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Sample records for subordinate s-variant females

  1. Subordinates' Reactions to Female Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Donelson R.; Forsyth, Nancy M.

    Although recent reviews of the effectiveness of male versus female leaders reveal little evidence of male superiority, evaluative and perceptual biases (beliefs about what constitutes good leadership, and stereotyped beliefs about men and women) among group members persist. To examine attributional biases against female leaders, 85 college…

  2. Helpful female subordinate cichlids are more likely to reproduce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dik Heg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, subordinates assist a dominant pair to raise the dominants' offspring. Previously, it has been suggested that subordinates may help in payment for continued residency on the territory (the 'pay-to-stay hypothesis', but payment might also be reciprocated or might allow subordinates access to reproductive opportunities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured dominant and subordinate female alloparental brood care and reproductive success in four separate experiments and show that unrelated female dominant and subordinate cichlid fish care for each other's broods (alloparental brood care, but that there is no evidence for reciprocal 'altruism' (no correlation between alloparental care received and given. Instead, subordinate females appear to pay with alloparental care for own direct reproduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest subordinate females pay with alloparental care to ensure access to the breeding substrate and thereby increase their opportunities to lay their own clutches. Subordinates' eggs are laid, on average, five days after the dominant female has produced her first brood. We suggest that immediate reproductive benefits need to be considered in tests of the pay-to-stay hypothesis.

  3. Social subordination impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-09-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies organize and maintain stability in female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups regardless of group size. As a consequence of their low social status, subordinate females suffer from an array of adverse outcomes including reproductive compromise, impaired immune function, and poor cardiovascular health. However, data that differentiate limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA) parameters between dominant from subordinate female monkeys are inconsistent, bringing into question whether social subordination alters the LHPA axis in female macaques. One difficulty in examining LHPA function in macaques may be the confounding effects of cycling ovarian steroids that are known to modulate LHPA activity. The current study used ovariectomized dominant and subordinate female rhesus monkeys to examine the effect that social subordination has on LHPA function by measuring morning and diurnal serum cortisol levels, dexamethasone (Dex) suppression of cortisol, metabolic clearance of Dex, and ACTH stimulation of adrenal cortisol release and cortisol response following exposure to acute social isolation. Compared to dominant females, subordinate females showed diminished morning peak cortisol secretion, weakened glucocorticoid negative feedback, and decreased adrenal cortisol response to an ACTH challenge as well as a restrained cortisol response following social isolation. However, the metabolism of Dex did not account for differences in Dex suppression between dominant and subordinate females. These results indicate that the ability to mount and limit glucocorticoid release is significantly reduced by psychosocial stress in female rhesus macaques, suggesting a hyporesponsive LHPA phenotype which resembles that observed in several human psychopathologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sociality and oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of male and female dominant and subordinate mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Wu, Ruiyong; Tai, Fadao; Hao, Ping; Cao, Yan; Wang, Jianli

    2014-02-01

    The dominant-subordinate hierarchy in animals often needs to be established via agonistic encounters and consequently affects reproduction and survival. Differences in brain neuropeptides and sociality among dominant and subordinate males and females remain poorly understood. Here we explore neuropeptide levels and sociality during agonistic encounter tests in mandarin voles. We found that dominant mandarin voles engaged in higher levels of approaching, investigating, self-grooming and exploring behavior than subordinates. Dominant males habituated better to a stimulus vole than dominant females. Dominant males displayed significantly less oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei, supraoptic nuclei, and the lateral and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Dominant females displayed significantly more vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and anterior hypothalamus than subordinates. Sex differences were found in the level of oxytocin and vasopressin. These results indicate that distinct parameters related to central nervous oxytocin and vasopressin are associated with behaviors during agonistic encounters in a sex-specific manner in mandarin voles.

  5. The need for power, need for influence, sense of power, and directiveness in female and male superiors and subordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna Kocur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of the study was to examine the phenomenon of power within an organisation from the vantage point of gender, the occupied position, earnings, and the number of subordinates. Participants and procedure The sample group comprised 107 female and 98 male participants. The mean age was 42.14 years (SD = 11.73. The study covered 100 superiors and 105 subordinates. The research tools were: the Need for Power and Influence Questionnaire (Bennett, 1988, the Personal Sense of Power Scale (Anderson, John, & Keltner, 2012, and the Directiveness Scale SD (Ray, 1976. Results The superiors scored significantly higher on the need for power, need for influence, and directiveness. They also scored higher in terms of the need for power in relations with other people, with colleagues, and in superior-subordinate relations. The number of male leaders was conspicuously greater than the number of female leaders. Furthermore, women had fewer subordinates than men and earned less than men. Female participants scored lower on the sense of power and the need for power scales. Conclusions Occupying either an executive or subordinate position differentiates between women and men in terms of sense of power in interpersonal relationships. The findings on sense of power in the professional context may be applied in organisational psychology in order to increase employees’ competence and qualifications.

  6. The subordinate's predicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, E H; Gypen, J

    1979-01-01

    How can subordinates improve relations with their superiors? And how can superiors help their subordinates feel comfortable in what is often a tense relationship? These questions have usually been dealt with only indirectly in management circles. Yet the relationship is so threatening to many subordinates that they react in ways that are damaging to themselves and their ogranizations. Drawing heavily on the work of psychologist Erik Erikson, the authors present dilemmas that commonly confront the subordinate. They point out that being aware of these dilemmas can make them more manageable and then offer advice to superiors to aid subordinates in handling such situations.

  7. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled.

  8. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216

  9. Analysis of gender stereotypic characteristics in leaders and subordinates

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    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission

  10. Gender, Leadership Style, and Subordinate Satisfaction: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, Elliot; Newton, Rae

    1986-01-01

    Reports on an experiment that analyzed the effects of gender and leadership style on subordinate satisfaction. While subjects were more satisfied in democratically led groups, gender of leader did not significantly affect satisfaction. Female subordinates were more dissatisfied than males in autocratically led groups. (KH)

  11. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  12. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  13. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Bonfils, Danielle; Heg, Dik; Taborsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship. We show that: (i) male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii) if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male) were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour. This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  14. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female's motivation to interact with conspecifics. 2010 Elsevier

  15. Subordination by convex functions

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    Rosihan M. Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a fixed analytic function g(z=z+∑n=2∞gnzn defined on the open unit disk and γ<1, let Tg(γ denote the class of all analytic functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn satisfying ∑n=2∞|angn|≤1−γ. For functions in Tg(γ, a subordination result is derived involving the convolution with a normalized convex function. Our result includes as special cases several earlier works.

  16. SUBORDINATE GAPS IN MANDARIN CHINESE

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    Ting-Chi Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of subordinate gaps in Mandarin Chinese casts doubt on analyses built on canonical coordinate gapping. We observe that the minimality of contrastive focus and the type of subordinate clause determine the acceptability of a missing gap in subordinate structure. Along this vein, we propose that a semantic-based deletion account can be used to interpret gapping in Mandarin. Such account relies on two violable constraints, AvoidF and Focus condition on gapping (Schwarzchild 1999, Merchant 2001 to compute the acceptability of a gap.

  17. Why European Subordinates Trust their Managers

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    Andersen Jon Aarum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of why subordinates trust their managers based on the responses from 108 subordinates of seven Slovenian managers and from 138 subordinates of eight Swedish managers. The subordinates of these managers responded to a 20-item instrument tested for reliability and validity. In both samples the managers enjoyed different degrees of trust. The level of trust vested in Slovenian managers was higher than in Swedish ones. The kinds of managers’ actions that enhanced trust were similar amongst Swedish and Slovenian subordinates. Different socio-cultural contexts may theoretically explain why some other kinds of actions had contrasting effects between the samples. On the whole, the actions of managers explain trust in both countries. Subordinates’ trust in managers declines with the increasing hierarchical distance in both national samples. Managers need to show in action that they trust their subordinates, promote their interests, demonstrate appreciation of their subordinates, and solve problems.

  18. Subordination stress: behavioral, brain, and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D C; Sakai, R R; McEwen, B; Weiss, S M; Blanchard, R J

    1993-12-20

    In mixed-sex rat groups consistent asymmetries in offensive and defensive behaviors of male dyads are associated with the development of dominance hierarchies. Subordinate males can be differentiated from dominants on the basis of both agonistic and non-agonistic behaviors, wound patterns, weight changes. Their behavior changes suggest chronic defensiveness and are also broadly isomorphic to many of the symptoms of depression; their voluntary alcohol consumption increases, and their life-spans are shortened. Both subordinate and dominant males tend to show organ change compared to non-grouped controls, with adrenal and spleen enlargement and thymus reduction. However, these changes appear to be more marked in subordinates, and only subordinates show reduced testes weights. Basal corticosterone (CORT) levels were sharply higher, and plasma testosterone (T) sharply lower, in subordinates compared to both dominants and controls, and reduced corticosterone binding globulin further enhanced free CORT for subordinates particularly. Many subordinates failed to show a normal CORT response to restraint stress. Subordinates also appear to show widespread changes in serotonin systems, with increased 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios in a number of brain areas, and alterations of 5-HT1A receptor binding at some sites. These changes suggest that subordination, a common and consistent feature of life for many animals living in social groups, may be a particularly relevant model for investigating the behavioral, neural and endocrine correlates of chronic stress.

  19. Relationship Patterns Between Leader-Subordinate Similarity and Subordinate Satisfaction: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Zin, Razali bin; Fahd, King

    2006-01-01

    The leadership literature is voluminous. This study adopted the contingency model to explain the relationship between the leader-subordinate similarity and subordinate satisfaction. The effects of selected intervening variables namely age, educational level, race and sex were also analyzed. The findings showed that there is a significant relationship between leader-subordinate similarity and subordinates' satisfaction. However, this significance was determined only after accounting for the de...

  20. The moderating role of subordinate political skill on supervisors' impressions of subordinate ingratiation and ratings of subordinate interpersonal facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Darren C; Ferris, Gerald R; Duke, Allison B; Adams, Garry L; Thatcher, Jason B

    2007-05-01

    Nearly 2 decades ago, social influence theorists called for a new stream of research that would investigate why and how influence tactics are effective. The present study proposed that political skill affects the style of execution of influence attempts. It utilized balance theory to explain the moderating effect of employee political skill on the relationships between self- and supervisor-reported ingratiation. Additionally, supervisor reports of subordinate ingratiation were hypothesized to be negatively related to supervisor ratings of subordinate interpersonal facilitation. Results from a combined sample of 2 retail service organizations provided evidence that subordinates with high political skill were less likely than those low in political skill to have their demonstrated ingratiation behavior perceived by targets as a manipulative influence attempt. Also, when subordinates were perceived by their supervisors to engage in more ingratiation behavior, the subordinates were rated lower on interpersonal facilitation. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research directions are provided. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Subordination in Cholón

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.; van Gijn, R.; Haude, K.; Muysken, P.

    2011-01-01

    In Cholón, an indigenous language from northern Peru, subordinate clauses are formed by means of nominalizers or subordinators. Most of these markers attach to reduced verb forms, but some nominalizers are attached to a fully inflected form. Nominalizers can be followed by a case marker or by a

  2. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    -subordinate relations and thus for organizing an institution. References Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: The developing research agenda. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74:473-487. Cooren, F., Taylor, J.R., & Van Every, E.J. (Eds.) (2006). Communication as organizing...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  3. Meta-Times and Extended Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Jan

    The problem of defining subordination of a homogeneous Lévy basis by a non-negative homogeneous Lévy basis is discussed. An explicit construction, generalizing the usual one-dimensional case, is given. This construction involves certain random meta-time changes.......The problem of defining subordination of a homogeneous Lévy basis by a non-negative homogeneous Lévy basis is discussed. An explicit construction, generalizing the usual one-dimensional case, is given. This construction involves certain random meta-time changes....

  4. Enhancing Supervisor and Subordinate Communication in Diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provides for the institutionalisation of diversity management by integrating it with the organisation's management practices. This article proposes that communication between supervisors and subordinates in the public service must be strengthened to enhance diversity management. It argues that diversity management is an ...

  5. Matrix subordinators and related Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pérez-Abreu, V.

    2008-01-01

    A class of upsilon transformations of Lévy measures for matrix subordinators is introduced. Some regularizing properties of these transformations are derived, such as absolute continuity and complete monotonicity. The class of Lévy measures with completely monotone matrix densities is characterized....... Examples of infinitely divisible nonnegative definite random matrices are constructed using an upsilon transformation....

  6. subordination across ghanaian and british newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical research in this area is scanty, though this theoretical argumentation is not without contention, especially cross-culturally. Empirical investigation is therefore ... Frimpong: Subordination Across Ghanaian and British Newspaper Editorials: A Register. Perspective. 78. Figure 1: The Components in a register analysis.

  7. Attitudes Of Subordinates Toward Women In Leadership Position ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The t-test of independent sample was used to analyse the research data. The findings revealed that: (a) Male subordinates have negative attitude toward women leader; (b) Subordinates with higher educational qualification have positive attitude towards women leaders; (c) Young subordinates have negative attitudes ...

  8. Managers can drive their subordinates mad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kets de Vries, M F

    1979-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of "folie à deux"--an aberrant relationship between manager and subordinates that is characterized by shared delusions. Though most visible among public figures like Adolf Hitler, J. Edgar Hoover and Jim Jones, the problem also surfaces among private managers and their associates with dangerous implications for the firm. In folie à deux, the unusual behavior patterns of a manager in an isolated setting become mirrored by dependent subordinates, and the organization loses touch with its original goals and strategies. The author describes the dynamics of this phenomenon and details steps to remedy the situation. Once recognized, he suggests that the manager establish a trusting relationship with the instigator as a prelude to altering the behavior patterns, then transfer the subordinates and reorient the work climate so that independence and responsibility are encouraged. If the instigator is a powerful executive, the author suggests enlisting the support of a countervailing force, such as the government or a union, to guide the organization away from possible self-destructive adventures.

  9. Lebanon in the Middle East Subordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    the land of Aram;4 the "people of the sea," became the Philistines ; and the Hebrews created their kingdom under the scepter of King David), the ...legislative. Before sunrise, they were taken to an ancient fort at Rashaya to be . held in separate cells. On the same day, M. Helleu, French delegate...R AD-138 031 LEBANON IN THE MIDDLE EAST SUBORDINATE SYSTEM(U) RRMY 1/3, COMMRAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS N S EID 03 JUN 83 SBI-AD

  10. Susceptibility or resilience? Prenatal stress predisposes male rats to social subordination, but facilitates adaptation to subordinate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen A; de Kloet, Annette D; Smeltzer, Michael D; Krause, Eric G; Flak, Jonathan N; Melhorn, Susan J; Foster, Michelle T; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy. Dams were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during the last week of gestation, resulting in a robust and non-habituating glucocorticoid response that did not alter maternal food intake, body weight or litter size and weight. As adults, one prenatal CVS (PCVS) and one non-stressed (NS) male were housed in the VBS with adult females. Although there were no overt differences between PCVS and NS male offspring prior to VBS housing, a greater percentage of PCVS males became SUB. However, the depressive-like phenotype of SUB males was not exacerbated in PCVS males; rather, they appeared to better cope with SUB status than NS SUB males. They had lower basal plasma corticosterone than NS SUB males at the end of VBS housing. In situ hybridization for CRH in the PVN and CeA did not reveal any prenatal treatment or status effects, while NPY expression was higher within the MeA of dominant and subordinate males exposed to the VBS in comparison with controls, but with no effect of prenatal treatment. These data suggest that prenatal chronic variable stress may confer resilience to offspring when exposed to social stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 46 CFR 67.243 - Requirements for instruments subordinating mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for instruments subordinating mortgages. 67... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.243 Requirements for instruments subordinating mortgages. An...

  12. Leaders' achievement goals and their reactions to subordinates' creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    The present experimental research examined the impact of leaders' achievement goals on their reactions to creative input provided by their subordinates. In Experiment 1, performance goal leaders were found to be less receptive to subordinates' creative input than mastery goal leaders. In Experiment

  13. 'Bioethics' is subordinate to morality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Noritoshi

    1996-07-01

    Disputes over brain death and euthanasia are used to illuminate the question whether there really is a Japanese way of thinking in bioethics. In Japanese thought, a person does not exist as an individual but as a member of the family, community or society. I describe these features of Japanese society as 'mutual dependency'. In this society, an act is 'good' and 'right' when it is commonly done, and it is 'bad' and 'wrong' when nobody else does it. Thus, outsiders to this ring of mutual dependency encounter ostracism. One feature of this society is a lack of open discussion which leads to the existence of multiple standards. This Japanese morality even prevails over written laws. In Japan, there is a public stance that euthanasia does not exist. On the other hand, there are certain decisions which have permitted euthanasia. Similarly, organ transplants were performed from brain dead donors, while that procedure was not accepted officially by the medical profession. In this situation, there is a danger that human rights will be neglected. So far bioethical approaches have not helped to work out these problems. This may be because Japanese think that bioethics is subordinate to morality. The current dispute over brain death involves a struggle for the establishment of a rational society in Japan. Overcoming mutual dependency and ostracism is essential to resolve this struggle and to lead Japan into a society of mutual respect where all individuals, families and communities are esteemed.

  14. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  15. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real...... and apparent time, as well as geographical variation. The results show that V2 word order in subordinate clauses is much more frequent than commonly assumed. Furthermore, they indicate that the most decisive factors predicting word order in subordinate clauses are the syntactic function of the clause...

  16. On Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions Defined by Differential Subordination

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    Hesam Mahzoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study certain subclasses of analytic functions which are defined by differential subordination. Coefficient inequalities, some properties of neighborhoods, distortion and covering theorems, radius of starlikeness, and convexity for these subclasses are given.

  17. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; de Vries, Reinout Everhard

    2017-01-01

    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality

  18. Rehabilitation Agency Leadership Style: Impact on Subordinates' Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Susan H.; Kauppi, Dwight R.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred five rehabilitation employees were surveyed on the effect of leadership style on subordinates' perceptions of their work environment and on their job satisfaction. Findings suggest that leadership style affects service delivery. (Author/MKA)

  19. Superiors' Argumentativeness and Verbal Agressiveness as Predictors of Subordinates' Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Dominic A.; Gorden, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Supported the hypothesis that the more employees perceive their supervisors as high in argumentativeness and low in verbal aggressiveness, the more the subordinates also will be argumentative (i.e., assertive) and have job satisfaction. (PD)

  20. 32 CFR 776.54 - Responsibilities of a subordinate attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part or the duty of a judge advocate to exercise independent professional judgment as to the best interest of an individual client. (3) A subordinate covered attorney does not violate this part if that...

  1. A taxonomy of supervisor–subordinate exchanges across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Khatri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Major concerns, both theoretical and methodological, have been raised about the adequacy of the leader-member exchange (LMX theory, the existing model on supervisor–subordinate exchanges. This paper seeks to overcome three main theoretical shortcomings of the LMX theory as documented in past research. First, that the LMX theory does not describe the exchange process sufficiently, and second, that it does not capture the cross-cultural influences on supervisor–subordinate exchanges. This paper deals with these weaknesses by providing a comprehensive description of supervisor–subordinate exchanges across cultures using two theoretical frameworks, Fiske’s relational theory and Triandis’s cultural syndromes. A third problem with the LMX theory is that it assumes all close relationships between supervisors and subordinates to be beneficial for the organisation. However, a stream of research has emerged that documents the downside of close relationships between supervisors and their subordinates. Utilising a recent cross-cultural framework on cronyism, this paper sheds light on the dysfunctional organisational consequences of close relationships between supervisors and their subordinates across cultures.

  2. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Subordination of Women in Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Laura

    1986-01-01

    The emphasis on motherhood among Latin-American women and the anti-motherhood position of many American feminists are both appropriate adaptations to male dominance. Motherhood in the U.S. has traditionally isolated women and weakened their social position, whereas in Mexico it is the basis of successful female political action. (VM)

  4. A fully subordinated linear flow model for hillslope subsurface stormflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Baeumer, Boris; Chen, Li; Reeves, Donald M.; Sun, HongGuang

    2017-04-01

    Hillslope subsurface stormflow exhibits complex patterns when natural soils with multiscale heterogeneity impart a spatiotemporally nonlocal memory on flow dynamics. To efficiently quantify such nonlocal flow responses, this technical note proposes a fully subordinated flow (FSF) equation where the time- and flow-subordination capture the temporal and spatial memory, respectively. Results show that the time-subordination component of the FSF model captures a wide range of delayed flow response due to various degrees of soil heterogeneity (especially for low-conductivity zones), while the model's flow-subordination term accounts for the rapid flow responses along preferential flow paths. In the FSF model, parameters defining spatiotemporal memory functions may be related to soil properties, while other parameters such as scalar factors controlling the overall advection and diffusion are difficult to predict and can be estimated from subsurface stormflow hydrographs. These parameters can be constants at the hillslope scale because the spatiotemporal subordination, an upscaling technique, can capture the impact of system heterogeneity on flow dynamics, leading to a linear FSF model that might be applicable for various slopes. Valid scale, limitation and extension of the FSF model, and modification of the model for other complex hydrological dynamics are also discussed.

  5. A Subordination Principle on Wright Functions and Regularized Resolvent Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Abadias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a vector-valued subordination principle for gα,gβ-regularized resolvent families which unified and improves various previous results in the literature. As a consequence, we establish new relations between solutions of different fractional Cauchy problems. To do that, we consider scaled Wright functions which are related to Mittag-Leffler functions, the fractional calculus, and stable Lévy processes. We study some interesting properties of these functions such as subordination (in the sense of Bochner, convolution properties, and their Laplace transforms. Finally we present some examples where we apply these results.

  6. Effects of the job stress education for supervisors on psychological distress and job performance among their immediate subordinates: a supervisor-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Soshi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Mineyama, Sachiko; Kawakami, Norito

    2006-11-01

    As job stress is now one of the biggest health-related problems in the workplace, several education programs for supervisors have been conducted to reduce job stress. We conducted a supervisor-based randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of an education program on their subordinates' psychological distress and job performance. The subjects were 301 employees (46 supervisors and 255 subordinates) in a Japanese sake brewery. First, we randomly allocated supervisors to the education group (24 supervisors) and the waiting-list group (22 supervisors). Then, for the allocated supervisors we introduced a single-session, 60-min education program according to the guidelines for employee mental health promotion along with training that provided consulting skills combined with role-playing exercises. We conducted pre- and post-intervention (after 3 months) surveys for all subordinates to examine psychological distress and job performance. We defined the intervention group as those subordinates whose immediate supervisors received the education, and the control group was defined as those subordinates whose supervisors did not. To evaluate the effects, we employed a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, the intervention effects (time x group) were not significant for psychological distress or job performance among both male (p=0.456 and 0.252) and female (p=0.714 and 0.106) subordinates. However, young male subordinates engaged in white-collar occupations showed significant intervention effects for psychological distress (p=0.012) and job performance (p=0.029). In conclusion, our study indicated a possible beneficial effect of supervisor education on the psychological distress and job performance of subordinates. This effect may vary according to specific groups.

  7. Patriarchy and the subordination of women among the Abagusii of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the role of private patriarchy in the subordination of women among the Abagusii of western Kenya. It identifies customs and practices governing marriage such as the payment of dowry, circumcision, the gender division of labour within the household and polygamy as the main factors contributing to the ...

  8. Supervisors' and subordinates' perception of the Impact of Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a descriptive survey, which ascertained supervisors and subordinates perception of the impact of Botswana College of Agriculture training programme on graduates' job behaviour. The study was carried out in the Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana, which is composed of six departments. All BCA ...

  9. Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.

  10. Health care managers learning by listening to subordinates' dialogue training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, C; Ahlborg, G; Wikström, E

    2014-01-01

    Middle managers in health care today are expected to continuously and efficiently decide and act in administration, finance, care quality, and work environment, and strategic communication has become paramount. Since dialogical communication is considered to promote a healthy work environment, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which health care managers experienced observing subordinates' dialogue training. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and documents from eight middle managers in a dialogue programme intervention conducted by dialogue trainers. Focus was on fostering and assisting workplace dialogue. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used. Managers' experiences were both enriching and demanding, and consisted of becoming aware of communication, meaning perceiving interaction between subordinates as well as own silent interaction with subordinates and trainer; Discovering communicative actions for leadership, by gaining self-knowledge and recognizing relational leadership models from trainers--such as acting democratically and pedagogically--and converting theory into practice, signifying practising dialogue-promoting conversation behaviour with subordinates, peers, and superiors. Only eight managers participated in the intervention, but data afforded a basis for further research. Findings stressed the importance of listening, and of support from superiors, for well-functioning leadership communication at work. Studies focusing on health care managers' communication and dialogue are few. This study contributes to knowledge about these activities in managerial leadership.

  11. On a differential subordination of some certain subclass of Univalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convex functions using Briot-Bouquet differential subordination method. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 181-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jonamp.v10i1.40124 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Children's Communication of Basic Level and Subordinate Level Semantic Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossan, Nancy E.

    Developmental differences in preschool children's abilities to communicate about basic and subordinate level semantic contrasts were examined in a referential communication situation. Twenty-four three, four, and five-year-old children communicated with children of the same age and adults about pictures' referents. Speakers talked about one…

  13. Abusive Supervision and Subordinate Performance : Instrumentality Considerations in the Emergence and Consequences of Abusive Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Lam, Catherine K.; van der Vegt, Geert; Huang, X.; Miao, Q.

    Drawing from moral exclusion theory, this article examines outcome dependence and interpersonal liking as key boundary conditions for the linkage between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision. Moreover, it investigates the role of abusive supervision for subordinates' subsequent,

  14. The Perceived Leader Support Behavior for Subordinate's Creativity: The Moderating Effect of Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Hsiung Chen; Jui-Mei Yien; Chien-Jung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The main goal behind this study tries to figure out whether or not the leaders supportive behavior will influence subordinates creativity and is there any affection of trust between leaders supportive behavior and subordinates creativity? Approach: This study was conducted to examine the relationships between leader support behavior and subordinate creativity and the moderating effect of trust on subordinates' creativity under the leader support behavior...

  15. Cross-Situational Specificity in Managers' Perceptions of Subordinate Performance, Attributions, and Leader Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lawrence R.; White, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Examined managers' perceptions of subordinates' performance, causes (attributions) of subordinates' performance, and the leader behaviors they employed toward subordinates from the standpoint of cross-situational consistency versus cross-situational specificity. Empirical results for 377 Navy managers provided strong support for cross-situational…

  16. Cone-Parameter Convolution Semigroups and Their Subordination

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Jan; Sato, Ken-iti

    2003-01-01

    Convolution semigroups of probability measures with parameter in a cone in a Euclidean space generalize usual convolution semigroups with parameter in $[0,\\infty)$. A characterization of such semigroups is given and examples are studied. Subordination of cone-parameter convolution semigroups by cone-valued cone-parameter convolution semigroups is introduced. Its general description is given and inheritance properties are shown. In the study the distinction between cones with an...

