Sample records for submicrometer sulfuric acid

  1. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle (United States)

    Norman, John H.


    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  2. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid (United States)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.


    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  3. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.


    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  4. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also... ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed good manufacturing practice in accordance with § 184.1(b...

  7. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid (United States)

    Reithmiller, Steven


    Sulfuric acid turned out to be one of the critical chemicals made in the South during the Civil War. It was necessary for the manufacture of mercury fulminate which was used in the production of percussion caps and sulfuric acid was used in the Daniells cell to produce electricity. Charles H. Winston, president of the Richmond Female Institute and later professor at the University of Richmond (VA) was instrumental in the establishment of a plant to manufacture sulfuric acid in Charlotte, North Carolina. His patent and method of manufacture plus the uses of sulfuric acid during the Civil War are discussed.

  8. Influence of short chain organic acids and bases on the wetting properties and surface energy of submicrometer ceramic powders. (United States)

    Neirinck, Bram; Soccol, Dimitri; Fransaer, Jan; Van der Biest, Omer; Vleugels, Jef


    The effect of short chained organic acids and bases on the surface energy and wetting properties of submicrometer alumina powder was assessed. The surface chemistry of treated powders was determined by means of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy and compared to untreated powder. The wetting of powders was measured using a modified Washburn method, based on the use of precompacted powder samples. The geometric factor needed to calculate the contact angle was derived from measurements of the porous properties of the powder compacts. Contact angle measurements with several probe liquids before and after modification allowed a theoretical estimation of the surface energy based on the surface tension component theory. Trends in the surface energy components were linked to observations in infrared spectra. The results showed that the hydrophobic character of the precompacted powder depends on both the chain length and polar group of the modifying agent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  10. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete


    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...

  11. Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.


    An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

  12. Modeling of the Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Trioxide Decomposer using Aspen Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Un; Park, G. C. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. S.; Yoo, T. H.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A hydrogen production system using VHTR, which was combined with a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, is a good candidate for massive hydrogen production. It is being investigated for Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The SI thermo-chemical cycle is a good promise for the economical and eco-friendly hydrogen production. In SI cycle, the decomposition of a sulfuric acid is main concern for the material corrosion and mechanical stress on high temperature and pressure operation condition. KAERI has designed and constructed a small-scale gas loop that included sulfuric acid experimental facilities as a secondary loop. The main objectives of the loop are to monitor and validate the performances of NHDD component such as the Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) and sulfuric acid decomposer. In this paper, we discussed the results of the modeling of the sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposer using Aspen plus process simulator

  13. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek


    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  14. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures (United States)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.


    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  15. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition (United States)

    Moore, Robert [Edgewood, NM; Pickard, Paul S [Albuquerque, NM; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E [Albuquerque, NM; Gelbard, Fred [Albuquerque, NM; Lenard, Roger X [Edgewood, NM


    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  16. Sulfuric acid aerosols in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets (United States)

    McGouldrick, Kevin; Toon, Owen B.; Grinspoon, David H.


    Clouds and hazes composed of sulfuric acid are observed to exist or postulated to have once existed on each of the terrestrial planets with atmospheres in our solar system. Venus today maintains a global cover of clouds composed of a sulfuric acid/water solution that extends in altitude from roughly 50 km to roughly 80 km. Terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form on stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols, and both PSCs and stratospheric aerosols play a critical role in the formation of the ozone hole. Stratospheric aerosols can modify the climate when they are enhanced following volcanic eruptions, and are a current focus for geoengineering studies. Rain is made more acidic by sulfuric acid originating from sulfur dioxide generated by industry on Earth. Analysis of the sulfur content of Martian rocks has led to the hypothesis that an early Martian atmosphere, rich in SO 2 and H 2O, could support a sulfur-infused hydrological cycle. Here we consider the plausibility of frozen sulfuric acid in the upper clouds of Venus, which could lead to lightning generation, with implications for observations by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Venus Climate Orbiter (also known as Akatsuki). We also present simulations of a sulfur-rich early Martian atmosphere. We find that about 40 cm/yr of precipitation having a pH of about 2.0 could fall in an early Martian atmosphere, assuming a surface temperature of 273 K, and SO 2 generation rates consistent with the formation of Tharsis. This modeled acid rain is a powerful sink for SO 2, quickly removing it and preventing it from having a significant greenhouse effect.

  17. Solubility of uranous sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Hirono, Shuichiro; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Majima, Hiroshi


    To provide important thermodynamic data for use in uranium hydrometallurgy, solubilities of uranous sulfate were determined as a function of free acid concentration and temperature. Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. One set was the precipitation experiments of uranous sulfate crystals, in which concentrated uranous sulfate solution was mixed with sulfuric acid solution of suitable concentration. The other set was the dissolution experiments of uranous sulfate crystals in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions. It is noteworthy that good agreement exists between the solubilities determined by the two methods. At elevated temperatures, say, 363 K, the presence of free sulfuric acid is required to avoid precipitation of uranous hydroxide resulting from the hydrolysis of uranous sulfate. Generally speaking, however, an increase in free sulfuric acid concentration results in a slight decrease in uranous sulfate solubility. The elevation of solution temperature causes a decrease in solubility of uranous sulfate. It should be noted that the solid uranous sulfates equilibrated with saturated solutions at 298 K were U(SO4)2 2H2O in dilute sulfuric acid solution and U(SO4)2 4H2O in concentrated sulfuric acid solution, while those at 333 K and 363 K were mainly U(SO4)2 4H2O.

  18. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing (United States)

    Danford, M. D.


    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  19. ascorbic acid retention in canned lime juice preserved with sulfur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASCORBIC ACID RETENTION IN CANNED LIME JUICE. PRESERVED WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE AND BENZOIC ACID. Francis M Malhooko“ and Elizabeth N Kiniiya'. ABSTRACT. The effects of two levels each of sodium metabisulfite and sodium benzoate on the shelf-life of canned lime juice stored at ambient temperature ...

  20. An evaluation of possible mechanisms for conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid and sulfate aerosols in the troposphere (United States)

    Jack G. Calvert


    The mechanisms and rates of conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid, and other "sulfate" aerosol precursors are considered in view of current knowledge related to atmospheric reactions and chemical kinetics. Several heterogeneous pathways exist for SO2 oxidation promoted on solid catalyst particles and in aqueous...

  1. Sorbic acid interaction with sulfur dioxide in model food systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namor, O.G.


    The first chapter deals with the chemistry of sorbic acid and sulfur dioxide. The second chapter describes a study of the degradation products of sorbic acid, in aqueous systems, in the presence of sulfur dioxide and a possible mechanism for the occurrence of these products is proposed. Chapter three deals with the preparation and degradation of 6-(/sup 13/C)sorbic acid in order to find evidence for, or against, the mechanism proposed in chapter two. It also gives details of syntheses attempted in order to obtain 6- (/sup 13/C)sorbic acid. The interaction of sorbic acid and sulfur dioxide in real food systems is the subject of the fourth chapter. The food systems studied were mayonnaise, tomato puree, orange juice and cottage cheese. The effect of packaging on the rate of degradation of sorbic acid was also investigated. The final chapter deals with a microbiological study of two homologues of sorbic acid, 2,4-heptadienoic acid, 2,4-octadienoic acid. The fungicidal activity of these two compounds, towards selected fungi, was analyzed. 4-Oxobut-2-enoic acid, a degradation product of sorbic acid in aqueous systems, was also analyzed as a possible fungistat.

  2. Components development for sulfuric acid processing in the IS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroki, E-mail:; Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kasakara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki


    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting research and development on a thermochemical iodine–sulfur (IS) process, one of most attractive water-splitting hydrogen production methods, that uses the nuclear heat of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). An examination is planned to verify the integrity of the components in the sulfuric acid decomposition section. A bayonet-type sulfuric acid decomposer made of SiC ceramics, a key component in the section, was test-fabricated. In parallel, a direct-contact heat exchanger (DCHX) is contemplated for use in the sulfuric acid decomposition section to simplify the process. The application of the DCHX makes it possible to perform heat recovery and separate undecomposed sulfuric acid from the decomposed gaseous mixture in one reactor. Although the concept is very attractive, little is known about the heat and mass transfer behavior in the DCHX. Therefore, a test apparatus was constructed to measure the gas-phase mass transfer coefficients required for the optimal design of the DCHX. These coefficients of water were acquired and compared with an empirical correlation. The experimental data were in good agreement with those obtained from empirical correlation, and thus, the apparatus was confirmed to be reasonable.

  3. Vanadium Extraction from Shale via Sulfuric Acid Baking and Leaching (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing


    Fluorides are widely used to improve vanadium extraction from shale in China. Sulfuric acid baking-leaching (SABL) was investigated as a means of recovering vanadium which does not require the use of fluorides and avoids the productions of harmful fluoride-containing wastewater. Various effective factors were systematically studied and the experimental results showed that 90.1% vanadium could be leached from the shale. On the basis of phase transformations and structural changes after baking the shale, a mechanism of vanadium extraction from shale via SABL was proposed. The mechanism can be described as: (1) sulfuric acid diffusion into particles; (2) the formation of concentrated sulfuric acid media in the particles after water evaporation; (3) hydroxyl groups in the muscovite were removed and transient state [SO4 2-] was generated; and (4) the metals in the muscovite were sulfated by active [SO4 2-] and the vanadium was released. Thermodynamics modeling confirmed this mechanism.

