:23084774

  15. Rectifier Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of a Doubly Fed Brushless Starter Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rectifier fault diagnosis method with wavelet packet analysis to improve the fault tolerant four-phase doubly fed brushless starter generator (DFBLSG system reliability. The system components and fault tolerant principle of the high reliable DFBLSG are given. And the common fault of the rectifier is analyzed. The process of wavelet packet transforms fault detection/identification algorithm is introduced in detail. The fault tolerant performance and output voltage experiments were done to gather the energy characteristics with a voltage sensor. The signal is analyzed with 5-layer wavelet packets, and the energy eigenvalue of each frequency band is obtained. Meanwhile, the energy-eigenvalue tolerance was introduced to improve the diagnostic accuracy. With the wavelet packet fault diagnosis, the fault tolerant four-phase DFBLSG can detect the usual open-circuit fault and operate in the fault tolerant mode if there is a fault. The results indicate that the fault analysis techniques in this paper are accurate and effective.

  16. Geophysical surveys of the Queen Charlotte Fault plate boundary off SE Alaska: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Brothers, D. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Kluesner, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Miller, N. C.; Watt, J. T.; Dartnell, P.; East, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Recent multibeam sonar and high-resolution seismic surveys covering the northern 400-km-long segment of Queen Charlotte Fault off SE Alaska, indicate that the entire 50 mm/yr right-lateral Pacific-North America plate motion is currently accommodated by a single fault trace. The trace is remarkably straight rarely interrupted by step-overs, and is often plate from continental forearc and arc terrains of a former subduction zone. This unusual setting for a transform plate boundary might have resulted from the northward passage of the thick crust of the Yakutat Terrane during the Late Cenozoic. A step-over at the mouth of Chatham Strait has formed a 20-km-long 1.6-km-wide pull-apart basin composed of 3 sub-basins. Internal basin stratigraphy indicates possible southward migration of the step-over with time. Slight outward curving of the southern strand may suggest the presence of a deeper barrier there, which could have terminated the northward super-shear rupture of the 2013 M7.5 Craig Earthquake. Whether this possible barrier is related to the intersection of the Aja Fracture Zone with the plate boundary is unclear. No other surficial impediments to rupture were observed along the 315 km trace between this fault step-over and a 20° bend near Icy Point, where the fault extends onshore and becomes highly transpressional. An enigmatic oval depression, 1.5-2 km wide and 500 m deep, south of the step-over and a possible mud volcano north of the step-over, may attest to possible vigorous gas and fluid upwelling along the fault zone.

  17. Large seismic faults in the Hellenic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Papazachos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Using information concerning reliable fault plane solutions, spatial distribution of strong earthquakes (Ms³ 6.0 as well as sea bottom and coastal topography, properties of the seismic faults (orientation, dimension, type of faulting were determined in seven shallow (h < 40 km seismogenic regions along the convex part of thc Hellenic arc (Hellenic trench and in four seismogenic regions of intermediate depth earthquakes (h = 40-100 km along the concave part of this arc. Except for the northwesternmost part of the Hellenic trench, where the strike-slip Cephalonia transform fault dominates, all other faults along this trench are low angle thrust faults. III thc western part of the trench (Zante-west Crete faults strike NW-SE and dip NE, while in its eastern part (east Crete-Rhodos faults strike WNW-ESE and dip NNE. Such system of faulting can be attributed to an overthrust of the Aegean lithosphere on the eastern Mediterranean lithosphere. The longest of these faults (L = 300 km is that which produced the largest known shallow earthquake in the Mediterranean area (21 July 365, Ms = 8.3 which is located near the southwestern coast of Crete. The second longest such fault (L = l 70 km is that which produced a large earthquake (December 1303, Ms = 8.0 in the easternmost part of the trench (east of Rhodos island. Both earthquakes were associated with gigantic tsunamis which caused extensive damage in the coast of many Eastern Mediterranean countries. Seismic faults of the intermediate depth earthquakes in the shallow part of the Benioff zone (h = 40- 100 km are of strike-slip type, with a thrust component. The orientations of these faults vary along the concave part of the arc in accordance with a subduction of remnants of all old lithospheric slab from the convex side (Mediterranean to the concave side (Aegean of thc Hellenic arc. The longest of these faults (L = 220 km is that which produced the largest known intermediate depth earthquake in the

  18. Supervised Learning in Adaptive DNA Strand Displacement Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-08-19

    The development of engineered biochemical circuits that exhibit adaptive behavior is a key goal of synthetic biology and molecular computing. Such circuits could be used for long-term monitoring and control of biochemical systems, for instance, to prevent disease or to enable the development of artificial life. In this article, we present a framework for developing adaptive molecular circuits using buffered DNA strand displacement networks, which extend existing DNA strand displacement circuit architectures to enable straightforward storage and modification of behavioral parameters. As a proof of concept, we use this framework to design and simulate a DNA circuit for supervised learning of a class of linear functions by stochastic gradient descent. This work highlights the potential of buffered DNA strand displacement as a powerful circuit architecture for implementing adaptive molecular systems.

  19. Simultaneous binding to the tracking strand, displaced strand and the duplex of a DNA fork enhances unwinding by Dda helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarattuthodiyil, Suja; Byrd, Alicia K.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between helicases and the tracking strand of a DNA substrate are well-characterized; however, the role of the displaced strand is a less understood characteristic of DNA unwinding. Dda helicase exhibited greater processivity when unwinding a DNA fork compared to a ss/ds DNA junction substrate. The lag phase in the unwinding progress curve was reduced for the forked DNA compared to the ss/ds junction. Fewer kinetic steps were required to unwind the fork compared to the ss/ds junction, suggesting that binding to the fork leads to disruption of the duplex. DNA footprinting confirmed that interaction of Dda with a fork leads to two base pairs being disrupted whereas no disruption of base pairing was observed with the ss/ds junction. Neutralization of the phosphodiester backbone resulted in a DNA-footprinting pattern similar to that observed with the ss/ds junction, consistent with disruption of the interaction between Dda and the displaced strand. Several basic residues in the 1A domain which were previously proposed to bind to the incoming duplex DNA were replaced with alanines, resulting in apparent loss of interaction with the duplex. Taken together, these results suggest that Dda interaction with the tracking strand, displaced strand and duplex coordinates DNA unwinding. PMID:25249618

  20. Synthetic strands of cardiac muscle. Formation and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, J E; Liebeman, M; Roggeveen, A E; Kirk, R G

    1972-12-01

    Spontaneously active bundles of cardiac muscle (synthetic strands) were prepared from isolated cells of 11-13-day old embryonic chick hearts which were disaggregated with trypsin. Linear orientation of the cells was obtained by plating them on agar-coated culture dishes in which either grooves were cut in the agar film or a thin line of palladium was deposited over the agar. The influence of cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions was observed with time lapse cinematography and the formation of the synthetic strand was shown to involve both random and guided cell movements, enlargement of aggregates by accretion and coalescence, and the compact linear arrangement of cells along paths of preferential adhesion. Electron microscope investigations of these strands showed that a dispersed population of heart cells organized into an inner core of muscle cells and an outer sheath of fibroblast-like cells. The muscle cells contained well-developed, but widely spaced myofibrils, a developing sarcoplasmic reticulum associated in part with the myofibrils and in part with the sarcolemma, an abundance of nonmembrane bound ribosomes and glycogen, and a prominent Golgi complex. Numerous specialized contacts were observed between the muscle cells in the strand, e.g., fasciae adherentes, desmosomes, and nexuses. A distinct type of muscle cell characterized by its pale appearance was regularly observed in the strand and was noted to be similar to Purkinje cells described in the adult avian conduction system and in developing chick myocardium. The present findings were compared with other observations of the developing myocardium, in situ, and it was concluded that, by a number or criteria, the muscle cells of the strand were differentiating normally and suitably organized for electrophysiological studies.

  1. Review of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control for modular multilevel converter of HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    , several typical topologies of MMC-HVDC systems are presented. Then fault types such as capacitor voltage unbalance, unbalance between upper and lower arm voltage are analyzed and the corresponding fault detection and diagnosis approaches are explained. In addition, more attention is dedicated to control......This review focuses on faults in Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) for use in high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems by analyzing the vulnerable spots and failure mechanism from device to system and illustrating the control & protection methods under failure condition. At the beginning...... strategies, when running in MMC faults or grid faults. This paper ends up with a discussion of other opportunities for future development....

  2. Reverse fault growth and fault interaction with frictional interfaces: insights from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Emanuele; Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    The association of faulting and folding is a common feature in mountain chains, fold-and-thrust belts, and accretionary wedges. Kinematic models are developed and widely used to explain a range of relationships between faulting and folding. However, these models may result not to be completely appropriate to explain shortening in mechanically heterogeneous rock bodies. Weak layers, bedding surfaces, or pre-existing faults placed ahead of a propagating fault tip may influence the fault propagation rate itself and the associated fold shape. In this work, we employed clay analogue models to investigate how mechanical discontinuities affect the propagation rate and the associated fold shape during the growth of reverse master faults. The simulated master faults dip at 30° and 45°, recalling the range of the most frequent dip angles for active reverse faults that occurs in nature. The mechanical discontinuities are simulated by pre-cutting the clay pack. For both experimental setups (30° and 45° dipping faults) we analyzed three different configurations: 1) isotropic, i.e. without precuts; 2) with one precut in the middle of the clay pack; and 3) with two evenly-spaced precuts. To test the repeatability of the processes and to have a statistically valid dataset we replicate each configuration three times. The experiments were monitored by collecting successive snapshots with a high-resolution camera pointing at the side of the model. The pictures were then processed using the Digital Image Correlation method (D.I.C.), in order to extract the displacement and shear-rate fields. These two quantities effectively show both the on-fault and off-fault deformation, indicating the activity along the newly-formed faults and whether and at what stage the discontinuities (precuts) are reactivated. To study the fault propagation and fold shape variability we marked the position of the fault tips and the fold profiles for every successive step of deformation. Then we compared

  3. Crystal structure of four-stranded Oxytricha telomeric DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C.; Zhang, X.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.

    1992-01-01

    The sequence d(GGGGTTTTGGGG) from the 3' overhang of the Oxytricha telomere has been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure solved to 2.5 A resolution. The oligonucleotide forms hairpins, two of which join to make a four-stranded helical structure with the loops containing four thymine residues at either end. The guanine residues are held together by cyclic hydrogen bonding and an ion is located in the centre. The four guanine residues in each segment have a glycosyl conformation that alternates between anti and syn. There are two four-stranded molecules in the asymmetric unit showing that the structure has some intrinsic flexibility.

  4. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilled cores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System. The Chelungpu Fault System in Hole-A was encountered at a depth of between 1050 - 1250 m where deformation structures increased. Three major fault zone structures were found at approximate depths of 1111, 1153, and 1221 m. The presence of wide fault rock regions were mostly concentrated in these 3 fault zones. The fault zone at 1111 m mainly consists of a nearly brecciated fracture zone and a clayey fault gouge zone of about 1.05 m in thickness. Fault rocks from the fault zone at 1153 m are characterized by the presence of sand grains in the matrix content, consisting of a 1.1-m thick fault breccia zone and a 0.35-m thick fault gouge zone. The fault zone at 1221 m consists of fault breccia and fault gouge of 1.15 m in total thickness. These are relatively harder and darker in color than the previous 2 fault zones. Each of the 3 fault zones contains a few layers of dark colored rocks of approximately 5 - 80 mm in thickness within the fault breccia and fault gouge zones. These dark colored rocks were found distinctively within the fault rocks. However, there relation to the process of faulting is not clearly understood and shall be discussed in detail with the aid of microscopic observations.

  5. Fault permeability models for geothermal doublet designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence and properties of natural faults and fractures in geothermal reservoirs are key in determining reservoir flow properties, and thereby the performance of geothermal doublets placed in fractured reservoirs or in the vicinity of fault zones. In this paper, an analytical model is

  6. Training for Skill in Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The Knitting, Lace and Net Industry Training Board has developed a training innovation called fault diagnosis training. The entire training process concentrates on teaching based on the experiences of troubleshooters or any other employees whose main tasks involve fault diagnosis and rectification. (Author/DS)

  7. Measurement selection for parametric IC fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A.; Meador, J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with the use of measurement reduction for statistical IC fault diagnosis are described. The reduction method used involves data pre-processing in a fashion consistent with a specific definition of parametric faults. The effects of this preprocessing are examined.

  8. Fault detection based on microseismic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In unconventional reservoirs, small faults allow the flow of oil and gas as well as act as obstacles to exploration; for, (1) fracturing facilitates fluid migration, (2) reservoir flooding, and (3) triggering of small earthquakes. These small faults are not generally detected because of the low seismic resolution. However, such small faults are very active and release sufficient energy to initiate a large number of microseismic events (MEs) during hydraulic fracturing. In this study, we identified microfractures (MF) from hydraulic fracturing and natural small faults based on microseismicity characteristics, such as the time-space distribution, source mechanism, magnitude, amplitude, and frequency. First, I identified the mechanism of small faults and MF by reservoir stress analysis and calibrated the ME based on the microseismic magnitude. The dynamic characteristics (frequency and amplitude) of MEs triggered by natural faults and MF were analyzed; moreover, the geometry and activity types of natural fault and MF were grouped according to the source mechanism. Finally, the differences among time-space distribution, magnitude, source mechanism, amplitude, and frequency were used to differentiate natural faults and manmade fractures.