  17. Subordinated diffusion and continuous time random walk asymptotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2010-12-01

    Anomalous transport is usually described either by models of continuous time random walks (CTRWs) or, otherwise, by fractional Fokker-Planck equations (FFPEs). The asymptotic relation between properly scaled CTRW and fractional diffusion process has been worked out via various approaches widely discussed in literature. Here, we focus on a correspondence between CTRWs and time and space fractional diffusion equation stemming from two different methods aimed to accurately approximate anomalous diffusion processes. One of them is the Monte Carlo simulation of uncoupled CTRW with a Lévy α-stable distribution of jumps in space and a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution of waiting times. The other is based on a discretized form of a subordinated Langevin equation in which the physical time defined via the number of subsequent steps of motion is itself a random variable. Both approaches are tested for their numerical performance and verified with known analytical solutions for the Green function of a space-time fractional diffusion equation. The comparison demonstrates a trade off between precision of constructed solutions and computational costs. The method based on the subordinated Langevin equation leads to a higher accuracy of results, while the CTRW framework with a Mittag-Leffler distribution of waiting times provides efficiently an approximate fundamental solution to the FFPE and converges to the probability density function of the subordinated process in a long-time limit. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  18. IDOL N342S Variant, Atherosclerosis Progression and Cardiovascular Disorders in the Italian General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Dhyani

    Full Text Available Inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively modulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R expression. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS indicated that genetic variants in IDOL gene contributes to variation in LDL-C plasma levels and the detailed analysis of a specific locus resulted in the identification of the functional common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9370867 (c.G1025A, p.N342S associates with increased LDL-R degradation and increased LDL-C levels. These findings, however, were not confirmed in two other independent cohorts and no data about the impact of this variant on atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular risk are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between a functional variant in IDOL and atherosclerosis progression in an Italian general population. 1384 subjects enrolled in the PLIC study (Progression of Lesions in the Intima of Carotid were genotyped by Q-PCR allelic discrimination and the association with anthropometric parameters, plasma lipids and the carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and the impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence were investigated. The N342S variant was not associated with changes of the plasma lipid profile among GG, AG or AA carriers, including total cholesterol (249±21, 249±19 and 248±21 mg/dl respectively, LDL-C (158±25, 161±22 and 160±23 mg/dL, cIMT (0.74±0.14, 0.75±0.17 and 0.77±0.15 mm and CVD incidence. In agreement, the expression of LDLR and the uptake of LDL was similar in macrophages derived from GG and AA carriers. Taken together our findings indicate that the N342S variant does not impact plasma lipid profile and is not associated with atherosclerosis progression and CVD in the general population, suggesting that other variants in the IDOL gene might be functionally linked with cholesterol metabolism.

  19. IDOL N342S Variant, Atherosclerosis Progression and Cardiovascular Disorders in the Italian General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Ashish; Tibolla, Gianpaolo; Baragetti, Andrea; Garlaschelli, Katia; Pellegatta, Fabio; Grigore, Liliana; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively modulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicated that genetic variants in IDOL gene contributes to variation in LDL-C plasma levels and the detailed analysis of a specific locus resulted in the identification of the functional common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9370867 (c.G1025A, p.N342S) associates with increased LDL-R degradation and increased LDL-C levels. These findings, however, were not confirmed in two other independent cohorts and no data about the impact of this variant on atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular risk are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between a functional variant in IDOL and atherosclerosis progression in an Italian general population. 1384 subjects enrolled in the PLIC study (Progression of Lesions in the Intima of Carotid) were genotyped by Q-PCR allelic discrimination and the association with anthropometric parameters, plasma lipids and the carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and the impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated. The N342S variant was not associated with changes of the plasma lipid profile among GG, AG or AA carriers, including total cholesterol (249±21, 249±19 and 248±21 mg/dl respectively), LDL-C (158±25, 161±22 and 160±23 mg/dL), cIMT (0.74±0.14, 0.75±0.17 and 0.77±0.15 mm) and CVD incidence. In agreement, the expression of LDLR and the uptake of LDL was similar in macrophages derived from GG and AA carriers. Taken together our findings indicate that the N342S variant does not impact plasma lipid profile and is not associated with atherosclerosis progression and CVD in the general population, suggesting that other variants in the IDOL gene might be functionally linked with cholesterol metabolism.

  20. The physiology of cooperative breeding in a rare social canid; sex, suppression and pseudopregnancy in female Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Paris, Monique; Macdonald, David W; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Johnson, Paul J; Farstad, Wenche; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2013-10-02

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, differ from other cooperatively breeding canids in that they combine intense sociality with solitary foraging, making them a suitable species in which to study the physiology of cooperative breeding. The reproductive physiology of twenty wild female Ethiopian wolves (eleven dominant and nine subordinate) in Ethiopia's Bale Mountains National Park was studied non-invasively through the extraction and assaying of estradiol, progesterone and glucocorticoids in collected fecal samples using enzyme and radioimmunoassays. All dominant females showed increased estradiol concentrations and/or mating behavior during the annual mating season. In contrast, none of the subordinate females showed increased estradiol concentrations or mating behavior during the mating season. However, two subordinate females came into estrus outside of the mating season. Both dominant and subordinate females had higher average progesterone concentrations during the dominant female's pregnancy than at other times of the year, and two subordinate females allosuckled the dominant female's pups. No statistically significant differences in glucocorticoid concentrations were found between dominant and subordinate females. These results suggest that subordinate females are reproductively suppressed during the annual mating season, but may ovulate outside of the mating season and become pseudopregnant. No evidence was found to suggest that reproductive suppression in subordinate females was regulated through aggressive behaviors, and no relationship was found between fecal glucocorticoids and dominance status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Fractional Poisson Process and the Discretized Stable Subordinator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Gorenflo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the renewal counting number process N = N(t as a forward march over the non-negative integers with independent identically distributed waiting times. We embed the values of the counting numbers N in a “pseudo-spatial” non-negative half-line x ≥ 0 and observe that for physical time likewise we have t ≥ 0. Thus we apply the Laplace transform with respect to both variables x and t. Applying then a modification of the Montroll-Weiss-Cox formalism of continuous time random walk we obtain the essential characteristics of a renewal process in the transform domain and, if we are lucky, also in the physical domain. The process t = t(N of accumulation of waiting times is inverse to the counting number process, in honour of the Danish mathematician and telecommunication engineer A.K. Erlang we call it the Erlang process. It yields the probability of exactly n renewal events in the interval (0; t]. We apply our Laplace-Laplace formalism to the fractional Poisson process whose waiting times are of Mittag-Leffler type and to a renewal process whose waiting times are of Wright type. The process of Mittag-Leffler type includes as a limiting case the classical Poisson process, the process of Wright type represents the discretized stable subordinator and a re-scaled version of it was used in our method of parametric subordination of time-space fractional diffusion processes. Properly rescaling the counting number process N(t and the Erlang process t(N yields as diffusion limits the inverse stable and the stable subordinator, respectively.

  2. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  3. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  4. Does main clause word order affect attention to change in subordinate clauses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2018-01-01

    is that a subordinate clause with Verb>Adverb word order will attract more attention than a clause with Adverb>Verb word order. To test this, we conducted an experiment under the text change paradigm. 59 students each read 24 constructions twice, each containing a subordinate clause with either Verb>Adverb or Adverb......>Verb word order. Half of the subordinate clauses were governed by a semifactive predicate (open to both word orders) and the other half by a semantically secondary sentence (in itself strongly favoring Verb>Adverb word order). Attention to the subordinate clause was tested by measuring how disinclined...... the participants were to notice change of a word in the subordinate clause when re-reading it. Results showed significantly more attention to Verb>Adverb clauses than to Adverb>Verb clauses under semifactive predicates, and more attention to subordinate clauses under semantically secondary than semifactive...

  5. Subordinate plant species moderate drought effects on earthworms communities in grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotte Pierre; Le Bayon Renee-Claire; Eisenhauer Nico; Guenat Claire; Buttler Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity resulting from forecasted drought events is likely to alter soil functioning and affect earthworm communities. Plant soil interactions are expected to play an important role in mediating climate change effects on soil decomposers. In this study we test above belowground linkages after drought by focusing on the effects of subordinate plant species on earthworm communities. Using a combination of subordinate species removal and experimental drought we show that subordin...

  6. Recurrent myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis: a case report of a child with Schilder's variant of multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M.J.; Coleman, L.T. [Radiology Dept., Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    2000-12-01

    Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (MDS, Schilder's disease) is a rare CNS demyelinating disorder affecting mainly children and usually presenting as an intracranial mass lesion. We report the first case of recurrent intracranial MDS where the third episode of demyelination involved the cervical spinal cord. This may represent a subset of the disease, which should be considered as Schilder's variant (childhood form) of multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  7. Fleet leaders' attitudes about subordinates' use of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Richard J

    2007-11-01

    Mental disorders are a significant source of medical and occupational morbidity for sailors. Stigma, fear of negative career impact, and subordinates concern about leaders' attitudes are significant barriers to the use of mental health services. Semistructured interviews and military policies were data sources used to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health treatment using Foucault's concept of discourse analysis. A discourse is a system of knowledge that influences language, perceptions, values, and social practices. The results showed that leaders' concerns about sailors' mental combat readiness, not mental illness stigma, was the dominant discourse about mental illness and mental health services use. In particular, organizational differences between the surface warfare and the mental health communities may influence leaders' attitudes more than stigma. This study provides an elaborated view of mental health knowledge and power within a Navy community.

  8. Subordination Principle for a Class of Fractional Order Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bazhlekova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fractional order differential equation \\(u'(t=Au(t+\\gamma D_t^{\\alpha} Au(t+f(t, \\ t>0\\, \\(u(0=a\\in X\\ is studied, where \\(A\\ is an operator generating a strongly continuous one-parameter semigroup on a Banach space \\(X\\, \\(D_t^{\\alpha}\\ is the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative of order \\(\\alpha \\in (0,1\\, \\(\\gamma>0\\ and \\(f\\ is an \\(X\\-valued function. Equations of this type appear in the modeling of unidirectional viscoelastic flows. Well-posedness is proven, and a subordination identity is obtained relating the solution operator of the considered problem and the \\(C_{0}\\-semigroup, generated by the operator \\(A\\. As an example, the Rayleigh–Stokes problem for a generalized second-grade fluid is considered.

  9. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed...... as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing....... Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated...

  10. Patriarchal Hierarchies of Power and the Subordination of Women: Real Doll as a Replacement of Woman Figure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Shokri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The social structure of the family has always been in the state of transformation. In the past centuries, the nuclear family was replaced with a Patriarchal Family which lasted for only two centuries from 16th to the beginning of 18th century. In this new structure of the family, men were privileged to play the role of the master and the women were marginalized and subordinated. Recent years, however, has witnessed a re-adjustment of this order towards a more equal distribution of power relations. These changes in family structure has ever since initiated new conflicts leading to establishment of the physical and psychological bonds between men and dolls. The present study aims to find out the major socio-psychological reasons behind this conflict. In a qualitative library based study, the researchers attempt to analyse the video interview of some of the doll-owners. In the survey conducted in this study, the video of “Guys and Dolls”, BBC Video Documentary, has been shown to 10 participants, five male and five female. Then, a questionnaire was distributed to ask for their opinion based on their gender. The findings of this analysis reveal that women can hardly accept the notion of using dolls as replacement to real partners in comparison with men. On the contrary, the male participants advocated the employment of dolls as sexual replacement for the real woman figure. Keywords: Patriarchy, Real Doll, Oedipus complex, Female Subordination, Family

  11. 29 CFR 780.202 - Subordination to farming operations is necessary for exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subordination to farming operations is necessary for... Operations § 780.202 Subordination to farming operations is necessary for exemption. While section 3(f) speaks of practices performed “in conjunction with” as well as “incident to” farming operations, it would...

  12. Subordinators and Supradialectal Formulas in the Dialectal Inscriptions from Mainland Greece (Excluding Attica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Toru

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated the usage of subordinators in Ancient Greek dialectal inscriptions and their interactions with supradialectal formulas, i.e., relatively fixed expressions shared across dialectal borders. Subordinators are grammatical elements and therefore are expected to behave in a systematic manner; supradialectal formulas…

  13. Aspects of Subordination in English Syntax and its Use Among Bette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bette is a language widely spoken in the north-eastern part of Cross River State, Nigeria. The need for this study arises from an observation of serious interference of Bette system of subordination in Bette bilinguals with that of English. I examined subordination in the two systems through a contrastive linguistic analysis to ...

  14. 7 CFR 1717.858 - Lien subordination for rural development investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lien subordination for rural development investments... Lien subordination for rural development investments. (a) Policy. RUS encourages borrowers to consider... financial risks and the revenues and costs of the rural development enterprise from those of the borrower's...

  15. Involuntary Subordination and Its Relation to Personality, Mood, and Submissive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    According to social rank theory, involuntary subordination may be adaptive in species that compete for resources as a mechanism to switch off fighting behaviors when loss is imminent (thus saving an organism from injury). In humans, major depression is thought to occur when involuntary subordination becomes prolonged. The present study sought to…

  16. 12 CFR 563.81 - Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and... Borrowings § 563.81 Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as..., subpart A seeking OTS approval of, or non-objection to, the inclusion of covered securities in...

  17. Participation with Supervisor and Subordinate Authoritarianism: A Path-Goal Theory Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.

    1976-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…

  18. Charismatic, Ideological, and Pragmatic Leaders' Influence on Subordinate Creative Performance across the Creative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Jeffrey B.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) model of leadership as a framework, 2 primary research questions were examined. First, when engaging in different tasks along the creative process, does leadership style influence the creative performance of subordinates? Second, how does the level of stress, to which subordinates are…

  19. Relationships between leaders' and subordinates' emotion regulation and satisfaction and affect at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Nezlek, John B; Vassilakou, Thanai

    2012-01-01

    The study examined relationships between leaders' emotion regulation and leaders' and subordinates' work-related outcomes. Fifty-one school directors and 281 teachers reported on their strategies of emotion regulation (reappraisal, suppression), job satisfaction, and affect at work. For subordinates, suppression was negatively related to job satisfaction and was positively related to negative affect and emotional exhaustion, and reappraisal was positively related to job satisfaction and negatively to negativ affect. In contrast, multilevel analyses found that directors' use of reappraisal was neg atively related to subordinates' job satisfaction, and directors' use of suppression wa positively related to subordinates' positive affect. Leaders' suppression interacted wit group cohesion to predict subordinates' negative affect. This is one of the first studies to find evidence for the possible tension between leaders' emotion regulation competencie and organizational-role interests.

  20. The role of leadership perception as a mediator between managers' self-monitoring and subordinate attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp Türetgen, Ilknur; Unsal, Pinar; Dural, Uzay

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of social cognition in leadership perception has been emphasized frequently in recent years, research using this approach in an organizational context is rare. This study investigated subordinates' perceptions of their managers as leaders (that is, to what extent they perceive their manager as a leader) as a potential mediating factor explaining the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' attitudes toward their organizations. The study was carried out with middle-level managers (N = 64) and their subordinates (N = 210) from various business organizations in Turkey. Results indicate that subordinates' leadership perceptions of their managers mediate the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' affective and normative organizational commitment. These results provide insight into some of the antecedents and outcomes of leadership perception.

  1. Female Leadership Dilemmas in Primary Schools: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly, female school leaders lacked the support of other fellow female subordinates. The study recommends the Public Service Commission should not promote women for the sake of promotion but should do so on the grounds of merit and seniority. Furthermore, female school heads need to work very hard and prove that ...

  2. Psychological characteristics of the rules of subordination within the cultural and historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budyakova T.P.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the psychology of submission. Given psychological characteristic standards of submission historically embodied in the moral codes and legal sources. The subject of analysis are historical regulations XII—XX centuries, the customs, in which the fixed rate of submission, as well as the memoir literature. There are four basic psychological lines of development in the history of the rules of subordination, in particular: a special regulation of the rules of subordination and increasing social importance of the role of subordinate. It is proved that psychological acceptance of a subordinate role and the satisfaction of its implementation includes the requirement of special rules regulating authority and emphasis on the social importance of the role of subordinate. It was established that one of the reasons that the job satisfaction of employees of state structures higher than employees of private companies, a large schema definition of relations with management. Hierarchical role is considered in terms of two components: the role of attributes and rules, rules of conduct. The article focuses on the fact that the individual external signs, locking status subordination, increase the level of self-esteem of subordinate.

  3. Empowerment and performance of managers and subordinates in elderly care: A longitudinal and multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Heidi; Högberg, Hans; Skytt, Bernice; Wadensten, Barbro; Engström, Maria

    2017-11-01

    To investigate relationships between first-line managers' ratings of structural and psychological empowerment, and the subordinates' ratings of structural empowerment, as well as their ratings of the managers' leadership-management performance. Work situations in elderly care are complex. To date, few studies have used a longitudinal, correlational and multilevel design to study the working life of subordinates and managers. In five Swedish municipalities, questionnaires were answered twice during 2010-12 by 56 first-line managers and 769 subordinates working in nursing homes or home-help services. First-line managers' empowerment at Time 1 partially predicted subordinate's structural empowerment and ratings of their managers' leadership-management performance at Time 2. Changes over time partially revealed that the more access managers had to structural empowerment, i.e. increase over time, the higher the ratings were for structural empowerment and managerial leadership-management performance among subordinates. Findings strengthen research and theoretical suggestions linking first-line managers' structural empowerment to their subordinates' structural empowerment and ratings of their manager's leadership-management performance. Managers with high access to structural empowerment are more likely to provide subordinates access to structural empowerment. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clan Governance and State Stability: The Relationship between Female Subordination and Political Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    of government. Instead the real fault line between the West and Islam, which Huntington’s theory completely overlooks, concerns gender equal- ity and...and Security in the 21st Century. Wash- ington, DC: Brookings Institution. Buzan, Barry. 2007. “What Is National Security in the Age of Globalisation ...Caton, Steven C. 1990. “Anthropological Theories of Tribe and State Formation in the Middle East: Ideology and the Semiotics of Power.” In Tribes and

  5. The Experience of Sexual Harassment among Grade-School Students: Early Socialization of Female Subordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnen, Sarah K.; Smolak, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Investigated elementary students' interpretations of sexual harassment and how they related to self-esteem and body esteem. After hearing scenarios exemplifying peer harassment, students expressed their thoughts and completed gender role, self-esteem, and body esteem scales. Most children had experienced peer harassment. Total harassment…

  6. A closer look at the subordinate population within the visible burrow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhorn, Susan J; Elfers, Clinton T; Scott, Karen A; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    The visible burrow system (VBS) utilizes the natural social behavior of rodents to model chronic social stress. Classically, when male and female rats are housed together in the VBS a dominance hierarchy rapidly forms with one dominant (DOM) and three subordinate (SUB) males. SUB animals show signs of chronic social stress, including loss of body weight and elevated basal corticosterone. This study furthered examined differences among the SUB population. Quantitative observations across numerous VBS colonies within the Sakai Lab suggest that there is variability in the effects of stress on the SUB population, specifically that some animals may experience more severe effects of chronic social stress than others. To further examine this observation, SUB animals were classified as OMEGA if they received a disproportionate amount of their colonies' wounds. OMEGA animals received more wounds to their body compared to SUB (PVBS-housed animals (group×time interaction PVBS housing it was determined the OMGEA also lost lean body mass (PVBS colony and represents the variability of the effects of chronic social stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [The effects of planning leadership behavior on the subordinates' person perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Y

    1989-10-01

    According to the two factor theory of leadership, leaders were instructed to behave both gently and strictly. However, how can be achieved such behavior? Here, a solution to this problem is suggested by an analysis of subordinates' person perception. Yamada (1987) analyzed the data of PM leadership surveys, and found three factors; Maintenance [M.] (corresponds to "Consideration" in the Ohio Study) Planning (Initiating Structure), and Pressure (Production Emphasis). It was found that High Planning supported the independence of M. from Pressure. The purpose of this experimental study was to test the effect of Planning behavior on cognitive structure. Sixty-four female subjects performed a maze task using computer simulation. In the high Planning condition, the leader displayed direction signs, whereas no sign was displayed in the low Planning condition. Each condition was further subdivided into two Pressure conditions (High or low) by the amount of linguistic behavior. The result of the survey data was supported. M. cognition decreased by increasing Pressure cognition in the low Planning condition, but no correlation was found between M. and Pressure in the High Planning condition.

  8. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  9. Olfactory Cues Are Subordinate to Visual Stimuli in a Neotropical Generalist Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects. PMID:23341926

  10. IMPRISONMENT AS A RESULT OF WOMEN SUBORDINATION 194 REFLECTED IN MAYA ANGELOU‘S POEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatikha Amalina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to describe the imprisonment of African American people, especially women, in the case of patriarchy and women subordination through Maya Angelou‘s selected poems entitled ―Caged Bird‖, ―Still I Rise‖ and ―Woman Work‖. This research discusses the meaning behind the poems that reflected Maya Angelou‘s life experience relating to women subordination and freedom. Feminism approach is applied to analyze the concept of freedom in women subordination and patriarchy in this research. The paper points to how the concept of gender intertwines with labor, ethnics, kinship and gender domination. Without aiming to paint a detailed picture of feminism, the paper explores how ideas developed in these inquiries question the taken-for-granted assumption about the universality of women‘s subordination and challenge the emancipation prerequisite of feminist agenda.

  11. Genetic sorting of subordinate species in grassland modulated by intraspecific variation in dominant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Gustafson

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in a single species can have predictable and heritable effects on associated communities and ecosystem processes, however little is known about how genetic variation of a dominant species affects plant community assembly. We characterized the genetic structure of a dominant grass (Sorghastrum nutans and two subordinate species (Chamaecrista fasciculata, Silphium integrifolium, during the third growing season in grassland communities established with genetically distinct (cultivated varieties or local ecotypes seed sources of the dominant grasses. There were genetic differences between subordinate species growing in the cultivar versus local ecotype communities, indicating that intraspecific genetic variation in the dominant grasses affected the genetic composition of subordinate species during community assembly. A positive association between genetic diversity of S. nutans, C. fasciculata, and S. integrifolium and species diversity established the role of an intraspecific biotic filter during community assembly. Our results show that intraspecific variation in dominant species can significantly modulate the genetic composition of subordinate species.

  12. Supervisors' upward exchange relationships and subordinate outcomes: testing the multilevel mediation role of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le; Wang, Mo; Chen, Gilad; Shi, Junqi

    2012-05-01

    This study empirically examined the proposition that supervisors' exchange relationships with their own supervisors (i.e., leader-leader exchange, or LLX) are related to their subordinates' work-related outcomes through 3 mechanisms: (a) leaders modeling their LLX to develop and maintain their exchange relationships with their subordinates (i.e., leader-member exchange, or LMX), (b) motivating the team and its members, captured by team and individual empowerment, and (c) facilitating the relationships between LMX and individual outcomes. Analyses of multisource and lagged data from 104 team supervisors and 577 subordinates showed that LMX mediated the positive relationship of LLX on subordinates' individual empowerment. Furthermore, team empowerment and individual empowerment sequentially mediated the positive relationships between LLX and subordinates' job satisfaction and job performance. The authors also found that the indirect relationships of LMX with job satisfaction and job performance via individual empowerment were stronger when LLX was higher. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Saudi Arabian Woman's Marriage Life in Girls of Riyadh, a Novel by Rajaa Alsanea: Subordination and Struggle

    OpenAIRE

    THALIB, AMIRAH ANIS

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that implementation of Pre-Islamic tradition and culture emerges subordination toward woman in Saudi Arabia. They face subordination in many aspects of life. This phenomenon can be found in Girls of Riyadh novel. In this novel, Rajaa Alsanea, a Saudi Arabian woman writer tells how women live under male domination. In analyzing the phenomena, the writer used feminist approach by applying feminism theory which is combined with Islamic references to reveal subordination and s...

  14. Leadership predictors of innovation and task performance : Subordinates self-esteem and self-presentation as moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, Johannes; Nelson, Nicole E.; Allen, Tammy D.; Xu, Xian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined self-related subordinate variables as moderators of relationships between supervisors leadership behaviours (transformational as well as activecorrective transactional leadership) and subordinates innovative behaviour and task performance. Based on behavioural plasticity and self-monitoring theory, we hypothesized that these associations would be moderated by subordinates organization-based self-esteem and by their propensity to modify self-presentation, a major facet o...

  15. Similarity and Dissimilarity between Superiors and Subordinates and Their Implications for Dyadic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Salette Paulo da Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature advocates the advantages of work force diversification, studies based on the Similarity- Attraction Paradigm indicate that people are more disposed to feel attraction to those who are similar to them. A field study with the comparative data of 89 dyads investigated the effect of the actual and perceived similarity in the quality of the relationship between superiors and subordinates within the Leader-Member Exchange [LMX] perspective. The investigated characteristics were: gender, age and work-family conflict. The data indicate the influence only of perceived similarity in the quality of the relationship between superiors and subordinates. This effect broadens when the subordinate feels satisfied with the quality and frequency of contact with his/her superior. The methodological procedures included factorial analysis and validation of two scales (EIFT and LMX-7, the correlations analysis and hierarchic regressions. Finally, the implications of some results and directions for future research in diversity are discussed.

  16. Ruin Time and Severity for a Lévy Subordinator Claim Process: A Simple Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Lefèvre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an insurance risk model whose claim process is described by a Lévy subordinator process. Lévy-type risk models have been the object of much research in recent years. Our purpose is to present, in the case of a subordinator, a simple and direct method for determining the finite time (and ultimate ruin probabilities, the distribution of the ruin severity, the reserves prior to ruin, and the Laplace transform of the ruin time. Interestingly, the usual net profit condition will be essentially relaxed. Most results generalize those known for the compound Poisson claim process.

  17. Subject of Subordinate Clause as Object with Verbs of Perception, Thought, and Communication in Old Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Pichkhadze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.