  4. Investigation of radiation and chemical stability of sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, L.V.; Kulikov, I.A.; Ezhov, V.K.; Vladimirova, M.V.

    A study was made on dependence of radiation-chemical yield of sulphur dioxide and other gaseous products of sulfuric acid radiolysis on its concentration, temperature, dose rate and the rate of removal of these products from reaction sphere. It is shown that the process of radiation-chemical decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid can be intensified by temperature increase (220-300 deg C) and constant removal of gaseous radiolysis products from reaction sphere. The mechanism of formation of sulphur dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen during H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ monohydrate radiolysis was discussed.

  5. Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals by Silica Sulfuric Acid and Wet SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Bamoniri


    Full Text Available Neat chlorosulfonic acid reacts with silica gel to give silica sulfuric acid in which sulfuric acid is immobilized on the surface of silica gel via covalent bonds. A combination of silica sulfuric acid and wet SiO2 was used as an effective deacetalizating agent for the conversion of acetals to their corresponding carbonyl derivatives under thermal conditions.

  6. An integrated experimental-modeling approach to study the acid leaching behavior of lead from sub-micrometer lead silicate glass particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elteren, Johannes T. van, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Grilc, Miha [Laboratory of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Beeston, Michael P. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); TSI GmbH, Neuköllner Str. 4, 52068 Aachen (Germany); Reig, Milagros Santacatalina [General Foundation, University of Alicante, E-03690 San Vicente del Raspeig (Alicante) (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grgić, Irena [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: • Generation of particles by laser ablation of lead silicate glass. • Collection of particles on filters and continuous acid leaching and ICP-MS monitoring. • Fitting of the lead leaching profile to a mathematical intraparticle diffusion model. • Extraction of individual leaching profiles for selected mono-dispersed size fractions. • Leaching kinetics is based on ion-exchange and correlated with particle size. -- Abstract: This work focuses on the development of a procedure to study the mechanism of leaching of lead from sub-micrometer lead glass particles using 0.3 mol l{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} as a leachant. Glass particles with an effective size distribution range from 0.05 to 1.4 μm were generated by laser ablation (213 nm Nd:YAG laser) and collected on an inline 0.2 μm syringe filter. Subsequently, the glass particles on the filter were subjected to online leaching and continuous monitoring of lead (Pb-208) in the leachate by quadrupole ICP-MS. The lead leaching profile, aided by the particle size distribution information from cascade impaction, was numerically fitted to a mathematical model based on the glass intraparticle diffusion, liquid film distribution and thermodynamic glass-leachant distribution equilibrium. The findings of the modeling show that the rate-limiting step of leaching is the migration of lead from the core to the surface of the glass particle by an ion-exchange mechanism, governed by the apparent intraparticle lead diffusivity in glass which was calculated to be 3.1 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Lead leaching is illustrated in the form of graphs and animations of intraparticle lead release (in time and intraparticle position) from particles with sizes of 0.1 and 0.3 μm.

  7. Silica sulfuric acid: a versatile and reusable heterogeneous catalyst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silica sulfuric acid catalyzes efficiently the reaction of carbamates and oxazolidinones with anhydrides under solvent-free conditions. All the reactions were done at room temperature and the N-acyl carbamates and oxazolidinones were obtained with high yields and purity via an easy work-up procedure. This method is ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1 SEPTEMBER 1983 NTUKOGU. 42. SULFURIC ACID CORROSION OF LOW Sb - Pb BATTERY ALLOYS by. T. O. Ntukogu. Mechanical Engineering Department. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. (Manuscript received February,1983). ABSTRACT. The corrosion properties of low Sb - Pb alloys developed for maintenance free ...

  9. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping. (United States)

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen


    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of ammonia in sulfuric acid ion induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega


    Full Text Available We have developed a new multi-step strategy for quantum chemical calculations on atmospherically relevant cluster structures that makes calculation for large clusters affordable with a good accuracy-to-computational effort ratio. We have applied this strategy to evaluate the relevance of ternary ion induced nucleation; we have also performed calculations for neutral ternary nucleation for comparison. The results for neutral ternary nucleation agree with previous results, and confirm the important role of ammonia in enhancing the growth of sulfuric acid clusters. On the other hand, we have found that ammonia does not enhance the growth of ionic sulfuric acid clusters. The results also confirm that ion-induced nucleation is a barrierless process at high altitudes, but at ground level there exists a barrier due to the presence of a local minimum on the free energy surface.

  11. Thermal Regeneration of Sulfuric Acid Hydrates after Irradiation (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.


    In an attempt to more completely understand the surface chemistry of the jovian icy satellites, we have investigated the effect of heating on two irradiated crystalline sulfuric acid hydrates, H2SO4 4H2O and H2SO4 H2O. At temperatures relevant to Europa and the warmer jovian satellites, post-irradiation heating recrystallized the amorphized samples and increased the intensities of the remaining hydrate's infrared absorptions. This thermal regeneration of the original hydrates was nearly 100% efficient, indicating that over geological times, thermally-induced phase transitions enhanced by temperature fluctuations will reform a large fraction of crystalline hydrated sulfuric acid that is destroyed by radiation processing. The work described is the first demonstration of the competition between radiation-induced amorphization and thermally-induced recrystallization in icy ionic solids relevant to the outer Solar System.

  12. Solubility of vanadyl sulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions (United States)

    Rahman, F.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.

    The specific energy of the vanadium redox battery is determined by the solubility of the four vanadium oxidation states in sulfuric acid. While recent studies have shown that a higher vanadium concentration than that initially proposed might be feasible, further reliable solubility data for the various vanadium ions is required if the electrolyte composition is to be properly optimized. This study describes the results of a solubility study of vanadyl sulfate in sulfuric acid. VOSO 4 is the species which exists in the discharged positive half-cell of the vanadium redox cell. The solubility data have been generated in sulfuric acid concentrations that range from 0 to 9 mol/l and at temperatures between 10 and 50°C. The solubility of VOSO 4 is found to decrease continuously with increasing H 2SO 4 concentration and decreasing temperature. At 20°C, the solubility of VOSO 4 in distilled water is 3.280 mol/l whereas in 9 M H 2SO 4 it is 0.260 mol/l. The drop in solubility with increasing H 2SO 4 concentration is significant and is more pronounced at lower concentrations. A multivariable solubility prediction model has been developed as a function of temperature and total sulfate/bisulfate (SO 42- and HSO 4-) concentration using the extended Debye-Huckel functional form. The average absolute deviation of the predicted solubility values from experimental data is 4.5% with a maximum deviation of about 12% over the abovementioned temperature and sulfuric acid concentration range. When solubility data in the more useful H 2SO 4 concentration range of 3-7 M is considered, the solubility correlation improved with an average absolute deviation of only 3.0% and a maximum deviation of about 7%.

  13. Electron-induced chemistry in microhydrated sulfuric acid clusters (United States)

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Fárník, Michal


    We investigate the mixed sulfuric acid-water clusters in a molecular beam experiment with electron attachment and negative ion mass spectrometry and complement the experiment by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The microhydration of (H2SO4)m(H2O)n clusters is controlled by the expansion conditions, and the electron attachment yields the main cluster ion series (H2SO4)m(H2O)nHSO4- and (H2O)nH2SO4-. The mass spectra provide an experimental evidence for the onset of the ionic dissociation of sulfuric acid and ion-pair (HSO4- ṡ ṡ ṡ H3O+) formation in the neutral H2SO4(H2O)n clusters with n ≥ 5 water molecules, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules (H2SO4)2(H2O)n this process starts as early as n ≥ 2 water molecules. The (H2SO4)m(H2O)nHSO4- clusters are formed after the dissociative electron attachment to the clusters containing the (HSO4- ṡ ṡ ṡ H3O+) ion-pair structure, which leads to the electron recombination with the H3O+ moiety generating H2O molecule and the H-atom dissociation from the cluster. The (H2O)nH2SO4- cluster ions point to an efficient caging of the H atom by the surrounding water molecules. The electron-energy dependencies exhibit an efficient electron attachment at low electron energies below 3 eV, and no resonances above this energy, for all the measured mass peaks. This shows that in the atmospheric chemistry only the low-energy electrons can be efficiently captured by the sulfuric acid-water clusters and converted into the negative ions. Possible atmospheric consequences of the acidic dissociation in the clusters and the electron attachment to the sulfuric acid-water aerosols are discussed.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Sulfuric Acid Condensation and Corrosion Rate in Motored Bukh DV24 Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjemtrup, Lars; Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Meyer, Martin


    The work conducted in this paper presents a novel experimental setup to study sulfuric acid cold corrosion of cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. The process is simulated in a motored light duty BUKH DV24 diesel engine where the charge air contain known amounts of H2SO4 and H......2O vapor. Liner corrosion is measured as iron accumulation in the lubeoil. Similarly sulfuric acid condensation is assessed by measuring the accumulation of sulfur in the lube oil. To clarify the corrosive effect of sulfuric acid the lube oil utilized for experiments is a sulfur free neutral oil...