  9. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  10. Fault Detection for a Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    An electro-mechanical position servo is introduced as a benchmark for mode-based Fault Detection and Identification (FDI).......An electro-mechanical position servo is introduced as a benchmark for mode-based Fault Detection and Identification (FDI)....

  11. The Curiosity Mars Rover's Fault Protection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover, currently operating on Mars, contains flight software onboard to autonomously handle aspects of system fault protection. Over 1000 monitors and 39 responses are present in the flight software. Orchestrating these behaviors is the flight software's fault protection engine. In this paper, we discuss the engine's design, responsibilities, and present some lessons learned for future missions.

  12. Dynamic modeling of gearbox faults: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.; Feng, Zhipeng

    2018-01-01

    Gearbox is widely used in industrial and military applications. Due to high service load, harsh operating conditions or inevitable fatigue, faults may develop in gears. If the gear faults cannot be detected early, the health will continue to degrade, perhaps causing heavy economic loss or even catastrophe. Early fault detection and diagnosis allows properly scheduled shutdowns to prevent catastrophic failure and consequently result in a safer operation and higher cost reduction. Recently, many studies have been done to develop gearbox dynamic models with faults aiming to understand gear fault generation mechanism and then develop effective fault detection and diagnosis methods. This paper focuses on dynamics based gearbox fault modeling, detection and diagnosis. State-of-art and challenges are reviewed and discussed. This detailed literature review limits research results to the following fundamental yet key aspects: gear mesh stiffness evaluation, gearbox damage modeling and fault diagnosis techniques, gearbox transmission path modeling and method validation. In the end, a summary and some research prospects are presented.

  13. A setup for active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A setup for active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults in dynamic systems is formulated in this paper. It is shown that it is possible to use the same setup for both open loop systems, closed loop systems based on a nominal feedback controller as well as for closed loop systems based on a ...

  14. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric fa...

  15. Fault Tolerant Control: A Simultaneous Stabilization Result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Blondel, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    is detectable from each output and that it is stabilizable. The proof of this result is constructive, and a worked example shows how to design a fault tolerant compensator for a simple, yet challeging system. A family of second order systems is described that requires fault tolerant compensators of arbitrarily...

  16. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  17. Integration of control and fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    The integrated design of control and fault detection is studied. The result of the analysis is that it is possible to separate the design of the controller and the filter for fault detection in the case where the nominal model can be assumed to be fairly accurate. In the uncertain case, however...

  18. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    the natural component of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) stator flux during the fault period, their effects on the rotor voltage can be investigated. It is concluded that the phase-to-phase fault has the worst scenario due to its highest introduction of the negative stator flux. Afterwards...

  19. A Fault-tolerant Development Methodology for Industrial Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Thybo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Developing advanced detection schemes is not the lone factor for obtaining a successful fault diagnosis performance. Acquiring significant achievements in applying Fault-tolerance in industrial development requires that fault diagnosis and recovery schemes are developed in a consistent and logica......Developing advanced detection schemes is not the lone factor for obtaining a successful fault diagnosis performance. Acquiring significant achievements in applying Fault-tolerance in industrial development requires that fault diagnosis and recovery schemes are developed in a consistent...

  20. Fault-tolerant Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous Faults: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation method for open-frame underwater vehicles is presented in the paper. The proposed system consists of two units: a fault diagnosis unit and a fault accommodation unit. In the fault diagnosis unit an ICMAC (Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network information fusion model is used to realize the fault identification of the thruster. The fault accommodation unit is based on direct calculations of moment and the result of fault identification is used to find the solution of the control allocation problem. The approach resolves the continuous faulty identification of the UV. Results from the experiment are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method in uncertain continuous faulty situation.

  1. A New Fault-tolerant Switched Reluctance Motor with reliable fault detection capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Fault-Tolerant Switched Reluctance (FTSR) motor is proposed in this paper. A unique feature of this special design is that it allows use of the unexcited phase coils as search coils for fault detection. Therefore this new motor has all the advantages of using search coils for reliable fault detection......For reliable fault detection, often, search coils are used in many fault-tolerant drives. The search coils occupy extra slot space. They are normally open-circuited and are not used for torque production. This degrades the motor performance, increases the cost and manufacture complexity. A new...... while no extra search coil is actually needed. The motor itself is able to continue to work under any faulted conditions, providing fault-tolerant features. The working principle, performance evaluation of this motor will be demonstrated in this paper and Finite Element Analysis results are provided....

  2. Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...

  3. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and proposes a taxonomy that includes four key elements: knowledge, techniques, usage frequency, and results presentation. Each element is explained together with examples of existing systems. A fault detection and diagnosis system developed based on the proposed taxonomy is demonstrated using aluminium smelting data. A potential new strategy for improving fault diagnosis is discussed based on the ability of the new technology, augmented reality, to augment operators’ view of an industrial plant, so that it permits a situation-oriented action in real working environments.

  4. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  5. Quantifying fault recovery in multiprocessor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Harary, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Various aspects of reliable computing are formalized and quantified with emphasis on efficient fault recovery. The mathematical model which proves to be most appropriate is provided by the theory of graphs. New measures for fault recovery are developed and the value of elements of the fault recovery vector are observed to depend not only on the computation graph H and the architecture graph G, but also on the specific location of a fault. In the examples, a hypercube is chosen as a representative of parallel computer architecture, and a pipeline as a typical configuration for program execution. Dependability qualities of such a system is defined with or without a fault. These qualities are determined by the resiliency triple defined by three parameters: multiplicity, robustness, and configurability. Parameters for measuring the recovery effectiveness are also introduced in terms of distance, time, and the number of new, used, and moved nodes and edges.

  6. Cascadia subduction tremor muted by crustal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Blakely, Richard J.; Wech, Aaron G.; McCrory, Patricia A.; Michael, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Deep, episodic slow slip on the Cascadia subduction megathrust of western North America is accompanied by low-frequency tremor in a zone of high fluid pressure between 30 and 40 km depth. Tremor density (tremor epicenters per square kilometer) varies along strike, and lower tremor density statistically correlates with upper plate faults that accommodate northward motion and rotation of forearc blocks. Upper plate earthquakes occur to 35 km depth beneath the faults. We suggest that the faults extend to the overpressured megathrust, where they provide fracture pathways for fluid escape into the upper plate. This locally reduces megathrust fluid pressure and tremor occurrence beneath the faults. Damping of tremor and related slow slip caused by fluid escape could affect fault properties of the megathrust, possibly influencing the behavior of great earthquakes.

  7. Constraining deformation history and recent activity along the Tuz Gölü fault zone, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystopowicz, N. J.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Cosca, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 200 km long, dextral, transtensive Tuz Gölü fault zone is a prominent northwest-striking feature in Central Anatolia. It is one of the most significant structures in Central Anatolia in that it lies within the transition zone between the Western Anatolian Extensional Province and the Eastern Anatolian Contractional Province; its study therefore offers valuable insight into how Central Anatolia is affected by lateral extrusion related to collision in the east, and gravitational pull forces associated with subduction in the west. Proposals for the initiation of the Tuz Gölü fault zone range from Cretaceous to Neogene times, and the amount of recent activity along this fault system remains poorly constrained. Furthermore, potential basinward migration of deformation into the Tuz Gölü basin poses the question as to whether or not this fault system is active in the Holocene. Previous work suggests that migration of deformation towards the basin interior may be related to lithospheric-scale processes such as plateau development, microplate extrusion, or the onset of crustal thinning associated with slab-tear propagation in subducting African lithosphere. In this study, we use a combination of paleostress and morpho-tectonic analysis to further delineate the segmentation and present activity of the Tuz Gölü fault zone. Paleostress analysis offers insight into the deformation history of the region as well as the modern-day stress regime. We conducted a morphometric analysis of over 300 drainage basins along the range-front, which reveal variations that characterize the unique development of numerous fault strands in the region. Statistical analysis of hypsometric curves, systematic variation in basin morphology and orientation, as well as changes in mountain-front sinuosity reveal fault segmentation. Additionally, field mapping and Ar-Ar dating of offset lava flows from the Hasan Dag Volcano quantitatively constrain slip-rates in the southeastern portion of the

  8. The Surface faulting produced by the 30 October 2016 Mw 6.5 Central Italy earthquake: the Open EMERGEO Working Group experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantosti, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    normal faults mapped in the available geological literature is noteworthy. The field data collected suggest a complex coseismic surface faulting pattern along closely-spaced, parallel or subparallel, overlapping or step-like synthetic and antithetic fault splays. The cumulative surface faulting length has been estimated in about 40 km. The maximum vertical offset is significant, locally exceeding 2 meters along the Mt. Vettore Fault, measured both along bedrock fault planes and free-faces affecting unconsolidated deposits. This enormous collaborative experience has a twofold relevance, on the one side allowed to document in high detail the earthquake ruptures before Winter would destroy them, on the other represent the first large European experience for coseismic effects survey that we should use a leading case to establish a coseismic effects European team to get ready to respond to future seismic crises at the European level.

  9. Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Powell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  10. Stafford fault system: 120 million year fault movement history of northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Horton, J. Wright; Schindler, J. Stephen; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Stafford fault system, located in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of the eastern United States, provides the most complete record of fault movement during the past ~120 m.y. across the Virginia, Washington, District of Columbia (D.C.), and Maryland region, including displacement of Pleistocene terrace gravels. The Stafford fault system is close to and aligned with the Piedmont Spotsylvania and Long Branch fault zones. The dominant southwest-northeast trend of strong shaking from the 23 August 2011, moment magnitude Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake is consistent with the connectivity of these faults, as seismic energy appears to have traveled along the documented and proposed extensions of the Stafford fault system into the Washington, D.C., area. Some other faults documented in the nearby coastal plain are clearly rooted in crystalline basement faults, especially along terrane boundaries. These coastal plain faults are commonly assumed to have undergone relatively uniform movement through time, with average slip rates from 0.3 to 1.5 m/m.y. However, there were higher rates during the Paleocene–early Eocene and the Pliocene (4.4–27.4 m/m.y), suggesting that slip occurred primarily during large earthquakes. Further investigation of the Stafford fault system is needed to understand potential earthquake hazards for the Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., area. The combined Stafford fault system and aligned Piedmont faults are ~180 km long, so if the combined fault system ruptured in a single event, it would result in a significantly larger magnitude earthquake than the Mineral earthquake. Many structures most strongly affected during the Mineral earthquake are along or near the Stafford fault system and its proposed northeastward extension.

  11. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  12. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny; Jeff Sekelsky

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess th...

  13. Magnetic fabric of brittle fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomella, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been recognized as a highly sensitive indicator of rock fabric and is widely employed in the field of structural geology. Brittle faults are often characterized by fault breccia and gouge, fault rocks with clast-in-matrix textures. A noteworthy property of both gouge and breccia is the often observed presence of a fabric that is defined by the preferred orientation of clasts and grains in the matrix. In the very fine-grained gouge and in the matrix of the breccia the fabric is not visible in the field or in thin sections but can probably be detected by AMS analyses. For the present study different kinds of brittle fault rocks have been sampled on two faults with known tectonic settings, in order to allow for a structural interpretation of the measured AMS signal. The measurements were carried out with an AGICO MFK1-FA Kappabridge and a CS4 furnace apparatus at the Institute of Geology, University of Innsbruck. Fault gouge was sampled on the Naif fault located in the Southern Alps, E of Meran, South Tyrol, Italy. Along this fault the Permian Granodiorite overthrusts the Southalpine basement and its Permomesozoic cover. The Neoalpine thrust fault is characterised by a wide cataclastic zone and an up to 1 m thick fault gouge. The gouge was sampled using paleomagnetic sample boxes. Heating experiments indicate that the magnetic fabric is dominated by paramagnetic minerals (>95%). The samples provide a magnetic susceptibility in the range of +10*E-5 [SI]. The K-min axis of the magnetic ellipsoid corresponds approximately to the pol of the fault plane measured in the field. However the whole magnetic ellipsoid shows a variation in the inclination compared to the structural data. Fine-grained ultracataclasites were sampled on the Assergi fault, located in the Abruzzi Apennines, NE of L'Aquila, Italy. This normal fault was active in historical time and crosscuts limestones as well as talus deposits. An up to 20 cm thick

  14. An arc fault detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1997-12-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn, opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  15. Negative-strand RNA viruses: The plant-infecting counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Goodin, M.; Sasaya, T.; Haenni, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome

  16. A mass stranding of the squid martialia hyadesi Rochebrune and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 11 February 1997, during a period of calm weather and spring tides, a mass stranding of approximately 3 000 Martialia hyadesi was observed in vivo on Protector Beach, New Island, Falkland Islands. Squid made continued and deliberate movements to beach and drove ashore with considerable force, releasing ink into ...