  18. Supervisor-Subordinate Relationship, Differentiation, and Employee Creativity: A Self-Categorization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdan; Kessel, Maura; Kratzer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explore the effect of the quality of supervisor-subordinate relationship (i.e., leader-member exchange; LMX) on employee creativity by examining a moderated-mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of perceived insider status and the moderating role of perceived LMX differentiation in influencing the mediation.…

  19. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruiment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant

  20. Impact of different-sized herbivores on recruitment opportunities for subordinate herbs in grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Olff, Han

    2003-01-01

    Potential effects of herbivores on plant species diversity depend on herbivore size, species and density. In this study we examine the effect of different-sized herbivores (cattle and rabbits) on recruitment of subordinate herbs in grasslands. We show that in a grazed floodplain, grassland plant

  1. Analysis of Subordination Errors in Students' Writings: A Study of Selected Teacher Training Colleges in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Amma Abrafi

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining how students of selected Teacher Training Colleges handle one important aspect of sentence structure, i.e. "subordination". Data were collected from written scripts, and tests responded to by 150 participants from three selected colleges. These were analyzed by identifying both correct and incorrect uses…

  2. Sex of leader, sex of subordinate and leader behaviour type as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex of leader, sex of subordinate and leader behaviour type as predictors of task performance. Jackson I Osu. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.4(2) 1999: 245-258. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  3. Perceptions of Leadership Style: Superior and Subordinate Descriptions of Decision-Making Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Arthur G.; Vroom, Victor H.

    1975-01-01

    This research concerns the level of agreement among subordinates reporting to the same leader in their descriptions of his behavior. (Available from the Comparative Administration Research Institute, Graduate School of Business Administration, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242; $12.00 annually) (Author/MLF)

  4. The subordinate concept ‘marketing’ in the contemporary business English discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Naumenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers architectonics of the concept ‘marketing’ as a subordinate one to the concept ‘market’ which, alongside with other concepts, organizes the conceptual sphere of the basic concept ‘trade’. The notional, sense (sense centres, and schematic (dynamic frame components are researched, the model of the concept inner structure is developed

  5. On differential subordinations for a class of analytic functions defined by a linear operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ravichandran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain several results concerning the differential subordination between analytic functions and a linear operator defined for a certain family of analytic functions which are introduced here by means of these linear operators. Also, some special cases are considered.

  6. A Study of Relationship between Leader Behaviors and Subordinate Job Expectancies: A Path-Goal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayyat Malik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates relationship between leader behavior (directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented of corporate managers and subordinates’ job expectancies using House (1974 Path-goal model of leadership. The results reveal thatleader behavior affects subordinates’ job expectancies. The situational factors (task structure, role ambiguity, stress, need for autonomy, locus of control, need for achievement and perception about abilities affect subordinates’ job expectancies (I&II.While subordinates’ attributes/characteristics (age, gender, qualification, rank, experience and length of service under the current supervisor do not affect job expectancies (I&II except for rank/position and expectancy-II. Path goal theory predicts that directive leader behavior will be more effective for the subordinates with high need for achievement because directive leader through clarifying path guides subordinates. Similarly, participative leader behavior is also effective as heconsults with subordinates in setting, clarifying and achieving goals. The results of this study reveal that there is an inverse relationship between subordinates’ job expectancy (I&II. According to Yukl (2006, for subordinates with high need for autonomy,participative leader behavior will increase the intrinsic valence of work.

  7. Some subordination and superordination results for the generalized hypergeometric functions associated with Ruscheweyh derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman S. Juma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose in this paper is to define a linear operator  F_{p,q,s}[\\alpha_{1},m], then applying it to obtain some results on subordination and superordination preserving properties of holomorphic multivalent functions in the  open unit disc. And sandwich-type result for these holomorphic multivalent functions is also considered.

  8. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  9. Supervisors' Responses to Subordinate Performance: Effect of Personal-Control Orientation and Situational Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study extending a model of leadership response based on attribution theories to include measures of locus of control and situational control. Describes a procedure by which subjects responded to descriptions of subordinate performance. Concludes that supervisors with an external locus of control were less sensitive to subordinate…

  10. Task Structure as Moderator of College Principals' Leadership Behavior and Their Subordinates' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Riffat-Un-Nisa; Zaidi, Nayyar Raza; Naz, Anjum; Noureen, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    This research article intended to investigate the moderating effect of structured task on the relationship of leadership behavior of degree college principals and their subordinates' job satisfaction, job expectancies and acceptance of leader. Data was collected from 640 college faculty members and 170 principals of degree colleges situated in 34…

  11. Leader reliance on subordinates across nations that differ in development and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Smith, P B

    How, where, and why do leaders follow the people they lead? An 84-nation analysis of survey responses from 19,525 managers shows that their reliance on subordinates depends on the level of wealth and development, and the harshness of cold or hot climates. In support of the thermal demands-resources

  12. Peering is not a formal indicator of subordination in bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, J.M.G.; Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, L. van

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that peering behavior in bonobos is a formal signal acknowledging social dominance status. We investigated whether peering meets the published criteria for a formal signal of subordination in five captive groups of bonobos. The degree of linearity in the set of peering

  13. Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B. L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  14. Leaders’ achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea

  15. Leader motives, charismatic leadership and subordinates' work attitude in the profit and voluntary sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.; Koopman, P.L.; Thierry, Hk.; van den Berg, P.T.; van der Weide, J.G.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This multimethod study examined leaders' motives, charismatic leader behavior, and subordinates' work attitude for CEOs (N=73) of small and medium-sized organizations in two sectors, namely, the profit and voluntary sector. Interviews with CEOs were coded for motive imagery. Direct reports rated CEO

  16. Production supervisor impacts on subordinates' safety outcomes: an investigation of leader-member exchange and safety communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Zhen George Guo; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles D. Ray

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Supervisors are increasingly important to the functioning of manufacturing operations, in large part due to their role as leaders. While supervisors' relations and communication with their subordinates are known to be important in influencing subordinates' behavior, little is known about how these two factors will impact...

  17. Adaptive changes in zebrafish brain in dominant-subordinate behavioral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Michail; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

    2011-12-01

    Male zebrafish were held in dyadic social stress situation for a period of 5 days, to characterize stress coping styles and to investigate the role of the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms in establishing dominant-subordinate relationships. A strong consistent dominant-subordinate relationship was formed in ten out of the sixteen pairs of fish (62.5%). Both dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) individuals showed statistically significant higher trunk cortisol concentration than controls. Expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the functioning of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-interrenal axis (corticotropin releasing factor, CRF; glucocorticoid receptor, GR; mineralocorticoid receptor, MR); arginine vasotocin, AVT), in the biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamines (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH1 and TH2; DOPA decarboxylase, DDC), dopamine β-hydroxylase, DBH; catechol-O-methyl transferase, COMT), in the biosynthesis of histamine (histidine decarboxylase, HDC) and in the general stress response (galanin, GAL; hypocretin/orexin, Hcrt) was examined. The MR/GR ratio was higher in dominant and subordinate fish than in controls (P=0.016). The mRNA levels of TH2 and HDC were up-regulated in DOM, of AVT in SUB, while COMT mRNA levels were down-regulated in both DOM and SUB compared to control fish. In addition, mRNA levels of hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) were up-regulated in dominant compared to subordinate and control males. There was a statistically significant correlation between mRNA expression levels of TH2, HDC, Hcrt, GR, MR and CRF genes. The obtained results provide new evidences for the use of zebrafish as an animal model to study social stress and allostasis in vertebrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  19. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  20. Context-Specific Dimensions of Trust in Manager, Subordinate and Co-Worker in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Erdem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions of trust relationship among managers, subordinates and the co-workers in organizations. Using an original trust questionnaire data has been collected from 550 middle-level managers from organizations operating in different regions of Turkey. Results from both qualitative and quantitative research methods indicate that the dimensions of trust vary in organizational relationships between managers and subordinates and between co-workers and furthermore, that a culture-specific meaning is attributed to its content. This study contributes to trust literature developing three original sub-scales and also it indicates that the meaning of trust in organizational relationships is influenced by cultural context.

  1. Psychosocial predictors of supervisor-, peer-, subordinate-, and service-provider-targeted aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, Michelle; Leblanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian

    2008-11-01

    The authors investigate whether known person predictors (trait anger, trait aggression) and situational predictors (perceived interpersonal mistreatment, perceived organizational sanctions against aggression) of supervisor-targeted aggression also predict employee's aggression toward other workplace targets, namely peers, subordinates, and customers' aggression toward service providers. The authors also investigate the moderating impact of situational factors on the relationship between person factors and aggression. Participants (N = 308) were asked whether they had a conflict with their supervisor, a subordinate, a work peer, and/or a service provider in the past 6 months. Different patterns of main and interaction effects emerged across the 4 targets, suggesting the importance of accounting for the target of aggression in workplace aggression research.

  2. Study on monitoring achievement of performance indicators in the subordinate local companies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Neamţiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pursuit of economic indicators which are calculated in local subordinate companies. These indicators are imposed by the Board employee manager contract term. Accounting provides enough information to calculate them but we put the issue of prevention of the ability to stay within budget, projected revenues and expenses, before closing operations of an accounting period (month, quarter, semester, year.

  3. Manager-subordinate exchange relationships : investigation of a manager behavior model

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Marta L.

    1993-01-01

    This field study investigated the relationship among behavioral and perceptual measures of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) relationship and organizational outcome variables. The major purposes of this study were to determine: (1) the extent to which the dyad is the appropriate level of analysis for the examination of manager-subordinate relationships, (2) which objectively observed managerr behaviors are important in defining negotiating latitude, the most commonly us...

  4. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David J; Finch, Fiona M; Bell, Matthew B V; Ridley, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a 'cheap' advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners.

  5. Extra-territorial movements differ between territory holders and subordinates in a large, monogamous rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2017-11-10

    Territorial animals carry out extra-territorial movements (forays) to obtain pre-dispersal information or to increase reproductive success via extra-pair copulation. However, little is known about other purposes and spatial movement patterns of forays. In this study, we GPS-tagged 54 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), a year-round territorial, monogamous mammal, during the non-mating season. We investigated forays in territory-holding breeders (dominants) and non-breeding (subordinate) family members. Twenty of 46 dominant individuals (44%), and 6 of 10 subordinates (60%) conducted forays. Generally, beavers spent between 0 and 11% of their active time on forays, travelled faster and spend more time in water when on forays compared to intra-territorial movements, suggesting that forays are energetically costly. Further, beavers in smaller territories conducted more forays. Possibly, smaller territories might not have sufficient resources and thus dominant individuals might conduct forays to assess possibilities for territory expansion, and potentially for foraging. Generally, besides territory advertisement (e.g. via scent-marking), forays might serve as an additional mechanism for territory owners to assess neighbours. Subordinates spent more time on forays, moved greater distances and intruded into more territories than dominant individuals did, suggesting that they prospected to gain information on the population density and available mates before dispersal.

  6. The Paradox of Power Sharing: Participative Charismatic Leaders have Subordinates with more instead of less Need for Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; Pathak, R.D.; Paquin, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Although charismatic and participative leaders have been noted for their positive effects on criteria such as performance, job satisfaction, and commitment, few studies have looked at the relations with subordinates' leadership needs. In this study, the relations between charismatic and

  7. Female Stereotypes in the Nigerian Video Film: A Case for Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, the role of the woman is seen as that of a subordinate to man. This limits the woman to a very narrow place within the society; and this is reflected in the film media through a portrayal and projection of negative female stereotypes, which helps in furthering the wrong socialization of the female in society.

  8. Subordinate clause comprehension and tense/agreement inconsistency in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Sofía M; Leonard, Laurence B; Deevy, Patricia; Fey, Marc E; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that the production errors of children with specific language impairment (SLI) such as The girl singing may be explained by a misinterpretation of grammatical adult input containing a similar structure (e.g., The boy hears the girl singing). Thirteen children with SLI and 13 younger typically developing children with comparable sentence comprehension test scores (TD-COMP) completed a comprehension task to assess their understanding of sentences involving a nonfinite subject-verb sequence in a subordinate clause such as The dad sees the boy running. TD-COMP children were more accurate on subordinate clause items than children with SLI despite similar performance on simple transitive (e.g., The horse sees the cow) and simple progressive (e.g., The cow is eating) items. However, no relationship was found between the SLI group's specific subordinate clause comprehension level and their specific level of auxiliary is production, casting some doubt on this type of structure as a source for inconsistent use of auxiliary is. The reader will learn that children with specific language impairment (SLI): (1) have difficulty understanding complex sentences that include nonfinite subject-verb sequences; (2) that this difficulty is apparent in comparison to younger typically developing peers who have similar scores not only on a sentence comprehension test, but also on simple sentences that correspond to the component parts of the complex sentences; and (3) that this weakness is concurrent with these children's inconsistent use of auxiliary is in production. Although novel verb studies show a clear connection between how children with SLI hear new verbs and how they use them, we do not yet have evidence that this connection is tied to a poor understanding of the input sentences that house the verbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  10. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake.

  11. Discrimination between dominant and subordinate groups: the positive-negative asymmetry effect and normative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bourhis, Richard Y

    2005-06-01

    Research using the minimal group paradigm (MGP) demonstrates that categorization and in-group identification can suffice to foster intergroup discrimination. However, the positive- negative asymmetry effect (PNAE) shows that less discrimination occurs when negative than when positive outcomes are distributed between group members. Combining the polarization paradigm and the MGP, this study investigated the discriminatory behaviour of dominant and subordinate group members ( N = 197) on positive and negative outcome distributions. During private outcome distributions at pre-consensus, dominant groups discriminated more than subordinate groups while the PNAE was not replicated. Positive/negative outcome distributions were sought during intragroup discussion in the consensus phase, while post-consensus involved private outcome distributions. The PNAE emerged in both consensus and post-consensus phases: group members discriminated less on salary cuts than on salary increases, whereas the power effect disappeared in those phases. The emergence of in-group norms during face-to-face discussions at consensus as well as social identity processes help account for the results obtained in this study.

  12. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here, we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol we tested the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair-feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall, these results support the validity of our CSS to model BED allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

  13. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan C; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-05-01

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species, we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7 yr old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps (1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 yr old burn sites compared to unburned sites, (2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size, and (3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire

  14. The subjunctive, a marker of 'subordinance'? A comparison between German and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jörg Busch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Moods as inflectional paradigms can only have a very general value and function, similar to other verbal categories such as tense and aspect. A comparison with German shows that the subjunctive functions as a marker of subordination and signals that the proposition in which it stands is incomplete and must be interpreted with the help of other contextual elements, for example the meaning of the main or matrix verb, a characteristic that has also been called procedural. Therefore only the indicative can be used to express independent statements. All the communicative functions of the subjunctive, for example to express politeness, will be explained as a result of its procedural character. The article clarifies why the subjunctive is also used with factual propositions, for example after verbs of emotions and ‘aunque’. (37,402 characters with spaces

  15. From Ambiguity to Deceptiveness: the Case of Hybrid since- Subordinates in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte GUILLAUME

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’il est utilisé en tant que subordonnant, since peut introduire une subordonnée circonstancielle de temps ou bien de cause. Cet article s’intéresse aux cas dans lesquels une telle polysémie au niveau du subordonnant déclenche une ambiguïté quant à la nature temporelle ou causale de l’utilisation de la subordonnée. En plus du recours au contexte endophorique ou exophorique, nous proposons des critères syntaxiques de désambigüisation, mis au jour grâce à l’étude d’un corpus de près de cinq cent exemples pris dans le British National Corpus, un corpus d’anglais contemporain de cent millions de mots. En dépit de tout cela, une petite minorité d’exemples reste inclassable, remplissant ainsi les conditions pour être considérés comme « hybrides » en fonction de la définition que nous en proposons, à savoir des subordonnées permettant de remettre en cause la division traditionnelle entre les catégories de subordonnées en anglais, dans la mesure où ils possèdent au moins une caractéristique déviante par rapport à la catégorie à laquelle ils semblent appartenir en fonction de tous leurs autres traits. De tels phénomènes rendent nécessaires la prise en compte d’un « reste », selon la terminologie de Jean-Jacques Lecercle, dans la grammaire d’une langue donnée.When since is used as a subordinator,it can introduce either a temporal adverbial clause or a causal one. My purpose in this paper is to study cases in which such a polysemy at the level of the subordinator results in the production of subordinates whose meaning proves to be ambiguous between the categories of time and cause. In addition to the taking into account of the context, whether exophoric or endophoric, I put forward a series of syntactic criteria which should help disambiguate between the two possible interpretations. These are based on the study of the characteristics of nearly five-hundred examples of since- clauses taken

  16. Brownian yet Non-Gaussian Diffusion: From Superstatistics to Subordination of Diffusing Diffusivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Chechkin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of biological, soft, and active matter systems are observed to exhibit normal diffusive dynamics with a linear growth of the mean-squared displacement, yet with a non-Gaussian distribution of increments. Based on the Chubinsky-Slater idea of a diffusing diffusivity, we here establish and analyze a minimal model framework of diffusion processes with fluctuating diffusivity. In particular, we demonstrate the equivalence of the diffusing diffusivity process with a superstatistical approach with a distribution of diffusivities, at times shorter than the diffusivity correlation time. At longer times, a crossover to a Gaussian distribution with an effective diffusivity emerges. Specifically, we establish a subordination picture of Brownian but non-Gaussian diffusion processes, which can be used for a wide class of diffusivity fluctuation statistics. Our results are shown to be in excellent agreement with simulations and numerical evaluations.

  17. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Stephanie L; Shively, Carol A

    2012-06-01

    Depressive disorders are prevalent, costly, and poorly understood. Male rodents in stress paradigms are most commonly used as animal models, despite the two-fold increased prevalence of depression in women and sex differences in response to stress. Although these models have provided valuable insights, new models are needed to move the field forward. Social stress-associated behavioral depression in adult female cynomolgus macaques closely resembles human depression in physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral characteristics, including reduced body mass, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations, autonomic dysfunction, increased cardiovascular disease risk, reduced hippocampal volume, altered serotonergic function, decreased activity levels, and increased mortality. In addition, behaviorally depressed monkeys also have low ovarian steroid concentrations, even though they continue to have menstrual cycles. Although this type of ovarian dysfunction has not been reported in depressed women and is difficult to identify, it may be the key to understanding the high prevalence of depression in women. Depressive behavior in female cynomolgus monkeys is naturally occurring and not induced by experimental manipulation. Different social environmental challenges, including isolation vs. subordination, may elicit the depression-like response in some animals and not others. Similarly, social subordination is stressful and depressive behavior is more common in socially subordinate monkeys. Yet, not all subordinates exhibit behavioral depression, suggesting individual differences in sensitivity to specific environmental stressors and enhanced risk of behavioral depression in some individuals. The behavior and neurobiology of subordinates is distinctly different than that of behaviorally depressed monkeys, which affords the opportunity to differentiate between stressed and depressed states. Thus, behaviorally depressed monkeys exhibit numerous physiological

  18. 29 CFR 408.6 - Amendments to the Labor Organization Information Report filed by or on behalf of the subordinate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the Labor Organization Information Report filed by or on behalf of the subordinate labor organization. 408.6 Section 408.6 Labor Regulations... LABOR ORGANIZATION TRUSTEESHIP REPORTS § 408.6 Amendments to the Labor Organization Information Report...

  19. Chronic social subordination stress modulates glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Ryan; Lundgren, Kerstin H.; Seroogy, Kim B.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic social subordination is a well-known precipitant of numerous psychiatric and physiological health concerns. In this study, we examine the effects of chronic social stress in the visible burrow system (VBS) on the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) mRNA in forebrain stress circuitry. Male rats in the VBS system form a dominance hierarchy, whereby subordinate males exhibit neuroendocrine and physiological profiles characteristic of chronic exposure to stress. We found that social subordination decreases GAD67 mRNA in the peri-paraventricular nucleus region of the hypothalamus and the interfascicular nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and increases in GAD67 mRNA in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsal medial hypothalamus. Expression of BDNF mRNA increased in the dorsal region of the BNST, but remained unchanged in all other regions examined. Results from this study indicate that social subordination is associated with several region-specific alterations in GAD67 mRNA expression in central stress circuits, whereas changes in the expression of BDNF mRNA are limited to the BNST. PMID:26066725

  20. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Instructor-Student Relationship as an Alternative Form of Superior-Subordinate Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the author suggests studying the instructor-student relationship as a superior-subordinate relationship offers an alternative way to view how student learning occurs in the college classroom, and can provide instructional communication researchers with the opportunity to explore how structural and institutional…

  1. The Development of Subordinate Clauses in German and Swedish as L2s: A Theoretical and Methodological Camparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Kristof; Håkansson, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we aim to contribute to the debate about the use of subordination as a measure of language proficiency. We compare two theories of SLA--specifically, processability theory (PT; Pienemann, 1998) and dynamic systems theory (DST; de Bot, Lowie, & Verspoor, 2007)--and, more particularly, how they address the development of…

  2. Responses of biotic interactions of dominant and subordinate species to decadal warming and simulated rotational grazing in Tibetan alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin'e; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Shiping; Cui, Shujuan; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lirong; Jiang, Lili; Lü, Wangwang

    2018-01-18

    Warming increases competition among plant species in alpine communities by ameliorating harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures. Grazing, as the main human activity, may mitigate the effect of warming, as previously reported. However, it is critical to refine the effects of warming on biotic interactions among species, for example, by taking the competitive ability of species into consideration. Based on a 10-year warming and grazing experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow, we evaluated interspecific biotic interactions of dominant and subordinate species, using the approach of interspecific spatial associations. Warming significantly increased competition between subordinate and dominant species as well as among subordinate species, but not among dominant species. Moreover, facilitation of dominant-subordinate species also increased under warming. Simulated rotational grazing had similar effects to warming, with increasing interspecific competition. Our results show that, when studying the effects of warming on biotic interactions among species, it is necessary to characterize different species pairs relative to their competitive ability, and that simulated rotational grazing does not mitigate the effects of warming in the long term. Our results also provide evidence that the spatial pattern of species is a critical mechanism in species coexistence.

  3. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader's mind? Leader's achievement goals and subordinates' voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas

  4. THE SUBORDINATION OF THE EMPLOYEE TO THE EMPLOYER – THE FUNDAMENTAL LEGAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON LABOR LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Brindusa VARTOLOMEI

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental legal feature of the labor contract is the subordination of the employee to the employer. This is evidenced, during the execution of the labor contract of the employer rights granted much higher in comparison with those of the employee. Economic dependency is the objective support legal subordination of the employee to the employer.

  5. An intraovarian mechanism that enhances the effect of an FSH surge on recovery of subordinate follicles in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Araujo, E R

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the future dominant follicle (DF), corpus luteum (CL), and side (left ovary [LO] and right ovary [RO]) on FSH-induced recovery (increase in diameter) of regressing subordinate follicles was studied in heifers. The DF of wave 2 and the largest subordinate follicle remained intact (controls, n = 14 heifers) or were ablated (n = 14 heifers) on a mean of 13 d postovulation when the DF was ∼10 mm (hour 0). Concentration of FSH (P < 0.0004) and diameter of subordinate follicles (P < 0.0002) decreased between hours -48 to 0 combined for the control and ablation groups. Thereafter, follicle diameter continued to decrease in the controls. Concentration of FSH increased (P < 0.05) and diameter of subordinates began to increase at hour 12 in the ablation group. Follicle-stimulating hormone increased to hour 24 and then returned to the hour 0 concentration by hour 72, completing the induced FSH surge. Concentration of LH began to increase at hour 0 in each group and at a similar rate between groups. Follicle recovery in the ablation group was compared among 8 subgroups as defined by the 2 sides and 4 intraovarian patterns (DF-CL pattern, both structures in same ovary; DF pattern, DF alone; CL pattern, CL alone; and devoid pattern, both structures absent). Follicle diameter increased (P < 0.05) between hours 24 and 48, and diameter at hours 24, 48, 72, and 96 involved a 3-way interaction (P < 0.0001) of pattern, side, and hour. The interaction was similar when diameter of the DF that originated from a recovered subordinate was either included or excluded in the analysis. Diameter of subordinate follicles in the ablation group at hour 96 was greater (P < 0.05) in the DF-CL/RO and DF/RO subgroups than that in the devoid/LO, devoid/RO, and CL/LO subgroups. The DF-CL/LO and CL/RO subgroups were intermediate. For follicles that decreased in diameter before hour 0, a greater (P < 0.05) percentage increased after hour 0 when the ovary contained a DF and was in

  6. The Female Gender as a Political "Other": An ideological Reading of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others' whom they want to subordinate or who do not fit into their society/group. The ancient Greek society was one of such in which the female gender was perceived as being in contradistinction to the masculinity of the 'Greek Glory'.

  7. The Reproduction of Family Life: Perspectives of Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Capitalist, patriarchal, and sexist social structures and values affect how working class adolescents plan to allocate responsibility for domestic labor. Interviews with 83 Canadian male and female high school students revealed that they anticipate choosing patterns of domestic labor which perpetuate women's subordinate roles at home and work. (AM)

  8. Supervisor-subordinate communication relationships, role ambiguity, autonomy and affective commitment for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Shacklock, Kate

    2011-10-01

    This paper examine nurses' levels of satisfaction with their supervisor-subordinate communication relationships on their level of role ambiguity (in relation to their supervisors) and their resultant perceptions of autonomy and in turn, affective commitment. A survey of 900 nurses working in private sector hospitals in Australia was used to collect data. The combined effects of supervisor-nurse communication relationships, nurses' role ambiguity in relation to their supervisors plus nurses' resultant perceptions of autonomy, definitely influenced nurses' level of affective commitment. Also, nurses were somewhat dissatisfied with their communication relationships with their supervisors, experienced role ambiguity, reported being only a little autonomous, and were subsequently only somewhat committed to their hospitals. Contribution: The findings contribute to addressing nurse retention challenges by identifying factors affecting nurses' organisational commitment. Not only will nurses be more productive (with less supervisor ambiguity), but high quality Nurse Unit Manager-nurse communication relationships are also likely to enhance perceptions of autonomy and thereby, encourage nurses' commitment to their organisation and intention to remain. These results raise the question as to whether the present management practices are ideal for retaining nurses who are in short supply in many Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  9. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference, unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  10. The downside of goal-focused leadership: the role of personality in subordinate exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Witt, L A; Penney, Lisa M; Atwater, Leanne

    2010-11-01

    Exhaustion has a significant impact on employees and organizations, and leader behavior may affect it. We applied conservation of resources theory to test propositions regarding the joint effects of goal-focused leadership (GFL) and personality on employee exhaustion. We proposed that the relationship between GFL and exhaustion depends on employees' standing on both conscientiousness and emotional stability. Specifically, we expected that high-conscientiousness subordinates experience greater compatibility with a goal-focused leader because of their predisposition to direct resources toward achievement and goal setting, resulting in lower exhaustion under such a leader than among low-conscientiousness employees. Furthermore, high emotional stability may compensate for GFL incompatibility among low-conscientiousness employees by providing additional resources to manage GFL. In contrast, employees low on both traits likely experience greater exhaustion under a goal-focused leader compared with other employees. Results revealed a 3-way interaction in 2 independent samples and were generally supportive of our predictions. GFL was associated with heightened exhaustion among individuals in the low-emotional-stability, low-conscientiousness group but not among workers having any other trait combination. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Chronic subordinate colony housing paradigm: A mouse model to characterize the consequences of insufficient glucocorticoid signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik eLanggartner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, in particular chronic psychosocial, stress is a burden of modern societies and known to be a risk factor for numerous somatic and affective disorders (in detail referenced below. However, based on the limited existence of appropriate, and clinically-relevant, animal models for studying the effects of chronic stress, the detailed behavioural, physiological, neuronal, and immunological mechanisms linking stress and such disorders are insufficiently understood. To date, most chronic stress studies in animals employ intermittent exposure to the same (homotypic or to different (heterotypic stressors of varying duration and intensity. Such models are only of limited value, since they do not adequately reflect the chronic, and continuous, situation that humans typically experience. Furthermore, application of different physical or psychological stimuli renders comparisons to the mainly psychosocial stressors faced by humans, as well as between the different stress studies almost impossible. In contrast, rodent models of chronic psychosocial stress represent situations more akin to those faced by humans and consequently seem to hold more clinical relevance. Our laboratory has developed a model in which mice are exposed to social stress for 19 continuous days, namely the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC paradigm, which bridges this gap. The main aim of the current review article is to provide a detailed summary of the behavioural, physiological, neuronal and immunological consequences of the CSC paradigm, and wherever possible relate the findings to other stress models and to those from human studies.