  15. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design (United States)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  16. Electron-induced chemistry in microhydrated sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lengyel


    Full Text Available We investigate the mixed sulfuric acid–water clusters in a molecular beam experiment with electron attachment and negative ion mass spectrometry and complement the experiment by density functional theory (DFT calculations. The microhydration of (H2SO4m(H2On clusters is controlled by the expansion conditions, and the electron attachment yields the main cluster ion series (H2SO4m(H2OnHSO4− and (H2OnH2SO4−. The mass spectra provide an experimental evidence for the onset of the ionic dissociation of sulfuric acid and ion-pair (HSO4−  ⋅  ⋅  ⋅  H3O+ formation in the neutral H2SO4(H2On clusters with n ≥ 5 water molecules, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules (H2SO42(H2On this process starts as early as n ≥ 2 water molecules. The (H2SO4m(H2OnHSO4− clusters are formed after the dissociative electron attachment to the clusters containing the (HSO4−  ⋅  ⋅  ⋅  H3O+ ion-pair structure, which leads to the electron recombination with the H3O+ moiety generating H2O molecule and the H-atom dissociation from the cluster. The (H2OnH2SO4− cluster ions point to an efficient caging of the H atom by the surrounding water molecules. The electron-energy dependencies exhibit an efficient electron attachment at low electron energies below 3 eV, and no resonances above this energy, for all the measured mass peaks. This shows that in the atmospheric chemistry only the low-energy electrons can be efficiently captured by the sulfuric acid–water clusters and converted into the negative ions. Possible atmospheric consequences of the acidic dissociation in the clusters and the electron attachment to the sulfuric acid–water aerosols are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents

  19. Naphthenic acids, total acid number and sulfur content profile characterization in Isthmus and Maya crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgina C. Laredo; Carla R. Lopez; Regina E. Alvarez; Jose L. Cano [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico (Mexico)


    In order to understand the origin of the corrosive behavior presented in the Atmospheric/Vacuum Distillation Unit in the Salina Cruz Refinery, Mexico, where a 90/10 Isthmus/Maya crude blend is processed, distributions of sulfur content and total acid number along the distillation curves of the Maya and Isthmus crude oils were performed. Naphthenic acids characterizations for both crude oils are also presented. According to our results, the Isthmus crude oil may be more corrosive than the Mayan crude oil, apparently due to the presence of low molecular weight naphthenic acids and very low sulfur contents observed in the fractions distilled at temperatures below 200{sup o}C. The occurrence of this type of acids and the lack of a protective sulfur film might be the reason for this behavior. Nevertheless, other factors like salt content or equipment metallurgy should be considered before giving a final conclusion. 18 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Sulfuric Acid Condensation and Corrosion Rate in Motored Bukh DV24 Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjemtrup, Lars; Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Meyer, Martin


    The work conducted in this paper presents a novel experimental setup to study sulfuric acid cold corrosion of cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. The process is simulated in a motored light duty BUKH DV24 diesel engine where the charge air contain known amounts of H2SO4 and H......2O vapor. Liner corrosion is measured as iron accumulation in the lubeoil. Similarly sulfuric acid condensation is assessed by measuring the accumulation of sulfur in the lube oil. To clarify the corrosive effect of sulfuric acid the lube oil utilized for experiments is a sulfur free neutral oil...... without alkaline additives (Chevron Neutral Oil 600R). Iron and sulfur accumulation in the lube oil is analyzed withan Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) apparatus. Three test cases with different H2SO4 concentrations are run. Results reveal good agreement between sulfuric acid injection flow...

  1. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben


    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  2. Characteristics of Sulfuric Acid Condensation on Cylinder Liners of Large Two-Stroke Marine Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Mayer, Stefan; Schramm, Jesper

    The present work seeks to clarify the characteristics of sulfuric acid condensation on the cylinder liner of a large two–stroke marine engine. The liner is directly exposed to the cylin-der gas (i.e. no protective lube oil film) and is represented by a constant temperature over the full stroke....... Formation of corrosive sulfuric acid in the cylinder gas is modeled with a cali-brated engine model that incorporates a detailed sulfur reaction mechanism. Condensation of sulfuric acid follows the analogy between heat and mass transfer. Average bulk gas acid dew points are calculated by applying two...... and charge air humidity acts to increase the surface area that is exposed to condensation. Depending on the actual liner temperature the deposition of sulfuric acid can be very sensi-tive to the operating strategy. A higher liner temperature theoretically provides the means to hamper sulfuric acid...

  3. On the Absorption of Isobutene and trans-2-Butene in Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, D.W.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van; Versteeg, G.F.


    In reactions in which alkenes react in the presence of homogeneous Brønstedt acid catalysts, the protonation step is rate determining. Existing reaction rate correlations for protonation of butenes in sulfuric acid solutions are not consistent and limited to sulfuric acid concentrations below 80 wt

  4. Online Automatic Titration of Chromic Acid in Chromium Plating Solutions and Phosphoric and Sulfuric Acids in Electropolishing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel


    .... The analytical chemistry literature lacks an adequate online automatic titration method for the monitoring of chromic acid in chromium plating solutions and the monitoring of phosphoric and sulfuric...

  5. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous reactions on sulfuric acid surfaces (United States)

    Williams, Leah R.; Manion, Jeffrey A.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.


    Increasing evidence from field, modeling, and laboratory studies suggests that heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles may contribute to global ozone depletion. Using a Knudsen cell reactor technique, the authors have studied the uptake, reactivity, and solubility of several trace atmospheric species on cold sulfuric acid surfaces representative of stratospheric aerosol particles. The results suggest that the heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 is fast enough to significantly affect the partitioning of nitrogen species in the global stratosphere and thus contribute to global ozone depletion. The hydrolysis of ClONO2 is slower and unlikely to be important under normal conditions at midlatitudes. The solubilities of HCl and HNO3 in sulfuric acid down to 200 K were found to be quite low. For HCl, this means that little HCl is available for reaction on the surfaces of stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles. The low solubility of HNO3 means that this product of heterogeneous reactions will enter the gas phase, and the denitrification observed in polar regions is unlikely to occur in the global stratosphere.

  6. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun


    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  7. Development of a thoracic personal sampler system for co-sampling of sulfuric acid mist and sulfur dioxide gas. (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Hsiang; Theodore, Alexandros; Zhou, Chufan; Wu, Chang-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Birky, Brian


    A novel personal sampler was designed to measure inorganic acid mists and gases for determining human exposure levels to these acids in workplaces. This sampler consists of (1) a parallel impactor for classifying aerosol by size following the ISO/CEN/ACGIH defined human thoracic fraction, (2) a cellulose filter to collect the residual acid mist but allowing penetration of sulfur dioxide gas, and (3) an accordion-shaped porous membrane denuder (aPMD) for adsorbing the penetrating sulfur dioxide gas. Acid-resistant PTFE was chosen as the housing material to minimize sampling interference. To test the performance of the parallel impactor, monodisperse aerosol was created by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator. The results showed that the penetration curve of the impactor run at 2 LPM flow rate agreed well with the defined thoracic fraction. Almost all sampling biases were within 10% for particle size distributions with MMAD between 1-25 µm and GSD between 1.75-4, which meets the criteria of the EN 13205 standard. To evaluate the performance of the aPMDs, sulfur dioxide gas was sourced directly from a cylinder. The aPMDs maintained a gas collection efficiency greater than 95% for 4 hr when sampling 8.6 ppm of sulfur dioxide gas. While the aPMD had similar performance to the commonly adopted annular or honeycomb denuders made of glass, this shatterproof aPMD is only half of the volume and 1/25 th the weight of the honeycomb denuder. Testing of the entire sampler with a mixture of sulfuric acid mist and sulfur dioxide gas showed the system could sample both with negligible interference. All the test results illustrate that the new sampler, which is flat, lightweight, and portable, is suitable for personal use and is capable of a more accurate assessment of human exposure to inorganic acid mist and SO 2 gas.

  8. Theoretical study of ultraviolet induced photodissociation dynamics of sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tatsuhiro; Ohta, Ayumi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Ikeda, Kumiko [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-Cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Danielache, Sebastian O. [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-Cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI), Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Department of Environmental Science and Techonology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yoohama 226-8502 (Japan); Nanbu, Shinkoh, E-mail: [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-Cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Photodissociation dynamics of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at low-lying electronically excited states were investigated. • Photochemical processes were simulated by on-the-fly ab initio MD. • Sulfuric acid after the excitation to the S{sub 1} state dissociated to HSO{sub 4}(1{sup 2}A″) + H({sup 2}S). • Sulfuric acid after the excitation to the S{sub 2} state dissociated to HSO{sub 4}(2{sup 2}A″) + H({sup 2}S). • The energy region of the UV spectra where NMD fractionation may occur is predicted. - Abstract: Photodissociation dynamics of sulfuric acid after excitation to the first and second excited states (S{sub 1} and S{sub 2}) were studied by an on-the-fly ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Zhu–Nakamura version of the trajectory surface hopping (ZN-TSH). Forces acting on the nuclear motion were computed on-the-fly by CASSCF method with Dunning’s augmented cc-pVDZ basis set. It was newly found that the parent molecule dissociated into two reaction-channels (i) HSO{sub 4}(1{sup 2}A″) + H({sup 2}S) by S{sub 1}-excitation, and (ii) HSO{sub 4}(2{sup 2}A″) + H({sup 2}S) by S{sub 2}-excitation. The direct dissociation dynamics yield products different from the SO{sub 2} + 2OH fragments often presented in the literature. Both channels result in the same product and differs only in the electronic state of the HSO{sub 4} fragment{sub .} The trajectories running on S{sub 2} do not hop with S{sub 0} and a nonadiabatic transition happens at the S{sub 2}–S{sub 1} conical intersection located at a longer OH bond-length than the S{sub 1}–S{sub 0} intersection producing an electronic excited state (2{sup 2}A″) of HSO{sub 4} product.