  17. Magnetization Measurements of High-Jc Nb3Sn strands

    CERN Document Server

    Bordini, B; Alknes, P; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Oberli, L

    2013-01-01

    High critical current density Nb3Sn wires (Jc > 2500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 12 T) are the conductors considered for next generation accelerator magnets. At present, the large magnetization of these strands is a concern within the scientific community because of the impact it might have on the magnet field quality. In order to characterize the magnetic behavior of these wires, an extensive campaign of magnetization measurements was launched at CERN. Powder In Tube (PIT) strands by Bruker-EAS and Restacked Rod Process (RRP®) strands by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) were measured between 0 T and 10.5 T at different temperatures (ranging from 1.9 K to 14.5 K). The samples, based on strands with different sub-elements dimensions (35 to 80 μm), were measured with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The experimental data were analyzed to: 1) calculate the effective filament size and the optimal parameters for the pinning force scaling law; 2) define the field-temperature region where there are flux...

  18. Cetaceans stranded in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Smeenk, C.; Addink, M.; Jansen, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, 2063 cetaceans were found stranded in the Netherlands, representing at least 14 species. Two species, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), are additions to the Dutch list. Apart from the first humpback whales,

  19. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  20. Double strand break repair functions of histone H2AX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, Ralph, E-mail: rscully@bidmc.harvard.edu; Xie, Anyong

    2013-10-15

    Chromosomal double strand breaks provoke an extensive reaction in neighboring chromatin, characterized by phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 of its C-terminal tail (to form “γH2AX”). The γH2AX response contributes to the repair of double strand breaks encountered in a variety of different contexts, including those induced by ionizing radiation, physiologically programmed breaks that characterize normal immune cell development and the pathological exposure of DNA ends triggered by telomere dysfunction. γH2AX also participates in the evolutionarily conserved process of sister chromatid recombination, a homologous recombination pathway involved in the suppression of genomic instability during DNA replication and directly implicated in tumor suppression. At a biochemical level, the γH2AX response provides a compelling example of how the “histone code” is adapted to the regulation of double strand break repair. Here, we review progress in research aimed at understanding how γH2AX contributes to double strand break repair in mammalian cells.

  1. Characterization of Nb3Sn Strand for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren F

    2012-05-03

    We have an ongoing research program for characterization of superconductor composite strands, the principal output of which is sensitive measurements of critical current Ic over a broad range of the essential parameters: longitudinal strain µ, temperature T, and magnetic field B. This features a new apparatus for integrated measurement of Ic(µ,T,B) on the same, long-conductor sample without remounting.

  2. Cetaceans stranded in the Netherlands from 1998 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Smeenk, C.; Addink, M.; Grouw, van H.; Jansen, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, 2063 cetaceans were found stranded in the Netherlands, representing at least 14 species. Two species, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris), are additions to the Dutch list. Apart from the first humpback whales,

  3. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadella, M.; van Ham, P. M.; Noguera-Julian, M.; van Kessel, A.; Pou, C.; Hofstra, L. M.; Santos, J. R.; Garcia, F.; Struck, D.; Alexiev, I.; Kran, A. M. Bakken; Hoepelman, A. I.; Kostrikis, L. G.; Somogyi, S.; Liitsola, K.; Linka, M.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, D.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Stoeckl, E.; Stanekova, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Van Laethem, K.; Lepej, S. Zidovec; Clotet, B.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Paredes, R.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Schuurman, R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. Methods: This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European

  4. Mass strandings of various ommastrephid squid species have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    of reports describe dead and decomposing squid and are usually retrospective of the ... the cycle of squid strandings, which may reflect temporal shifts in frontal zones that alter the behaviour, range and environment of foraging squid ..... of oceanic ommastrephids have been during or subse- quent to ENSO events, the ...

  5. Chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Godelieve

    2012-01-01

    During my PhD project, I studied the role of several chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break (DSB) response. We discovered that both CHD4 and SMARCA5 are required for ubiquitin signaling through the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, which is a central signaling event in the response

  6. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Strategies underlying RNA silencing suppression by negative strand RNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the strategies of negative strand RNA viruses to counteract antiviral RNA silencing. In plants and insects, RNA silencing has been shown to act as a sequence specific antiviral defence mechanism that is characterised by the processing of double

  8. Experimental Investigation of Thrust Fault Rupture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe

    Thrust fault earthquakes are investigated in the laboratory by generating dynamic shear ruptures along pre-existing frictional faults in rectangular plates. A considerable body of evidence suggests that dip-slip earthquakes exhibit enhanced ground motions in the acute hanging wall wedge as an outcome of broken symmetry between hanging and foot wall plates with respect to the earth surface. To understand the physical behavior of thrust fault earthquakes, particularly ground motions near the earth surface, ruptures are nucleated in analog laboratory experiments and guided up-dip towards the simulated earth surface. The transient slip event and emitted radiation mimic a natural thrust earthquake. High-speed photography and laser velocimeters capture the rupture evolution, outputting a full-field view of photo-elastic fringe contours proportional to maximum shearing stresses as well as continuous ground motion velocity records at discrete points on the specimen. Earth surface-normal measurements validate selective enhancement of hanging wall ground motions for both sub-Rayleigh and super-shear rupture speeds. The earth surface breaks upon rupture tip arrival to the fault trace, generating prominent Rayleigh surface waves. A rupture wave is sensed in the hanging wall but is, however, absent from the foot wall plate: a direct consequence of proximity from fault to seismometer. Signatures in earth surface-normal records attenuate with distance from the fault trace. Super-shear earthquakes feature greater amplitudes of ground shaking profiles, as expected from the increased tectonic pressures required to induce super-shear transition. Paired stations measure fault parallel and fault normal ground motions at various depths, which yield slip and opening rates through direct subtraction of like components. Peak fault slip and opening rates associated with the rupture tip increase with proximity to the fault trace, a result of selective ground motion amplification in the

  9. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  10. The historical and recent destructive earthquakes along the Sumatran fault zone: The March 6th, 2007 doublet event in west Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D. H.

    2009-04-01

    The Sumatran fault zone is a major transcurrent fault accommodating most of the dextral component of the Sumatran oblique convergence. Its 1900-km-long strand runs along the backbone of Sumatra bisecting the volcanic arch. The Sumatran fault is highly segmented, consists of 20 major geometrically defined segments, which range in length from about 60 to 200 km, which constraint seismic source dimensions and have limited the magnitudes of major historical fault ruptures to between Mw 6.3 and 7.7. In average, major earthquakes occur one or twice every decade. As the obliquity increases, slip rates along the fault increase northwestward, from about 5 mm/yr around the Sunda Strait to 27 mm/yr around Toba Lake. These sliprate values together with fault-segment lengths provide a quantitative basis for calculating level of earthquake hazard of each segment. Most recent destructive earthquake occurred on March 6th, 2007. Two earthquakes (Mw 6.4 & Mw6.3), separated by two hours, ruptured two major segments of the Sumatran fault south and north of the Singkarak Lake in west Sumatra. This earthquake doublet killed more than 70 inhabitants and destroyed many houses and other constructions on and near the fault ruptures. The shaking was strongly felt in Padang, the capital city of west Sumatra on the west coast, and even in Singapore, especially in high-rise buildings. The surface ruptures of the first event were observed south of the lake with a total length up to 15 km and slips varies up to 25 cm right lateral and 25 cm vertical movements. The second event ruptured a 22 km fault strand north of the lake and produce dextral slip up to 25 cm. Timing and locations of the first and the second ruptures were consistent with the shake intensity felt by people in the north and south of the Singkarak region. People who live south of the lake felt the first event the strong shake and destroyed their houses, but people live north of lake witnessed that the second event produced the

  11. Comparison of upwards splaying and upwards merging segmented normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, U. A.; Sanderson, D. J.; Lonergan, L.; Bevan, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    A common model for normal fault growth involves a single fault at depth splaying upwards into a series of en-echelon segments. This model is applied to faults as well as a range of extension fractures, including veins, joints and igneous dykes. Examples of splaying growth fault systems in the Columbus Basin, offshore Trinidad, are presented. They include the commonly described upwards splaying type, but also one fault zone with an upward change from disconnected overlapping synthetic faults to a continuous fault. One fault zone with high-displacement fault segments is separated by a relay ramp at depth, becomes breached higher up, developing into a continuous fault at its upper part, where displacements are least. This example suggests that whilst kinematic linkage typically precedes geometric linkage in the evolution of relay ramps, low-displacement parts of a fault system may be geometrically linked whereas higher displacement areas are only kinematically linked.

  12. Late Quaternary Surface Rupture and Associated Transpressive Uplift on a Section of the State Line Fault in the south-central Amargosa Desert Basin, Southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, C. M.; Fridrich, C.; Blakely, R. J.; Thompson, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    New geomorphic, geophysical, and structural data indicate that a section of the Pahrump-Stewart Valley (State Line) fault on the northern piedmont of the Resting Spring Range is associated with late Quaternary surface rupture and related transpressive domal uplift. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity data clearly image this northwest-trending strike-slip fault in the subsurface as a continuous multi-strand fault system that continues >35 km further northwest into the south-central Amargosa Desert basin than previously established. This continuation of the fault consists of a sigmoidal bend characterized by a constraining bend on the north flank of the Resting Spring Range, paired with a releasing bend on the north flank of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Bedrock mapping in the Amargosa Desert indicates a cumulative late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement of ˜15 km across the entire fault zone. In the Resting Spring area, the major central strand of the State Line fault zone is inactive but offsets playa facies of the Artists Drive Formation (equivalent), internally folded into a giant southeast-plunging chevron syncline, against fluvial and playa margin facies of the same formation that are folded into a broad northwest-plunging anticline. These deformed Tertiary strata are exposed in the core of a large (10 x 18 km) domal Quaternary uplift, centered on the northern piedmont of the range, that coincides with a major transpressive left-step in the adjoining active trace of the fault zone. The domal uplift is indicated by persistent incision into Tertiary bedrock (1-5+ m deep) beneath stepped sequences of straths capped by thin and locally warped mid-Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial-gravel veneers. Quaternary activity on the fault zone in this area is now focused on a strand along the northern and eastern border of the uplifted area marked by a discontinuous, 8-10 km long series of aligned, en-echelon, or anastomosing fault scarps that commonly bound linear

  13. New High-Resolution 3D Imagery of Fault Deformation and Segmentation of the San Onofre and San Mateo Trends in the Inner California Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.; Bormann, J. M.; Harding, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    jogs along right lateral fault strands splaying off the NIRC fault. Such a scenario also is consistent with observations from the 3D boomer volume along the shelf and upper slope that images westward stepping faults splaying off the NIRC system.

  14. Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Lasher, John P.; Lamb, Andrew P.; Mahan, Shannon; Foit, Franklin F.; Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ∼500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ∼10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.

  15. Fault diagnosis of sensor networked structures with multiple faults using a virtual beam based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Jing, X. J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a virtual beam based approach suitable for conducting diagnosis of multiple faults in complex structures with limited prior knowledge of the faults involved. The ;virtual beam;, a recently-proposed concept for fault detection in complex structures, is applied, which consists of a chain of sensors representing a vibration energy transmission path embedded in the complex structure. Statistical tests and adaptive threshold are particularly adopted for fault detection due to limited prior knowledge of normal operational conditions and fault conditions. To isolate the multiple faults within a specific structure or substructure of a more complex one, a 'biased running' strategy is developed and embedded within the bacterial-based optimization method to construct effective virtual beams and thus to improve the accuracy of localization. The proposed method is easy and efficient to implement for multiple fault localization with limited prior knowledge of normal conditions and faults. With extensive experimental results, it is validated that the proposed method can localize both single fault and multiple faults more effectively than the classical trust index subtract on negative add on positive (TI-SNAP) method.