  12. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  13. Leadership behavior changes following a theory-based leadership development intervention: A longitudinal study of subordinates' and leaders' evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gerry; Sandahl, Christer; Söderhjelm, Teresa; Sjövold, Endre; Zander, Ann

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate effects of leadership courses based on the developmental leadership model at the leadership behavioral level. A longitudinal design was employed with assessments before, one and six months after the leadership courses. The sample consisted of 59 leaders who made self-ratings and were rated by at least three subordinates on each occasion. Leadership behaviors were measured with the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ). A limited increase of favorable leadership behaviors and a significant reduction of unfavorable leadership behaviors were found, particularly according to the subordinates' ratings. A cluster analysis yielded three meaningful leader profiles and showed that this pattern was found in all three profiles, irrespective of how favorably they were rated before the onset of the intervention. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Paradox of Power Sharing: Participative Charismatic Leaders have Subordinates with more instead of less Need for Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, R.E.; Pathak, R.D.; Paquin, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Although charismatic and participative leaders have been noted for their positive effects on criteria such as performance, job satisfaction, and commitment, few studies have looked at the relations with subordinates' leadership needs. In this study, the relations between charismatic and participative leadership, team outcomes, and a team's need for leadership were investigated. The sample consisted of South Pacific CEOs and their top-level management teams from Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu, an...

  15. Bed site selection by a subordinate predator: an example with the cougar (Puma concolor) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusler, Anna; Elbroch, L Mark; Quigley, Howard; Grigione, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    As technology has improved, our ability to study cryptic animal behavior has increased. Bed site selection is one such example. Among prey species, bed site selection provides thermoregulatory benefits and mitigates predation risk, and may directly influence survival. We conducted research to test whether a subordinate carnivore also selected beds with similar characteristics in an ecosystem supporting a multi-species guild of competing predators. We employed a model comparison approach in which we tested whether cougar (Puma concolor) bed site attributes supported the thermoregulatory versus the predator avoidance hypotheses, or exhibited characteristics supporting both hypotheses. Between 2012-2016, we investigated 599 cougar bed sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and examined attributes at two scales: the landscape (second-order, n = 599) and the microsite (fourth order, n = 140). At the landscape scale, cougars selected bed sites in winter that supported both the thermoregulatory and predator avoidance hypotheses: bed sites were on steeper slopes but at lower elevations, closer to the forest edge, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat types, and on southern, eastern, and western-facing slopes. In the summer, bed attributes supported the predator avoidance hypothesis over the thermoregulation hypothesis: beds were closer to forest edges, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat classes, and on steeper slopes. At the microsite scale, cougar bed attributes in both the winter and summer supported both the predator avoidance and thermoregulatory hypotheses: they selected bed sites with high canopy cover, high vegetative concealment, and in a rugged habitat class characterized by cliff bands and talus fields. We found that just like prey species, a subordinate predator selected bed sites that facilitated both thermoregulatory and anti-predator functions. In conclusion, we believe that measuring bed site attributes may provide a novel means of measuring the

  16. Bed site selection by a subordinate predator: an example with the cougar (Puma concolor in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kusler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As technology has improved, our ability to study cryptic animal behavior has increased. Bed site selection is one such example. Among prey species, bed site selection provides thermoregulatory benefits and mitigates predation risk, and may directly influence survival. We conducted research to test whether a subordinate carnivore also selected beds with similar characteristics in an ecosystem supporting a multi-species guild of competing predators. We employed a model comparison approach in which we tested whether cougar (Puma concolor bed site attributes supported the thermoregulatory versus the predator avoidance hypotheses, or exhibited characteristics supporting both hypotheses. Between 2012–2016, we investigated 599 cougar bed sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and examined attributes at two scales: the landscape (second-order, n = 599 and the microsite (fourth order, n = 140. At the landscape scale, cougars selected bed sites in winter that supported both the thermoregulatory and predator avoidance hypotheses: bed sites were on steeper slopes but at lower elevations, closer to the forest edge, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat types, and on southern, eastern, and western-facing slopes. In the summer, bed attributes supported the predator avoidance hypothesis over the thermoregulation hypothesis: beds were closer to forest edges, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat classes, and on steeper slopes. At the microsite scale, cougar bed attributes in both the winter and summer supported both the predator avoidance and thermoregulatory hypotheses: they selected bed sites with high canopy cover, high vegetative concealment, and in a rugged habitat class characterized by cliff bands and talus fields. We found that just like prey species, a subordinate predator selected bed sites that facilitated both thermoregulatory and anti-predator functions. In conclusion, we believe that measuring bed site attributes may provide a novel

  17. Production supervisor impacts on subordinates' safety outcomes: an investigation of leader-member exchange and safety communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Judd H; Guo, Zhen George; Wiedenbeck, Janice K; Ray, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Supervisors are increasingly important to the functioning of manufacturing operations, in large part due to their role as leaders. While supervisors' relations and communication with their subordinates are known to be important in influencing subordinates' behavior, little is known about how these two factors will impact subordinates' safety. This study investigated how much each factor contributes to safety-related outcomes for blue-collar production employees. Production employees at five Pennsylvania wood manufacturers completed a survey during their work shift. Five hundred and ninety eight employees provided data on leader-member exchange (LMX), safety communication, and safety-related events. Archival data on OSHA recordables were also obtained from the producers' human resources database. Analyses found that the influence of LMX was greater than that of safety communication in predicting safety-related events. Neither LMX nor safety communication was significantly related to OSHA recordables. Results also demonstrated that employee job satisfaction and demographic variables such as gender and age have safety implications. Results from this study further emphasize the importance of production supervisors and illustrate the potential role of leader-member exchange in enhancing workplace safety. Specifically, organizations should foster positive social exchange between their employees and supervisors and enhance the leadership qualities of supervisors to help reduce workplace injuries.

  18. Relationship between nurses and physicians in terms of organizational culture: who is responsible for subordination of nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skela Savic, Brigita; Pagon, Milan

    2008-06-01

    To investigate how nurses and physicians perceive organizational culture, their integration into the organizational processes, and relations within a health care team. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 106 physicians and 558 nurses from 14 Slovenian hospitals in December 2005. The hospitals were randomly selected. We distributed the questionnaires on the same day to physicians and nurses during a morning shift. The total number of distributed questionnaires represented a 20% of each personnel category at each hospital. The following variables were studied: organizational culture, integration of nurses and physicians in hospital processes, and subordination of nurses to physicians. Physicians and nurses favored a culture of internal focus, stability, and control. Both groups estimated that they had a low level of personal involvement in their organizations and indicated insufficient involvement in work teams, while nurses also felt that they were subordinated (mean+/-standard deviation, 3.6+/-0.9 on a scale from 1 to 5) to physicians (2.7+/-1.0; Porientation correlated positively with the subordination of nurses (PPmarket culture, level of personal involvement, and the level of education. Our research showed that the professional growth of nurses was mainly threatened by organizational factors such as hierarchy, control orientation, a lack of cooperation and team building between physicians and nurses, as well as insufficient inclusion of both physicians and nurses into change implementation activities.

  19. Third-Order Differential Subordination and Superordination Results for Meromorphically Multivalent Functions Associated with the Liu-Srivastava Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many articles in the literature dealing with the first-order and the second-order differential subordination and superordination problems for analytic functions in the unit disk, but only a few articles are dealing with the above problems in the third-order case (see, e.g., Antonino and Miller (2011 and Ponnusamy et al. (1992. The concept of the third-order differential subordination in the unit disk was introduced by Antonino and Miller in (2011. Let Ω be a set in the complex plane C. Also let p be analytic in the unit disk U=z:z∈C  and  z<1 and suppose that ψ:C4×U→C. In this paper, we investigate the problem of determining properties of functions p(z that satisfy the following third-order differential superordination: Ω⊂ψpz,zp′z,z2p′′z,z3p′′′z;z:z∈U. As applications, we derive some third-order differential subordination and superordination results for meromorphically multivalent functions, which are defined by a family of convolution operators involving the Liu-Srivastava operator. The results are obtained by considering suitable classes of admissible functions.

  20. Organizational environment factors associated with corporate social responsibility: effects on communication and guanxi relationship between supervisors and subordinates in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward WONG SEK KHIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication within an organization as part of CSR benchmarking factor that helps align employee expectations facilitates problem solving, builds cooperative relationships and channels employee efforts to achieve common goals. This paper seeks to determine how CSR benchmarking factors of the organizational environment (such as management style, organizational structure and workplace culture affect the effectiveness of intra-organizational communication and to examine the moderating effect of supervisor – subordinate guanxi. Data for the study was collected using self-administered questionnaires from working respondents in Kuala Lumpur in Selangor State, Malaysia. This study found that a more participative management style, less formalized organizational structure of SMEs and a healthier workplace culture are positively related to intra-organizational communication effectiveness. It was also discovered that the supervisor – subordinate relationship known as guanxi, has a positive moderating effect on all three relationships between management style, organizational structure and workplace culture with intra-organizational communication effectiveness. This study concludes that an organization’s management attitude towards employee participation, formalization of structure and healthiness of culture play important roles in encouraging effective communication and close supervisor – subordinate guanxi and further promotes communication, in addition to the mentioned environmental conditions.

  1. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  2. Brain levels of arginine-vasotocin and isotocin in dominant and subordinate males of a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Olinda; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-02-01

    The nonapeptides arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), which are the teleost homologues of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin in mammals, have well established peripheral effects on osmoregulation and stress response, and central effects on social behavior. However, all studies that have looked so far into the relationship between these nonapeptides and social behavior have used indirect measures of AVT/IT activity (i.e. immunohistochemistry of AVT/IT immunoreactive neurons, or AVT/IT or their receptors mRNA expression with in situ hybridization or qPCR) and therefore direct measures of peptide levels in relation to social behavior are still lacking. Here we use a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) method to quantify the levels of both AVT and IT in macro-dissected brain areas [i.e. olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and hindbrain (= rhombencephalon minus cerebellum)] and pituitary of dominant and subordinate male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The pituitary shows higher levels of both peptides than any of the brain macroareas, and the olfactory bulbs have the highest AVT among all brain areas. Except for IT in the telencephalon there is a lack of correlations between central levels and pituitary peptide levels, suggesting an independent control of hypophysial and CNS nonapeptide secretion. There were also no correlations between AVT and IT levels either for each brain region or for the pituitary gland, suggesting a decoupled activity of the AVT and IT systems at the CNS level. Subordinate AVT pituitary levels are significantly higher than those of dominants, and dominant hindbrain IT levels are significantly higher than those of subordinates, suggesting a potential involvement of AVT in social stress in subordinate fish and of IT in the regulation of dominant behavior at the level of the hindbrain. Since in this species dominant males use urine

  3. Factors affecting fecal glucocorticoid levels in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2008-11-01

    Subordinate female cercopithecine primates often experience decreased reproductive success in comparison with high-ranking females, with a later age at sexual maturity and first reproduction and/or longer interbirth intervals. One explanation that has traditionally been advanced to explain this is high levels of chronic social stress in subordinates, resulting from agonistic and aggressive interactions and leading to higher basal levels of glucocorticoids. We assessed the relationships among fecal cortisol levels and reproductive condition, dominance rank, degree of social support, and fertility in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semi-free-ranging colony in Franceville, Gabon. Lower-ranking females in this colony have a reproductive disadvantage relative to higher-ranking females, and we were interested in determining whether this relationship between dominance rank and reproductive success is mediated through stress hormones. We analyzed 340 fecal samples from 19 females, collected over a 14-month period. We found that pregnant females experienced higher fecal cortisol levels than cycling or lactating females. This is similar to results for other primate species and is likely owing to increased metabolic demands and interactions between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, estrogen, and placental production of corticotrophin releasing hormones during pregnancy. There was no influence of dominance rank on fecal cortisol levels, suggesting that subordinate females do not suffer chronic stress. This may be because female mandrills have a stable social hierarchy, with low levels of aggression and high social support. However, we found no relationship between matriline size, as a measure of social support, and fecal cortisol levels. Subordinates may be able to avoid aggression from dominants in the large enclosure or may react only transiently to specific aggressive events, rather than continuously expecting them. Finally, we found no relationship

  4. The Female Experience of the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owczarek Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the problem of the transformation of the female self from the ethnocentric stage to the ethnorelative stage, as portrayed in Osa Johnson’s “autobiographical” account of her trips in the book I married adventure. The author attempts to show the metamorphosis of the protagonist by relating her experiences to the developmental model of cultural sensitivity, as proposed by M.J. Bennett. It is argued that the protagonist assumes the role of the Other in relation to her husband in the same way that indigenous people appear as the Other in relation to the protagonist. The slight yet detectable change in her perception of the Other constitutes an attempt to liberate herself from the position of the subordinate white female.

  5. Gene expression of serotonin and dopamine receptors and monoamine oxidase-A in the brain of dominant and subordinate pubertal domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) fed a β-adrenoreceptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Meisel, Robert L; Richert, Brian T; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N

    2011-03-24

    Aggression is a major source of social stress with negative effects on health and well-being, yet limited information is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating aggressive behavior in swine. Ractopamine (RAC) is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist that enhances growth but increases aggressive behaviors in female pigs. Thus, the effects of RAC, sex, and social rank on the mRNA abundance of genes encoding serotonin and dopamine receptors, and monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A in brains of sub-adult pigs were evaluated. Top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16/sex) in pens of 4 pigs were determined, and fed either the control or RAC diets. At day 31, their raphe nuclei (RN), amygdala (AMY), frontal cortex (FC), and hypothalamus (HYP) were dissected; relative mRNA abundance for 5-HT₁(B), 5-HT₂(A), 5-HT₂(B), and D₁ receptors, and MAO-A was determined by Q-RT-PCR and data subjected to multivariate linear mixed model analysis and Tukey post-hoc test. Expression of 5-HT₁(B) and MAO-A was suppressed in the AMY of female pigs; 5-HT₂(B) expression was also suppressed in the RN, FC and HYP of females and RN of dominant pigs (P brain of pigs, especially in females independent of social rank, may be mediating the inter-individual offensive aggression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Wielding and yielding : power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM

  7. Female Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P080002. Accessed Nov. 13, 2014. Female condom About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. General job performance of first-line supervisors: the role of conscientiousness in determining its effects on subordinate exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sara Jansen; Rubino, Cristina; Witt, L A

    2011-04-01

    In an integrated test of the job demands-resources model and trait activation theory, we predicted that the general job performance of employees who also hold supervisory roles may act as a demand to subordinates, depending on levels of subordinate conscientiousness. In a sample of 313 customer service call centre employees, we found that high-conscientiousness individuals were more likely to experience emotional exhaustion, and low-conscientiousness individuals were less likely as the general job performance of their supervisor improved. The results were curvilinear, such that high-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off with very high supervisor performance (two standard deviations above the mean), and low-conscientiousness individuals' exhaustion levelled off as supervisor performance improved from moderate to high. These findings suggest high-conscientiousness employees may efficiently handle demands presented by a low-performing coworker who is their boss, but when performance expectations are high (i.e. high-performing boss), these achievement-oriented employees may direct their resources (i.e. energy and time) towards performance-related efforts at the expense of their well-being. Conversely, low-conscientiousness employees suffer when paired with a low-performing boss, but benefit from a supervisor who demonstrates at least moderate job performance.

  9. Are all types of expertise created equal? Car experts use different spatial frequency scales for subordinate categorization of cars and faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Harel

    Full Text Available A much-debated question in object recognition is whether expertise for faces and expertise for non-face objects utilize common perceptual information. We investigated this issue by assessing the diagnostic information required for different types of expertise. Specifically, we asked whether face categorization and expert car categorization at the subordinate level relies on the same spatial frequency (SF scales. Fifteen car experts and fifteen novices performed a category verification task with spatially filtered images of faces, cars, and airplanes. Images were categorized based on their basic (e.g. "car" and subordinate level (e.g. "Japanese car" identity. The effect of expertise was not evident when objects were categorized at the basic level. However, when the car experts categorized faces and cars at the subordinate level, the two types of expertise required different kinds of SF information. Subordinate categorization of faces relied on low SFs more than on high SFs, whereas subordinate expert car categorization relied on high SFs more than on low SFs. These findings suggest that expertise in the recognition of objects and faces do not utilize the same type of information. Rather, different types of expertise require different types of diagnostic visual information.

  10. The adjectival subordinate clause in the production of meaning in the text: the prospect of Portuguese textbooks in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliana Lopes Câmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how Portuguese textbooks of high school, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2015, approach the teaching of adjectival subordinate clause. Several researchers (Bagno, 2011; Neves, 2011; Travaglia, 2009, 2011 address the issue of grammar teaching, questioning the mechanistic and traditional teaching of identification and classification of linguistic units (morphological and syntactic. These authors argue the articulation of grammar with the teaching of reader and writer skills, so that linguistic resources are studied in mobilizing effects of meaning in the textual construction. The choice of textbooks corpus, therefore, was determined by the grammar teaching proposal explicitly stated in the manuals for the teacher (part attached to the textbook, under which linguistic resources are subsidiary to the reading and writing teaching. First we compare the proposal of manuals on the teaching of grammar and what was accomplished in the book of the student, more specifically on the proposals for the teaching of adjectival subordinate clause. Then, from the study on the functional description of the adjectival subordinate clause (Câmara, 2015, which is based on Functional Discourse Grammar (Hengeveld e Mackenzie, 2008, we studied how some descriptive aspects can be subsidiary for the teaching of the adjective clause, aiming at the development of reading and writing skills. The reason for the choice of this theoretical support is the fact that grammar is hierarchically structured in levels and layers of linguistic analysis, and the pragmatic units determine the semantic units, which in turn determine the morphosyntactic units which, in turn, determine the phonological units. The data show that remains, in the educational proposals of the relative clause in high school textbooks, a grammar teaching that focuses primarily in the nomenclature, metalanguage and in the normative grammar rules. There isn’t many

  11. A Model of Adding Relations in Multi-levels to a Formal Organization Structure with Two Subordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kiyoshi; Amano, Kazuyuki

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a model of adding relations in multi-levels to a formal organization structure with two subordinates such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between every pair of nodes with the same depth in L (L = 1, 2, …, H) levels are added to a complete binary tree of height H, an optimal set of depths {N1, N2, …, NL} (H⩾N1>N2> …>NL⩾1) is obtained by maximizing the total shortening path length which is the sum of shortening lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes in the complete binary tree. It is shown that {N1, N2, …, NL}* = {H, H-1, …, H-L+1}.

  12. Aggressiveness and brain amine concentration in dominant and subordinate finishing pigs fed the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, R; Cheng, H W; Meisel, R L; Garner, J P; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N

    2010-09-01

    Under farm conditions, aggression related to the formation of social hierarchy and competition for resources can be a major problem because of associated injuries, social stress, and carcass losses. Any factor that may affect the regulation and amount of aggression within a farmed system, for instance, feeding the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine (RAC), is therefore worthy of investigation. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of the widely used swine feed additive RAC, considering also the effects of sex and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines, neurotransmitters essential for controlling aggression, in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen by sex) were fed either a control diet or a diet with RAC (Paylean, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) added (5 mg/kg for 2 wk, followed by 10 mg/kg for 2 wk). The top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16 pigs/sex) in each pen were determined after mixing by a 36-h period of continuous behavioral observation. These pigs were then subjected to resident-intruder tests (maximum 300 s) during the feeding trial to measure aggressiveness. At the end of wk 4, the amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and raphe nuclei were dissected and analyzed for concentrations of dopamine (DA); serotonin (5-HT); their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively; norepinephrine; and epinephrine using HPLC. Ractopamine-fed gilts performed more attacks during the first 30 s of testing than pigs in all other subgroups (P dominant control gilts and barrows, and both dominant and subordinate RAC-fed gilts performed the greatest percentage of attacks (P brain 5-HT synthesis) of dominant gilts (P brain monoamine profiling of a deficient serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei, amygdala, and frontal cortex, and enhanced DA metabolism in the amygdala, brain areas vital for aggression

  13. Contrasting patterns of comprehension for superordinate, basic-level, and subordinate names in semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2008-06-01

    It is well established that patients with semantic memory impairment show a relative sparing of general superordinate information as compared with more detailed item-specific information. The objective of the current study was to examine whether or not this superordinate superiority effect is also reliably observed in individuals with stroke. The participants were 3 patients with a diagnosis of semantic dementia (SD) and 4 left middle cerebral artery stroke patients. In the first experiment, participants were administered a series of spoken-word-picture matching tasks, in which picture identity was probed under two conditions: item name (e.g., goose, beetle, shark, hedgehog) and superordinate name (e.g., bird, insect, fish, mammal). The SD patients showed the predicted pattern of performance, identifying stimuli significantly more accurately by their superordinate term than by their specific name. By contrast, the stroke patients showed the reverse pattern of inferior performance in the superordinate condition in all versions of the experimental task. In a second experiment comparing comprehension ofbasic-level names (e.g., dog, bird, fish) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Dalmatian, sparrow, trout), stroke patients also showed a reversal of the normal basic-level effect, showing less accurate comprehension of basic-level names. The pattern of results documented among the stroke patients cannot be accommodated obviously or readily by existing models of conceptual knowledge. These contrasting abilities of SD patients, stroke patients, and normal healthy participants to process subordinate, basic-level, and superordinate names are considered in relation to disorders of executive processing and taxonomic categorization.

  14. Female Genital Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Health Topics Female genital cutting Female genital cutting > A-Z Health Topics Female genital cutting fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Female genital cutting Female genital cutting (FGC), sometimes called female circumcision ...

  15. Female aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Esposito Sorpreso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Female aging is a process that involves hypoestrogenism time, the individual impact on each woman, and what we can do as experts to reduce morbidity and provide quality of life. This natural process in the female life cycle has been of concern to women after menopause. Changes in different biophysical and psychosocial aspects, and their individual experiences, have repercussions on the lives of patients seeking specialized and multidisciplinary support to reduce the harmful effects of prolonged hypoestrogenism. Overweight and obesity, inadequate living habits and the presence of multi-morbidities cause damage to the quality of life and impact the functional capacity. Behavioral prescription and hormone therapy are among the treatments given to ease symptoms and reduce morbidity. A better understanding of these factors can help identify groups that require more care after menopause.

  16. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  17. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  18. Predictors of insubordinate aggression among captive female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Shannon K; Hannibal, Darcy L; Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-11-01

    Cercopithicine primates tend to have nepotistic hierarchies characterized by predictable, kinship-based dominance. Although aggression is typically directed down the hierarchy, insubordinate aggression does occur. Insubordination is important to understand because it can precipitate social upheaval and undermine group stability; however, the factors underlying it are not well understood. We test whether key social and demographic variables predict insubordination among captive female rhesus macaques. To identify factors influencing insubordination, multivariate analyses of 10,821 dyadic conflicts among rhesus macaque females were conducted, using data from six captive groups. A segmented regression analysis was used to identify dyads with insubordination. Negative binomial regression analyses and an information theoretic approach were used to assess predictors of insubordination among dyads. In the best models, weight difference (w = 1.0; IRR = 0.930), age (dominant: w = 1.0, IRR = 0.681; subordinate: w = 1.0, IRR = 1.069), the subordinate's total number of allies (w = 0.727, IRR = 1.060) or non-kin allies (w = 0.273, IRR = 1.165), the interaction of the dominant's kin allies and weight difference (w = 0.938, IRR = 1.046), violation of youngest ascendancy (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.727), and the subordinate's maternal support (w = 1.0; IRR = 2.928), are important predictors of insubordination. These results show that both intrinsic and social factors influence insubordinate behavior. This adds to evidence of the importance of intrinsic factors and flexibility in a social structure thought to be rigid and predetermined by external factors. Further, because insubordination can precipitate social overthrow, determining predictors of insubordination will shed light on mechanisms underlying stability in nepotistic societies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader’s Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; De Cremer, D.; van Dijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader–subordinate relationships, and whether a leader’s self-interest functions as a boundary condition to this effect. A

  20. Conceptualizing Military Acceptance of Civilian Control: Ideological Cohesion, Military Responsibilities, and the Military’s Propensity for Subordination in Brazil and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    control. The last of these variables, the military’s propensity for subordination, provides the focal point for the remainder of the paper. After...agreed upon in the Pact of Punto Fijo. They included conciliatory provisions designed to improve state relations between the Catholic Church, business

  1. Dirty Hands Make Dirty Leaders?! The Effects of Touching Dirty Objects on Rewarding Unethical Subordinates as a Function of a Leader's Self-Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Cramwinckel (Florien); D. de Cremer (David); M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the role of social dynamics in moral decision-making and behavior by investigating how physical sensations of dirtiness versus cleanliness influence moral behavior in leader-subordinate relationships, and whether a leader's self-interest functions as a boundary condition to

  2. Androgen levels and female social dominance in Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, N; Kappeler, P M; Heistermann, M

    2000-01-01

    Morphological and behavioural traits which improve agonistic power are subject to intrasexual selection and, at the proximate level, are influenced by circulating androgens. Because intrasexual selection in mammals is more intense among males, they typically dominate females. Female social dominance is therefore unexpected and, indeed, rare. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are sexually monomorphic primates in which all adult females dominate all males. The goal of our study was to test the prediction that female dominance in this species is associated with high androgen levels. Using two captive groups, we collected data on agonistic behaviour and non-invasively assessed their androgen concentrations in faeces and saliva by enzyme immunoassay. We found that adult female L. catta do not have higher androgen levels than males. However, during the mating season there was a twofold increase in both the androgen levels and conflict rates among females. This seasonal increase in their androgen levels was probably not due to a general increase in ovarian hormone production because those females showing the strongest signs of follicular development tended to have low androgen concentrations. At the individual level neither the individual aggression rates nor the proportion of same-sexed individuals dominated were correlated with their androgen levels. We conclude that female dominance in ring-tailed lemurs is neither based on physical superiority nor on high androgen levels and that it is equally important to study male subordination and prenatal brain priming effects for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:11007329

  3. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  4. State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2008-07-01

    There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility.