  9. Thin-film sulfuric acid anodizing as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing (United States)

    Kallenborn, K. J.; Emmons, J. R.


    Chromic acid has long been used to produce a thin, corrosion resistant (Type I) coating on aluminum. Following anodizing, the hardware was sealed using a sodium dichromate solution. Sealing closes up pores inherent in the anodized coating, thus improving corrosion resistance. The thinness of the brittle coating is desirable from a fatigue standpoint, and chromium was absorbed by the coating during the sealing process, further improving corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, both chromic acid and sodium dichromate contain carcinogenic hexavalent chromium. Sulfuric acid is being considered as a replacement for chromic acid. Sulfuric acid of 10-20 percent concentration has traditionally been used to produce relatively thick (Types II and III) or abrasion resistant (Type III) coatings. A more dilute, that is five weight percent, sulfuric acid anodizing process, which produces a thinner coating than Type II or III, with nickel acetate as the sealant has been developed. The process was evaluated in regard to corrosion resistance, throwing power, fatigue life, and processing variable sensitivity, and shows promise as a replacement for the chromic acid process.

  10. Titania preparation from soda roasted slag using sulfuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. Manaa


    Full Text Available This work deals with treatment of the sodium titanate cake results from roasted titania slag using 60% sulfuric acid solution. The working sample produced by roasting titania slag with NaCO3 at 850 °C. After roasting V and Cr species as impurities in the roasted sample are converted to water soluble species as NaVO3 and Na2CrO4 before acid treatment however, the insoluble sodium titanate products (NaFeTiO4, Na8Ti5O14, Na6Ti2O7 and Na2TiO4 are then subjected to H2SO4 acid dissolution. The produced sulfate solution is subjected to hydrolysis step in presence of oxalic acid as a reducing agent. The hydrolyzed precipitate after filtration and washing with H2SO4 solution and warm water is dried at 100 °C and calcinated at 850 °C to prepare high pure TiO2 (99.8% besides removing ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 as a byproduct from the sulfate solution.

  11. Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung-Deok, E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Un; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, San56-1, Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)


    We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO{sub 3} decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications of 900 Degree-Sign C in temperature and 1.0 MPa in pressure. The components for the sulfuric acid loop were specially designed using a combination of materials with good corrosion resistance; a ceramic and Hastelloy-C276. The design feature of the loop was tested for performance in a 10 h sulfuric acid experiment and optimized using Aspen+ code simulation.

  12. Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.O. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))


    Data from exposure of experimental animals and human subjects to sulfuric acid presents a consistent picture of its toxicology. Effects on airway resistance in asthmatic subjects were well predicted by data obtained on guinea pigs. Sulfuric acid increases the irritant response to ozone in both rats and man. In donkeys, rabbits, and human subjects, sulfuric acid alters clearance of particles from the lung in a similar manner. These changes resemble those produced by cigarette smoke and could well lead to chronic bronchitis. Data obtained on guinea pigs indicate that very small amounts of sulfuric acid on the surface of ultrafine metal oxide aerosols produce functional, morphological, and biochemical pulmonary effects. Such particles are typical of those emitted from coal combustion and smelting operations. Sulfate is an unsatisfactory surrogate in existing epidemiology studies. Sulfuric acid measurement is a critical need in such studies. 31 references.

  13. Involvement of intermediate sulfur species in biological reduction of elemental sulfur under acidic, hydrothermal conditions. (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Druschel, Gregory K


    The thermoacidophile and obligate elemental sulfur (S(8)(0))-reducing anaerobe Acidilobus sulfurireducens 18D70 does not associate with bulk solid-phase sulfur during S(8)(0)-dependent batch culture growth. Cyclic voltammetry indicated the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as well as polysulfides after 1 day of batch growth of the organism at pH 3.0 and 81°C. The production of polysulfide is likely due to the abiotic reaction between S(8)(0) and the biologically produced H(2)S, as evinced by a rapid cessation of polysulfide formation when the growth temperature was decreased, inhibiting the biological production of sulfide. After an additional 5 days of growth, nanoparticulate S(8)(0) was detected in the cultivation medium, a result of the hydrolysis of polysulfides in acidic medium. To examine whether soluble polysulfides and/or nanoparticulate S(8)(0) can serve as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) supporting the growth of A. sulfurireducens, total sulfide concentration and cell density were monitored in batch cultures with S(8)(0) provided as a solid phase in the medium or with S(8)(0) sequestered in dialysis tubing. The rates of sulfide production in 7-day-old cultures with S(8)(0) sequestered in dialysis tubing with pore sizes of 12 to 14 kDa and 6 to 8 kDa were 55% and 22%, respectively, of that of cultures with S(8)(0) provided as a solid phase in the medium. These results indicate that the TEA existed in a range of particle sizes that affected its ability to diffuse through dialysis tubing of different pore sizes. Dynamic light scattering revealed that S(8)(0) particles generated through polysulfide rapidly grew in size, a rate which was influenced by the pH of the medium and the presence of organic carbon. Thus, S(8)(0) particles formed through abiological hydrolysis of polysulfide under acidic conditions appeared to serve as a growth-promoting TEA for A. sulfurireducens.

  14. Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning by combining formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space. (United States)

    Lin, Peter T; Dunn, William A


    Suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by mixing formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space is a rare method of suicide. This method is similar to the so-called "detergent suicide" method where an acid-based detergent is mixed with a sulfur source to produce hydrogen sulfide. Both methods produce a toxic gas that poses significant hazards for death investigators, first responders and bystanders. Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, while hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic rotten eggs odor, so the risks associated with carbon monoxide are potentially greater due to lack of an important warning signal. While detergent suicides have become increasingly common in the USA, suicide with formic acid and sulfuric acid is rare with only three prior cases being reported. Greater awareness of this method among death investigators is warranted because of the special risks of accidental intoxication by toxic gas and the possibility that this method of suicide will become more common in the future. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Beaver


    Full Text Available Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10 and ketones (C3 and C9 on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  16. Henry's law constants of phenol and mononitrophenols in water and aqueous sulfuric acid. (United States)

    Guo, X X; Brimblecombe, P


    Phenols are widely present in the atmosphere and nitration probably in the aerosol phase leads to nitrophenols. Nitration by nitric acid in sulfuric acid can be rapid, but little is known of the process under atmospheric conditions. The Henry's law constants K(H)(dagger) of phenol and 2-, 3- and 4-nitrophenol were all measured by a bubble stripping method as: 2820mol kg(-1) atm(-1) (at 298K), 147mol kg(-1) atm(-1) (at 298K), 1.6x10(4)mol kg(-1)atm(-1) (at 308K) and 2.1x10(4)mol kg(-1) atm(-1) (at 308K), respectively. The Henry's law constant of phenol in sulfuric acid systems is lower by more than a factor of two at 1020mol kg(-1) atm(-1) (at 298K) in 40wt% sulfuric acid, which is in line with salting-out of oxygen-containing aromatic compounds in water-sulfuric acid systems. The Henry's law constants of 2- and 4-nitrophenol behave differently and are almost independent of sulfuric acid concentration. The variation of K(H)(dagger) with temperature (T) described in terms of -dln(K(H)(dagger))/d(1/T) does not to vary with sulfuric acid concentration, suggesting enthalpy of dissolution for phenol is independent of sulfuric acid. The series of Henry's law constants measured here can describe the equilibrium situation for phenols in careful determinations of phase partitioning in the atmosphere.

  17. Synthesis and degradation of nucleic acid components by formamide and iron sulfur minerals. (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Neri, Veronica; Crestini, Claudia; Costanzo, Giovanna; Graciotti, Michele; Di Mauro, Ernesto


    We describe the one-pot synthesis of a large panel of nucleic bases and related compounds from formamide in the presence of iron sulfur and iron-copper sulfur minerals as catalysts. The major products observed are purine, 1H-pyrimidinone, isocytosine, adenine, 2-aminopurine, carbodiimide, urea, and oxalic acid. Isocytosine and 2-aminopurine may recognize natural nucleobases by Watson-Crick and reverse Watson-Crick interactions, thus suggesting novel scenarios for the origin of primordial nucleic acids. Since the major problem in the origin of informational polymers is the instability of their precursors, we also investigate the effects of iron sulfur and iron-copper sulfur minerals on the stability of ribooligonucleotides in formamide and in water. All of the iron sulfur and iron-copper sulfur minerals stimulated degradation of RNA. The relevance of these findings with respect to the origin of informational polymers is discussed.