  16. Episodic activity of a dormant fault in tectonically stable Europe: The Rauw fault (NE Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Koen; Wouters, Laurent; Vanneste, Kris; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Vandenberghe, Dimitri; Beerten, Koen; Rogiers, Bart; Schiltz, Marco; Burow, Christoph; Mees, Florias; De Grave, Johan; Vandenberghe, Noël

    2017-03-01

    Our knowledge about large earthquakes in stable continental regions comes from studies of faults that generated historical surface rupturing earthquakes or were identified by their recent imprint in the morphology. Here, we evaluate the co-seismic character and movement history of the Rauw fault in Belgium, which lacks geomorphological expression and historical/present seismicity. This 55-km-long normal fault, with known Neogene and possibly Early Pleistocene activity, is the largest offset fault west of the active Roer Valley Graben. Its trace was identified in the shallow subsurface based on high resolution geophysics. All the layers within the Late Pliocene Mol Formation (3.6 to 2.59 Ma) are displaced 7 m vertically, without growth faulting, but deeper deposits show increasing offset. A paleoseismic trench study revealed cryoturbated, but unfaulted, late glacial coversands overlying faulted layers of Mol Formation. In-between those deposits, the fault tip was eroded, along with evidence for individual displacement events. Fragmented clay gouge observed in a micromorphology sample of the main fault evidences co-seismic faulting, as opposed to fault creep. Based on optical and electron spin resonance dating and trench stratigraphy, the 7 m combined displacement is bracketed to have occurred between 2.59 Ma and 45 ka. The regional presence of the Sterksel Formation alluvial terrace deposits, limited to the hanging wall of the Rauw fault, indicates a deflection of the Meuse/Rhine confluence (1.0 to 0.5 Ma) by the fault's activity, suggesting that most of the offset occurred prior to/at this time interval. In the trench, Sterksel Formation is eroded but reworked gravel testifies for its former presence. Hence, the Rauw fault appears as typical of plate interior context, with an episodic seismic activity concentrated between 1.0 and 0.5 Ma or at least between 2.59 Ma to 45 ka, possibly related to activity variations in the adjacent, continuously active Roer Valley

  17. Data Fault Detection in Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Medical body sensors can be implanted or attached to the human body to monitor the physiological parameters of patients all the time. Inaccurate data due to sensor faults or incorrect placement on the body will seriously influence clinicians’ diagnosis, therefore detecting sensor data faults has been widely researched in recent years. Most of the typical approaches to sensor fault detection in the medical area ignore the fact that the physiological indexes of patients aren’t changing synchronously at the same time, and fault values mixed with abnormal physiological data due to illness make it difficult to determine true faults. Based on these facts, we propose a Data Fault Detection mechanism in Medical sensor networks (DFD-M. Its mechanism includes: (1 use of a dynamic-local outlier factor (D-LOF algorithm to identify outlying sensed data vectors; (2 use of a linear regression model based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to predict which readings in the outlying data vector are suspected to be faulty; (3 the proposal of a novel judgment criterion of fault state according to the prediction values. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and superiority of DFD-M.

  18. Formal Validation of Fault Management Design Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Corrina; Karban, Robert; Andolfato, Luigi; Day, John

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this paper describes an approach used to develop SysML modeling patterns to express the behavior of fault protection, test the model's logic by performing fault injection simulations, and verify the fault protection system's logical design via model checking. A representative example, using a subset of the fault protection design for the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) system, was modeled with SysML State Machines and JavaScript as Action Language. The SysML model captures interactions between relevant system components and system behavior abstractions (mode managers, error monitors, fault protection engine, and devices/switches). Development of a method to implement verifiable and lightweight executable fault protection models enables future missions to have access to larger fault test domains and verifiable design patterns. A tool-chain to transform the SysML model to jpf-Statechart compliant Java code and then verify the generated code via model checking was established. Conclusions and lessons learned from this work are also described, as well as potential avenues for further research and development.

  19. Underground power line fault locating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, L.D.; Flath, R.K.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described of locating a fault in a polyphase power distribution system power distributing power from a bulk power source to power consumers, the power distribution system having a substation feeding a fused switch gear unit, a first vault, and at least one subsequent vault receiving power from the first vault, the first vault distributing power from the fused switch gear unit among plural outgoing underground power lines, each underground outgoing power line supplying power to at least one power consumer, the method comprising the steps of: checking fusing within the fused switch gear unit to determine in which phase the fault has occurred; checking the continuity of a power line interconnecting the fused switch gear unit and the first vault; identifying the fused switch gear unit and the first vault which normally supply power to a line having the fault; installing a fault indicator on each underground outgoing power line of the faulted phase in the first vault and in each subsequent vault; inserting a current limiting fuse in series with and between the fused switch gear unit and the first vault; reenergizing the first vault plural outgoing underground power lines through the current limiting fuse and causing the current limiting fuse to blow; and reading each fault indicator after the reenergizing step to determine the location of the fault. A method according to claim 7 for an underground power distribution system wherein at least one underground outgoing power line delivers power to at least one distribution transformer, wherein the step of installing the fault indicators further comprises installing a fault indicator on each distribution transformer.

  20. Four-Strand Core Suture Improves Flexor Tendon Repair Compared to Two-Strand Technique in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Wichelhaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the amount of suture material on the formation of peritendinous adhesions of intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs. Materials and Methods. In 14 rabbits, the flexor tendons of the third and the fourth digit of the right hind leg were cut and repaired using a 2- or 4-strand core suture technique. The repaired tendons were harvested after three and eight weeks. The range of motion of the affected toes was measured and the tendons were processed histologically. The distance between the transected tendon ends, the changes in the peritendinous space, and cellular and extracellular inflammatory reaction were quantified by different staining. Results. A 4-strand core suture resulted in significantly less gap formation. The 2-strand core suture showed a tendency to less adhesion formation. Doubling of the intratendinous suture material was accompanied by an initial increase in leukocyte infiltration and showed a greater amount of formation of myofibroblasts. From the third to the eighth week after flexor tendon repair, both the cellular and the extracellular inflammation decreased significantly. Conclusion. A 4-strand core suture repair leads to a significantly better tendon healing process with less diastasis between the sutured tendon ends despite initially pronounced inflammatory response.

  1. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded/Live Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    µm was analyzed. 6 Table 1 - Microparticle counts (/µl plasma) in Tursiops truncatus during temporary restraint on deck for health assessment... Tursiops truncatus off Bermuda, and to augment the stranding sample size in the coming year. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS These results are equivocal

  2. Cooperative human-machine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Roger; Palmer, Everett

    1987-01-01

    Current expert system technology does not permit complete automatic fault diagnosis; significant levels of human intervention are still required. This requirement dictates a need for a division of labor that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of both human and machine diagnostic skills. Relevant findings from the literature on human cognition are combined with the results of reviews of aircrew performance with highly automated systems to suggest how the interface of a fault diagnostic expert system can be designed to assist human operators in verifying machine diagnoses and guiding interactive fault diagnosis. It is argued that the needs of the human operator should play an important role in the design of the knowledge base.

  3. Navigation System Fault Diagnosis for Underwater Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thomas; Gregersen, Rene Tavs; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates fault diagnosis on unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) based on analysis of structure of the nonlinear dynamics. Residuals are generated using dierent approaches in structural analysis followed by statistical change detection. Hypothesis testing thresholds are made signal...... based to cope with non-ideal properties seen in real data. Detection of both sensor and thruster failures are demonstrated. Isolation is performed using the residual signature of detected faults and the change detection algorithm is used to assess severity of faults by estimating their magnitude...

  4. Efficient fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, H.; Danai, K.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Application of a diagnostic system to a helicopter gearbox is presented. The diagnostic system is a nonparametric pattern classifier that uses a multi-valued influence matrix (MVIM) as its diagnostic model and benefits from a fast learning algorithm that enables it to estimate its diagnostic model from a small number of measurement-fault data. To test this diagnostic system, vibration measurements were collected from a helicopter gearbox test stand during accelerated fatigue tests and at various fault instances. The diagnostic results indicate that the MVIM system can accurately detect and diagnose various gearbox faults so long as they are included in training.

  5. Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Kinnaert, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a test benchmark model for the evaluation of fault detection and accommodation schemes. This benchmark model deals with the wind turbine on a system level, and it includes sensor, actuator, and system faults, namely faults in the pitch system, the drive train, the generator......, and the converter system. Since it is a system-level model, converter and pitch system models are simplified because these are controlled by internal controllers working at higher frequencies than the system model. The model represents a three-bladed pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine with a nominal power...

  6. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2002-01-01

    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...... of the satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  7. Cooperative application/OS DRAM fault recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Heroux, Michael Allen; Hoemmen, Mark; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Exascale systems will present considerable fault-tolerance challenges to applications and system software. These systems are expected to suffer several hard and soft errors per day. Unfortunately, many fault-tolerance methods in use, such as rollback recovery, are unsuitable for many expected errors, for example DRAM failures. As a result, applications will need to address these resilience challenges to more effectively utilize future systems. In this paper, we describe work on a cross-layer application/OS framework to handle uncorrected memory errors. We illustrate the use of this framework through its integration with a new fault-tolerant iterative solver within the Trilinos library, and present initial convergence results.

  8. Concatenated codes for fault tolerant quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Zurek, W.

    1995-05-01

    The application of concatenated codes to fault tolerant quantum computing is discussed. We have previously shown that for quantum memories and quantum communication, a state can be transmitted with error {epsilon} provided each gate has error at most c{epsilon}. We show how this can be used with Shor`s fault tolerant operations to reduce the accuracy requirements when maintaining states not currently participating in the computation. Viewing Shor`s fault tolerant operations as a method for reducing the error of operations, we give a concatenated implementation which promises to propagate the reduction hierarchically. This has the potential of reducing the accuracy requirements in long computations.

  9. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly...... faults in display cabinets under the wide operational conditions that display cabinets are exposed to. The approach described uses a non- linear parity equation comparing the heat transfer rates of the air and the refrigerant. The paper presents the detection method and discusses the application...

  10. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  11. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  12. A Concept for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    This paper describe a concept for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) based on the YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization. This controller architecture will allow to change the controller on-line in the case of faults in the system. In the described FTC concept, a safe mode...... controller is applied as the basic feedback controller. A controller for normal operation with high performance is obtained by including certain YJBK parameters (transfer functions) in the controller. This will allow a fast switch from normal operation to safe mode operation in case of critical faults...

  13. Geochemical characteristics of fault core and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin (NW China) with implications for the fault sealing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Pei, Yangwen; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun

    2017-08-01

    Faults may have a complex internal structure, including fault core and damage zone, and can act as major conduits for fluid migration. The migration of fluids along faults is generally associated with strong fluid-rock interaction, forming large amounts of cement that fill in the fractures. The cementation of the fault fractures is considered to be one of the important parameters of fault sealing. The different components of faults have diverse geochemical features because of varying physical characteristics. The investigation of the geochemical characteristics of the fault and damage zones could provide important information about the fault sealing process, which is very important in oil and gas exploration. To understand the fault-cemented sealing process, detailed geochemical studies were conducted on the fault and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault of the northwestern Junggar Basin in China. The major and trace element data of our study suggest that the fault core is characterized by higher loss on ignition (LOI), potassium loss, Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values and lower high field strength element (HFSE), large-ion lithosphile element (LILE), and rare earth element (REE) concentrations compared with the damage zone, implying more serious elemental loss and weathering of the fault core compared with the damage zone during faulting. The carbon and oxygen isotope data reveal that the cement of the Hong-Che Fault Zone formed due to multiple sources of fluids. The fault core was mainly affected by deep sources of hydrothermal fluids. In combination with previous studies, we suggest a potential fault-cemented sealing process during the period of fault movement. The fault core acts as the fluid conduit during faulting. After faulting, the fault core is cemented and the damage zone becomes the major conduit for fluid migration. The cementation firstly occurs on two sides of the damage zone in the upper part of the

  14. Rapid recovery from transient faults in the fault-tolerant processor with fault-tolerant shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Richard E.; Butler, Bryan P.

    1990-01-01

    The Draper fault-tolerant processor with fault-tolerant shared memory (FTP/FTSM), which is designed to allow application tasks to continue execution during the memory alignment process, is described. Processor performance is not affected by memory alignment. In addition, the FTP/FTSM incorporates a hardware scrubber device to perform the memory alignment quickly during unused memory access cycles. The FTP/FTSM architecture is described, followed by an estimate of the time required for channel reintegration.

  15. Data-driven design of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Steven X

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven Design of Fault Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control Systems presents basic statistical process monitoring, fault diagnosis, and control methods, and introduces advanced data-driven schemes for the design of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control systems catering to the needs of dynamic industrial processes. With ever increasing demands for reliability, availability and safety in technical processes and assets, process monitoring and fault-tolerance have become important issues surrounding the design of automatic control systems. This text shows the reader how, thanks to the rapid development of information technology, key techniques of data-driven and statistical process monitoring and control can now become widely used in industrial practice to address these issues. To allow for self-contained study and facilitate implementation in real applications, important mathematical and control theoretical knowledge and tools are included in this book. Major schemes are presented in algorithm form and...

  16. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu

    2016-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...... performance under SM faults but without the knowledge of the number of the faulty SMs in the arm, without extra demand on communication systems, which potentially increases the reliability. The time-domain simulation studies with the PSCAD/EMTDC are conducted and a down-scale MMC prototype is also tested...