  6. Lexical and syntactic features of the male and female students argumentative essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maico Demi Banate Aperocho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the lexical and syntactic features of the male and female freshman college students using textual analysis method. The argumentative essays written by the 50 purposively selected students were used as subjects for analysis. Students were asked to argue about the statement, “Boys are smarter than girls.” Findings show that the males’ argumentative essays are more complex than those of the girls because males used more words, morphemes, coordinators, and subordinators in their text which, consequently, increased the number of T-units. Also, the study shows that females use lesser words to explain their ideas about the topic.

  7. Blood flow and echotextural differences between the future dominant and subordinate follicles before the beginning of diameter deviation in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Domingues, R R; Siddiqui, M A R; Dangudubiyyam, S V

    2017-09-15

    Diameter deviation is the beginning of a decrease in growth rate of the largest subordinate follicle (SF) and a continuing growth rate of the dominant follicle (DF). In wave 1 in cattle, deviation begins 2 or 3 days after ovulation when the future DF is about 8.5 mm. Gray scale and power-flow Doppler ultrasound examinations were done in experiment 1 (daily examinations, n = 13) and experiment 2 (examinations every 8 h, n = 15). Blood flow and an anechoic layer in the follicle wall were normalized to the beginning of diameter deviation (day 0 or hour 0). Only waves with conventional diameter deviation (68% of waves) were used as identified by: (1) future SF greater than 7.0 mm when DF was 8.5 mm and (2) future DF and SF did not switch in diameter rank. In experiment 1, deviations in the extent of blood-flow signals and in the extent of anechoic layer began on the same day as deviation in diameter. In experiment 2, deviations in diameter, surface area (πd2), and anechoic layer began in synchrony, and deviation in blood-flow signals began 16 h earlier. Blood-flow deviation before diameter deviation was shown by (1) a first difference (P anechoic layer was not supported; diameter and anechoic layer deviated in synchrony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nurses and subordination: a historical study of mental nurses’ perceptions on administering aversion therapy for ‘sexual deviations’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Tommy; Cook, Matt; Playle, John; Hallett, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Nurses and subordination: a historical study of mental nurses’ perceptions on administering aversion therapy for ‘sexual deviations’ This study aimed to examine the meanings that nurses attached to the ‘treatments’ administered to cure ‘sexual deviation’ (SD) in the UK, 1935–1974. In the UK, homosexuality was considered a classifiable mental illness that could be ‘cured’ until 1992. Nurses were involved in administering painful and distressing treatments. The study is based on oral history interviews with fifteen nurses who had administered treatments to cure individuals of their SD. The interviews were transcribed for historical interpretation. Some nurses believed that their role was to passively follow any orders they had been given. Other nurses limited their culpability concerning administering these treatments by adopting dehumanising and objectifying language and by focussing on administrative tasks, rather than the human beings in need of their care. Meanwhile, some nurses genuinely believed that they were acting beneficently by administering these distinctly unpleasant treatments. It is envisaged that this study might act to reiterate the need for nurses to ensure their interventions have a sound evidence base and that they constantly reflect on the moral and value base of their practice and the influence that science and societal norms can have on changing views of what is considered ‘acceptable practice’. PMID:23876127

  9. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Near, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games...

  10. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  11. Above- and below-ground vertebrate herbivory may each favour a different subordinate species in an aquatic plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Bert; Nolet, Bart A; de Boer, Thijs; de Vries, Peter P; Klaassen, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    At least two distinct trade-offs are thought to facilitate higher diversity in productive plant communities under herbivory. Higher investment in defence and enhanced colonization potential may both correlate with decreased competitive ability in plants. Herbivory may thus promote coexistence of plant species exhibiting divergent life history strategies. How different seasonally tied herbivore assemblages simultaneously affect plant community composition and diversity is, however, largely unknown. Two contrasting types of herbivory can be distinguished in the aquatic vegetation of the shallow lake Lauwersmeer. In summer, predominantly above-ground tissues are eaten, whereas in winter, waterfowl forage on below-ground plant propagules. In a 4-year exclosure study we experimentally separated above-ground herbivory by waterfowl and large fish in summer from below-ground herbivory by Bewick's swans in winter. We measured the individual and combined effects of both herbivory periods on the composition of the three-species aquatic plant community. Herbivory effect sizes varied considerably from year to year. In 2 years herbivore exclusion in summer reinforced dominance of Potamogeton pectinatus with a concomitant decrease in Potamogeton pusillus, whereas no strong, unequivocal effect was observed in the other 2 years. Winter exclusion, on the other hand, had a negative effect on Zannichellia palustris, but the effect size differed considerably between years. We suggest that the colonization ability of Z. palustris may have enabled this species to be more abundant after reduction of P. pectinatus tuber densities by swans. Evenness decreased due to herbivore exclusion in summer. We conclude that seasonally tied above- and below-ground herbivory may each stimulate different components of a macrophyte community as they each favoured a different subordinate plant species.

  12. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Whiteside

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our

  13. Anovulation in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteno, A J; Bennett, N C

    2000-05-01

    Within colonies of Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis), anovulation in non-reproductive females is thought to play an important role in maintaining reproductive skew. Pituitary sensitivity and ovarian structure were examined in three groups of females that differed with respect to their social environment and breeding status to determine whether anovulation is due to inhibitory social cues or is merely the result of a lack of copulatory stimulation. The contribution of gonadal steroid negative feedback to neuroendocrine differences in the reproductive systems of the respective groups was also investigated. LH secretion after a 0.5 micrograms GnRH challenge in females that had been removed from the presence of the breeding individuals for at least 6 months (removed non-reproductive females) was significantly higher than in non-reproductive females in the colony, but significantly lower than in reproductive females. In both removed non-reproductive females and reproductive females, corpora lutea were observed in ovaries of seven of eight females, indicating that ovulation occurs spontaneously in subordinate females on removal from the breeding pair. Circulating progesterone concentrations in removed non-reproductive females were significantly higher than in non-reproductive females, indicating that circulating progesterone is not responsible for infertility in non-reproductive females. Indeed, after hystero-ovariectomy, reproductive females continued to show significantly greater GnRH-stimulated LH secretion than non-reproductive females. Thus, differential inhibition of gonadotrophin secretion in breeding and non-breeding females occurs independently of gonadal steroids. It is concluded that female Damaraland mole-rats are spontaneous ovulators and that anovulation results from inhibitory social cues within the colony, not a lack of copulatory stimulation. Since non-reproductive females are infertile, inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has

  14. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  15. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  16. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  17. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  18. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  19. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  20. El subjuntivo introducido por verbos y el problema de las “oraciones sustantivas” / Subjunctive introduced by verbs and the problem of “subordinating clauses”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to explain when a subjunctive should be used in subordinating noun clauses is always a problem in an SSL class since they do not behave in the same way as other subordinate clauses which, in spite of having a great variety of uses, are very well defined thanks in part to the fact that their classification is based on their syntactic function and not on a classification of verbs based on semantics. For this reason, in this article we will attempt to provide a new perspective to the study of these clauses, paying attention to their function and behavior, and not to the meaning of the verb that introduces them, all in search of a workable systematization for students and teachers of Spanish.RESUMEN: Intentar explicar cuándo debe aparecer un subjuntivo en las oraciones subordinadas sustantivas en la clase de E/Le siempre es un problema, puesto que no se comportan de igual forma que el resto de subordinadas en las que a pesar de haber una amplia variedad de usos, están bien definidas gracias en parte a que su clasificación se debe a su función sintáctica y no a una clasificación de verbos basada en la semántica. Por este motivo, a lo largo de estas líneas vamos a intentar aportar una nueva perspectiva al estudio de estas oraciones sustantivas atendiendo a sus funciones y comportamientos, y no al significado del verbo que las introducen, en busca de una sistematización práctica para los estudiantes y docentes de español.

  1. De la recherche salariée en France : lien de subordination et liberté de la recherche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Perrin-Joly

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Au travers de l’expérience d’une thèse de sociologie menée en entreprise (sous convention industrielle de formation par la recherche, nous chercherons en quoi le lien de subordination attaché au salariat et la dépendance économique associée nuisent à la liberté de la recherche, le sociologue ne pouvant s’appuyer sur les ressources d’une profession constituée ou s’intégrer dans une organisation logocratique. Le chercheur, pris entre des injonctions dissonantes risque de favoriser son intérêt personnel à court terme de salarié, parfois au détriment de celui attaché à sa position de sociologue, pour rendre la situation tenable. Les liens qui se créent avec la mise en place de relations de travail approfondies et du fait de l’intégration dans des logiques de pouvoir internes gênent également la distance affective nécessaire à la co-construction des résultats.About salary research in France: subordination link and freedom researchBased on a PhD done within a company (with special French contract named CIFRE, this article deals with how subordination link in salary and economic dependency harm research’s freedom. In fact, sociologist can neither draw on a system of profession resources, nor be integrated into a “logocratic firm”. The researcher which undergoes paradoxical injunctions risks promoting his own short-term salary interest to the detriment of scientific interest, in order to make the situation bearable. Furthermore, the affective distance necessary to achieve results - with people concerned by the request (“co-construction”, is affected by close working relationships and socially-influenced relationships.De la investigación asalariada en Francia: vínculo de subordinación entre libertad e investigaciónMediante  la experiencia de una tesis sociológica llevada a cabo en una empresa (bajo convención industrial de formación por investigación, buscaremos la forma en la que el vínculo de

  2. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  3. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  4. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  5. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Reward Behavior by Male and Female Leaders: A Causal Inference Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew D.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated causal inferences between leader reward behavior and subordinate goal attainment, absenteeism, and work satisfaction. Results revealed that no significant differences were attributed to sex and that the leader reward behavior and subordinate attitudes and behavior were independent of the effects of sex of supervisor or subordinate.…

  7. Do Low-quality Leader-Member Relationships Matter for Subordinates? Evidence from Three Samples on the Validity of the Norwegian LMX Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Furunes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories on the relations between leaders and subordinates have been of interest to researchers for decades; however, these theories have received less attention in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study is twofold: to investigate the validity of the Leader-Member-Exchange Scale, LMX-7, in three Norwegian samples, and to explore potentially negative relationships between leader–member relationships and work-environment quality indicators. Data were collected from teachers (n = 409, industrial workers (n = 406, and bus drivers (n = 1024. All hypotheses were supported. Results supported use of the measure LMX-7 as indicated by factor structure, high construct validity, sufficient criterion-related validity, discriminant validity, and internal reliability as measured by Cronbach’s alpha above 0.90. Poor quality relationships were associated with higher levels of role conflict, stress, bullying, turnover intentions, age discrimination, and negative affectivity, and lower levels of job satisfaction, commitment, skills utilization, autonomy, participation, perceived fairness, and social support. Potential consequences of low-quality relations and implications of findings are discussed.

  8. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula Kösters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses.

  9. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  10. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.Girls and women may be at risk for the female athlete triad if they:are a competitive athleteplay sports that require them to maintain a certain weight ...

  11. Inbreeding Promotes Female Promiscuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Łukasz Michalczyk; Anna L. Millard; Oliver Y. Martin; Alyson J. Lumley; Brent C. Emerson; Tracey Chapman; Matthew J. G. Gage

    2011-01-01

    .... Using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we identify major fitness benefits of polyandry to females under inbreeding, when the risks of fertilization by incompatible male haplotypes are especially high...

  12. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  13. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  14. Female bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use objects to solicit the sexual partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Di Bernardi, Cecilia; Marino, Luca A; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Female wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) that use stone and stick tools during foraging occasionally toss or throw stones at the male during courtship. We report similar behaviors in a different population that uses stones as tools in foraging. We video-recorded the sexual behavior of four females (27 days during nine proceptive periods) belonging to a group of wild capuchins living in Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV), 320 km from SCNP. Three females used stones or branches when they solicited the alpha male (79 episodes). The female that did not use objects was the sole female to solicit a subordinate male. The vast majority of episodes (95%) involved pushing or dropping branches, both loose and attached to the tree, toward the male. Females used objects only during the one-way courtship phase, before the male reciprocated the female's solicitations. In 93% of the episodes in which a female used objects, she performed affiliative behaviors immediately before or after using the objects. We conclude that throwing or pounding stones and pushing or dropping branches by females in SCNP and FBV in the sexual context have a clear affiliative meaning (to attract the male's attention). Given the tool-using status of both populations where these behaviors have been reported, it is important to determine whether they appear in populations that do not use tools, or are restricted to populations already primed to use objects in other contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  16. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  17. Stalking by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.

  18. Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

    2011-12-01

    Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

  19. Interval Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S

    2018-01-01

    Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.

  20. Fighting Back Against the Encroachment of Patriarchal Power on Female Domains in Wuthering Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Akcesme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wuthering Heights can be read as a novel of warfare against women and women-associated spaces to be conquered to prove male superiority, authority and power. This paper aims to discuss how Emily Bronte challenged not only the established Victorian literary traditions but also the prevailing ideals of the Victorian society by subverting the hierarchically constructed power and gender relations with an emphasis on various strategies employed by Heathcliff and Edgar in the war they launch against nature, property and women to conquer, possess and control domestic households, external nature and female body. Their strategies include reductionism which includes the commodification and objectification of female body, separation of women from their female bond, family and female spaces, physical and emotional uprooting which causes the loss of independence, self-confidence and positive self-image, masculinization of nature and home, brutalization through which the female characters are exposed to male violence and oppression and destruction of a sense of security, commitment and resistance. The female characters are disconnected not only from their domestic households and nature but also from female bonds. The sense of placelessness and homelessness along with the lack of female solidarity is aggravated by transforming home and the natural world into an imprisoning, dominating and tyrannical web for women. Bronte ends the novel with a hope that subjugation and subordination does not have to be the inevitable destiny for women who can fight back to restructure the existing power relations and reclaim their bodies and home along with nature turned against them.

  1. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges from 0.6% up to 98%. It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. Objectives: To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt 2013. Methods: A ...

  2. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  3. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    SUICIDE TERRORISM by Zane K. Crawford June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Tristan Mabry Second Reader: Thomas Johnson THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT......the 20th century. This thesis focuses on one product of this alliance: the emergence of female suicide terrorism (FST) in the first (1994–1996) and

  4. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a lasting effect on how strong a woman's bones are later in life. Who Gets Female Athlete Triad? Many girls have concerns about the size and shape of their bodies. But being a highly competitive athlete and participating in a sport that requires you to train extra hard can ...

  5. Female Genital Mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    female genital organs for non-medical. 1 reasons . This practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often perform other central and crucial roles in communities, such as attending to. 1,2 childbirths . An estimated 100–140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of. 2,3.

  6. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  7. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  8. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  9. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is

  10. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; pmasculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not representative to the general population. Self-reports of the participants were not validated by a clinical evaluation. The results suggest that male depression might also be highly prevalent in females, at least in university students. This can be explained by a growing social acceptance of aggression in women, by a greater

  11. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista

    2013-12-01

    To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the

  12. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  13. Female urethral dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony; Abou-Ghannam, Gael; Khauli, Raja

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to review the subject of urethral dilation (UD) in female patients and to conduct a critical appraisal of the available evidence for its use. We used an online search of electronic databases. UD has been cited as a treatment option for various conditions that do not share common etiologies and that affect the lower urinary tract in female patients. Outcome measurement was not consistent, even when performed for the same conditions. A total of six randomized controlled trials failed to prove any benefit for UD in repetitive urinary tract infections (UTI), urethral syndrome, and overactive bladder. Conflicting results and diverse opinions have characterized the use of UD until present time. Professional societies are urged to attend to this issue, and to identify possible areas where UD could be potentially investigated.

  14. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    than uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt...uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt.”5...FEMALES AND TOXIC LEADERSHIP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in

  15. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  16. The history of female ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Joanna B; Goldstein, Sue W; Sommer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The existence of female ejaculation and the female prostate is controversial; however, most scientists are not aware that historians of medicine and psychology described the phenomenon of female ejaculation approximately 2,000 years ago. To review historical literature in which female ejaculation is described. A comprehensive systematic literature review. Emission of fluid at the acme of orgasm and/or sexual pleasure in females was considered as a description of female ejaculation and therefore all documents referring to this phenomenon are included. Physicians, anatomists, and psychologists in both eastern and western culture have described intellectual concepts of female ejaculation during orgasm. In ancient Asia female ejaculation was very well known and mentioned in several Chinese Taoist texts starting in the 4th century. The ancient Chinese concept of female ejaculation as independent of reproduction was supported by ancient Indian writings. First mentioned in a 7th century poem, female ejaculation and the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) are described in detail in most works of the Kāmaśāstra. In ancient Western writings the emission of female fluid is mentioned even earlier, depicted about 300 B.C. by Aristotle and in the 2nd century by Galen. Reinjier De Graaf in the 16th century provided the first scientific description of female ejaculation and was the first to refer to the periurethral glands as the female prostate. This concept was held by other scientists during the following centuries through 1952 A.D. when Ernst Gräfenberg reported on "The role of the urethra in female orgasm. Current research provides insight into the anatomy of the female prostate and describes female ejaculation as one of its functions. Credible evidence exists among different cultures that the female prostate and female ejaculation have been discovered, described and then forgotten over the last 2,000 years.

  17. India bans female feticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Z

    1994-08-13

    About 70% of all abortions performed in Delhi, India, are terminations due to the fetus being female. Private clinics make a profit out of offering sex determination tests. The new bill (the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill) introduced in Lok Sabha by Deputy Health Minister Pawan Singh Ghatowatr would stop "sex determination shops" from helping parents and medical practitioners terminate female pregnancies. Prenatal diagnostic tests would be administered only to detect genetic and congenital abnormalities. Physicians would not be allowed to reveal the sex of the fetus unless it was linked to a sex disorder. Women's rights groups have campaigned for such a bill that forbids prenatal sex determination. Abortions based on the sex of the fetus are currently banned under Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution as a violation of women's rights. The new bill would punish doctors who offer to identify the sex of the fetus by taking their names off the official medical register and imprisoning them for 3 years and fining them 10,000 rupees or 200 pounds. Pregnant women who undergo tests would also be punished with the same fine and prison term. Dr. Geeta Dwivedi, a medical physician with the Lucknow branch of the India Family Planning Association, reported that few tests are conducted for the sake of the health and well-being of the fetus. Female feticide is practiced because girls are viewed as an economic burden due to dowry practices and male children are valued for old age support and carrying on the family trade. The sex ratio in India is 927 women to 1000 men. The problem with the new legislation is enforcement, which would require oversight of as many as 2000 clinics in Delhi alone. It is anticipated that clinics would be uncooperative in complying with such a law because their self-interest is at stake.

  18. Interpretation of the Revealed Word by the Tradition of the Church – the Issue of Subordination of Woman to Man in the Saint Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians (Eph 5 : 21–33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vojtko

    2016-07-01

    • to the ingenious doctrine of St. Pope John Paul II. in his theology of the body: the relationship between man and woman in marriage is a relationship of mutual subordination in love, reflecting God’s love and symbolizing the relation between Christ and the Church. This relationship is inherently “communio personarum” (communion of persons in which the dissimilarity of women and men is mutually complemented and creates harmony. In this article we wanted to highlight the fact that a return to the inspired biblical texts explained by the Magisterium is a reliable means of obtaining true knowledge even of the thorny issue of conjugal and family life.

  19. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  20. Tradition Versus Female Circumcision: A Study Of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Female circumcision is a culturally sanctioned tradition practiced in many Africa countries and has deleterious consequences on women's health, sexuality and fertility. Objective: To determine the extent of the practice and factors that influence decisions on female circumcision. Methods: The first 700 female ...

  1. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context to...

  2. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail...... both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations....

  3. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genital tuberculosis in females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Angeline Grace

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. A combination of investigations is needed to establish the diagnosis of female genital TB (FGTB. Multidrug anti-TB treatment is the mainstay of management and surgery may be required in advanced cases. Conception rates are low among infertile women with genital TB even after multidrug therapy for TB, and the risk of complications such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage is high. More research is needed on the changing trends in the prevalence and on the appropriate methods for diagnosis of FGTB.

  5. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales. PMID:23467816

  6. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in "hypersexualized" ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales.

  7. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...

  8. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    in the female germline is a crucial step towards the development of new diagnostic approaches and, possibly, for the development of therapeutic targets and molecules. Here, we have reviewed emerging mechanisms that may drive human aneuploidy, in particular the maternal age effect. SEARCH METHODS We conducted...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  9. Social stress and the polymorphic region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify oestradiol-induced changes on central monoamine concentrations in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, J; Michopoulos, V; Reding, K M; Wilson, M E; Toufexis, D

    2013-04-01

    Psychosocial stress exposure is linked to the disruption of emotional regulation that can manifest as anxiety and depression. Women are more likely to suffer from such psychopathologies than men, indicating that sex-based differences in gonadal steroids may be a key factor in the aetiology of stress-induced adverse health outcomes. Oestradiol (E2 ) positively influences mood and cognition in females, an effect likely related to the ability of E2 to modulate the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, genetic variation as a result of the polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) also can influence the ability of E2 to modulate behaviour and physiology. However, it remains uncertain whether exposure to social stress interacts with the 5HTTLPR to influence E2 -induced changes in behaviour and physiology. The present study used ovariectomised adult female rhesus monkeys to investigate acute and chronic effects of E2 on central monoamine metabolite concentrations using cerobrospinal fluid sampling. We further assessed how E2 -induced changes in monoamine metabolite levels are modified by the unpredictable stress of social subordination and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid decreased significantly during chronic E2 treatment only in dominant females with the long promoter length of SLC6A4. Chronic administration of E2 decreased levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydrophenylacetic acid in a manner independent of the social status, 5HTTLPR genotype, or their interactions. Overall levels of dopamine and serotonin metabolites were increased in subordinate females, although this effect of social stress was not influenced by 5HTTLPR genotype. Together, these data emphasise how E2 can modulate central neurotransmitter systems and indicate that social subordination in female monkeys is a valid model for examining how chronic psychosocial stress

  10. Female dominance status and fecal corticoids in a cooperative breeder with low reproductive skew: ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, S A; Dubovick, T; Levash, W; Jolly, A; Pitts, A

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have shown that low dominance status within a social group is associated with elevated glucocorticoid hormone production, a common index of physiological stress. However, the reverse may be true among cooperatively breeding female mammals with high reproductive skew; that is, high dominance status is associated with elevated glucocorticoid levels. Elevated glucocorticoid levels in these dominant females may be a product of their being the only breeder within a group or may result from other challenges associated with high status. To test this difference, we studied fecal corticoid levels in cooperative breeding females with low reproductive skew (i.e., where reproduction is not limited to dominant group members): ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). We collected behavioral and fecal corticoid data from 39 ring-tailed lemur females from eight groups across three sites. In seven of the eight groups, either one or both of the two most dominant females (ranks 1 and 2) exhibited the highest fecal corticoid levels in the groups. The best predictor of corticoid levels in high-ranking females was the proportion of aggressive agonistic interactions they initiated. For the lower-ranking females the best predictors of elevated corticoid levels were being the recipient of aggressive attacks and being relatively close to one's nearest neighbors. These results differ from many studies of caged male mammals where subordinate individuals often exhibit the highest glucocorticoid levels of a group. Furthermore, the results indicate that reproduction itself is not the primary reason for higher glucocorticoid levels among dominant cooperative-breeding females, but that some other factor must account for these elevated levels.

  11. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Document Server

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  12. [Female child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Andrea; Csorba, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse is 12-13% worldwide (18% by girls, 8% by boys). The exact knowledge of sexual abuse and the spread of the adequate medical diagnosis is an essential medical, social and national requirement. In our present study we examine the medical diagnosis of female child sexual abuse. Selective literature research in the available international and domestic databases. Majority of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse have normal genital and anal findings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of child sexual abuse is a chronic multiple event, caused by a family member. The task of the medical staff is difficult and various, due to the diagnostic challenges of child sexual abuse. The difficulties of the medical diagnosis, evaluation and therapy, the complexity of the legal proceedings and prosecution, the isolation of the profession and the victim and the issue treated like a taboo subject often lead to failure. The physicians dealing with children have suboptimal knowledge of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and perpetretors, the medical diagnosis and therapy of sexual abuse and the rehabilitation of victims. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 910-917.

  13. Endocrinology of female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVall, Sara A; Radovick, Sally

    2009-02-01

    Puberty is the developmental process that culminates in reproductive capability. It is initiated by the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from specialized neurons of the hypothalamus to stimulate hormonal cascades and gonadal activation. The age of pubertal onset in girls may be younger than in previous decades, emphasizing the gaps in knowledge about pubertal onset and factors that modulate it. This review describes the state of the debate on the age of pubertal initiation, recent insights into the physiology of female puberty and its relationship to childhood obesity, and the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons at puberty. Recent studies suggest that the average age of pubertal onset is decreasing in American girls, sparking controversy in defining the age at which puberty is considered precocious. Obese girls have hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia prepubertally, but it is unclear whether these factors play a role in the early onset of puberty in obese girls. The kisspeptin/G protein-coupled receptor 54 pathway is important for pubertal initiation; an activating mutation in the pathway has been associated with precocious puberty. The recent trend toward obesity has been proposed to play a role in the cause of early puberty in girls. The molecular mechanisms that initiate puberty are slowly being elucidated, with the discovery of kisspeptin prompting a novel direction in reproductive research.