  18. Esterification of free fatty acids using sulfuric acid as catalyst in the presence of triglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F. [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)


    Biodiesel is one of the new possible substitutes of regular fuel for engines and is produced from different vegetable oils or animal fats. The main reaction involved is the transesterification of triglycerides into esters. When an acid oil, such as spent or waste oil, is used, the amount of free fatty acids range from 3% to 40%, and another reaction takes place simultaneously with the transesterification, the direct esterification of the free fatty acid. In this work, the direct esterification reaction of triglycerides to biodiesel was studied and the effects of the main variables involved in the process, reaction temperature, amount of catalyst, initial amount of free fatty acid and the molar ratio alcohol/oil, were analyzed. For this investigation, we employed a model acid oil produced by mixing pure oleic acid with refined sunflower oil. Ethanol was used in the experiments instead of methanol since it is less toxic and safer to handle. Sulfuric acid was employed as catalyst because of its advantages compared with conventional homogeneous catalysts (NaOH). It was found that ethanol and sulfuric acid were suitable to perform not only the transesterification reaction but also the direct esterification reaction to increase biodiesel production of the process. (author)

  19. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, P.J. (ABB Environmental, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))


    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  20. Experimental Observation of Strongly Bound Dimers of Sulfuric Acid: Application to Nucleation in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petaja, Tuukka; Sipila, Mikko; Paasonen, Pauli


    Sulfuric acid is a key compound in atmospheric nucleation. Here we report on the observation of a close-to-collision-limited sulfuric acid dimer formation in atmospherically relevant laboratory conditions in the absence of measurable quantities of ammonia or organics. The observed dimer formation...... compound(s) with (a) concentration(s) high enough to prevent the dimer evaporation. Such a stabilizing compound should be abundant enough in any natural environment and would therefore not limit the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the atmosphere....

  1. Ion Irradiation of Sulfuric Acid: Implications for its Stability on Europa (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.


    The Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) detected regions on Europa's surface containing distorted H2O bands. This distortion likely indicates that there are other molecules mixed with the water ice. Based on spectral comparison, some of the leading possibilities are sulfuric acid, salts. or possibly H3O(+). Previous laboratory studies have shown that sulfuric acid can be created by irradiation of H2OSO2 mixtures, and both molecules are present on Europa. In this project, we were interested in investigating the radiation stability of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and determining its lifetime on the surface of Europa.

  2. Silica sulfuric acid promoted one-pot synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and efficient synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives has been accomplished by the reaction of 2-aminobenzimidazole, aldehydes and β-dicarbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions in the presence of silica sulfuric acid. KEY WORDS: Benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine, Silica sulfuric ...

  3. Role of sulfur compounds in the detection of amino acids by ninhydrin on TLC plate. (United States)

    Basak, B; Bandyopadhyay, D; Patra, M; Banerji, A; Chatterjee, A; Banerji, J


    Three new sulfur reagents for specific identification of amino acids on thin-layer chromatography plates have been introduced. These three sulfur containing reagents are capable of developing various distinguishable colors with many of them. A probable mechanism for such color formation is proposed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a newly designed sulfuric acid transfer system for the sulfur-iodine (SI thermochemical cycle. The proposed sulfuric acid transfer system was evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis for investigating thermodynamic/hydrodynamic characteristics and material properties. This analysis was conducted to obtain reliable continuous operation parameters; in particular, a thermal analysis was performed on the bellows box and bellows at amplitudes and various frequencies (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. However, the high temperatures and strongly corrosive operating conditions of the current sulfuric acid system present challenges with respect to the structural materials of the transfer system. To resolve this issue, we designed a novel transfer system using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon® as a bellows material for the transfer of sulfuric acid. We also carried out a CFD analysis of the design. The CFD results indicated that the maximum applicable temperature of PTFE is about 533 K (260 °C, even though its melting point is around 600 K. This result implies that the PTFE is a potential material for the sulfuric acid transfer system. The CFD simulations also confirmed that the sulfuric acid transfer system was designed properly for this particular investigation.

  5. Use of chlorous acid for removing sulfur dioxide from combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, J.A.


    The present invention describes a novel method of using chlorous acid to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust combustion gases by injecting into the vessel containing the exhaust gases a mixture of a salt of a hydroxy organic acid, such as lactic, citric, malic, tartric, glycolic, oxalic and mandelic acids; and chlorous acid. (author)

  6. Sonoluminescence and dynamics of cavitation bubble populations in sulfuric acid. (United States)

    Thiemann, Andrea; Holsteyns, Frank; Cairós, Carlos; Mettin, Robert


    The detailed link of liquid phase sonochemical reactions and bubble dynamics is still not sufficiently known. To further clarify this issue, we image sonoluminescence and bubble oscillations, translations, and shapes in an acoustic cavitation setup at 23kHz in sulfuric acid with dissolved sodium sulfate and xenon gas saturation. The colour of sonoluminescence varies in a way that emissions from excited non-volatile sodium atoms are prominently observed far from the acoustic horn emitter ("red region"), while such emissions are nearly absent close to the horn tip ("blue region"). High-speed images reveal the dynamics of distinct bubble populations that can partly be linked to the different emission regions. In particular, we see smaller strongly collapsing spherical bubbles within the blue region, while larger bubbles with a liquid jet during collapse dominate the red region. The jetting is induced by the fast bubble translation, which is a consequence of acoustic (Bjerknes) forces in the ultrasonic field. Numerical simulations with a spherical single bubble model reproduce quantitatively the volume oscillations and fast translation of the sodium emitting bubbles. Additionally, their intermittent stopping is explained by multistability in a hysteretic parameter range. The findings confirm the assumption that bubble deformations are responsible for pronounced sodium sonoluminescence. Notably the observed translation induced jetting appears to serve as efficient mixing mechanism of liquid into the heated gas phase of collapsing bubbles, thus potentially promoting liquid phase sonochemistry in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanochemical leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by sulfuric acid (United States)

    Mohammadabad, Farhad Khorramshahi; Hejazi, Sina; khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Babakhani, Abolfazl


    This study aimed to introduce a new cost-effective methodology for increasing the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite concentrates at ambient temperature and pressure. Mechanical activation was employed during the leaching (mechanochemical leaching) of chalcopyrite concentrates in a sulfuric acid medium at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. High energy ball milling process was used during the leaching to provide the mechanochemical leaching condition, and atomic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to determine the leaching behavior of chalcopyrite. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the chalcopyrite powder before and after leaching. The results demonstrated that mechanochemical leaching was effective; the extraction of copper increased significantly and continuously. Although the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite was very low at ambient temperature, the percentages of copper dissolved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) after 20 h of mechanochemical leaching reached 28% and 33%, respectively. Given the efficiency of the developed method and the facts that it does not require the use of an autoclave and can be conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, it represents an economical and easy-to-use method for the leaching industry.

  8. Characteristics of alkali activated material (geopolymer) in sulfuric acid solution (United States)

    Simatupang, Partogi H.


    Alkali Activated Material (AAM) or Geopolymer is a solid material which made by mixing rich silica alumina material with alkaline activator. AAM is a well known candidate to replace cement based material. Many researches have claimed that AAM has better durability compared to cement based material in agressive environment. However, there was rare paper presented the direct comparison of material characteristics between Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM in such aggresive environment. Because of that, this paper present material characteristics of Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM if the materials were immersed in 10% sulfuric acid solution for 65 days. Material characteristics evaluated were (1) weight loss, (2) mineral of the material which evaluated by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), (3) morphology and oxide compounds of material which evaluated by SEM/EDXA (Scanning Electron Microscopic/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyzer) and (4) compound bond which evaluated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) Spectroscopy Testing. Alkali Activated Material used were Class F fly ash based AAM Mortar and Class C fly ash based AAM Mortar. The result is a quite difference of material characteristics between Class F fly ash based AAM and Class C fly ash based AAM.

  9. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi


    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  10. Reaction of isoprene on thin sulfuric acid films: kinetics, uptake, and product analysis. (United States)

    Connelly, Brandon M; Tolbert, Margaret A


    A high vacuum Knudsen flow reactor was used to determine the reactive uptake coefficient, gamma, of isoprene on sulfuric acid films as a function of sulfuric acid weight percent, temperature, and relative humidity. No discernible dependence was observed for gamma over the range of temperatures (220 - 265 K) and pressures (10(-7) Torr -10(-4) Torr) studied. However, the uptake coefficient increased with increased sulfuric acid concentration between the range of 78 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-4)) and 93 wt % (gamma(i) approximately 10(-3)). In addition to the Knudsen Cell, a bulk study was conducted between 60 and 85 wt % H(2)SO(4) to quantify uptake at lower acid concentrations and to determine reaction products. After exposing sulfuric acid to gaseous isoprene the condensed phase products were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Isoprene was observed to polymerize in the sulfuric acid and form yellow/red colored monoterpenes and cyclic sesquiterpenes. Finally, addition of water to the 85 wt % sulfuric acid/isoprene product mixture released these terpenes from the condensed phase into the gas phase. Together these experiments imply that direct isoprene uptake will not produce significant SOA; however, terpene production from the small uptake may be relevant for ultrafine particles and could affect growth and nucleation.

  11. Molecular Beam Studies of Reactions Between Stratospheric Gases and Supercooled Sulfuric Acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathanson, Gilbert


    Sulfuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer by converting inactive gases like HCl and HBr into molecules that fall apart into chlorine and bromine atoms...

  12. Molecular Beam Studies of Reactions between Stratospheric Gases and Supercooled Sulfuric Acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathanson, Gilbert


    Sulfuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer by converting inactive gases like HCl and HBr into molecules that fall apart into chlorine and bromine atoms...