  17. Guaranteed Cost Fault-Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems with Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the large scale and complicated structure of networked control systems, time-varying sensor faults could inevitably occur when the system works in a poor environment. Guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller for the new networked control systems with time-varying sensor faults is designed in this paper. Based on time delay of the network transmission environment, the networked control systems with sensor faults are modeled as a discrete-time system with uncertain parameters. And the model of networked control systems is related to the boundary values of the sensor faults. Moreover, using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequalities (LMI approach, the guaranteed cost fault-tolerant controller is verified to render such networked control systems asymptotically stable. Finally, simulations are included to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  18. Corrosion characteristics of post-tensioning strands in ungrouted ducts : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To prevent corrosion of post-tensioning strands, FDOT construction specifications currently require post-tensioning ducts to be grouted within seven calendar days of strand installation. This period challenges construction schedules on large projects...

  19. Fault Rock Variation as a Function of Host Rock Lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagereng, A.; Diener, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fault rocks contain an integrated record of the slip history of a fault, and thereby reflect the deformation processes associated with fault slip. Within the Aus Granulite Terrane, Namibia, a number of Jurassic to Cretaceous age strike-slip faults cross-cut Precambrian high grade metamorphic rocks. These strike-slip faults were active at subgreenschist conditions and occur in a variety of host rock lithologies. Where the host rock contains significant amounts of hydrous minerals, representing granulites that have undergone retrogressive metamorphism, the fault rock is dominated by hydrothermal breccias. In anhydrous, foliated rocks interlayered with minor layers containing hydrous phyllosilicates, the fault rock is a cataclasite partially cemented by jasper and quartz. Where the host rock is an isotropic granitic rock the fault rock is predominantly a fine grained black fault rock. Cataclasites and breccias show evidence for multiple deformation events, whereas the fine grained black fault rocks appear to only record a single slip increment. The strike-slip faults observed all formed in the same general orientation and at a similar time, and it is unlikely that regional stress, strain rate, pressure and temperature varied between the different faults. We therefore conclude that the type of fault rock here depended on the host rock lithology, and that lithology alone accounts for why some faults developed a hydrothermal breccia, some cataclasite, and some a fine grained black fault rock. Consequently, based on the assumption that fault rocks reflect specific slip styles, lithology was also the main control on different fault slip styles in this area at the time of strike-slip fault activity. Whereas fine grained black fault rock is inferred to represent high stress events, hydrothermal breccia is rather related to events involving fluid pressure in excess of the least stress. Jasper-bearing cataclasites may represent faults that experienced dynamic weakening as seen

  20. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  1. Recording real case data of earth faults in distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most common fault type in the electrical distribution networks is the single phase to earth fault. According to the earlier studies, for instance in Nordic countries, about 80 % of all faults are of this type. To develop the protection and fault location systems, it is important to obtain real case data of disturbances and faults which occur in the networks. For example, the earth fault initial transients can be used for earth fault location. The aim of this project was to collect and analyze real case data of the earth fault disturbances in the medium voltage distribution networks (20 kV). Therefore, data of fault occurrences were recorded at two substations, of which one has an unearthed and the other a compensated neutral, measured as follows: (a) the phase currents and neutral current for each line in the case of low fault resistance (b) the phase voltages and neutral voltage from the voltage measuring bay in the case of low fault resistance (c) the neutral voltage and the components of 50 Hz at the substation in the case of high fault resistance. In addition, the basic data of the fault occurrences were collected (data of the line, fault location, cause and so on). The data will be used in the development work of fault location and earth fault protection systems

  2. Mobilities and dislocation energies of planar faults in an ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Present work describes the stability of possible planar faults of the A3B (D019) phase with an axial ratio less than the ideal. Mobilities and dislocation energies of various planar faults viz. antiphase boundaries (APBs), superlattice intrinsic stacking faults (SISFs) and complex stacking faults (CSFs) have been computed using ...

  3. Fuzzy set theoretic approach to fault tree analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    68M15 (Reliability, testing and fault tolerance). Keywords: Fault tree, Triangular and Trapezoidal fuzzy number, Fuzzy importance, Ranking of fuzzy numbers. 1. Introduction. Fault tree analysis (FTA) seems to be a very effective tool to predict probability of hazard, resulting from sequences and combinations of faults and ...

  4. Incorporating Fault Tolerance Tactics in Software Architecture Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    One important way that an architecture impacts fault tolerance is by making it easy or hard to implement measures that improve fault tolerance. Many such measures are described as fault tolerance tactics. We studied how various fault tolerance tactics can be implemented in the best-known

  5. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Isolability of faults is a key issue in fault diagnosis whether the aim is maintenance or active fault-tolerant control. It is often encountered that while faults are detectable, they are only group-wise isolable from a usual diagnostic point of view. However, active injection of test signals...

  6. A novel KFCM based fault diagnosis method for unknown faults in satellite reaction wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Sarosh, Ali; Dong, Yun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Reaction wheels are one of the most critical components of the satellite attitude control system, therefore correct diagnosis of their faults is quintessential for efficient operation of these spacecraft. The known faults in any of the subsystems are often diagnosed by supervised learning algorithms, however, this method fails to work correctly when a new or unknown fault occurs. In such cases an unsupervised learning algorithm becomes essential for obtaining the correct diagnosis. Kernel Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is one of the unsupervised algorithms, although it has its own limitations; however in this paper a novel method has been proposed for conditioning of KFCM method (C-KFCM) so that it can be effectively used for fault diagnosis of both known and unknown faults as in satellite reaction wheels. The C-KFCM approach involves determination of exact class centers from the data of known faults, in this way discrete number of fault classes are determined at the start. Similarity parameters are derived and determined for each of the fault data point. Thereafter depending on the similarity threshold each data point is issued with a class label. The high similarity points fall into one of the 'known-fault' classes while the low similarity points are labeled as 'unknown-faults'. Simulation results show that as compared to the supervised algorithm such as neural network, the C-KFCM method can effectively cluster historical fault data (as in reaction wheels) and diagnose the faults to an accuracy of more than 91%. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of Prestress Force Distribution in the Multi-Strand System of Prestressed Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Keunhee Cho; Sung Yong Park; Jeong-Rae Cho; Sung Tae Kim; Young-Hwan Park

    2015-01-01

    Prestressed concrete (PSC) is one of the most reliable, durable and widely used construction materials, which overcomes the weakness of concrete in tension by the introduction of a prestress force. Smart strands enabling measurement of the prestress force have recently been developed to maintain PSC structures throughout their lifetime. However, the smart strand cannot give a representative indication of the whole prestress force when used in multi-strand systems since each strand sustains a ...

  8. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal...

  9. Enhanced Maritime Safety through Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    -tolerant control is a methodology to help prevent that faults develop into failure. The means include on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial action to avoid hazards. This paper gives an overview of methods to obtain fault-tolerance: fault diagnosis; analysis......Faults in steering, navigation instruments or propulsion machinery are serious on a marine vessel since the consequence could be loss of maneuvering ability, and imply risk of damage to vessel personnel or environment. Early diagnosis and accomodation of faults could enhance safety. Fault...

  10. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis in a Power Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke O. Babayomi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of fault diagnosis by the use of fuzzy logic and neural network-based techniques for electric power fault detection, classification, and location in a power distribution network. A real network was used as a case study. The ten different types of line faults including single line-to-ground, line-to-line, double line-to-ground, and three-phase faults were investigated. The designed system has 89% accuracy for fault type identification. It also has 93% accuracy for fault location. The results indicate that the proposed technique is effective in detecting, classifying, and locating low impedance faults.

  11. Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real measurem......In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... measurements from a specially designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate both terminal disconnections, inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits. The results show good agreement between the measurements and the simulated signals obtained from the model. In the tests focus...

  12. Faults--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The...

  13. Faults--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Pigeon Point map area, California. The vector data file is...

  14. Software Tools for Fault Management Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault Management (FM) is a key requirement for safety, efficient onboard and ground operations, maintenance, and repair. QSI's TEAMS Software suite is a leading...

  15. Software Tools for Fault Management Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System autonomy is a key enabler for satisfying complex mission goals, enhancing mission success probabilities, as well as safety at a reduced cost. Fault Management...

  16. Fault Tree Generation and Augmentation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault Management (FM) is one of the key components of system autonomy. In order to guarantee FM effectiveness and control the cost, tools are required to automate...

  17. Faults--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore Santa Cruz map area, California. The vector data file is...

  18. STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN HIGH MANGANESE ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mazancová

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Stacking fault energy of high manganese alloys (marked as TWIP and TRIPLEX is an important parameter determining deformation mechanism type realized in above mentioned alloys. Stacking fault energy level can be asserted with a gliding of partial and/or full dislocations, b gliding mechanism and twinning deformation process in connection with increasing of fracture deformation level (deformation elongation and with increasing of simultaneously realized work hardening proces., c gliding mechanism and deformation induced e-martensite formation. In contribution calculated stacking fault energies are presented for various chemical compositions of high manganese alloys. Stacking fault energy dependences on manganese, carbon, iron and alluminium contents are presented. Results are confronted with some accessible papers.The aim of work is to deepen knowledge of presented data. The TWIP and TRIPLEX alloys can be held for promissing new automotive materials.

  19. Faults--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map (see sheet 10, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The...

  20. Fault Detection for Quantized Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Che

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault detection problem in the finite frequency domain for networked control systems with signal quantization is considered. With the logarithmic quantizer consideration, a quantized fault detection observer is designed by employing a performance index which is used to increase the fault sensitivity in finite frequency domain. The quantized measurement signals are dealt with by utilizing the sector bound method, in which the quantization error is treated as sector-bounded uncertainty. By using the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP Lemma, an iterative LMI-based optimization algorithm is developed for designing the quantized fault detection observer. And a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  2. Current Sensor Fault Reconstruction for PMSM Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a current sensor fault reconstruction algorithm for the torque closed-loop drive system of an interior PMSM. First, sensor faults are equated to actuator ones by a new introduced state variable. Then, in αβ coordinates, based on the motor model with active flux linkage, a current observer is constructed with a specific sliding mode equivalent control methodology to eliminate the effects of unknown disturbances, and the phase current sensor faults are reconstructed by means of an adaptive method. Finally, an αβ axis current fault processing module is designed based on the reconstructed value. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by simulation and experimental tests on the RT-LAB platform.

  3. Current Sensor Fault Reconstruction for PMSM Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; He, Jing; Huang, Yi-Shan

    2016-01-30

    This paper deals with a current sensor fault reconstruction algorithm for the torque closed-loop drive system of an interior PMSM. First, sensor faults are equated to actuator ones by a new introduced state variable. Then, in αβ coordinates, based on the motor model with active flux linkage, a current observer is constructed with a specific sliding mode equivalent control methodology to eliminate the effects of unknown disturbances, and the phase current sensor faults are reconstructed by means of an adaptive method. Finally, an αβ axis current fault processing module is designed based on the reconstructed value. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by simulation and experimental tests on the RT-LAB platform.

  4. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howon Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool.

  5. SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang

    2009-01-01

    and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset......Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of fault-propagation-folding is important for evaluating the associated hydrocarbon play, for accomplishing reliable section balancing (structural reconstruction), and for assessing seismic hazards. Accordingly, the deformation style of fault......-propagation-folding has already been the topic of a large number of empirical studies as well as physical and computational model experiments. However, with the newly developed Stress-based Discrete Element Method (SDEM), we have, for the first time, explored computationally the link between self-emerging fault patterns...

  6. A Novel Fault Early Warning Model Based on Fault Gene Table for Smart Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since a smart distribution grid has a diversity of components and complicated topology; it is very hard to achieve fault early warning for each part. A fault early warning model for smart distribution grid combining a back propagation (BP neural network with a gene sequence alignment algorithm is proposed. Firstly; the operational state of smart distribution grid is divided into four states; and a BP neural network is adopted to explore the operational state from the historical fault data of the smart distribution grid. This obtains the relationship between each state transition time sequence and corresponding fault, and is used to construct the fault gene table. Then; a state transition time sequence is obtained online periodically, which is matched with each gene in fault gene table by an improved Smith–Waterman algorithm. If the maximum match score exceeds the given threshold, the relevant fault will be detected early. Finally, plenty of time domain simulation is performed on the proposed fault early warning model to IEEE-14 bus. The simulation results show that the proposed model can achieve efficient early fault warning of smart distribution grids.

  7. Evidence for early miocene wrench faulting in the Marlborough fault system, New Zealand: structural implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audru, Jean-Christophe; Delteil, Jean

    1998-10-01

    In New Zealand, the Marlborough strike-slip faults link the Hikurangi subduction zone to the Alpine fault collision zone. Stratigraphic and structural analysis in the Marlborough region constrain the inception of the current strike-slip tectonics. Six major Neogene basins are investigated. Their infill is composed of marine and freshwater sediments up to 3 km thick; they are characterised by coarse facies derived from the basins bounding relief, high sedimentation rates and asymmetric geometries. Proposed factors that controlled the basins' generation are the initial geometry of the strike-slip faults and the progressive strike-slip motion. Two groups of basins are presented: the early Miocene (23 My) basins were generated under wrench tectonics above releasing-jogs between basement faults. The late Miocene (11 My) basins were initiated by halfgrabens tilted along straighter faults during a transtensive stage. Development of faults during Cretaceous to Oligocene times facilitated the following propagation of wrench tectonics. The Pliocene (5 My) to current increasing convergence has shortened the basins and distorted the Miocene array of faults. This study indicates that the Marlborough Fault System is an old feature that connected part of the Hikurangi margin to the Alpine fault since the subduction and collision initiation.