  14. Female orgasmic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A female mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Laparotomy for female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, T; Debdas, A K

    1980-05-01

    Laparotomy continues to be the only method available in India for dealing with female infertility. 45 consecutive cases of laparotomy for infertility were collected from among the new and follow-up patients who attended the Gynecological and Antenatal Clinic of Telco Maternity Hospital, Jamshedpur, India over the January 1977 to April 1979 period. Neither human pituitary gonadotropin nor ergobromocryptine were used in this unit. Only clomiphene citrate was used for treatment of infrequent ovulation. None of the patients had prior laparoscopy. All patients taken for laparotomy had transcervical dye test and transuterine injection of saline to check the tubal patency. All patients had healthy husbands. The proportion of primary and secondary infertility in this series was 62.22% and 37.77%, respectively. The single major indication for laparotomy was bilaterally blocked tubes on hysterosalpingogram which was present in 20 cases. Among other indications infrequent ovulation (with or without bilaterally enlarged ovaries) was present in 10 (22.2%) cases. All the 10 patients had clomiphene citrate in the usual regimen for 3 consecutive cycles in increasing doses up to 150 mg a day but without success. In terms of laparotomy findings, in no case was there any evidence of tuberculosis or pelvic endometriosis (apart from the case who had chocolate cyst). In all the 3 cases where the only abnormality was peritubal adhesions preoperative hysterosalpingograms were normal and in all of them laparotomy was performed as a final method of investigation. Of the 12 cases who showed bilateral cornual block in preoperative hysterosalpingogram, tubal patency tests at laparotomy showed unilateral blockage in 4 and no blockage at all in another 4. Of the 13 cases where no lesion was found, the indication of laparotomy was bilateral cornual block (4 cases) and in 9 cases it was performed simply as a method of investigation. In 10 of the 45 cases, the ovaries appeared to be like those

  17. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  18. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed.

  19. Taurodontism in 45,X females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrela, J; Alvesalo, L; Mayhall, J

    1990-02-01

    Orthopantomograms of 87 45,X females, 61 first-degree female relatives of these females, and a population sample of 113 normal females and 44 normal males were examined for the occurrence of taurodontism in mandibular molars. In the sample of 45,X females, two showed taurodont lower molars. In one of them, a hypotaurodont second molar was detected, while hypotaurodont third molars were found in the other. Three of the females' relatives and four of the population control females showed taurodontism, three unilaterally and four bilaterally. In all cases, the affected teeth were hypotaurodont. The results suggest that taurodontism occurs in 45,X females with a frequency similar to that in normal females. This result is not in accordance with the hypothesis that low mitotic activity of the chromosomally abnormal cells is an etiological factor in the development of taurodontism. The present findings, together with earlier results, suggest that the gene content of the X chromosome, rather than the amount of heterochromatin, is the cause of taurodontism in individuals with chromosome aneuploidy.

  20. Male and Female Viewpoints on Female Circumcision in Ekpeye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety five male and female volunteers across the social strata were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables. The study revealed that 74.7% of female respondents were circumcised. They believe that the practice would help prevent sexual promiscuity, curb ...

  1. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  2. A Case of Female Intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... SUMMARY. A case of female intersex was admitted to the hospital with severe lower abdominal pain. ... A 29-year-old Black patient, apparently male, was referred to hospital (for the sake of simplicity the male ... General examination demonstrated the body configura- tion of a well-developed female with ...

  3. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  4. [Influence of evaluations and coping behavior in relationships with supervisors on the psychological stress responses of subordinates: A comparison between full-time workers and students working part-time jobs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomoichiro; Kugihara, Naoki

    2008-06-01

    This research examined workers' and supervisors' evaluations of their relationships and coping behaviors as related to the workers' psychological stress responses. The participants were full-time workers and students working part-time jobs. This study focused on both informal and formal relationships. The results showed that full-time workers who evaluated their informal relationships with their supervisors as being more negative and perceived their supervisors' evaluations as being more positive had greater psychological stress responses. The psychological stress responses of students working part-time jobs were not significantly associated with their evaluations or their supervisors' evaluations. The results for full-time workers indicate that supervisors' positive evaluations of their informal relationships increased the subordinates' psychological stress responses. The proportion of variance attributed to the coping behavior of full-time workers was lower than for students working part-time jobs.

  5. Desire and the female analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference.

  6. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among Indian fertile females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20-47 years were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26-30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology.

  7. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context...... to experiment provisional founder identities, especially if the founder is perceived as a role model. Role models are more likely to be influential, the more similar they are to the focal person, especially if both are minorities, as is the case for women in entrepreneurial environments. We study how joiner...

  8. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  9. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  10. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  11. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  12. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. ACL tears in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Danica N; Solomon, Jennifer L

    2007-08-01

    With the growing number of female athletes, an increase is occurring in the number of sports-related injuries, which can cause physical, psychological, academic, and financial suffering. Female athletes are reported to be two to eight times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Further research on risk factors and preventative strategies for the female ACL is needed, because the cause of the disparity in injury rates remains equivocal and controversial. Individualized treatment for the injured knee is necessary and can include either conservative treatment or reconstructive surgery.

  14. The female runner: gender specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  16. Beyond Phallic Domain: Female Otherness as a Resource for Liberation: Some Notes From Lacanian Psychoanalysis and Poststructuralist Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barrientos, Marcela; Napolitano, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    The article explores the political derivations of psychoanalytical discourse on femininity, starting from the impact of Lacanian positions on feminist thought. The consideration of a dimension of absolute otherness of female sexuality, irreducible to masculinity and to a phallic domain--not-all phallic--theorized by Lacan in the 1970s, opens up many complex issues for the politics of women's liberation. It is a matter of living the absolute difference without either radically excluding it from the speakable or letting it be part of a romantic imagery of the otherness that perpetuates sexual hierarchy and, consequently, female subordination. Taking up the proposal of such authors as Julia Kristeva or Silvia Tubert, we suggest that the Lacanian theory offers the conceptual tools to shift from exclusion to re-volt, from the place of the Other as a pedestal for the Same to a political function of female otherness and of the "not-all" that it represents: a part of the Kultur and its difficulties, but not entangled in it to the point that it cannot bring any innovation.

  17. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  18. Atrial fibrillation and female sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Battaglia, Alberto; Gallo, Cristina; Gili, Sebastiano; Matta, Mario; Castagno, Davide; Ferraris, Federico; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia. Its prevalence increases with age and preferentially affects male patients. Over 75 years of age, however, female patients being more prevalent, the absolute number of patients affected is similar between sexes. Despite this, few data are available in the literature concerning sex-related differences in atrial fibrillation patients. The present systematic review therefore considers comorbidities, referring symptoms, quality of life, pharmacological approaches and trans-catheter ablation in female rather than in male atrial fibrillation patients in search of parameters that may have an impact on the treatment outcome. In brief, female atrial fibrillation patients more commonly present comorbidities, leading to a higher prevalence of persistent atrial fibrillation; moreover, they refer to hospital care later and with a longer disease history. Atrial fibrillation symptoms relate to low quality of life in female patients; in fact, atrial fibrillation paroxysm usually presents higher heart rate, leading to preferentially adopt a rate rather than a rhythm-control strategy. Female atrial fibrillation patients present an increased risk of stroke, worsened by the lower oral anticoagulant prescription rate related to the concomitant higher haemorrhagic risk profile. Trans-catheter ablation is under-used in female patients and, on the contrary, they are more commonly affected by anti-arrhythmic drug side effects.

  19. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  20. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  1. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  2. Female circumcision and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasher, T

    1980-10-01

    WHO (World Health Organization) and a number of professional, national, regional, and other international organizations recently intensified efforts to discourage the practice of female circumcision still extant in several African countries and in isolated areas of the Arabian Peninsula, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Female circumcision is an operation frequently performed on females, between the ages of 5-10, in accordance with religious and cultural traditions. The operaton involves the complete or partial removal of either the clitoris prepuce, glans clitoridis, the clitoris, the labia minora, and labia majora. The operation can result in serious psychological and health problems for the young girls. Immediate complications include surgical shock, hemorrage, infection, tetanus, and damage to the urethera or anus. Late complications include infertility, keloid formation, dermoid Cyst dyspareunia, pelvic infection, and pregnancy complications. In 1976 WHO focused special attention on the problem and in 1979 the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of WHO included a discussion of the problem in the agenda of a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Seminar participants recommended that countries where female circumcision was still practiced should 1) abolish the practice by statute if necessary; 2) establish national commissions to deal with the problem; and 3) educate the public about the dangers of female circumcision. Somalia recently established a national commission on the problem, and the Cairo Society of Family Planning developed a set of recommendations for combating the practice.

  3. Comunicação entre líderes e liderados: visão dos enfermeiros Comunicacion entre lideres y liderados: vision de los enfermeros Communicaton be communicaton betweem leaders and subordinates: nurse's vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Massuda Alves Batista dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    point some failures in their communication, which are probably causing a negative impact on their subordinates. These failures point that there is a need of the leaders to make an effort to understand what is not verbally said by their subordinates, so that the leadership will be effective and the organization's goals.

  4. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  5. Endocannabinoid signaling in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2012-05-16

    Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility.

  6. Decolonizing the Female Sexuality: What Nigerian Female Writers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's experience of oppressions in the sphere of sexuality, it argues, is central to the issue of a liberal existence, and such oppressions are largely premised on traditional epistemologies which are basically patriarchal. Drawing upon various female-authored literary texts from Nigeria, it illustrates how Nigerian feminist ...

  7. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Current address: Al-Madinah, University Road, Taibah Univer- sity, Medical College, Female Section, Saudi Arabia. Tel.: +966. 564864004. E-mail address: manal.azab@gmail.com. Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of. Medicine. Alexandria Journal of Medicine (2016) 52, ...

  8. Female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the cervical stump to a Boari bladder tube. All patients were subjected to clinical, radiological and endoscopic examination, intravenous pyelography (IVP) and retrograde eystography. Ureteric catheterization was performed in every case of suspected ureteric involvement and in cases where the vesicovaginal fistulae were ...

  9. Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, J S; Corbin, C B

    1987-02-01

    In brief: Research has indicated that 4% to 19% of female college students have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica, or bulimia. To determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes, we analyzed the responses to a questionnaire completed by 168 college women-101 nonathletes, 35 athletes whose sports emphasize leanness, and 32 athletes whose sports do not emphasize leanness. The results showed that 6% of the nonathletes, 20% of the athletes in sports that emphasize leanness, and 10% of all the athletes were either exceptionally preoccupied with weight or had tendencies toward eating disorders.

  10. The impact of social stress during adolescence or adulthood and coping strategy on cognitive function of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-06-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Study of Metadata Elements Used in the Website of Central Library of Universities Subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology with the Dublin Core Metadata Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Babaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been carried out with the aim of studying the web sites of central libraries of universities subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology usage of metadata elements and its comparison with Dublin Core standard elements. This study was a comparative survey, in which 40 websites of academic library by using Internet Explorer browser. Then the HTML pages of these websites were seen through the Source of View menu, and metadata elements of each websites were extracted and entered in the checklist. Then, with using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean analysis of data was discussed. Research findings showed that the reviewed websites did not use any Dublin Core metadata elements, general metadata Markup language used in design of all websites, the amount of metadata elements used in website, Central Library of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Iran Science and Industries with 57% in first ranked and Shahid Beheshti University with 49% in second ranked and the International University of Imam Khomeini with 40% was in third ranked. The approach to web designers was determined too that as follows: the content of source in first ranked and attention to physical appearance source in second ranked and also ownership of source in third position.

  12. Female stalkers and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.

  13. Debunking myths about female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catherine deVries

    Center for Global Surgery, Department of Surgery (Urology), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA1. Received 5 November 2012; received in revised form 7 December 2012; accepted 7 December 2012. KEYWORD. Female circumcision. LastmonthitwasannouncedthatintheUnitedStates,onethirdofall doctors and lawyers ...

  14. Handwashing among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drankiewicz, Danielle; Dundes, Lauren

    2003-04-01

    Handwashing has been recognized as a critical factor in infection control policies. Whereas handwashing compliance among health care workers and school-aged students has been previously documented, practices among college students remain relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to determine handwashing compliance of female college students after using the bathroom. A researcher situated in a toilet stall unobtrusively observed handwashing compliance among 100 female students. Most students (63%) washed their hands, 38% used soap, 32% washed with soap for 5 or more seconds, but only 2% washed their hands with soap for 10 or more seconds. Fewer students left without handwashing when someone else was present in the sink area (9%) than when they were alone (45%) (P =.002). Substantial bacterial colony counts were found on a female bathroom sink faucet and toilet seat confirming the need for programs to increase handwashing compliance. Potential strategies to optimize infection control include harnessing the influence of peer pressure on handwashing and the installation of motion-activated faucets, disposable seat covers, and exit doors that can be pushed open. These results should be confirmed in a larger study that includes both male and female college students.

  15. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  16. Trends in Female Circumcision between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The international movement against female circumcision gained momentum in the past two decades. Although recent studies report ... tradition, religion, beauty, health or social status. One of the most persistent ..... Women and Children, Ogun State Chapter, Above all our gratitude goes to the people. Abeokuta, and Live ...

  17. Female sperm storage in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M

    2002-02-01

    The three orders of extant amphibians are Gymnophiona, Anura, and Urodela. Although all gymnophionans apparently have internal fertilization and many are viviparous, female sperm storage is unknown. Internal fertilization has convergently evolved in a few anurans, but females of just one species, Ascaphus truei, are known to possess oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs). The SSTs of A. truei are similar anatomically to such glands in squamate reptiles. This similarity is convergence due to similar functional adaptations and/or internal design constraints. In salamanders and newts (Urodela), absence of sperm storage in females is the ancestral condition (three families). In the derived condition, sperm storage occurs in cloacal glands called spermathecae, and their possession is a synapomorphy for females in the suborder Salamandroidea (seven families). Salamandroids are the only vertebrates with cloacal sperm storage glands. In this paper, a phenetic analysis of variation in spermathecal characters reveals patterns of convergence in certain spermathecal characters in unrelated taxa that breed in similar habitats. In the family Salamandridae, a role in sperm nutrition for the spermathecal epithelium is questioned, and the widespread occurrence of spermiophagy is related to other reproductive strategies. I propose how the packaging of sperm in structurally different types of spermathecae may influence male paternity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cognitive development and female psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M A

    1981-01-01

    Freud was an astute observer, but his understanding of female psychology was distorted by centration on biological forces, the adult neurosis, libido theory, the Oedipus complex, and male psychology. His views on the role of penis envy, narcissism, and masochism in women, and on the female superego, currently are being updated on the basis of new data emerging out of psychoanalytic investigation and direct observational studies. It has become clear, for example, that core feminine gender identity develops very early and that it is mediated in large part by cognitive development and learning rather than by the impact of the observation of genital differences between the sexes. The little girl's level of cognitive organization does not permit her at first to construct logical, consistent categories of female and male, predicated or coordination of criteria of inclusion and exclusion. She puts girls and women into one group out of intuitive recognition that they "go together" and builds up a view of herself as female on the basis of what she feels as her mother's daughter and what she perceives of the way her parents and other significant object see her. Her mother's feelings about her, about herself, and about females in general influence her greatly, and her father's responses to and expectations of her have an important impact on her self-image and self-esteem. Her representation of herself as female at first does not necessarily take genital differences between the sexes into account. The discovery, some time in the second or third year, that the genitals of boys and girls are different from one another presents the girl with a number of problems, however. Her cognitive organization makes it extremely difficult for her to apprehend her complex, incompletely demarcated, and to a large extent internal, unobservable, and impalpable sexual organs. Her initial conclusion is that she lacks desirable body parts which are possessed by other beings. Because of the

  19. Social dominance is associated with individual differences in heart rate and energetic response to food restriction in female red deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Rothmann, Angela; Arnold, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Energy expenditure is a key mechanism underlying animal ecology, yet why individuals often differ in metabolic rate even under identical conditions remains largely unexplained. Individual variation in metabolism might be explained by correlations with other behavioral and physiological traits, with individual syndromes having environment- or state-dependent costs and benefits to fitness. We tested whether social rank within herds of female red deer is associated with individual differences in resting heart rate, an index of metabolic rate, and energetic response to monthly periods of food restriction during winter in a large outdoor enclosure near Vienna, Austria. Social rank had a strong positive effect on average daily heart rate, independent of the effects of food intake, air temperature, body temperature, and body mass. Subordinate individuals had lower heart rates than dominants, and consequently they suffered lower rates of body mass loss during periods of restricted pellet food supply. A greater capacity to minimize energy requirements might benefit the survival of subdominant female red deer during periods of negative energy balance in winter. Our study provides empirical support in a large mammal for linkages in behavior and metabolism within individuals that have environment-dependent consequences to the energy budget.

  20. Gender verification of female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, L J; Ljungqvist, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Simpson, J L; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ferris, E; de la Chapelle, A; Ehrhardt, A A

    2000-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially mandated gender verification for female athletes beginning in 1968 and continuing through 1998. The rationale was to prevent masquerading males and women with "unfair, male-like" physical advantage from competing in female-only events. Visual observation and gynecological examination had been tried on a trial basis for two years at some competitions leading up to the 1968 Olympic Games, but these invasive and demeaning processes were jettisoned in favor of laboratory-based genetic tests. Sex chromatin and more recently DNA analyses for Y-specific male material were then required of all female athletes immediately preceding IOC-sanctioned sporting events, and many other international and national competitions following the IOC model. On-site gender verification has since been found to be highly discriminatory, and the cause of emotional trauma and social stigmatization for many females with problems of intersex who have been screened out from competition. Despite compelling evidence for the lack of scientific merit for chromosome-based screening for gender, as well as its functional and ethical inconsistencies, the IOC persisted in its policy for 30 years. The coauthors of this manuscript have worked with some success to rescind this policy through educating athletes and sports governors regarding the psychological and physical nature of sexual differentiation, and the inequities of genetic sex testing. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for abandonment of required genetic screening of women athletes, and by 1992 had adopted a fairer, medically justifiable model for preventing only male "impostors" in international track and field. At the recent recommendation of the IOC Athletes Commission, the Executive Board of the IOC has finally recognized the medical and functional inconsistencies and undue costs of chromosome-based methods. In 1999, the IOC ratified the abandonment of on

  1. Social representations of female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  2. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    OpenAIRE

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality.Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, se...

  3. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  4. Melanoma of the female urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed a friable lesion at the level of the urethral meatus, with heterogeneous digitations, dark brown to black, and irregular polycyclic borders. No inguinal adenomegalies were palpated. Cystourethroscopy and biopsy of the lesion confirm the diagnosis. Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely infrequent pathology. Due to lack of published case reports and the absence of prospective randomized trials on treatment outcomes, treatment must be directed using the same anatomical and surgical criteria for female urethral tumors, adding also the concepts of treatment of mucosal melanoma, even though its prognosis is different from the before mentioned.

  5. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  6. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eHoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  7. Invocation Receptivity in Female of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females  (40.63 %.  Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.

  8. Adolescent Females and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Julie E.; Silk, Kami J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates environmental factors and personal behaviors are related to breast cancer risk, but adopting a healthy lifestyle as early as adolescence can serve a protective function. To investigate perceptions of breast cancer risk and the environment, 10 focus groups (N = 91) were conducted with adolescent females (n = 55) and mothers (n = 36) across four counties in the Midwest, USA. The Uncertainty Management Theory provides a framework for discussing statements, and results suggest that uncertainty is maintained through ambiguity about environmental risk factors and breast cancer. Recommendations for prevention messages are presented. PMID:18987091

  9. Evolutionary Aspects of Depression, Stress and Subordination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    An evolutionary approach to depression, aims to understand psychopathological phenomena that arise from evolved molecules, emotional value systems ... to make sense of the differing symptoms and forms of major depression and make valid empirical predictions. .... The term 'strategy' refers to its genetic programming.

  10. Evolutionary Aspects of Depression, Stress and Subordination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPA- axis) as the final common pathway to depression. The key role of serotonin in these processes is explored. Finally this paper offers suggestions for therapeutic interventions, based on an understanding of these interactions. South African ...

  11. On bank disclosure and subordinated debt

    OpenAIRE

    Hortala- Vallve, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Following Pillar 3 of the new Basel Capital Adequacy Proposals (Basel II), we analyse the effects of disclosure in the banking sector in a stylised setting of delegated portfolio management. We first consider the interaction between the shareholder and the manager of a bank - the manager has to exert risk monitoring effort in order to decrease the bank's probability of default. Disclosure is captured through a signal about the manager's effort and it is shown that the shareholder desires full...

  12. Female facial appearance and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alan W; Boothroyd, Lynda G

    2012-02-01

    The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections), on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September) was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months). The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  13. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  14. Gender and computer games: Exploring females' dislikes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    ... important reasons why females disliked the games. Study 2, an online survey (N = 795), revealed that female respondents were less attracted to competitive elements in video games, suggesting an explanation for gender-specific game preferences...

  15. Female Principals and Gender Equity: Dreams Deferred

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara Polnick; Dianne Reed; Sylvia Taube; Carrie Butler

    2007-01-01

    ...). One would suspect that there would be an increase in the number of gender equity practices and strategies incorporated in female led schools and that female principals would feel a responsibility...

  16. 7820 THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG FEMALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    -. 35years). ... by establishing the prevalence of obesity among female teachers of child-bearing age. MATERIALS AND ...... Metabolic Complications of Obesity are Reduced in Prader- Willi Syndrome. Female Adults: Evidence ...

  17. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  18. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Groeneveld

    'All procedures that involve partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons'. This is the definition the WHO has given to a widespread practice that is known to many but discussed by few. Its terminology has developed from 'female circumcision' ...

  19. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  20. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  1. Mentoring Connections between Coaches and Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Nancy L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role that mentoring could have in helping female athletes become leaders in their sports through coaching, focusing on: women in coaching; the importance of mentoring potential female coaches; successful mentoring relationships for female coaches; and strategies for mentors. This type of collaboration may help reverse the ongoing…

  2. Causes of Sexual Promiscuity Among Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...

  3. Female sterilization safe, very effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, S

    1997-01-01

    Compared with other contraceptive methods, female sterilization is highly effective and convenient. Furthermore, with more than 150 million users worldwide, it is also the most widely used contraceptive method in the world. Sterilization does not have the side effects associated with most temporary methods, does not interfere with sexual intercourse, and does not require routine follow-up care or prescription refills. However, permanent and involving surgery, sterilization is not appropriate for every woman in need of contraception. Women interested in sterilization should compare the approach with reversible options and be encouraged to choose the method which is most appropriate for their circumstances and needs. Sterilization counseling must be done carefully and may require more time than counseling for other contraceptive methods. Young women are more likely than older women to later regret their decision to adopt a permanent method of fertility control. Long-term effectiveness, risk, restrictions, and contraindications are discussed.

  4. Social factors regulate female-female aggression and affiliation in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Catherine M; Cushing, Bruce S; Carter, C Sue

    2002-08-01

    Although patterns of aggression and affiliation may play a major role in social organization, the mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social and hormonal experience on female-female aggression and affiliation in prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. Prairie voles exhibit the traits of social monogamy and tend to live in communal families structured around a male-female pair. It is rare for two unrelated females within a family to successfully reproduce. In this study, the social and/or hormonal experiences of female prairie voles were varied and female-female aggression and affiliation were measured during dyadic encounters with unfamiliar, nonaggressive females. An increase in aggression and decline in affiliative behaviors toward a stimulus female was observed during pregnancy and following male-cohabitation, with or without mating. Pairing with another female did not result in changes in either aggressive or affiliative behaviors toward the stimulus female. Female-female aggression increased and affiliative behaviors declined, with a maximal effect following approximately 8-12 days of male cohabitation. Similar patterns of change were seen in both ovariectomized and gonadally intact females, and treatment with estradiol and subsequent sexual experience did not significantly alter the tendency of females to show aggression or affiliative contact. Social experiences associated with prolonged cohabitation with a male facilitate the induction of female-female aggression; however, ovarian hormones, pregnancy or mating are not essential to induce aggression.

  5. A educação profissional nos anos 2000: a dimensão subordinada das políticas de inclusão Professional education in the 2000s: the subordinate dimension of the policies of inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacia Zeneida Kuenzer

    2006-10-01

    subordinate inclusion.

  6. Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-09-07

    When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.

    Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function

  9. An incident of female-female aggression in the house wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    In this paper we describe one example of female-female aggression in the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). An intruding female usurped the resident female and paired with the resident male. House Wrens are known for committing infanticide as well as puncturing and removing eggs of conspecifics and

  10. Social and emotional predictors of the tempo of puberty in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Bounar, Shannon; Godfrey, Jodi; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Higgins, Melinda; Sanchez, Mar

    2013-01-01

    A cascade of neuroendocrine events regulates the initiation and progression of female puberty. However, the factors that determine the timing of these events across individuals are still uncertain. While the consequences of puberty on subsequent emotional development and adult behavior have received significant attention, what is less understood are the social and environmental factors that actually alter the initiation and progression of puberty. In order to more fully understand what factors influence pubertal timing in females, the present study quantified social and emotional behavior; stress physiology; and growth and activity measures in juvenile female rhesus monkeys to determine what best predicts eventual puberty. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that increased agonistic behavior resulting from subordinate status in their natal group, in combination with slowed growth, reduced prosocial behavior, and increased emotional reactivity would predict delayed puberty. The analyses were restricted to behavioral and physiological measures obtained prior to the onset of puberty, defined as menarche. Together, our findings indicate that higher rates of aggression but lower rates of submission received from group mates; slower weight gain; and greater emotional reactivity, evidenced by higher anxiety, distress and appeasing behaviors, and lower cortisol responsivity in response to a potentially threatening situation, predicts delayed puberty. Together the combination of these variables accounted for 58% of the variance in the age of menarche, 71% in age at first ovulation, and 45% in the duration of adolescent sterility. While early puberty may be more advantageous for the individual from a fertility standpoint, it presents significant health risks, including increased risk for a number of estrogen dependent cancers and as well as the emergence of mood disorders during adulthood. On the other hand, it is possible that increased emotional reactivity

  11. Stress, cortisol and reproduction in female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A I; Tilbrook, A J

    2006-01-01

    Two key hypotheses emerge in the literature regarding the impact of stress on reproduction in females of any species. First, prolonged stress impairs reproduction in females. Secondly, acute stress impairs reproduction, if it occurs at a critical time during the precisely timed series of endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. We reviewed studies conducted in female pigs to find support or opposition for these hypotheses in female pigs. We also considered the role of cortisol. We found confirmation that prolonged stress or the prolonged elevation of cortisol can impair reproductive processes in female pigs, but also found that there appear to be some female pigs in which reproduction is resistant to such treatments. Reproduction in female pigs appears to be resistant to acute or repeated acute stress or elevation of cortisol, even if these occur during the series of precisely timed endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. Thus, we propose modified versions of the above hypotheses that are specific to female pigs. Furthermore, while cortisol may mediate the effects of prolonged stress on reproduction in female pigs, there is evidence that, in female pigs, ACTH may require the presence of the adrenal glands to impair reproduction rather than having direct effects.