  13. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles (United States)

    Münch, Steffen; Curtius, Joachim


    Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN) between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21-27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid-water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  14. Uptake of hypobromous acid (HOBr by aqueous sulfuric acid solutions: low-temperature solubility and reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Iraci


    Full Text Available Hypobromous acid (HOBr is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45-70wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201-252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H*=104-107mol L-1atm-1. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with ΔH=-45.0±5.4 kJ mol-1 and ΔS=-101±24 J mol-1K-1 for 55-70wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into 55-70wt% H2SO4, the solubility is described by log H*=(2349±280/T-(5.27±1.24. At temperatures colder than ~213K, the solubility of HOBr in 45wt% H2SO4 is at least a factor of five larger than in 70wt% H2SO4, with log H*=(3665±270/T-(10.63±1.23. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Upon uptake of HOBr into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases, particularly for 70wt% H2SO4 solution, our measurements demonstrate chemical reaction of HOBr followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2.

  15. Study of vibrational spectra of polyaniline doped with sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid. (United States)

    Arora, M; Luthra, V; Singh, R; Gupta, S K


    Vibrational spectra of insulator emeraldine base (EB) form of polyaniline and electrical conductive sulfuric acid- and phosphoric acid-doped emeraldine salts (ES) were studied in the region of 4000-400 cm(-1) at ambient temperature by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Infrared transmittance spectra of EB and ES were investigated to understand the bonding behavior of different organic and inorganic groups present in the polymeric chains and their structural variations on protonation by sulfate or phosphate ion inclusion in the polymer salt network. These studies revealed the para-coupling of deformed disubstituted benzenoid (B) and quinoid (Q) rings with ends capped predominantly by (B4Q1) units. The deformation of B and Q rings was confirmed by the appearance of many weak bands, very weak bands, and satellite structures in strong transmittance peaks of polymeric chain-constituting groups. Protonation takes place at the nitrogen sites of Q rings and forms semiquinone radical ions in ES. The vibrational bands pertaining to B rings, Q rings, B4Q1 units, semiquinone segment, sulfate ions, and phosphate ions were observed and assigned from these measurements. The shift in peak position of some bands with gain or loss in intensity and appearance of some new bands were observed in sulfuric acid- and phosphoric acid-doped ES spectra. These variations are attributed to the formation of new structural groups in ES on protonation and a change in crystalline field by sulfate and phosphate ion doping for crosslinking the polymeric chains.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.


    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Wijaya


    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of iron oxide-montmorillonite and its structural stability test with various concentration of sulfuric acid were conducted. Synthesis was performed by treating Na-montmorillonite clay with oligocations of iron, followed by calcinating the intercalation compound of oligocations-montmorillonite at 200oC for 24 hours. Calcined product was then characterized to determine the iron content, basal spacing and its porosities distribution. To test structural stability againts strong acid (i.e. sulfuric acid, the composites were dispersed into solution of sulfuric acid with various concentration, i.e: 1, 2 and 3M for 24 hours. The characterization result, especially from x-ray-diffractometry analysis, demonstrated that modification of montmorillonite using iron (IIIoxide produced so called house of card structure as indicated by its broad, low intensity reflection at 2θ  = 5-6o. The addition of sulphuric acid into composite resulted in probably the formation of face to face arrangements indicated by the appearance of 001 plane reflection. The acid treatment also caused the decrease in the iron content of the iron oxide-montmorillonite as shown by its neutron activated analysis result. The iron content of iron oxide-montmorillonite before the acid treatment was 32,01% w/w, and after the acid treatment was 14.08% w/w (with sulfuric acid of 1M, 6.05% w/w (sulfuric acid of 2M and 5,98% w/w (with sulfuric acid of 3M, respectively. In general, the sulphuric acid treatment to the composite did not distore the 001 planes of the montmorillonite.   Keywords: pillarization, montmorillonite, structure stability

  18. Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Münch


    Full Text Available Recent analysis of long-term balloon-borne measurements of Antarctic stratospheric condensation nuclei (CN between July and October showed the formation of a volatile CN layer at 21–27 km altitude in a background of existing particles. We use the nucleation model SAWNUC to simulate these CN in subsiding air parcels and study their nucleation and coagulation characteristics. Our simulations confirm recent analysis that the development of the CN layer can be explained with neutral sulfuric acid–water nucleation and we show that outside the CN layer the measured CN concentrations are well reproduced just considering coagulation and the subsidence of the air parcels. While ion-induced nucleation is expected as the dominating formation process at higher temperatures, it does not play a significant role during the CN layer formation as the charged clusters recombine too fast. Further, we derive sulfuric acid concentrations for the CN layer formation. Our concentrations are about 1 order of magnitude higher than previously presented concentrations as our simulations consider that nucleated clusters have to grow to CN size and can coagulate with preexisting particles. Finally, we calculate threshold sulfuric acid profiles that show which concentration of sulfuric acid is necessary for nucleation and growth to observable size. These threshold profiles should represent upper limits of the actual sulfuric acid outside the CN layer. According to our profiles, sulfuric acid concentrations seem to be below midlatitude average during Antarctic winter but above midlatitude average for the CN layer formation.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Condensation of Sulfuric Acid and Water in a Large Two-stroke Marine Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Karvounis, Nikolas; Pang, Kar Mun


    We present results from computational fluid dynamics simulations of the condensation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O) in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. The model uses a reduced n-heptane skeletal chemical mechanism coupled with a sulfur subsetto simulate the combustion process...... on the sulfuric acid gas phase. A linear correlation is found between the fuel sulfur content and the sulfuric acid condensation rate. The initial in-cylinder water content is found not to affect the sulfuric acid condensation but it has a high impact on water condensation. The scavenging pressure level shows...... an inverse correlation between pressure and condensation rate due to change in the flame propagation speed. Finally, increasing the cylinder liner temperature significantly decreases water condensation but has a negligible influence on the condensation of sulfuric acid....

  20. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci


    Full Text Available Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62− and elemental sulfur (S° to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6 by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4 from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2. During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4

  1. Cluster Formation of Sulfuric Acid with Dimethylamine or Diamines and Detection with Chemical Ionization (United States)

    Jen, C. N.; McMurry, P. H.; Hanson, D. R.


    Chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometers are used to study atmospheric nucleation by detecting clusters produced by reactions of sulfuric acid and various basic gases. These instruments typically use nitrate to chemically ionize clusters for detection. In this study, we compare measured cluster concentrations formed by reacting sulfuric acid vapor with dimethylamine, ethylene diamine, tetramethylethylene diamine, or butanediamine (also known as putrescine) using nitrate and acetate ions. We show from flow reactor measurements that nitrate is unable to chemically ionize clusters with weak acidities. In addition, we vary the ion-molecule reaction time to probe the chemical ionization processes and lifetimes of ions composed of sulfuric acid and base molecules. We then model the neutral and ion cluster formation pathways, including chemical ionization, ion-induced clustering, and ion decomposition, to better identify which cluster types cannot be chemically ionized by nitrate. Our results show that sulfuric acid dimer with two diamines and sulfuric acid trimer with 2 or more base molecules cannot be chemical ionized by nitrate. We conclude that cluster concentrations measured with acetate CI gives a better representation of both cluster abundancies and their base content than nitrate CI.

  2. Corrosion by concentrated sulfuric acid in carbon steel pipes and tanks: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panossian, Zehbour; Almeida, Neusvaldo Lira de; Sousa, Raquel Maria Ferreira de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg de Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento (CENPES); Marques, Leandro Bordalo Schmidt [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    PETROBRAS, allied to the policy of reduction of emission of pollutants, has been adjusting the processes of the new refineries to obtain products with lower sulfur content. Thus, the sulfur dioxide, extracted from the process gases of a new refinery to be built in the Northeast, will be used to produce sulfuric acid with concentration between (94-96) %. This acid will be stored in carbon steel tanks and transported through a buried 8-km carbon steel pipe from the refinery to a pier, where it will be loaded onto ships and sent to the consumer markets. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel by concentrated acid will become a great concern for the mentioned storage and transportation. When the carbon steel comes into contact with concentrated sulfuric acid, there is an immediate acid attack with the formation of hydrogen gas and ferrous ions which, in turn, forms a protective layer of FeSO{sub 4} on the metallic surface. The durability of the tanks and pipes made of carbon steel will depend on the preservation of this protective layer. This work presents a review of the carbon steel corrosion in concentrated sulfuric acid and discusses the preventive methods against this corrosion, including anodic protection. (author)

  3. Np(V) reduction by humic acid: Contribution of reduced sulfur functionalities to the redox behavior of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, K., E-mail:; Sachs, S.; Bernhard, G.