  8. Pleistocene Brawley and Ocotillo Formations: Evidence for initial strike-slip deformation along the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zonez, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, S.M.; Janecke, S.U.; Dorsey, R.J.; Housen, B.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; McDougall, K.A.; Steeley, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the Pleistocene tectonic reorganization of the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the Salton Trough of southern California with an integrated approach that includes basin analysis, magnetostratigraphy, and geologic mapping of upper Pliocene to Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the San Felipe Hills. These deposits preserve the earliest sedimentary record of movement on the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zones that replaced and deactivated the late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault. Sandstone and mudstone of the Brawley Formation accumulated between ???1.1 and ???0.6-0.5 Ma in a delta on the margin of an arid Pleistocene lake, which received sediment from alluvial fans of the Ocotillo Formation to the west-southwest. Our analysis indicates that the Ocotillo and Brawley formations prograded abruptly to the east-northeast across a former mud-dominated perennial lake (Borrego Formation) at ???1.1 Ma in response to initiation of the dextral-oblique San Felipe fault zone. The ???25-km-long San Felipe anticline initiated at about the same time and produced an intrabasinal basement-cored high within the San Felipe-Borrego basin that is recorded by progressive unconformities on its north and south limbs. A disconformity at the base of the Brawley Formation in the eastern San Felipe Hills probably records initiation and early blind slip at the southeast tip of the Clark strand of the San Jacinto fault zone. Our data are consistent with abrupt and nearly synchronous inception of the San Jacinto and San Felipe fault zones southwest of the southern San Andreas fault in the early Pleistocene during a pronounced southwestward broadening of the San Andreas fault zone. The current contractional geometry of the San Jacinto fault zone developed after ???0.5-0.6 Ma during a second, less significant change in structural style. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  9. Verification-based Software-fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gladisch, Christoph David

    2011-01-01

    Software is used in many safety- and security-critical systems. Software development is, however, an error-prone task. In this dissertation new techniques for the detection of software faults (or software "bugs") are described which are based on a formal deductive verification technology. The described techniques take advantage of information obtained during verification and combine verification technology with deductive fault detection and test generation in a very unified way.

  10. Fault Detection and Isolation using Eigenstructure Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.B.; Patton, R.J.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer.......The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer....

  11. GN and C Fault Protection Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This is a companion presentation for a paper by the same name for the same conference. The objective of this paper is to shed some light on the fundamentals of fault tolerant design for GN&C. The common heritage of ideas behind both faulted and normal operation is explored, as is the increasingly indistinct line between these realms in complex missions. Techniques in common practice are then evaluated in this light to suggest a better direction for future efforts.

  12. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  13. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faille I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  14. From Fault-tolerance to Attack Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-02

    AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Means to build fault - tolerant ...bottlenecks. We also implemented a distributed storage service that uses Byzantine Quo- rum Systems (rather than state machine replication) and employs...From Fault - tolerance to Attack Tolerance AFOSR Grant F9550-06-1-0019 Final Report 1 December 2005 – 30 November 2010 Fred B. Schneider Computer

  15. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T.; Antila, E. [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M. [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  16. Deformation Monitoring of AN Active Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and other deformation phenomena, new for geophysics, change our understanding of how the energy accumulated in the Earth's crust do release. The new geophysical data make one revise the underlying mechanism of geomechanical processes taking place in fault zones. Conditions for generating different slip modes are still unclear. The most vital question is whether a certain slip mode is intrinsic for a fault or may be controlled by external factors. This work presents the results of two and a half year deformation monitoring of a discontinuity in the zone of the Main Sayanskiy Fault. Main Sayanskiy Fault is right-lateral strike-slip fault. Observations were performed in the tunnel of Talaya seismic station (TLY), Irkutsk region, Russia. Measurements were carried out 70 m away from the entrance of the tunnel, the thickness of overlying rock was about 30 m. Inductive sensors of displacement were mounted at the both sides of a discontinuity, which recorded three components of relative fault side displacement with the accuracy of 0.2 mcm. Temperature variation inside the tunnel didn't exceed 0.5oC during the all period of observations. Important information about deformation properties of an active fault was obtained. A pronounced seasonality of deformation characteristics of discontinuity is observed in the investigated segment of rock. A great number of slow slip events with durations from several hours to several weeks were registered. Besides that alterations of fault deformation characteristics before the megathrust earthquake M9.0 Tohoku Oki 11 March 2011 and reaction to the event itself were detected. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 14-17-00719).

  17. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T.; Antila, E. [ABB Power Oy (Finland); Seppaenen, M. [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerized relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  18. Database documentation of marine mammal stranding and mortality: current status review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek K P; Tsui, Henry C L; Kot, Brian C W

    2017-11-21

    Databases are systematic tools to archive and manage information related to marine mammal stranding and mortality events. Stranding response networks, governmental authorities and non-governmental organizations have established regional or national stranding networks and have developed unique standard stranding response and necropsy protocols to document and track stranded marine mammal demographics, signalment and health data. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe and review the current status of marine mammal stranding and mortality databases worldwide, including the year established, types of database and their goals; and (2) summarize the geographic range included in the database, the number of cases recorded, accessibility, filter and display methods. Peer-reviewed literature was searched, focussing on published databases of live and dead marine mammal strandings and mortality and information released from stranding response organizations (i.e. online updates, journal articles and annual stranding reports). Databases that were not published in the primary literature or recognized by government agencies were excluded. Based on these criteria, 10 marine mammal stranding and mortality databases were identified, and strandings and necropsy data found in these databases were evaluated. We discuss the results, limitations and future prospects of database development. Future prospects include the development and application of virtopsy, a new necropsy investigation tool. A centralized web-accessed database of all available postmortem multimedia from stranded marine mammals may eventually support marine conservation and policy decisions, which will allow the use of marine animals as sentinels of ecosystem health, working towards a 'One Ocean-One Health' ideal.

  19. Probing electronic coupling between adenine bases in RNA strands from synchrotron radiation circular dichroism experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgård; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-01-01

    Circular dichroism spectra (176–330 nm) of RNA adenine oligomers, (rA)n (n = 1–10, 12, 15, and 20), reveal electronic coupling between two bases in short strands. The number of interacting bases in long strands is more and larger than that reported previously for the corresponding DNA strands....

  20. Structural features in the HIV-1 repeat region facilitate strand transfer during reverse transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Vastenhouw, N. L.; Klasens, B. I.; Huthoff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Two obligatory DNA strand transfers take place during reverse transcription of a retroviral RNA genome. The first strand transfer is facilitated by terminal repeat (R) elements in the viral genome. This strand-transfer reaction depends on base pairing between the cDNA of the 5'R and the 3'R. There

  1. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand...

  2. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Mexico for the period January 1, 2009 through...

  3. Repair and genetic consequences of DNA double strand breaks during animal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, Bennie Benjamin Lodewijk Gerardus

    2014-01-01

    The genetic code of life is stored in DNA molecules that consist of two parallel strands of coupled nucleotides that form a DNA double helix. One of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) in which both strands of the helix are broken. When not repaired adequately

  4. Characterization of wood strands from young, small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram Yadama; Eini C. Lowell; Christopher E. Langum

    2012-01-01

    Tensile properties of strands processed from small-diameter Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees grown on the Washington coast were analyzed and effects of location within the tree on properties was examined. Reduction factors for strand properties relative to small, clear solid wood specimen properties were determined by correlating strand properties to previously...

  5. 75 FR 37382 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... steel, which is suitable for use in prestressed concrete (both pretensioned and post-tensioned... International Trade Administration Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from... duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC strand'') from the People's Republic of...

  6. Development of Fault Models for Hybrid Fault Detection and Diagnostics Algorithm: October 1, 2014 -- May 5, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Howard; Braun, James E.

    2015-12-31

    This report describes models of building faults created for OpenStudio to support the ongoing development of fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) algorithms at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building faults are operating abnormalities that degrade building performance, such as using more energy than normal operation, failing to maintain building temperatures according to the thermostat set points, etc. Models of building faults in OpenStudio can be used to estimate fault impacts on building performance and to develop and evaluate FDD algorithms. The aim of the project is to develop fault models of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment in the United States, and the fault models in this report are grouped as control faults, sensor faults, packaged and split air conditioner faults, water-cooled chiller faults, and other uncategorized faults. The control fault models simulate impacts of inappropriate thermostat control schemes such as an incorrect thermostat set point in unoccupied hours and manual changes of thermostat set point due to extreme outside temperature. Sensor fault models focus on the modeling of sensor biases including economizer relative humidity sensor bias, supply air temperature sensor bias, and water circuit temperature sensor bias. Packaged and split air conditioner fault models simulate refrigerant undercharging, condenser fouling, condenser fan motor efficiency degradation, non-condensable entrainment in refrigerant, and liquid line restriction. Other fault models that are uncategorized include duct fouling, excessive infiltration into the building, and blower and pump motor degradation.

  7. Modelling of fault reactivation and fault slip in producing gas fields using a slip-weakening friction law.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassing, B.B.T., Buijze, L., Orlic, B.

    2016-01-01

    Geomechanical numerical simulations were conducted to analyze the stability of faults during gas production. A FLAC3D model of a fault intersecting a producing gas reservoir was developed which incorporates the fully dynamic behavior of the fault and surrounding rock mass, and a fault frictional

  8. Effects of healing on the seismogenic potential of carbonate fault rocks : Experiments on samples from the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye; Verberne, Berend A.; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Fault slip and healing history may crucially affect the fault seismogenic potential in the earthquake nucleation regime. Here we report direct shear friction tests on simulated gouges derived from a carbonate fault breccia, and from a clay/carbonate fault-core gouge, retrieved from a surface

  9. STRaND-2: Visual inspection, proximity operations & nanosatellite docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C. P.; Taylor, B.; Horri, N.; Underwood, C. I.; Kenyon, S.; Barrera-Ars, J.; Pryce, L.; Bird, R.

    The Surrey Training Research and Nanosatellite Demonstrator (STRaND) programme has been success in identifying and creating a leading low-cost nanosatellite programme with advanced attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) and experimental computing platforms based on smart-phone technologies. The next demonstration capabilities, that provide a challenging mission to the existing STRaND platform, is to perform visual inspection, proximity operations and nanosatellite docking. Visual inspection is to be performed using a COTS LIDAR system to estimate range and pose under 100 m. Proximity operations are controlled using a comprehensive guidance, navigation and control (GNC) loop in a polar form of the Hills Clohessy Wiltshire (HCW) frame including J2 perturbations. And finally, nanosatellite docking is performed at under 30 cm using a series of tuned magnetic coils. This paper will document the initial experiments and calculations used to qualify LIDAR components, size the mission thrust and tank requirements, and air cushion table demonstrations of the docking mechanism.

  10. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  11. Heart pathologies in dolphins stranded along the northwestern Italian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, F E; Bollo, E; Pregel, P; Chiappino, L; Sereno, A; Mignone, W; Moschi, R; Garibaldi, F; Tittarelli, C; Guarda, F

    2013-11-25

    Nine striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba and 1 bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy were necropsied between February 2011 and April 2012. Macroscopic and histological findings were observed in the hearts of all animals and included saccular aneurysms of the pulmonary trunk (n = 3), cirsoid aneurysms (n = 1), right ventricular dilation (n = 1) associated with hypoplasia of the tricuspid chordae (n = 1), valvular fibrosis (n = 3), mitral leaflet thickening (n = 1), left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 1), lymphocytic myocarditis (n =1), and Lambl's excrescences (n = 4). To our best knowledge Lambl's excrescences, aneurysm of the pulmonary trunk, and cirsoid aneurysms have not previously been described in marine mammals, and some of these findings should be taken into account as possible causes of dolphin morbidity, mortality, and stranding.

  12. Sequential Testing Algorithms for Multiple Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Mojdeh; Raghavan, Vijaya; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing optimal and near-optimal test sequencing algorithms for multiple fault diagnosis. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and AND/OR graph search, we present several test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem. These algorithms provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. The algorithms developed herein have been successfully applied to several real-world systems. Computational results indicate that the size of a multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system.

  13. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes

    2017-05-08

    Faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems, which can result in energy loss, system shutdown or even serious safety breaches, are often difficult to avoid. Fault detection in such systems is imperative to improve their reliability, productivity, safety and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model with the extended capacity of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart to detect incipient changes in a PV system. The one-diode model, which is easily calibrated due to its limited calibration parameters, is used to predict the healthy PV array\\'s maximum power coordinates of current, voltage and power using measured temperatures and irradiances. Residuals, which capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions of the one-diode model, are generated and used as fault indicators. Then, the EWMA monitoring chart is applied on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the one-diode model to detect and identify the type of fault. Actual data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria, are used to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results show that the proposed approach successfully monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects temporary shading.