  12. Taurodontism in females with extra X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrela, J; Alvesalo, L

    1989-01-01

    The association between taurodontism and extra X chromosomes was studied in four 47,XXX-females and in two 48,XXXX-females. Occurrence of the trait in the permanent mandibular molars was noted from orthopantomograms. Five first-degree relatives and a sample of 157 normal males and females were investigated as controls. Two of the 47,XXX-females and both 48,XXX-females each had at least one mandibular molar classified as taurodont. The two affected 47,XXX-females had hypotaurodont or mesotaurodont teeth, whereas both 48,XXXX-females showed hypertaurodontism. The manidubular molars of the other two 47,XXX females had normal root morphology. The only control relative with taurodont teeth was a sister to a 48,XXXX-female. In the population control group, four females had taurodont teeth. These results support the concept that a prevalence of taurodontism increases as the number of X chromosomes increases and also indicate that expression of the trait and the number of X chromosomes may be positively correlated. It is suggested that the X chromosome gene(s) influencing development of enamel may be involved in the development of taurodontism.

  13. Female song in New World wood warblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadje eNajar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have revealed that female birdsong is widespread and multifunctional. Female song was likely ancestral among songbirds and persists in many lineages today. Nevertheless, many species lack female song, and researchers are interested in understanding the selective factors that promote and counter the persistence of this trait. Female song is associated with life-history traits including year-round territoriality, non-migratory behavior, sexual monochromatism, and monogamy. Most studies examining these relationships have looked at clades with a migratory ancestor and have found that gains of migratory behavior are strongly correlated with losses of female song (and duetting. Here we ask if the reverse pattern exists: in a large clade of songbirds with a migratory ancestor, do losses of migratory behavior correlate with gains of female song and visual signaling traits? We investigated correlations between female song, migration and dichromatism in 107 species of New World Warblers (Family Parulidae. All of these species are predominantly monogamous and territorial when breeding, 50 (47% are migratory, 49 (46% are monochromatic, and 25 (23% show female song. On a robust genetic phylogeny maximum likelihood methods recover migration and monochromatism as the ancestral state in warblers. Female song is generally not reconstructed as present in any deep nodes of the phylogeny, indicating that most extant species with female song evolved this trait independently and relatively recently. Gains of female song do not correlate with losses of migration. Losses of dichromatism do correlate with losses of migration. Thus, in this clade, visual signals are associated with sedentary versus migratory lifestyles, but female acoustic signals are not. Our results show a different pattern from that seen in similar studies and support the hypothesis that losses, but not gains, of female song are driven by life history.

  14. [Female urinary incontinence: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J

    The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Female genital mutilation and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonessio, L; Bartucca, B; Bertelli, S; Morini, F; Spina, V

    2000-11-01

    This article deals with the legal aspect concerning female genital mutilations (FGM). Such a practice (a partial excision of the external genitalia) is highly widespread in Central Africa, especially in Ethiopia and Somalia, and currently involves approximately 130,000,000 women worldwide and, in Italy, about 30,000 women amongst the immigrant population. Since 1982 the World Health Organization (WHO), which condemns such a practice as injurious to women's rights and health, proposed that laws and professional codes prohibit it in all countries. Legislation, although insufficient as a sole measure, is considered indispensable for the elimination of FMG. Since a long time some western countries (Sweden, Great Britain, Belgium and Norway), involved by immigration from countries with FGM tradition, legislated with regard to FGM. In Italy, a specific law does not exist; however, FGM are not allowed by the article 5 of the Civil Code. Nevertheless, recently, several cases of mutilations took place: this led some members of the Parliament to introduce a bill in order to specifically forbid FGM. The authors believe that legislation could effectively support the job of prevention and education, which physicians may carry out in order to save little girls from the risk of familial tradition of genital mutilations.

  16. Factors that drive female entrepreneurship in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrapetyan, Meri; Nunes, Alcina; Turyan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurs play a key role in any economy. Entrepreneurship includes creativity, innovation, risk taking, planning and management and is described as transferring ideas into action. In the light of recent world events, female entrepreneurship has become a crucial area to study and understand, especially with respect to motivations, obstacles, constraints and consequences of female entrepreneurship. The research work focuses on female entrepreneurship in a developing country ...

  17. Injury prediction in female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, V A; White, J A

    1986-01-01

    In order to identify injury-proneness in female competitive gymnasts, 20 measures of flexibility, hypermobility, spinal posture and anthropometry were performed on 40 competitive gymnasts and injury scores were derived from the severity and extent of previous gymnastic injury and inherent hypermobility traits. Results were compared between contrasting groups of "low" and "high" injury gymnasts respectively (both N = 10). Nine variables demonstrated significant differences between the "low" and "high" injury risk status groups namely, weight (p less than 0.001), height (p less than 0.001), age (p less than 0.001), mesomorphy (p less than 0.01), Quetelet Index (p less than 0.01), shoulder flexion (p less than 0.05) and lumbar extension (p less than 0.05), standing lumbar curvature and total peripheral flexibility score (both p less than or equal to 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the relative contribution of these variables to the estimation of injury-proneness as evidenced by previous history of injury and hypermobility traits. Using 9 independent variables, multiple regression yielded a multiple correlation coefficient (R) = 0.840, accounting for over 70% of the observed variance (R2 = 0.706) in injury scores among the total group of gymnasts. However, a subset of five variables, (weight, mesomorphy, standing lumbar curvature, age and height) yielded a multiple correlation coefficient (R) = 0.834 accounting for almost 70% of the observed variance (R2 = 0.696). This was not significantly different from the larger subset. Using injury classification system of "low", "medium", and "high" risk categories, comparisons were made between predicted and observed injury scores in the respective risk categories. In "high" risk and "low" risk gymnasts, injury scores could be classified correctly with 70% and 79% accuracy respectively, so that relative risk status could be determined from simple physical tests which may be employed by practitioners

  18. Transplantation of female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Díaz-García, César

    2011-04-01

    Transplantation of gynecological organs is a medical field where considerable advancements have been made in research during the last 25 years and with some procedures already introduced as clinical treatments. These types of transplantations aim at curing permanent infertility. Uterus transplantation has been proven to be a feasible procedure in different experimentation animal models with proof of concept concerning surgery, control of rejection and fertility. There has already been one human transplantation attempt, which, however, was unsuccessful. Based on the progress in this area, we predict that the first successful uterus transplantation attempt will come within 2-3 years. Orthotopic ovarian cortex transplantation has overcome the status of an experimental procedure since more than 20 pregnancies have been reported. Its main field of application is fertility preservation in oncologic patients undergoing high gonadotoxic risk therapies. The role of heterotopic ovarian cortex transplantation still remains at the research level, although co-transplantation with an orthotopic cortex might facilitate a more accurate endocrine environment. The major drawback of ovarian cortex transplantation remains the long ischemic interval between re-implantation and the establishment of neovascularization. Whole ovary cryopreservation followed by transplantation through vascular anastomosis may emerge as an important procedure in this field, because the warm ischemic time would be reduced from several days to less than 1 h, which will most likely improve follicle survival. In summary, transplantation surgery is also entering the field of gynecology and in the future several types of transplantations of organs/tissues of the female reproductive tract may become established clinical procedures. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce female sexual response, and may lead to anorgasmia and even frigidity. This procedure is now prohibited by law in Egypt.

  20. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  1. Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Foroud, Afra; Duckworth, Nadine; Kovacovsky, Stefani D

    2006-04-01

    Mounting is generally considered to be a male-typical behavior. Female Japanese macaques, in certain populations, are unusual, in that they routinely mount other females. In this study, we examined to what extent female Japanese macaques mount same-sex partners in a male-typical manner. We compared the mount postures males and females adopt and their rate of pelvic thrusting. In addition, we employed a modified form of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to compare patterns of pelvic movement during mounts. LMA is a universal language for movement that describes quantitative features of movement, such as changes in the relation of the body segments, as well as qualitative features, such as the style of movements. Our results indicate that female Japanese macaques do not mount in a male-typical manner. Females exhibited a much greater variety of mount postures than did males. Some of the most common types of mount postures employed by females were never exhibited by males. Females performed fewer pelvic thrusts per mount than males, but they executed more pelvic movements per mount, as well as, greater variety and complexity of movement. In addition, the qualitative style of pelvic mounting that females employed differed, in general, from that of males. We argue that these sex differences in mounting can be explained by the fact that both sexes sought sexual reward via genital stimulation during mounting, but they did so in different ways owing to the constraints imposed by their genital architecture. This study raises the larger question as to what constitutes a male-typical or female-typical behavior.

  2. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  3. Determinants of female sexual orgasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques. In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18-54 years in 1971 ( N =2,152), 18-74 years in 1992 ( N =2,250), 18-81 years in 1999 ( N =1,496), 18-74 years in 2007 ( N =2,590), and 18-79 years in 2015 ( N =2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18-70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner's orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner's good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender equality and sexual education since the 1970s have not

  4. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  5. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  6. Adolescent Erotica and Female Self-Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene

    1976-01-01

    Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)

  7. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In communities where female circumcision is carried out, increasingly large segments of the population have been exposed to strong arguments against the practice. This study aimed to explore diverse discourses on female circumcision and the relationship between discourses and practice among informants who have ...

  8. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the knowledge and attitude of female undergraduate students in Nigeria toward STIs/HIV/AIDS pandemic. Quantitative research technique was adopted to examine this objective using University of Lagos female students as study population. The specific research method adopted in the study is ...

  9. Sport participation motivesof Kenyan female university athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. ... gender, athletes' sexual orientation, student athletes'residence and as well as the influence of friends/family, could affect participation of female athletes in university sport.

  10. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  11. The Dutch Female Board Index 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch Female Board Index 2010 shows for the fourth year a survey of female representation on the Executive Boards and Supervisory Boards of 99 Dutch NVs listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies were classified by the percentage of women in their joint Executive Board and Supervisory Board.

  12. AB14. Female urology: update and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The biggest controversy in female urology in the past few years is the use of mesh in vaginal surgery. The major societies of Female Urology and Urogynecology has announced position statements in regards to the use of mesh sling for incontinence surgery. Lecture will also include transvaginal and trans-abdominal methods to repair pelvic prolapse given the complications from mesh.

  13. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  14. Female Intercollegiate Athletes. Changes and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinde, Elaine M.

    1989-01-01

    Data from several surveys and studies which examined the sports experience of over 2,000 female college athletes is summarized. Issues explored include reasons for and conditions surrounding sport participation, academic performance of female athletes, reactions to college sport, and post-college sport participation patterns. (IAH)

  15. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize ... peripheral nervous systems, modified by various psychological and physical factors [1]. Masters and ... responding the touch, its stimulation can trigger an orgasm. But orgasm in the female is a complex ...

  16. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Body and. Gruenbaum have pointed out that a lack of understanding about the complexity of the practice has characterized the discourse ever since the seventies2,12-14. Female ... parts of the world, and the challenges related to how to perceive and ..... female circumcision is a sensitive topic, none of the study participants ...

  17. The Dynamics of Female Employment around Childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.D.; Schippers, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    There is a strong effect of childbirth on female labour supply. This effect is expected to be influenced, among others, by the institutional context. This paper uses panel data on the last two decades on three European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom) to link changes in female

  18. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  19. 1 Isabel Allende: Carnalismo and Female Identity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isabel Allende: Carnalismo and Female Identity. Paper accepted on 27 April 2015. Abstract ... attempt to represent various facets of Latin American female identity, this article uses carnalismo as recurring trope while reinstating the particular ..... I am aware of my gender; I am aware of the fact that being born a woman is a ...

  20. Are female top managers really paid less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    We study the gender pay gap for all top managers (CEO and executive directors) of listed UK companies and find mixed evidence: female CEOs do not face a pay gap, but the other female executive directors (e.g. CFO, COO, Deputy CEO) are discriminated against (while controlling for position, tenure,

  1. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay

  2. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  3. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  4. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  5. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  6. Female gender stereotype in French advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Борисова

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of female gender stereotypes in French advertising texts. On the ground of the practical analysis of advertising texts published in some modern French periodicals, we managed to expose and define general and national-cultural female gender stereotypes fixed in collective consciousness of the French.

  7. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  8. Gender and computer games : Exploring females' dislikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female

  9. Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis in a Nigerian female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the body but intrathoracic involvement (pulmonary and hilar nodes) ... affecting both genders with slight female preponderance. (4). All age ... in a Nigerian female. Summary. Sarcoidosis is relatively uncommon in indigenous black Africans, especially along the West African coast. There has not been any report of isolated ...

  10. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  11. Antenatal Diagnosis of an XXX Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Lawrence R.; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Bradshaw, Christy L.; Jones, Oliver W.; Peterson, Raymond M.; Dixson, Barbara K.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the first antenatal diagnosis of an XXX female. Over 150 postnatal cases of XXX females have been described. There is no specific phenotype associated with the sex chromosome abnormality and most such persons are fertile. The frequency of XXX females in mental institutions is 3.9 per 1,000 female subjects whereas the frequency in consecutive newborn infants is 1.1 per 1,000 newborns. Chi-square analysis shows this difference cannot be due to chance. On the other hand, data from consecutive newborn studies suggest that intellectual development in XXX newborns is within normal range. Available evidence favors normal development in XXX female infants although the risk for developmental disabilities may be higher for the XXX than for the XX infant. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1154778

  12. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  13. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  14. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  15. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  16. Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cantú Cavada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.

  17. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  18. Understanding Patterns of Intimate Partner Abuse in Male-Male, Male-Female, and Female-Female Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Alexandru; McAfee, Scot; Homel, Peter; Jacob, Theresa

    2017-06-01

    Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA), a major social problem, can lead to mental health conditions and is implicated in 30 % of female and 5 % of male homicide deaths. We hypothesized that due to distinct relationship structures and power dynamics which are immersed in varying sociocultural contexts, victims of male-male, female-female and female-male dyads experience different patterns of IPA. Our objectives were: (1) To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of male victim-male abuser (M-M), female victim-male abuser (F-M), male victim-female abuser (M-F), and female victim-female abuser (F-F) dyads. (2) To compare patterns of IPA reported by the victims in these groups. Out of 397 subjects in the general population that attempted this Internet-based study, 214 English-speaking subjects were older than 18 years, had experienced IPA, and provided complete information for the analysis. Victims of IPA were screened and specific methods of abuse were evaluated. M-Ms were significantly more educated (70 %) than other groups. F-Fs experienced more abuse before age 18 by a parent or relative. F-Fs experienced the most physical abuse while M-Ms the least (p = 0.004). Physical abuse or threats of abuse in front of children was reported more in F-Fs (p < 0.01) and least in M-Ms. IPA patterns differ significantly with F-Fs presenting the most physical profile and M-Ms presenting the least.

  19. Impact of oxidative stress on female fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Goldman, Marlene B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the role of oxidative stress in the context of female fertility. Recent findings Oxidative stress is associated with decreased female fertility in animal and in-vitro models, but no studies to date have directly assessed the relationship in women. Exposures associated with oxidative stress and with evidence to influence the timing and maintenance of a viable pregnancy include pregnancy complications (e.g. preeclampsia), extremes of body weight, alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine intake. Intake of antioxidant nutrients, including use of multivitamins, impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and may play a beneficial role in female fertility. Summary Infertility is a significant public health problem and diagnosis and treatment are stressful, invasive, and costly. The role of oxidative stress in female fertility is an understudied and compelling area for investigation. Identifying modifiable factors to decrease oxidative stress in the gynecologic environment may be an inexpensive and noninvasive therapy for increasing fertility. PMID:19469044

  20. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  1. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  2. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  3. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  4. Gender Identity in Female Football Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiliński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to define the relationship between gender identity, the perception of the body, depressiveness, and aggression in female football players who represent different levels of competence...

  5. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  6. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  7. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  8. Female Psychology in August Strindberg's the Stronger

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandio, Anton; Apriliani, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg's The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg's shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gende...

  9. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  10. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  11. Microphysiologic systems in female reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alexandria N; Moyle-Heyrman, Georgette; Kim, J Julie; Burdette, Joanna E

    2017-11-01

    Microphysiologic systems (MPS), including new organ-on-a-chip technologies, recapitulate tissue microenvironments by employing specially designed tissue or cell culturing techniques and microfluidic flow. Such systems are designed to incorporate physiologic factors that conventional 2D or even 3D systems cannot, such as the multicellular dynamics of a tissue-tissue interface or physical forces like fluid sheer stress. The female reproductive system is a series of interconnected organs that are necessary to produce eggs, support embryo development and female health, and impact the functioning of non-reproductive tissues throughout the body. Despite its importance, the human reproductive tract has received less attention than other organ systems, such as the liver and kidney, in terms of modeling with MPS. In this review, we discuss current gaps in the field and areas for technological advancement through the application of MPS. We explore current MPS research in female reproductive biology, including fertilization, pregnancy, and female reproductive tract diseases, with a focus on their clinical applications. Impact statement This review discusses existing microphysiologic systems technology that may be applied to study of the female reproductive tract, and those currently in development to specifically investigate gametes, fertilization, embryo development, pregnancy, and diseases of the female reproductive tract. We focus on the clinical applicability of these new technologies in fields such as assisted reproductive technologies, drug testing, disease diagnostics, and personalized medicine.

  12. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  13. Black and White Adolescent Females Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Kathy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…

  14. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  15. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch. PMID:28934203

  16. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C

    2016-05-01

    The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction especially since 2010 and to make specific recommendations according to the Oxford Centre for evidence based medicine (2009) "levels of evidence" wherever relevant. Recommendations were made for particular studies to be undertaken especially in controversial aspects in all six sections of the reviewed topics. Despite numerous laboratory assessments of female sexual function, genital assessments alone appear insufficient to characterise fully the complete sexual response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Females' Duration Estimates of Briefly-Viewed Male, but Not Female, Photographs Depend on Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Arantes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested a prediction that females' duration estimates of briefly-viewed male, but not female, photos would be modulated by attractiveness. Twenty-seven female participants viewed sequences of five stimuli of identical duration in which the first four were sine-wave gratings (Gabor discs and the fifth was either the same sine-wave grating (control trials or a photo of an attractive or unattractive male or female (test trials. After each sequence, participants had to reproduce the duration of the fifth stimulus. Results confirmed our prediction and showed that duration estimates of attractive male photos were significantly longer than corresponding estimates for unattractive male photos, while there was no significant difference in estimated duration for attractive and unattractive female photos. Our data show that unexpectedly viewing an attractive male affects time perception in females, and are the first demonstration that stimuli relevant to reproductive fitness, which engage the appetitive motivational system, can increase perceived duration.

  18. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  19. Perceived acceptability of female smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Yong, Hua-Hie; Li, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    Female smoking prevalence in China is very low but may rise with increased tobacco marketing towards women and changing norms. However, little is known about current perceptions of women smoking in China. This study sought to examine smokers' and non-smokers' perceived acceptability of female smoking and how it changed over time in China. Data come from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control China Survey, a face-to-face cohort survey of approximately 800 adult smokers and 200 non-smokers in each of seven cities in mainland China. At Wave 3 (2009), about 38% of smokers and 9% of non-smokers agreed that female smoking is acceptable with women being almost twice as likely to do so as men (67% vs 36% and 11% vs 6%, respectively). In addition to women, smokers who were younger and had more positive perceptions of smoking in general were more likely to say that female smoking is acceptable. This perception significantly increased from Wave 1 (2006) to Wave 3 (2009), as did the perception that smoking is a sign of sophistication, but other general perceptions of smoking did not significantly change between 2006 and 2009. Norms against female smoking appear to remain strong in China, but female smoking may be becoming more acceptable. It is important to monitor these perceptions to prevent a rise in female smoking prevalence along with an increase in tobacco-related death and disease among women in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Female song occurs in songbirds with more elaborate female coloration and reduced sexual dichromatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Howard Webb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elaborate plumages and songs in male birds provide classic evidence for Darwinian sexual selection. However, trait elaboration in birds is not gender-restricted: female song has recently been revealed as a taxonomically-widespread trait within the songbirds (oscine Passerines, prompting increased research into likely functions and social/ecological correlates. Here we use phylogenetically-informed comparative analysis to test for an evolutionary association between female song and plumage color elaboration in songbirds. If there is an evolutionary trade-off between signaling modes, we predict a negative correlation between acoustic and visual elaboration. This trade-off hypothesis has been commonly proposed in males but has mixed empirical support. Alternatively, if song and plumage have similar or overlapping functions and evolve under similar selection pressures, we predict a positive correlation between female song and female plumage elaboration. We use published data on female song for 1,023 species of songbirds and a novel approach that allows for the reliable and objective comparison of color elaboration between species and genders. Our results reveal a significant positive correlation between female colorfulness and female song presence. In species where females sing, females (but not males are on average more colorful – with concomitantly reduced average sexual dichromatism. These results suggest that female plumage and female song likely evolved together under similar selection pressures and that their respective functions are reinforcing. We discuss the potential roles of sexual versus social selection in driving this relationship, and the implications for future research on female signals.

  1. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  2. Anorexic Behavior, Female Competition and Stress: Developing the Female Competition Stress Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The FCST (Female-Female Competition Stress Test was constructed to assess stress from adolescent female-female competition. Such stress is particularly relevant to the Reproductive Suppression Hypothesis that has been suggested as one possible explanation for the development of anorexic type behavior in young women. A series of items generated an initial test in the first phase of development. In the second phase, three studies were conducted to assess reliability and validity. Female undergraduates retrospectively rated the female-female competition stress they had experienced as adolescents, and their responses were factor-analyzed. In a second group of subjects, FCST scores were correlated with a measure of anxiety. In the third study, three samples provided prototypicality ratings of the test items to determine both the agreement among raters and which items were not sufficiently prototypical of female-female competition stress to be retained. In the final phase, the responses of adolescent girls to the FCST and several measures of body image were factor analyzed, showing the utility of the FCST.

  3. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  4. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  5. Applied physiology of female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Brewer, J

    1993-09-01

    Women's soccer is in its infancy as a sport and research into its physiological demands and the physical characteristics of players is somewhat limited. There is now an increasing demand for scientific investigation of the female game and of the players, match analysis and role variations requiring particular attention. Current research suggests that the demands of the game for women are similar to those placed on male players. Women are reported to cover a similar distance (mean 8471m) to their male counterparts during a game and much the same proportions of the game appear to be devoted to exercise of varying intensities. Furthermore, female and male players appear to tax the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to a similar level. The physical and physiological characteristics of female soccer players are comparable with those of other female games players and are more favourable than average for the population. Mean body fat percentages of between 19.7 and 22.0% and VO2max values of between 47.1 and 57.6 ml/kg/min have been reported for elite female players, while faster than average sprint times are also characteristic of them.

  6. Media portrayals of the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Karishma; Markham Shaw, Charla

    2012-01-01

    This study examines newspaper and broadcast news depictions of the female condom from 1993 to 2009 in the three major television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC), and in 8 of 10 top daily newspapers and 3 of 4 national newspapers published in the United States, according to circulation figures as of September 30, 2008. Given the high rates of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and their effect on women, particularly those between 15 and 24 years of age, it is important to examine media sources and the health information that the public is or is not receiving through these sources. This study (a) examines whether the female condom was depicted positively or negatively in broadcast and newspaper coverage, (b) determines the ways in which the female condom was compared with the male condom and with other contraceptives, and (c) identifies the sources used by journalists in female condom portrayals. The authors discuss the implications of the coverage of the female condom by broadcast and print news.

  7. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Fang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.

  8. Sevoflurane-induced pica in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Emiri; Sugimoto, Toru; Sagakami, Takuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of volatile anesthetics on pica, which can be used to assess nausea and vomiting in rats. We found that inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane significantly induced pica in female but not male rats. Among the female rats, young rats (8 weeks old) were more susceptible to its induction than adult rats (20 weeks old) with ovariectomy or sham-surgery. Anti-emetic drugs that are used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) inhibited the pica. These results suggest that sevoflurane-induced pica in young female rats has the potential to be an animal model of PONV in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  11. Emergent leadership and female sex role identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, E B; Long, K

    1992-05-01

    The effects of female sex role identity on self- and rater evaluations of emergent leadership behavior were compared in two studies. We used the same consensus-seeking procedure in both studies to collect the data; only the biological sex composition of the groups in the second study was changed. Study 1 examined 15 mixed-sex groups of 39 female and 21 male students; Study 2 contained 96 female students in 22 same-sex groups. Sex role orientation was measured with the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI: Bem, 1974). Androgynous and feminine-oriented self-ratings of leadership were significantly higher than peer ratings and were also significantly higher than the undifferentiated self-ratings. The self-ratings of masculine-oriented women agreed most closely with peer ratings. Contrary to research and theory, peer evaluation of leadership behavior by sex role orientation did not differ.

  12. Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz

    2012-08-23

    Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.

  13. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  14. Do Female Guppies Really Know What They Want?