    The role of sulfur-containing functional groups in humic acids for the Np(V) reduction in aqueous solution has been studied with the objective to specify individual processes contributing to the overall redox activity of humic substances. For this, humic acid model substances type M1-S containing different amounts of sulfur (1.9, 3.9, 6.9 wt.%) were applied. The sulfur functionalities in these humic acids are dominated by reduced-sulfur species, such as thiols, dialkylsulfides and/or disulfides. The Np(V) reduction behavior of these humic acids has been studied in comparison to that of the sulfur-free humic acid type M1 at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 under anaerobic conditions by means of batch experiments. For Np redox speciation in solution, solvent extraction and ultrafiltration were applied. In addition, redox potentials of the sample solutions were monitored. At pH 5.0, both rate and extent of Np(V) to Np(IV) reduction were found to increase with increasing sulfur content of the humic acids. At pH 7.0 and 9.0, sulfur functional groups had only a slight influence on the reduction behavior of humic acid toward Np(V). Thus, in addition to quinoid moieties and non-quinoid phenolic OH groups, generally acknowledged as main redox-active sites in humic substances, sulfur functional groups have been identified as further redox-active moieties of humic substances being active especially in the slightly acidic pH range as shown for Np(V). Due to the low sulfur content of up to 2 wt.% in natural humic substances, their contribution to the total reducing capacity is smaller than that of the other redox-active functional groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Redox processes of humic substances control the speciation and mobility of metal ions in the environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfur functional groups were identified as further redox-active sites in humic substances toward Np(V). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The specification of processes contributing to

  4. submitter Unexpectedly acidic nanoparticles formed in dimethylamine–ammonia–sulfuric-acid nucleation experiments at CLOUD

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, Michael J; Kim, Jaeseok; Ahlm, Lars; Tröstl, Jasmin; Praplan, Arnaud P; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kürten, Andreas; Kirkby, Jasper; Bianchi, Federico; Duplissy, Jonathan; Hansel, Armin; Jokinen, Tuija; Keskinen, Helmi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Petäjä, Tuukka; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Riipinen, Ilona; Virtanen, Annele; Smith, James N


    New particle formation driven by acid–base chemistry was initiated in the CLOUD chamber at CERN by introducing atmospherically relevant levels of gas-phase sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). Ammonia was also present in the chamber as a gas-phase contaminant from earlier experiments. The composition of particles with volume median diameters (VMDs) as small as 10 nm was measured by the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS). Particulate ammonium-to-dimethylaminium ratios were higher than the gas-phase ammonia-to-DMA ratios, suggesting preferential uptake of ammonia over DMA for the collected 10–30 nm VMD particles. This behavior is not consistent with present nanoparticle physicochemical models, which predict a higher dimethylaminium fraction when NH3 and DMA are present at similar gas-phase concentrations. Despite the presence in the gas phase of at least 100 times higher base concentrations than sulfuric acid, the recently formed particles always had measured base : ...

  5. Exogenic controls on sulfuric acid hydrate production at the surface of Europa (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Cassidy, T.; Paranicas, C.; Shirley, J. H.; Prockter, L. M.; Kamp, L. W.


    External agents have heavily weathered the visible surface of Europa. Internal and external drivers competing to produce the surface we see include, but are not limited to: aqueous alteration of materials within the icy shell, initial emplacement of endogenic material by geologic activity, implantation of exogenic ions and neutrals from Jupiter's magnetosphere, alteration of surface chemistry by radiolysis and photolysis, impact gardening of upper surface layers, and redeposition of sputtered volatiles. Separating the influences of these processes is critical to understanding the surface and subsurface compositions at Europa. Recent investigations have applied cryogenic reflectance spectroscopy to Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observations to derive abundances of surface materials including water ice, hydrated sulfuric acid, and hydrated sulfate salts. Here we compare derived sulfuric acid hydrate (H2SO4·nH2O) abundance with weathering patterns and intensities associated with charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere. We present models of electron energy, ion energy, and sulfur ion number flux as well as the total combined electron and ion energy flux at the surface to estimate the influence of these processes on surface concentrations, as a function of location. We found that correlations exist linking both electron energy flux (r∼0.75) and sulfur ion flux (r=0.93) with the observed abundance of sulfuric acid hydrate on Europa. Sulfuric acid hydrate production on Europa appears to be limited in some regions by a reduced availability of sulfur ions, and in others by insufficient levels of electron energy. The energy delivered by sulfur and other ions has a much less significant role. Surface deposits in regions of limited exogenic processing are likely to bear closest resemblance to oceanic composition. These results will assist future efforts to separate the relative influence of endogenic and exogenic sources in establishing the

  6. short communication facile, mild and selective silica sulfuric acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer


    Dec 4, 2012 ... employed as an initiator for the polymerization of vinyl monomers [9-17]. In spite of the great convenience of using S2O8. 2-, many oxidations by peroxodisulfate ..... Datta, B.; Pasha, M.A. Phosphorus, Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem. 2011, 186, 171. 20. Zolfigol, M.A.; Chehardoli, G.; Dehghanian, M.; Niknam, K.; ...

  7. Prehydrolysis of aspen wood with water and with dilute aqueous sulfuric acid (United States)

    Edward L. Springer; John F. Harris


    Water prehydrolysis of aspen wood was compared with 0.40% sulfuric acid prehydrolysis at a reaction temperature of 170°C. Acid prehydrolysis gave much higher yields of total anhydroxylose units in the prehydrolyzate and removed significantly less anhydroglucose from the wood than did the water treatment. At maximum yields of total anhydroxylose units in the...

  8. Sulfuric acid nucleation: An experimental study of the effect of seven bases (United States)

    Glasoe, W. A.; Volz, K.; Panta, B.; Freshour, N.; Bachman, R.; Hanson, D. R.; McMurry, P. H.; Jen, C.


    Nucleation of particles with sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogeneous bases was studied in a flow reactor. Sulfuric acid and water levels were set by flows over sulfuric acid and water reservoirs, respectively, and the base concentrations were determined from measured permeation rates and flow dilution ratios. Particle number distributions were measured with a nano-differential-mobility-analyzer system. Results indicate that the nucleation capability of NH3, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine with sulfuric acid increases from NH3 as the weakest, methylamine next, and dimethylamine and trimethylamine the strongest. Three other bases were studied, and experiments with triethylamine showed that it is less effective than methylamine, and experiments with urea and acetamide showed that their capabilities are much lower than the amines with acetamide having basically no effect. When both NH3 and an amine were present, nucleation was more strongly enhanced than with just the amine present. Comparisons of nucleation rates to predictions and previous experimental work are discussed, and the sulfuric acid-base nucleation rates measured here are extrapolated to atmospheric conditions. The measurements suggest that atmospheric nucleation rates are significantly affected by synergistic interactions between ammonia and amines.

  9. Wolframite Conversion in Treating a Mixed Wolframite-Scheelite Concentrate by Sulfuric Acid (United States)

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka


    Complete wolframite conversion in sulfuric acid is significant for expanding the applicability of the sulfuric acid method for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this paper, the conversion of wolframite in treating a mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied systematically. The results show that the conversion of wolframite in sulfuric acid is more difficult than that of scheelite, requiring rigorous reaction conditions. A solid H2WO4 layer forms on the surfaces of the wolframite particles and becomes denser with increasing H2SO4 concentration, thus hindering the conversion. Furthermore, the difficulty in wolframite conversion can be mainly attributed to the accumulation of Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) in the H2SO4 solution, which can be solved by reducing Fe2+ (and/or Mn2+) concentration through oxidization and/or a two-stage process. Additionally, the solid converted product of the mixed wolframite-scheelite concentrate has an excellent leachability of tungsten in an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution at ambient temperature, with approximately 99% WO3 recovery. This work presents a route for manufacturing ammonium paratungstate by treating the mixed concentrate in sulfuric acid followed by leaching in ammonium carbonate solution.

  10. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates. (United States)

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T


    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  11. Bimodal distribution of sulfuric acid aerosols in the upper haze of Venus (United States)

    Gao, Peter; Zhang, Xi; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G.; Yung, Yuk L.


    Observations by the SPICAV/SOIR instruments aboard Venus Express have revealed that the upper haze (UH) of Venus, between 70 and 90 km, is variable on the order of days and that it is populated by two particle modes. We use a one-dimensional microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two observed modes, and whether their observed variability are due in part to the action of vertical transient winds at the cloud tops. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets, which then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and therefore cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. By comparison, the mass transport enabled by transient winds at the cloud tops, possibly caused by sustained subsolar cloud top convection, are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with Venus Express observations. Below the altitude where the cloud particles are generated, sedimentation and vigorous convection causes the formation of large mode 2 and mode 3 particles in the middle and lower clouds. Evaporation of the particles below the clouds causes a local sulfuric acid vapor maximum that results in upwelling of sulfuric acid back into the clouds. In the case where the polysulfur condensation nuclei are small and their production rate is high, coagulation of small droplets onto larger droplets in the middle cloud may set up an oscillation in the size modes of the particles such that precipitation of sulfuric acid "rain" may be possible immediately below the clouds once every few Earth months. Reduction of the polysulfur condensation nuclei production rate

  12. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono


    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  13. Materials Development for the Sulfuric Acid Decomposer in Iodine-Sulfur(IS)cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Won; Kim, Hyung Jin; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The material used for the sulfuric acid gas channels for a mass production of hydrogen is of importance because it is subjected to severe corrosion environment. Consideration is being given to surface modification of metallic materials. We selected Hastelloy X as the metallic substrate due to its good mechanical properties at a high temperature and SiC as a corrosion inhibiting coating material. In developing a surface coated metallic system, consideration needs to be given to how best to ensure the adhesion of the coating layer and how to reduce the defects in the coating. However we have solved this problem by employing an ion beam mixing (IBM). Other potential problems include the possible sublimation of the deposited film during a high temperature annealing in vacuum. This sublimation certainly gives arise to adverse effects such as loss of the film and/or its deterioration and non-stoichiometric structure formation. In this paper, we show a result of in-depth sublimation suppression study of the SiC coated layer, and the corrosion study results of an immersion test in a 98 % sulfuric acid at 300

  14. Mechanisms of volatile production from sulfur-containing amino acids by irradiation (United States)

    Uk Ahn, Dong; Joo Lee, Eun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Wangang; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Kichang


    Sulfur-containing amino acids were used to study the mechanisms of off-odor production in meat by irradiation. Irradiation not only increased the amounts of volatiles but also produced many new volatiles from sulfur-containing amino acid monomers. We speculate that the majority of the volatiles were the direct radiolytic products of the side chains, but Strecker degradation as well as deamination and decarboxylation of radiolytic products were also involved in the production of volatile compounds from sulfur amino acids. The volatile compounds produced in amino acids were not only the primary products of irradiation, but also the products of secondary chemical reactions after the primary compounds were produced. Cysteine and methionine produced odor characteristics similar to that of the irradiated meat, but the amounts of sulfur volatiles from methionine were far greater than that of cysteine. Although the present study was carried out using an amino acid model system, the information can be applied to the quality indexes of irradiated meats as well as other food products.