  14. Fault Detection for Shipboard Monitoring and Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a basic idea of a fault-tolerant monitoring and decision support system will be explained. Fault detection is an important part of the fault-tolerant design for in-service monitoring and decision support systems for ships. In the paper, a virtual example of fault detection...... will be presented for a containership with a real decision support system onboard. All possible faults can be simulated and detected using residuals and the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) algorithm....

  15. Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Yeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(−-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+-strand] sgmRNA required for (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (−-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1 Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (−-strand sgmRNA complement. (2 Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (−-strand sgmRNA. (3 Nucleotides positioned from −15 to −34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4 Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (−1 of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  16. Provenance of alluvial fan deposits to constrain the mid-term offsets along a strike-slip active fault: the Elsinore fault in the Coyote Mountains, Imperial Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Eulalia; Stepancikova, Petra; Rockwell, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The lateral variation in rates along a fault and its constancy along time is a matter of discussion. To give light to this discussion, short, mid and long term offset distribution along a fault is needed. Many studies analyze the short-term offset distribution along a strike-slip fault that can be obtained by the analysis of offset features imprinted in the morphology of the near-fault area. We present an example on how to obtain the mid- to long-term offset values based on the composition of alluvial fans that are offset by the fault. The study area is on the southern tip of the Elsinore fault, which controls the mountain front of the Coyote Mountains (California). The Elsinore-Laguna Salada fault is part of the San Andreas fault (SAF) system, extending 250 km from the Los Angeles Basin southeastward into the Gulf of California, in Mexico. The slip-rate on the southern Elsinore fault is believed to be moderate based on recent InSAR observations, although a recent study near Fossil Canyon (southern Coyote Mountains) suggests a rate in the range of 1-2 mm/yr. For this study we processed the airborne LiDAR dataset (EarthScope Southern & Eastern California, SoCal) to map short to mid-term alluvial offsets. We reprocessed the point clouds to produce DEMs with 0.5m and 0.25m grids and we varied the insolation angles to illuminate the various fault strands and the offset features. We identified numerous offset features, such as rills, channel bars, channel walls, alluvial fans, beheaded channels and small erosional basins that varied in displacement from 1 to 350 m. For the mid- to long-term offsets of the alluvial fans we benefited from the diverse petrological composition of their sources. Moreover, we recognized that older alluvium, which is offset by greater amounts, is in some cases buried beneath younger alluvial fan deposits and separated by buried soils. To determine the source canyon of various alluvial elements, we quantified the clast assemblage of each source

  17. Five strands of math tasks big book : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Included are challenging problem-solving tasks which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  18. Multiple Factors Drive Replicating Strand Composition Bias in Bacterial Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Long Zhao; Zhong-Kui Xia; Fa-Zhan Zhang; Yuan-Nong Ye; Feng-Biao Guo

    2015-01-01

    Composition bias from Chargaff’s second parity rule (PR2) has long been found in sequenced genomes, and is believed to relate strongly with the replication process in microbial genomes. However, some disagreement on the underlying reason for strand composition bias remains. We performed an integrative analysis of various genomic features that might influence composition bias using a large-scale dataset of 1111 genomes. Our results indicate (1) the bias was stronger in obligate intracellular b...

  19. Five strands of math drills big book : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  20. Fault-weighted quantification method of fault detection coverage through fault mode and effect analysis in digital I&C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Lee, Seung Jun, E-mail: sjlee420@unist.ac.kr; Jung, Wondea

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed the fault-weighted quantification method of fault detection coverage. • The method has been applied to specific digital reactor protection system. • The unavailability of the module had 20-times difference with the traditional method. • Several experimental tests will be effectively prioritized using this method. - Abstract: The one of the most outstanding features of a digital I&C system is the use of a fault-tolerant technique. With an awareness regarding the importance of thequantification of fault detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, several researches related to the fault injection method were developed and employed to quantify a fault detection coverage. In the fault injection method, each injected fault has a different importance because the frequency of realization of every injected fault is different. However, there have been no previous studies addressing the importance and weighting factor of each injected fault. In this work, a new method for allocating the weighting to each injected fault using the failure mode and effect analysis data was proposed. For application, the fault-weighted quantification method has also been applied to specific digital reactor protection system to quantify the fault detection coverage. One of the major findings in an application was that we may estimate the unavailability of the specific module in digital I&C systems about 20-times smaller than real value when we use a traditional method. The other finding was that we can also classify the importance of the experimental case. Therefore, this method is expected to not only suggest an accurate quantification procedure of fault-detection coverage by weighting the injected faults, but to also contribute to an effective fault injection experiment by sorting the importance of the failure categories.

  1. Programmable autonomous synthesis of single-stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Schaus, Thomas E.; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; Xuan, Feng; Yin, Peng

    2018-02-01

    DNA performs diverse functional roles in biology, nanotechnology and biotechnology, but current methods for autonomously synthesizing arbitrary single-stranded DNA are limited. Here, we introduce the concept of primer exchange reaction (PER) cascades, which grow nascent single-stranded DNA with user-specified sequences following prescribed reaction pathways. PER synthesis happens in a programmable, autonomous, in situ and environmentally responsive fashion, providing a platform for engineering molecular circuits and devices with a wide range of sensing, monitoring, recording, signal-processing and actuation capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate a nanodevice that transduces the detection of a trigger RNA into the production of a DNAzyme that degrades an independent RNA substrate, a signal amplifier that conditionally synthesizes long fluorescent strands only in the presence of a particular RNA signal, molecular computing circuits that evaluate logic (AND, OR, NOT) combinations of RNA inputs, and a temporal molecular event recorder that records in the PER transcript the order in which distinct RNA inputs are sequentially detected.

  2. A novel bio-sensor based on DNA strand displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technology performs well in sensing and programming DNA segments. In this work, we construct DNA molecular systems based on DNA strand displacement performing computation of logic gates. Specifically, a class of so-called "DNA neurons" are achieved, in which a "smart" way inspired by biological neurons encoding information is developed to encode and deliver information using DNA molecules. The "DNA neuron" is bistable, that is, it can sense DNA molecules as input signals, and release "negative" or "positive" signals DNA molecules. We design intelligent DNA molecular systems that are constructed by cascading some particularly organized "DNA neurons", which could perform logic computation, including AND, OR, XOR logic gates, automatically. Both simulation results using visual DSD (DNA strand displacement software and experimental results are obtained, which shows that the proposed systems can detect DNA signals with high sensitivity and accretion; moreover, the systems can process input signals automatically with complex nonlinear logic. The method proposed in this work may provide a new way to construct a sensitive molecular signal detection system with neurons spiking behavior in vitro, and can be used to develop intelligent molecular processing systems in vivo.

  3. Carbon Fiber Strand Tensile Failure Dynamic Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; Reeder, James

    2016-01-01

    There are few if any clear, visual, and detailed images of carbon fiber strand failures under tension useful for determining mechanisms, sequences of events, different types of failure modes, etc. available to researchers. This makes discussion of physics of failure difficult. It was also desired to find out whether the test article-to-test rig interface (grip) played a part in some failures. These failures have nothing to do with stress rupture failure, thus representing a source of waste for the larger 13-00912 investigation into that specific failure type. Being able to identify or mitigate any competing failure modes would improve the value of the 13-00912 test data. The beginnings of the solution to these problems lay in obtaining images of strand failures useful for understanding physics of failure and the events leading up to failure. Necessary steps include identifying imaging techniques that result in useful data, using those techniques to home in on where in a strand and when in the sequence of events one should obtain imaging data.

  4. Commercial possibilities for stranded conventional gas from Alaska's North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stranded gas resources are defined for this study as gas resources in discrete accumulations that are not currently commercially producible, or producible at full potential, for either physical or economic reasons. Approximately 35 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of stranded gas was identified on Alaska’s North Slope. The commercialization of this resource requires facilities to transport gas to markets where sales revenue will be sufficient to offset the cost of constructing and operating a gas delivery system. With the advent of the shale gas revolution, plans for a gas pipeline to the conterminous US have been shelved (at least temporarily) and the State and resource owners are considering a liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project that targets Asian markets. This paper focuses on competitive conditions for Asian gas import markets by estimating delivered costs of competing supplies from central Asia, Russia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia in the context of a range of import gas demand projections for the period from 2020 to 2040. These suppliers’ costs are based on the cost of developing, producing, and delivering to markets tranches of the nearly 600 TCF of recoverable gas from their own conventional stranded gas fields. The results of these analyses imply that Alaska’s gas exports to Asia will likely encounter substantial competitive challenges. The sustainability of Asia’s oil-indexed LNG pricing is also discussed in light of a potentially intense level of competition.

  5. Paul Strand y las paradojas de la modernidad americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez Biosca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As contribuições de Strand para o cinema estão estreitamente relacionadas com seus trabalhos fotográficos da época e mesmo com um olhar que, apesar de suas múltiplas diferenças, possui muitos pontos em comum. Se em Manhatta (1920, Strand (em colaboração com Sheeler oferece uma síntese da natureza e da modernidade, em Redes (1934 o que predomina, em contrapartida, é a experiência da arte muralista mexicana e a influência de Eisenstein (em suas andanças por México são os fatores que determinam seus esforços na construção de uma épica dos operários. Mas sem dúvida, o projeto mais ambicioso de Strand (ao mando da produtora Frontier Films foi Native Land, o filme que atendeu às demandas do American Popular Front e as moldou nas palavras dos fundadores da pátria americana.

  6. Fault creep rates of the Chaman fault (Afghanistan and Pakistan) inferred from InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The Chaman fault is the major strike-slip structural boundary between the India and Eurasia plates. Despite sinistral slip rates similar to the North America-Pacific plate boundary, no major (>M7) earthquakes have been documented along the Chaman fault, indicating that the fault either creeps aseismically or is at a late stage in its seismic cycle. Recent work with remotely sensed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series documented a heterogeneous distribution of fault creep and interseismic coupling along the entire length of the Chaman fault, including an 125 km long creeping segment and an 95 km long locked segment within the region documented in this study. Here I present additional InSAR time series results from the Envisat and ALOS radar missions spanning the southern and central Chaman fault in an effort to constrain the locking depth, dip, and slip direction of the Chaman fault. I find that the fault deviates little from a vertical geometry and accommodates little to no fault-normal displacements. Peak-documented creep rates on the fault are 9-12 mm/yr, accounting for 25-33% of the total motion between India and Eurasia, and locking depths in creeping segments are commonly shallower than 500 m. The magnitude of the 1892 Chaman earthquake is well predicted by the total area of the 95 km long coupled segment. To a first order, the heterogeneous distribution of aseismic creep combined with consistently shallow locking depths suggests that the southern and central Chaman fault may only produce small to moderate earthquakes (

  7. Kinematically Coupled Strike-Slip and Normal Faults in the Lake Mead Strike-Slip Fault System, Southeast Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenhorn, S. A.; Marshall, S. T.; Cooke, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Lake Mead fault system consists of a ~95 km long, northeast-trending zone of strike-slip faults of Miocene age that accommodate a total left-lateral offset of 20-65 km. We use a combination of detailed field mapping and numerical modeling to show that a previously unnamed left-lateral strike-slip segment of the Lake Mead fault system and a dense cluster of dominantly west-dipping normal faults acted in concert to accommodate regional left-lateral offset. We suggest that the strike-slip fault that we refer to as the Pinto Ridge fault: (1) was kinematically related to other faults of the Lake Mead fault system; (2) was responsible for the creation of the normal fault cluster at Pinto Ridge; and (3) utilized these normal faults as linking structures between separate strike-slip fault segments to create a longer, through-going fault. Results from numerical models demonstrate that the observed location and curving strike patterns of the normal fault cluster is consistent with the faults having formed as secondary structures as the result of the perturbed stress field around the slipping Pinto Ridge fault. Comparison of mechanical efficiency of various normal fault geometries within extending terranes suggests that the observed west dip of normal faults reflects a west- dipping anisotropy at depth, such as a detachment. The apparent terminations of numerous strike-slip faults of the Lake Mead fault system into west-dipping normal faults suggest that a west-dipping detachment may be regionally coherent.