    OpenAIRE

    Blasi, Jennica; Keuhl-Coe, Abby; Kirkland, Hanna; Larson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    • Hypothesis: Female guppies do not influence each other’s choice of male guppy • Predictions: If female guppies do not influence each other’s choice in males, then most females guppies will choose the same male whether alone or in the presence of other females • Choice is defined as which pane of glass the female interacts more with from 1 to 3 minutes after being introduced to the tank • 34 Females were used, 17 small and 17 large

  15. The Evolutionary Origin of Female Orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavličev, Mihaela; Wagner, Günter

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary explanation of female orgasm has been difficult to come by. The orgasm in women does not obviously contribute to the reproductive success, and surprisingly unreliably accompanies heterosexual intercourse. Two types of explanations have been proposed: one insisting on extant adaptive roles in reproduction, another explaining female orgasm as a byproduct of selection on male orgasm, which is crucial for sperm transfer. We emphasize that these explanations tend to focus on evidence from human biology and thus address the modification of a trait rather than its evolutionary origin. To trace the trait through evolution requires identifying its homologue in other species, which may have limited similarity with the human trait. Human female orgasm is associated with an endocrine surge similar to the copulatory surges in species with induced ovulation. We suggest that the homolog of human orgasm is the reflex that, ancestrally, induced ovulation. This reflex became superfluous with the evolution of spontaneous ovulation, potentially freeing female orgasm for other roles. This is supported by phylogenetic evidence showing that induced ovulation is ancestral, while spontaneous ovulation is derived within eutherians. In addition, the comparative anatomy of female reproductive tract shows that evolution of spontaneous ovulation is correlated with increasing distance of clitoris from the copulatory canal. In summary, we suggest that the female orgasm-like trait may have been adaptive, however for a different role, namely for inducing ovulation. With the evolution of spontaneous ovulation, orgasm was freed to gain secondary roles, which may explain its maintenance, but not its origin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Female Physicians and the Future of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelley, Elaine; Danoff, Ann; Cooper, David S; Becker, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Given that approximately 70% of current endocrinology fellows are women, female physicians will compose the majority of the future endocrinology workforce. This gender shift partly reflects an apparent waning of interest in endocrinology among male trainees. It also coincides with a projected shortage of endocrinologists overall. Female physicians face unique challenges in the workplace. To continue to attract trainees to the specialty and support their success, it is imperative that these challenges be recognized, understood, and addressed. A PubMed search using the terms "female physician" and "physician gender" covering the years 2000-2015 was performed. Additional references were identified through review of the citations of the retrieved articles. The following topics were identified as key to understanding the impact of this gender shift: professional satisfaction, work-life balance, income, parenthood, academic success, and patient satisfaction. Several changes can be predicted to occur as endocrinology becomes a female-predominant specialty. Although professional satisfaction should remain stable, increased burnout rates are likely. Work-life balance challenges will likely be magnified. The combined effects of occupational gender segregation and a gender pay gap are predicted to negatively impact salaries of endocrinologists of both genders. The underrepresentation of women in academic leadership may mean a lesser voice for endocrinology in this arena. Finally, gender biases evident in patient satisfaction measures--commonly used as proxies for quality of care--may disproportionately impact endocrinology. Endocrinology is predicted to become the most female-predominant subspecialty of internal medicine. The specialty of endocrinology should take a lead role in advocating for changes that support the success of female physicians. Strengthening and supporting the physician workforce can only serve to attract talented physicians of both genders to the

  17. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  18. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  19. Physical performance and cardiovascular and metabolic adaptation of elite female wheelchair basketball players in wheelchair ergometry and in competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Huonker, M; Stober, P; Barturen, J M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Dürr, H; Völpel, H J; Keul, J

    1998-01-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to a pronounced reduction of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic ability. Physical activity, up to and including high-performance sports, has obtained importance in the course of rehabilitation and the postclinical phase. Thirteen elite female wheelchair basketball players from the German National Basketball Team and 10 female sedentary spinal cord-injured persons were examined in the study. Heart volume was measured by an echocardiography. All subjects underwent a graded exercise test on a wheelchair ergometer. Additionally, heart rate, lactate, and player points were measured during a competitive basketball game in wheelchair basketball players. Cardiac dimensions were larger for spinal cord-injured wheelchair basketball players (620.3 ml; 9.6 ml x kg(-1)) in comparison with spinal cord-injured persons (477.4 ml; 8.2 ml x kg(-1)) but did not exceed the heart volume of untrained nonhandicapped persons. In contrast, athletes with amputations or those having had poliomyelitis reached training-induced cardiac hypertrophy in relation to body mass (713.7 ml; 13.2 ml x kg(-1)), as observed in nonhandicapped athletes. During graded wheelchair ergometry, wheelchair basketball players showed a higher maximal work rate (59.9 v 45.5 W), maximal oxygen consumption (33.7 v 18.3 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), and maximal lactate (9.1 v 5.47 mmol x l(-1)) without a difference in maximal heart rate and workload at AT4 than did spinal cord-injured persons. The average heart rate during the wheelchair basketball game was 151 x min(-1), and the lactate concentration was 1.92 mmol x l(-1). Female athletes with a less severe handicap and higher maximal oxygen consumption during the graded exercise test reached a higher game level in the evaluation. During the competitive basketball game, high cardiovascular stress was observed, indicating a fast aerobic metabolism; the anaerobic lactic acid capacity played a subordinate role. Wheelchair basketball is an

  20. Female offenders’ pathways to prison in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuytiens An

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some results of a research on female offenders’ life histories and pathways to prison in Belgium. Women’s pathways into crime will be presented and the connection of these pathways to their life histories will be explored. The study reveals that the greater part of the research population are adult-onset offenders. The authors argue that the importance of adult-onset pathways for female offenders might be explained by the emergence of (gendered vulnerabilities within the women’s lives, often accumulated not before adulthood.

  1. Female Sexuality as Capacity and Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The article argues for an approach to studies of sexuality in Africa that considers the subject of female sexuality from the perspective of capacity and power. Based on data from Mozambique, and informed by conceptual frameworks as well as by research findings from other African countries......, the article investigates preparations of the erotic female body such as body tattoos, hip belts of glass beads, and elongated labia. It also discusses how “traditional” sexual capacity-building has been transferred from rural contexts into urban settings, empowering young women in love relationships...

  2. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on nonconscious mimicry suggests that females mimic their communication partners more often than males. Many studies have investigated the association between mimicry, emotion recognition, and empathy. However, there is a trend in this research area to recruit same-sex samples......, thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...

  3. Supporting the emergence of female student entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe

    2011-01-01

    years (60%), while it drops to 35% on the 5th and last year. Among graduates from AAA, the gender distribution remains skewed, since more than twice as many men as women start their own architect or design firm.1 Q: Ark is a project which promotes entrepreneurship among female students at AAA. Q: Ark......60% of students at Aarhus School of Architecture (AAA) are women. Yet there are far more male than female students who harbor a desire to become independent. Overall as much as 48% of all students at AAA want to start their own business. Significantly, however, the interest is greatest on second...

  4. Female Versus Male Entrepreneurship within Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardelean Dorina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a topic much debated and analyzed by many research institutions and organizations. In recent years, the total number of entrepreneurs has been increasing significantly, female entrepreneurship being the one that has increased a lot. In this study, we are going to present and analyze the results of studies conducted at European level regarding the comparative evolution of male versus female entrepreneurship. The main conclusion that emerges from the analysis of the results obtained is that the number of women entrepreneurs is almost equal to that of men entrepreneurs in many European countries.

  5. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WW; van Andel, P; Sabelis, [No Value; Mooyaart, E

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study Setting

  7. Exploring Female Representation in Current Adolescent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Lea; Rhodes, John W.

    This descriptive study analyzed the portrayal of females as protagonists in adolescent literature published 1989-1993. A review of literature showed that 85 percent of main characters in stories for young children were male and that sexism still existed in books for young people. For this study the literature survey instrument used in the initial…

  8. Growing up Female: As Six become One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia

    1971-01-01

    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  9. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and perception of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (57.9%) did not know correct dosage of the available post-coital pill. While half (50.7%) of those having knowledge of postcoital pills agree to the efficacy; only a third (35.53%) agreed to have actually used it. Conclusion: The awareness and use of Emergency Contraception amongst female undergraduates in ...

  10. Degenerative joint disease in female ballet dancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Lim, L. S.; Poortman, A.; Strübbe, E. H.; Marti, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between long-term ballet dancing and eventual arthrosis of the hip, ankle, subtalar, and first metatarsophalangeal joint was examined in 19 former professional female dancers, aged 50 to 70 years. The dancers were compared with pair-matched controls. All 38 women underwent medical

  11. Why are there so few female physicists?

    CERN Document Server

    Marianne Johansen

    Physics has always had a relatively low proportion of female students and researchers. In the EU there are on average 33% female PhD-graduates in the physical sciences, while the percentage of female professors amounts to 9% [1]. At CERN the proportion is even less with only 6.6 % of the research staff being women [2]. The fact that there is no proportional relationship between the number of PhD-graduates and professors also suggests women are less likely to succeed in an academic career than men [1]. A typical ATLAS plenary meeting. More laptops than women... Is the low representation of women in physics a problem, do we actually need more female physicists? In my view this question has to be answered from three perspectives, the perspective of society, the perspective of science and the perspective of women. The perspective of society Starting from the viewpoint of society, several issues can be raised. Firstly, physics is a field of innovation. Many technological advancements having a huge imp...

  12. Redefining Female Desire: Angela Carter's Bloody Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Antonella Abeni

    2014-03-01

    This article analyses some passages of those tales, combining them with the ideas expressed by the author in her famous essay, demonstrating the originality and unconventionality of her interpretation of female desire, subject to misunderstanding and disputes, but strongly appreciated in recent years .

  13. Leadership Challenges facing Female Employees in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intention of the study was to explore leadership challenges facing female employees within the telecommunications industry. Theories based on gender, traits, leadership, the hierarchy of needs and development were used as the theoretical framework and a systems thinking approach was used to assist in looking ...

  14. The female innovation-generation consumer's evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    stimuli as it is important for retailers to understand in order to create integrated marketing strategies that align with these consumers' preferences. The authors therefore focus on the female innovation-generation's evaluation of visual displays in a retail environment communicated through two mediums (a static traditional ...

  15. Stimulating Gender Equity Through Female Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania, like many other countries in Africa, has for a long time suffered from cultural-related gender inequality syndrome where females did not receive the same share of opportunity as males in many aspects of socioeconomic development, notably in education, politics, administration, science and technology.

  16. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    . ... Recent survey data in 18 of these countries reveal the prevalence of. FGM to range from 5% to 97% of the female population. (4,5). A household survey conducted by ..... the ice-berg” of what truly obtains in the community.

  17. Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School Students In Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria. ... Results: Out of a study population of 725, 34 or 4.7% of the girls smoked tobacco (cigarette) while 69 or 9.5% indulged in alcohol and 109 or 15% took sedatives as a means of inducing sleep. There was no ...

  18. sexuality, contraception and unintended pregnancy among female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    reproductive health needs of female student nurses. Key words – Sexuality, Contraception, unintended ... sexual route, especially among young adults in developing countries 7. For instance, out of an estimated 11.8 ..... Women's sexual and reproductive rights: The Nigerian Perspective. Trop Obstet Gynaecol 19: Suppl. 1.

  19. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  20. Emergency contraception knowledge amongst female high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency contraception (EC) is of public health importance for preventing unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Challenged by the high incidence of unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions observed among female high school learners who were attending the clinics in Tswaing Sub-district of North West ...

  1. Female entrepreneurial networks and foreign market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of networks in the 116 foreign market entries (FMEs) of women-owned small businesses. A multiple case study based on semi-structured interviews with eight female entrepreneurs in the Danish fashion design industry. The results show that contrary...

  2. Correlates of body image dissatisfaction among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to examine factors predicting body image dissatisfaction among female university undergraduates in Ogun State. Adolescent have been found to be influenced by a number of factors which may determine how they feel about their body images. Two hundred and fifty Undergraduate students ...

  3. Menstruation: Symptoms, Management and Attitude of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Attitude of Female Nursing Students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Momnéola 0A, and U znqgbn VU. ABSTRACT. This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student ...

  4. FEMALE DRAMATISTS, DISTINCTION AND THE NIGERIAN SOCIETY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    azunwo eziwho emenik

    the literary rank of Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, and Ngugi wa Thiong‟o are three of those. The development of ... the growing literature on the need to understand the creativity of female dramatists in Nigeria. One of the assertions that ..... distorted and inaccurate representation of the women folk. Most plays by women ...

  5. sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates in tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Equally, Misi (2008) also pointed out that the politicians and government officials are not left out in the cause of female students‟ sexual promiscuity. According to him, anytime these politicians and government officials visit the university town on official work, the pimps recruit for them young university girls for their relaxation ...

  6. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  7. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  8. Knowledge, attitude and intending practice of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) is that infants should be fed exclusively on breast milk for the first 6 months, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been on the decline in Nigeria. The study determines knowledge, attitude and intending practice of unmarried female undergraduates ...

  9. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  10. The Female Experience of Sibling Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…

  11. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  12. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  13. Psychological Androgyny and Male-Female Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlofsky, Jacob L.

    Changes in men's and women's societal roles and in their personality characteristics might be expected to lead to corresponding changes in the personal relations between sexes. Male (N=140) and female (N=95) college students, classified as sex-typed, cross-sex-typed, androgynous, or undifferentiated on the basis of their Bem Sex Role Inventory…

  14. Gender and Perceptions: Females as Secondary Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Kathleen; Beebe, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and supervisors toward the principal leadership behaviors of female secondary principals in Ohio. Principal self-perceptions were also included to complete the study. The literature shows that women continue to be underrepresented in a field in which the majority of…

  15. Exploring female GPs' perceptions about medical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Karen; Clearihan, Lynette

    2015-06-01

    Women are increasingly entering the Australian general practice workforce. This study aims to explore female general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of possible barriers to leadership and professional roles in the workforce. A purposive, convenience sample of 30 female GPs in active practice was approached in February, 2012. An anonymous, pa-per-based, semi-quantitative survey sought to identify participation and leadership confidence within general practice in a number of professional roles. The top two barriers participants identified for after-hours medical meetings were energy to attend and geographical location. For after-hours care, the top two barriers identified were energy and self-motivation. Few participants aspired to 'leadership' activities. 'Medical mentoring' was most likely to attract them into leadership. It is important female GPs' perspectives are explored in general practice. This small survey suggests further studies are needed in the importance of energy limitations and lack of self-confidence in restricting female GPs' capacity to fully engage in professional roles.

  16. Personality Characteristics of Obese Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Mark L.; Snow, David L.

    This study investigated the hypothesis that obese female adolescents would show evidence of greater maladjustment on objective personality indices as compared to general norms for adolescents. Findings support this hypothesis, as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). In particular, the difficulties of the obese group…

  17. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we

  18. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  19. Polydactyly 24 in a Female Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Oluseyi O. A. Atanda; Owonikoko, Kola M.; Adeyemi, Adewale S.; Olanrewaju Bajowa

    2013-01-01

    Polydactyly is perhaps one of the most common congenital hand and foot anomalies. Tetrapolydactyly (polydactyly 24) is a very rare form of hand and foot anomalies. Postaxial ray polydactyly usually occurs in male blacks without associated congenital abnormalities. We report a case of postaxial ray tetrapolydactyly in a female neonate which occurred sporadically and without associated congenital abnormalities.

  20. Female conspecifics restore rhythmic singing behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singingbehaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitoredthe activity–rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a ...

  1. Female conspecifics restore rhythmic singing behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-10

    Feb 10, 2017 ... social cues rendered by a conspecific female could improve the circadian performance by restoring rhythmicity in the biological functions of ... Circadian rhythm; social cue; song; songbird; zebra finch. Published online: 10 ... A passive infra-red sensor (digital PIR motion detector, LC-. 100-PI) mounted on ...

  2. Mycotoxins and female reproduction: in vitro approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, R.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848468; Schoevers, E.J.; Roelen, B.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/109291859; Fink-Gremmels, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to adverse effects on female reproduction by interfering with the synthesis, metabolism or degradation of steroid hormones, interaction with steroid receptors or impairing oocyte maturation and competence. To assess such effects, many studies initially focussed

  3. Female sexual function in urological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzevier, Hendrik Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe in chapter two the evaluation of female sexual function in an outpatient urologic clinic related to different urological complaints. Sexual abuse appeared to be a quite frequent problem in urological practice. In chapter three sexual abused patients are evaluated in

  4. Maximizing Female Retention In the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    direction. They made the research process an enjoyable and very memorable experience for us. Thanks to Professor Mark Eitelberg for encouraging us to...comprehension, math knowledge, and auto shop . These categories are areas in which males traditionally excel in comparison to females. The ASVAB is not

  5. Some volatile constituents of female dog urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T H; Kruse, S M; Flath, R A

    1985-02-01

    The volatile compounds from female beagle urine, across the state of estrus, were examined by headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were methyl propyl sulfide, methyl butyl sulfide, and acetone. Nine minor constituents, including trimethyl amine and five disulfides, were identified. Two of the unidentified minor constituents may possibly be associated with the state of estrus.

  6. From Female Shamans to Danish Housewives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Signe; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    2015-01-01

    with Christian missionaries and a Danish trade monopoly. According to Jessen Williamson, pre-colonial Greenlandic conceptions of gender were characterized by a certain social indifference to gender, and the absence of a given hierarchy of male dominance/female subordination—a situation of genderlessness. During...

  7. In search of female IT-students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Schultz, Nette

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the problem of retaining female students in IT educations. It is argued that there are changes to be made at the university were the male domination is resulting in a limited approach to teaching IT both with regard to content and methods. Emphasis on more modern teaching me...

  8. The Islamic view on female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ali Gomaa

    between them is one of complementarity, and not of competition. As the Qur'an says, “And in no wise covet those .... addressed in Egyptian legislation, we find that the first legal pro- vision issued concerning female circumcision .... Educational establishments and media, for their part, have a duty to educate people about the ...

  9. Medicalization of female genital mutilation/cutting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.I. Serour

    Abstract. Globally 100–140 million women and girls have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting. (FGM/C) which is a harmful practice, associated with immediate and long term complications, has no benefit what so ever, is unethical and has no religious basis. Inspite of global efforts to eradicate FGM/C.

  10. in the practice of Female Genital Cutting?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in developing theoretical models for understanding behaviour change with respect to the practice of female genital cutting (FGC). Drawing on extensive qualitative data collected in Senegal and The Gambia, the research reported here explores whether and how theoretical ...

  11. female condom, microbicides and cervical barriers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... in the developing world.5 Several factors account for women's higher risk of infection, including biological, socio-cultural and economic factors. ... Health Company; two other female condom brands are marketed outside the USA. ... concerns around the HIV epidemic, rape, sexual coercion and unplanned ...

  12. Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Roeleveld, N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Female greenhouse workers, who constitute a major occupational group exposed to pesticides at childbearing age, were studied to measure the effects of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on time to

  13. Irma Optimisti "Female mathematics" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Irma Optimisti näitusest "Female mathematics" Helsingis Muu-galeriis, mis on osa projektist "Mõistelisus ja käsitöölikkus (Käsitteellisyys ja käsityöläisyys) ehk naine ja tehnoloogia". Ilmunud ka ajalehes "Eesti Päevaleht", 1996, 27. veebruar

  14. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  15. Permanent female mimics in a lekking shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukema, Joop; Piersma, Theunis

    2006-01-01

    Female mimics are known from many species, but permanent, non-conditional, alternative mating strategies are only known from an isopod, a fish, a lizard and a bird. The single bird example refers to lek-breeding ruffs Philomachus pugnax, a shorebird for which two strategies (independent and

  16. Sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates in tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates and the attendant health implications. It was carried out in the tertiary institutions in Imo State using 415 final year degree students drawn from four institutions in the State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The design was a ...

  17. New plan to prevent female infanticide mooted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-05

    The Campaign Against Female Infanticide in Tamil Nadu (CAFIT), sponsored by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, has brought to light a quadrangular model for the prevention of the social evil of female infanticide. The existence of female infanticide, according to the CAFIT, exposed the deplorable condition of women in society and reflected the perpetuation of customary and traditional practices in the sociocultural life of the people. The practice was associated with militant communities and other weaker segments living in less developed regions and with backward pockets marked by illiteracy, superstition, poverty, indebtedness, fear of liability, and emotional attachments to the soil and to cults. This paper also indicates the following preventive measures against female infanticide that are aimed at empowering women: establishing self-help groups and the sanction of micro credit for women in order to facilitate economic development, establishing rural and agriculture-based small-scale industries in order to generate local self-employment, and synchronization of crop insurance and marketing facilities in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate compensation in the event of crop failure caused by natural disasters.

  18. HORMONAL EVALUATION IN FEMALES HAVING MELASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sharique; Suraj; Sharma

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female p...

  19. In search of female IT-students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Schultz, Nette

    This article looks at the problem of retaining female students in IT educations. It is argued that there are changes to be made at the university were the male domination is resulting in a limited approach to teaching IT both with regard to content and methods. Emphasis on more modern teaching...

  20. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  1. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  2. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  3. Lifetime Number of Mates Interacts with Female Age to Determine Reproductive Success in Female Guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  4. Movement symmetry and asymmetry of goal shots in female football ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the phenomenon of symmetrical skills in goal shot technique in female football players, of nine video recorded matches. The recording was taken during the 2nd Under 19 female football World Cup in 2004 and the 6th European female Championships of female seniors in 2005. The study comprised ...

  5. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  6. Female Project Managers' Workplace Problems: a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin

    This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.

  7. Aging, life trajectories and female homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Moraes Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The social science's literature about female homosexuality has recently grown in Brazil, showing the awakened interest in this issue. Since the 1990's, academic works have discussed female homosexuality: its meanings and its impact on gender issues, its relationships with social movements, specially the ones concerned with sexual rights in Brazil. Great part of these works focus on a young age rate, and some of them are dedicated to middle age women. However, there aren't works concerned with old age women and lesbianity. This article starts to fill this gap and takes into account old age lesbians and their perceptions about homosexuality and its place in their life trajectories.

  8. Reproductive abnormalities in aged female Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michele; Walters, Sherry; Smith, Taryn; Wilkinson, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    Spontaneous reproductive tract abnormalities occurred in six female wild-caught, Philippine-origin, Macaca fascicularis. These animals were between 19 and 22 years of age and maintained in captivity for approximately 15 years. Clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic to painful menses manifested as cyclical recumbency and lethargy. All animals had masses in the caudal ventral abdomen. Diagnostics included physical examination, complete blood counts, clinical chemistries, radiography, and ultrasonography. All animals had an ovariosalpingohysterectomy. Histologic diagnoses included ovarian granulosa cell tumor, ovarian pseudocystic cavitation with encapsulating fibrosis, uterine smooth muscle hyperplasia, uterine leiomysarcoma, and uterine leiomyoma with possible adenomyosis. The abnormalities discovered in these animals present novel insight into the reproductive diseases prevalent in geriatric female M. fascicularis, which vary from that previously reported in other non-human primate species.

  9. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    in the prospective registration of injuries. All players were enrolled on a team participating in Danish Football Association series. Soccer injuries and exposure were reported weekly by answers to standardized text message questions, followed by individual injury interviews. Soccer exposure and playing levels were......BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...

  10. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN FEMALE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. ULLAH, M. AHMAD, N. AHMAD, M. Z. KHAN1 AND I. AHMAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the fetotoxic effects of cypermethrin (CY in female rabbits with low and high doses. For this purpose, 32 adult female rabbits were divided in to four equal groups A, B, C and D. Rabbits of groups A, B and C were treated with different levels of CY at the dose rate of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally, while the group D served as a control and was given equal volume of normal saline intraperitoneally. The clinical signs exhibited by the rabbits treated with CY included salivation, licking of different body parts, muscular tremors, ataxia and convulsions. There was a significant difference in the numbers of CL and number of fetuses which mean the early embryonic death and post implantation loses at the high dose. There were microscopic changes in the ovaries and uteri of animals treated with CY.

  11. Primary ovary hemangiosarcoma in a female dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A nine-year-old female Boxer was diagnosed with osteosarcoma in the right hind limb. During imaging exams to investigate the occurrence of metastasis, it was observed a mass in the abdominal cavity. A laparotomy was performed, and the mass was detected in the left ovary. Intraoperative fine-needle aspirates were made and showed spindle cells with moderate cellular pleomorphism and neutrophils. The cytological findings were not compatible with osteosarcoma metastasis. The mass was excised and submitted to histopathological evaluation. The microscopic examination showed a proliferation of spindle cells forming small vascular channels and a trabecular pattern interspersed by discrete to moderate collagenous stroma. The cells showed moderate cellular pleomorphism and high mitotic index. There was abundant necrosis and multifocal hemorrhage. The definitive diagnosis was hemangiosarcoma. This is a rare primary ovary tumor in dogs with just one previous report in veterinary literature. However, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in female dogs with ovary mass.

  12. Automatic female dehumanization across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Valentina; Fantoni, Carlo; Foroni, Francesco; Bianchi, Mauro; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words. These results show that the female dehumanization is automatically elicited by menstrual cycle-related processes and likely associated with an enhanced activation of mate-attraction goals. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. [The neurophysiology of the female orgasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, S; Bianchi-Demicheli, F

    2006-03-22

    The way women experience orgasm during passionate sexual activity has been of interest throughout the ages. The astonishing advances of functional imaging techniques recently allowed unravelling the neuroanatomy of female orgasm within a distributed corticosubcortical neural network. In the present article, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that attributes orgasm not only a peripheral but also a central origin. We thus outline the importance of integrating orgasm as a complex process involving the entire woman, mind and body. In light of this, future studies in female sexuality would need to take account of the consequences of both standard approaches in sexology and functional imaging results in the understanding of the human sexual function and in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.

  14. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males...

  15. Female Directors on Corporate Boards: Does Female Leadership Drive Corporate Environmental Transparency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phua Michelle Siew Huei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of female directors on corporate boardroom on the extent of corporate environmental disclosure (CED of 260 Malaysian listed companies in year 2013. Resource dependence theory is utilized as the theoretical framework to explain the role of female directors on corporate boards. Content analysis is employed to gauge the extent of CED based on a self-constructed index that is derived from Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI and prior studies. Multiple regression is conducted and findings revealed that female directors– presence and female holding multiple directorships to be significant predictors of extent of CED. The findings lend support to the resource dependence theory on the contribution of board gender diversity and are useful for both policy makers and regulators.

  16. Why Do Females Use Botulinum Toxin Injections?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Singh; Amarjit Dulku; Ahmed Haq; Tayyab Bhatti; Aqib Bhatti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Botulinum toxin (BT) use for enhancing the facial features has become a commonly accepted form of aesthetic intervention. This study conducted a self-report survey of female BT users in order to explore the motivating factors in its use (cost-benefit analysis). Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Materials and Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 41 consecutive clients attending an independent medical practice for BT injectio...

  17. Ozone Therapy in Treatment of Female Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Maradi A. Burduli

    2015-01-01

    Ozone therapy and physiotherapy have been successfully used in obstetric practice. The paper summarizes the results of studies on the use of ozone therapy in the postoperative rehabilitation of gynecological patients operated on for female infertility of various origins. Biomechanisms systemic impact methods of ozone therapy on the human body to meet the requirements of the tactics of the impact on the etiopathogenic mechanisms of chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs and their c...

  18. IS MALE BRAIN DIFFERENT FROM FEMALE BRAIN?

    OpenAIRE

    Majdic, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    In 1959, exactly 50 years ago, was published a paper by Phoenix, Goy, Gerall and Young entitled “Organizing action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig”. Before the publication of this paper, it was widely accepted that hormones do act upon brain. However, the general thought was that hormones, especially sex steroid hormones, directly activate certain brain areas when needed, i.e. at the time of mating, parental ...

  19. Empathy, autism and the extreme female brain

    OpenAIRE

    Dinsdale, Natalie Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition can be conceptualized as an axis whereby males tend toward relative strengths in mechanistic ('things' thinking) cognition and females tend toward relative strengths in mentalistic ('people'-thinking) cognition. Psychiatric conditions are hypothesized to reflect the extreme ends of this axis, with over-developed social cognition underlying the psychotic-affective spectrum in contrast to under-developed social cognition characterizing the autism spectrum. Consistent with this h...

  20. Male or Female? Brains are Intersex

    OpenAIRE

    Daphna eJoel

    2011-01-01

    The underlying assumption in popular and scientific publications on sex differences in the brain is that human brains can take one of two forms “male” or “female,” and that the differences between these two forms underlie differences between men and women in personality, cognition, emotion, and behavior. Documented sex differences in brain structure are typically taken to support this dimorphic view of the brain. However, neuroanatomical data reveal that sex interacts with other factors in ut...