  8. Fault tree analysis for maintenance needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Jari; Aikala, Antti

    2012-05-01

    One of the key issues in maintenance is to allocate focus and resources to those components and subsystems which are the most unreliable and prone to failures. In industrial systems, fault tree analysis technique can be used to study the reliability of the complex systems and their substructures. In this paper a fault tree application for analyzing online the current reliability and failure probability for maintenance purposes is presented. The analysis is utilizing data connected to the fault tree root causes and events. An indication of an anomaly case, service action, cumulative loading, etc., or just time passed or service hour counter level can trigger a new calculation of current probabilities of the fault tree events and subsystem interactions. In proposed approach real time, dynamic information from several available data sources and different measurement are interconnected to each fault tree event and root cause. There is also formulated an active, constantly updated link between the fault tree events and maintenance databases for the maintenance decision support, and to keep the analysis up to date. Typically top event probability is evaluated based on updated root cause probabilities and lower level events. At the industrial plant level an identification of a failure in a component event defined within a constructed and operatively existing fault tree explicitly means that the event's failure probability is one. By utilizing this indication, the most probable failure branches through the fault tree sub events to root causes can be identified and printed as a valid check list for maintenance purposes to focus service actions first to those fault tree branches most probable causing the failure. Respectively, during the checks, service actions, etc., components, especially those within the critical branches, detected as healthy can be a updated as having zero failure probability. This information can be used to further update the fault tree and produce

  9. Inferring earthquake mechanics from exhumed faults (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Toro, G.; Griffith, A.; Nielsen, S. B.; Smith, S. A.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Bistacchi, A.; Mittempergher, S.

    2009-12-01

    Destructive earthquakes nucleate at 7-15 km depth; therefore monitoring active faults at the Earth's surface or interpretation of seismic waves yields limited information regarding earthquake mechanics. A complementary approach involves the integration of field studies of fossil seismic sources now exhumed at the Earth's surface with laboratory friction experiments that reproduce deformation conditions typical of seismic slip. Microstructural and geochemical comparison of the natural and experimental fault rock materials can be used to constrain boundary conditions for theoretical earthquake models. Here we will discuss the preliminary results of a project that takes such an integrated approach. In particular, rock friction experiments, including experiments in a cutting-edge high-velocity-rock-friction apparatus recently installed in Italy, suggest coseismic fault lubrication at seismogenic depths for a variety of host lithologies and tectonic settings. This result is consistent with estimates from field observations and theoretical analysis of rock friction at seismic slip rates. Moreover, experimental and natural fault products have strikingly similar microstructural and geochemical features, suggesting that experiments reproduce natural deformation processes. High velocity friction experiments were performed on smooth surfaces and under low normal stress, so direct extrapolation to seismogenic depths should be performed with caution. For instance, the presence of bumps along natural faults might impede the smooth sliding observed in the experiments. To resolve this scaling issue we measured the fault surface roughness of natural seismogenic faults exposed in large glacially polished outcrops over a range of scales (from 102 to 10-5 m) using (1) terrestrial laser-scanning (LIDAR), (2) orthorectified mosaics of high-resolution digital photographs and, (3) scans of thin sections from cores of the slipping zones. LIDAR scans and photomosaics were georeferenced in 3

  10. Activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase by single-stranded and double-stranded RNA aptamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, R; Norby, P L; Martensen, P M

    1998-01-01

    A number of small RNA molecules that are high affinity ligands for the 46-kDa form of human 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase have been identified by the SELEX method. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that these RNAs bind to the enzyme with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range....... Competition experiments indicate that the binding site for the small RNAs on the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase molecule at least partially overlaps that for the synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly(I).poly(C). Several of the RNAs function as potent activators of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in vitro......-stranded RNA, can also be activated by RNA ligands with little secondary structure. Since 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase possesses no homology to other known RNA-binding proteins, the development of small specific ligands by SELEX should facilitate studies of RNA-protein interactions and may reveal novel...

  11. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) strandings in South Carolina, 1992-1996

    OpenAIRE

    McFee, Wayne E.; Hopkins-Murphy, Sally R.

    2002-01-01

    From 1992 to 1996, 153 bottlenose dolphin stranded in South Carolina, accounting for 73% of all marine mammal strandings during this period. The objectives of our study were to evaluate data from these strandings to deter-mine 1) annual trends in strandings, 2) seasonal and spatial distribution trends, 3) life history parameters such as sex ratio and age classes, 3) seasonal trends in reproduction, and 4) the extent to which humans have played a role in causing these strandings (human inter-a...

  12. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Functional Fault Models For Fault Isolation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    This project implements functional fault models (FFM) to automate the isolation of failures during ground systems operations. FFMs will also be used to recommend sensor placement to improve fault isolation capabilities. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators.

  13. H infinity Integrated Fault Estimation and Fault Tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    . Sufficient conditions for the existence of robust fault estimator and fault tolerant controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Upper bounds on the H∞ performance can be minimized by solving convex optimization problems with linear matrix inequality constraints. The efficiency...... of the method is demonstrated by means of a numerical example....

  14. A note on the effect of fault gouge thickness on fault stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J.; Summers, R.

    1976-01-01

    At low confining pressure, sliding on saw cuts in granite is stable but at high pressure it is unstable. The pressure at which the transition takes place increases if the thickness of the crushed material between the sliding surfaces is increased. This experimental result suggests that on natural faults the stability of sliding may be affected by the width of the fault zone. ?? 1976.

  15. Realization of User Level Fault Tolerant Policy Management through a Holistic Approach for Fault Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung H [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Agarwal, Pratul K [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL; Tippens, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications, which are designed to utilize high performance parallel com- puters, occupy hundreds of thousands of computational cores running for days or even weeks. Since many scien- tists compete for resources, most supercomputing centers practice strict scheduling policies and perform meticulous accounting on their usage. Thus computing resources and time assigned to a user is considered invaluable. However, most applications are not well prepared for un- foreseeable faults, still relying on primitive fault tolerance techniques. Considering that ever-plunging mean time to interrupt (MTTI) is making scientific applications more vulnerable to faults, it is increasingly important to provide users not only an improved fault tolerant environment, but also a framework to support their own fault tolerance policies so that their allocation times can be best utilized. This paper addresses a user level fault tolerance policy management based on a holistic approach to digest and correlate fault related information. It introduces simple semantics with which users express their policies on faults, and illustrates how event correlation techniques can be applied to manage and determine the most preferable user policies. The paper also discusses an implementation of the framework using open source software, and demonstrates, as an example, how a molecular dynamics simulation application running on the institutional cluster at Oak Ridge National Laboratory benefits from it.

  16. Complex Paleotopography and Faulting near the Elsinore Fault, Coyote Mountains, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, M. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Coyote Mountains of southern California are bounded on the southwest by the Elsinore Fault, an active dextral fault within the San Andreas Fault zone. According to Axen and Fletcher (1998) and Dorsey and others (2011), rocks exposed in these mountains comprise a portion of the hanging wall of the east-vergent Salton Detachment Fault, which was active from the late Miocene-early Pliocene to Ca. 1.1-1.3 Ma. Detachment faulting was accompanied by subsidence, resulting in deposition of a thick sequence of marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. Regional detachment faulting and subsidence ceased with the inception of the Elsinore Fault, which has induced uplift of the Coyote Mountains. Detailed geologic mapping in the central Coyote Mountains supports the above interpretation and adds some intriguing details. New discoveries include a buttress unconformity at the base of the Miocene/Pliocene section that locally cuts across strata at an angle so high that it could be misinterpreted as a fault. We thus conclude that the syn-extension strata were deposited on a surface with very rugged topography. We also discovered that locally-derived nonmarine gravel deposits exposed near the crest of the range, previously interpreted as part of the Miocene Split Mountain Group by Winker and Kidwell (1996), unconformably overlie units of the marine Miocene/Pliocene Imperial Group and must therefore be Pliocene or younger. The presence of such young gravel deposits on the crest of the range provides evidence for its rapid uplift. Additional new discoveries flesh out details of the structural history of the range. We mapped just two normal faults, both of which were relatively minor, thus supporting Axen and Fletcher's assertion that the hanging wall block of the Salton Detachment Fault had not undergone significant internal deformation during extension. We found abundant complex synthetic and antithetic strike-slip faults throughout the area, some of which offset Quaternary alluvial

  17. Metallographic investigation of fracture behavior in ITER-style Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C; Nijhuis, A

    2009-01-01

    In this work we specify the extent to which fracture in two ITER-style Nb3Sn composite strands occurs in a collective or individual manner, under mechanical tension and bending from the TARSIS apparatus at the University of Twente. A bronze-route strand from European Advanced Superconductors (EAS), which has very uniform, well-spaced filaments, has a widely distributed (200 μm) fracture field and exhibits a composite of individual and collective cracks. An internal tin strand from Oxford Instruments – Superconducting Technology (OST) demonstrates much more localized, collective fracture behavior. The filaments in this strand are about four times larger (in area) than the filaments in the EAS strand, and also agglomerate significantly during heat treatment upon conversion of the Nb to Nb3Sn. These results demonstrate that the architecture of the strand can play a significant role in determining the mechanical toughness of the composite, and that strand design should incorporate mechanical considerations in ...

  18. Extreme Hydrothermal Conditions Near an Active Geological Fault, DFDP-2B Borehole, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Toy, V.; Allen, M.; Baratin, L. M.; Barth, N. C.; Beacroft, L.; Benson, A.; Boese, C. M.; Boles, A.; Boulton, C. J.; Capova, L.; Carpenter, B. M.; Celerier, B. P.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Conze, R.; Cooper, A.; Coussens, J.; Coutts, A.; Cox, S.; Craw, L.; Doan, M. L.; Eccles, J. D.; Faulkner, D.; Grieve, J.; Grochowski, J.; Gulley, A.; Henry, G.; Howarth, J. D.; Jacobs, K. M.; Jeppson, T.; Kato, N.; Keys, S.; Kirilova, M.; Kometani, Y.; Lukács, A.; Langridge, R.; Lin, W.; Little, T.; Mallyon, D.; Mariani, E.; Marx, R.; Massiot, C.; Mathewson, L.; Melosh, B.; Menzies, C. D.; Moore, J.; Morales, L. F. G.; Morgan, C.; Mori, H.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Nishikawa, O.; Nitsch, O.; Paris Cavailhes, J.; Pooley, B.; Prior, D. J.; Pyne, A.; Sauer, K. M.; Savage, M. K.; Schleicher, A.; Schmitt, D. R.; Shigematsu, N.; Taylor-Offord, S.; Tobin, H. J.; Upton, P.; Valdez, R. D.; Weaver, K.; Wiersberg, T.; Williams, J. N.; Yeo, S.; Zimmer, M.; Broderick, N.

    2015-12-01

    The DFDP-2B borehole sampled rocks above and within the upper part of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, to a depth of 893 m in late 2014. The experiment was the first to drill a major geological fault zone that is active and late in its earthquake cycle. We determined ambient fluid pressures 8-10% above hydrostatic and a geothermal gradient of 130-150 °C/km in rocks above the fault. These unusual ambient conditions can be explained by a combination of: rock advection that transports heat from depth by uplift and oblique slip on the fault; and fluid advection through fractured rock, driven by topographic forcing, which concentrates heat and causes fluid over-pressure in the valley. Highly-anomalous ambient conditions can exist in the vicinity of active faults, and earthquake and mineralization processes occur within these zones.

  19. Late Pleistocene dip-slip faulting along the Dunajec Fault, West Carpathians: Insights from alluvial sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszak, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents vertical movement along the Dunajec Fault during the Late Pleistocene and suggests Quaternary tectonic reactivation of diagonal strike-slip faults and their transformation into dip-slip faults in the West Carpathians. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of Pleistocene alluvial sediments of the Dunajec and the Ochotnica rivers was employed to determine the time range of deposition of these sediments. Vertical and spatial distribution of the obtained OSL ages imply that the alluvial sediments were affected by the Dunajec Fault, which appears to have acted as a scissor fault during the Late Pleistocene. The results contribute to the discussion on the recent evolution of the Carpathians, and may support the concept of extensional collapse of the orogen.

  20. Fault Locating, Prediction and Protection (FLPPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert, J.; Venkata, S., S.; Centeno, Virgilio

    2010-09-30

    One of the main objectives of this DOE-sponsored project was to reduce customer outage time. Fault location, prediction, and protection are the most important aspects of fault management for the reduction of outage time. In the past most of the research and development on power system faults in these areas has focused on transmission systems, and it is not until recently with deregulation and competition that research on power system faults has begun to focus on the unique aspects of distribution systems. This project was planned with three Phases, approximately one year per phase. The first phase of the project involved an assessment of the state-of-the-art in fault location, prediction, and detection as well as the design, lab testing, and field installation of the advanced protection system on the SCE Circuit of the Future located north of San Bernardino, CA. The new feeder automation scheme, with vacuum fault interrupters, will limit the number of customers affected by the fault. Depending on the fault location, the substation breaker might not even trip. Through the use of fast communications (fiber) the fault locations can be determined and the proper fault interrupting switches opened automatically. With knowledge of circuit loadings at the time of the fault, ties to other circuits can be closed automatically to restore all customers except the faulted section. This new automation scheme limits outage time and increases reliability for customers. The second phase of the project involved the selection, modeling, testing and installation of a fault current limiter on the Circuit of the Future. While this project did not pay for the installation and testing of the fault current limiter, it did perform the evaluation of the fault current limiter and its impacts on the protection system of the Circuit of the Future. After investigation of several fault current limiters, the Zenergy superconducting, saturable core fault current limiter was selected for