  15. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.


    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosolnucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detectionof gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased inthe presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was setup at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection ofH2SO4in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time inthe CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF(Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutralsulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presenceof dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS...

  16. Configuring the thermochemical hydrogen sulfuric acid process step for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.


    This paper identifies the sulfuric acid step as the critical part of the thermochemical cycle in dictating the thermal demands and temperature requirements of the heat source. The General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle is coupled to a Tandem Mirror. The sulfuric acid decomposition process step is focused on specifically since this step can use the high efficiency electrical power of the direct converter together with the other thermal-produced electricity to Joule-heat a non-catalytic SO/sub 3/ decomposer to approximately 1250/sup 0/K. This approach uses concepts originally suggested by Dick Werner and Oscar Krikorian. The blanket temperature can be lowered to about 900/sup 0/K, greatly alleviating materials problems, the level of technology required, safety problems, and costs. A moderate degree of heat has been integrated to keep the cycle efficiency around 48%, but the number of heat exchangers has been limited in order to keep hydrogen production costs within reasonable bounds.

  17. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid. (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu


    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1 st step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2 nd step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent. (United States)

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (<88%) when conducted in pH values higher than 1. Thus, sequential use of NF and RO was proved to be a promising treatment for sulfuric acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water.

  19. Nano-silica sulfuric acid as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of substituted pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Emtiazi


    Full Text Available A convenient and direct approach has been developed for the preparation of pyrazole derivatives by condensing 1,3-diketones and hydrazines in the presence of nano-silica sulfuric acid. This thermal solvent-free procedure offers some advantages such as short reaction time, simple work-up, high yields, and reusability of the catalyst.

  20. Two-stage, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of wood : an investigation of fundamentals (United States)

    John F. Harris; Andrew J. Baker; Anthony H. Conner; Thomas W. Jeffries; James L. Minor; Roger C. Pettersen; Ralph W. Scott; Edward L Springer; Theodore H. Wegner; John I. Zerbe


    This paper presents a fundamental analysis of the processing steps in the production of methanol from southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.) by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Data for hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis are correlated using models. This information is used to develop and evaluate a process design.

  1. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2009 ... Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro.

  2. Diffusion coefficient and solubility of isobutene and trans-2-butene in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Versteeg, Geert


    The diffusion coefficient and the physical solubility of isobutene and trans-2-butene in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions cannot be determined experimentally due to the occurrence of fast chemical reactions. In the present contribution these physicochemical parameters are estimated. For the

  3. Silica Sulfuric Acid: An Eco-Friendly and Reusable Catalyst for Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid (SiO2-OSO3H as an eco-friendly, readily available, and reusable catalyst is applied to benzimidazole derivatives synthesis under reflux in ethanol. The procedure is very simple and the products are isolated with an easy workup in good-to-excellent yields.

  4. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the reaction of water with formaldehyde in sulfuric acid solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprik, M.; Meijer, E.M.


    Ab initio molecular dynamics methods have been used to study the reaction mechanism of acidcatalyzed addition of water to formaldehyde in a model system of an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. Using the method of constraints we find that an H

  5. Reaction of Sulfuric Acid in Lube Oil: Implications for Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejre, Kasper Hartvig; Kiil, Søren; Glarborg, Peter


    Slow-steaming operation and an increased pressure in the combustion chamber have contributed to increased sulfuric acid (H2SO4) condensation on the cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines, thus causing increased corrosion wear. To cope with this, lube oils are formulated...

  6. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both ...

  7. Diffusion Coefficient and Solubility of Isobutene and trans-2-Butene in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilman, Derk W.F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van; Versteeg, Geert F.


    The diffusion coefficient and the physical solubility of isobutene and trans-2-butene in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions cannot be determined experimentally due to the occurrence of fast chemical reactions. In the present contribution these physicochemical parameters are estimated. For the

  8. Chemical ionization of clusters formed from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine or diamines (United States)

    Jen, Coty N.; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.


    Chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometers are used to study atmospheric nucleation by detecting clusters produced by reactions of sulfuric acid and various basic gases. These instruments typically use nitrate to deprotonate and thus chemically ionize the clusters. In this study, we compare cluster concentrations measured using either nitrate or acetate. Clusters were formed in a flow reactor from vapors of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine, ethylene diamine, tetramethylethylene diamine, or butanediamine (also known as putrescine). These comparisons show that nitrate is unable to chemically ionize clusters with high base content. In addition, we vary the ion-molecule reaction time to probe ion processes which include proton-transfer, ion-molecule clustering, and decomposition of ions. Ion decomposition upon deprotonation by acetate/nitrate was observed. More studies are needed to quantify to what extent ion decomposition affects observed cluster content and concentrations, especially those chemically ionized with acetate since it deprotonates more types of clusters than nitrate.Model calculations of the neutral and ion cluster formation pathways are also presented to better identify the cluster types that are not efficiently deprotonated by nitrate. Comparison of model and measured clusters indicate that sulfuric acid dimers with two diamines and sulfuric acid trimers with two or more base molecules are not efficiently chemical ionized by nitrate. We conclude that acetate CI provides better information on cluster abundancies and their base content than nitrate CI.

  9. Collection and Generation of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in a Wet Electrostatic Precipitator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderlohr, C; Brachert, L; Mertens, J; Schaber, K


    .... It is suspected that the reactive species produced in the nonthermal plasma of the corona discharge oxidize the SO 2 to SO 3 which forms sulfuric acid. This causes supersaturation with subsequent homogeneous nucleation and thus aerosol formation. Copyright 2015 American Association for Aerosol Research

  10. Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Chlorogenic Acid by Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Verloop, J.W.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.


    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color

  11. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine. (United States)

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric


    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean.

  12. Extraction of uranium from tailings by sulfuric acid leaching with oxidants (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Chunmei; Wu, Xiaoyan


    Recovery of uranium have been performed by leaching uranium-containing tailings in sulfuric acid system with the assistance of HF, HClO4, H2O2 and MnO2. The effect of reagent dosage, sulfuric acid concentration, Liquid/solid ratio, reaction temperature and particle size on the leaching of uranium were investigated. The results show that addiction of HF, HClO4, H2O2 and MnO2 significantly increased the extraction of uranium under 1M sulphuric acid condition and under the optimum reaction conditions a dissolution fraction of 85% by HClO4, 90% by HF, 95% by H2O2 can be reached respectively. The variation of technological mineralogy properites of tailings during leaching process show that the assistants can break gangue effectively. These observations suggest that optimum oxidants could potentially influence the extraction of uranium from tailings even under dilute acid condition.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.


    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei


    Full Text Available The one-pot multicomponent synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinone derivatives using starch sulfuric acid as an environmentally friendly biopolymer-based solid acid catalyst from aldehydes, β-keto esters and urea/ thiourea without solvent is described. Compared with classical Biginelli reaction conditions, this new method has the advantage of minimizing the cost operational hazards and environmental pollution, good yields, shorter reaction times and simple work-up.

  15. Smectite Formation From Basaltic Glass in the Presence of Sulfuric Acid on Mars (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T.; Niles, P. B.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.


    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group detected in Noachian and early Hesperian terrains on Mars were hypothesized to form under neutral to alkaline conditions. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere during the Noachian and early Hesperian should have been favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, large-scale carbonate deposits have not been detected on Mars. Recent orbital and landed missions have detected phyllosilicates co-existing with minerals that usually form under acidic conditions including jarosite and alunite. The occurrence of sulfates co-existing with phyllosilicates minerals on Mars and absences of large-scale carbonate in Noachian terrains indicate that phyllosilicate formation under sulfuric acid conditions was at least locally important. The pH effect and the nature of phyllosilicate minerals forming during acid-sulfate weathering of basalt remain unknown. We investigated formation of smectite minerals in the presence of sulfuric acid from Mars-analogue, glass-rich, basalt simulant. Hydrothermal (200º C) 14 d experiments were performed with addition of sulfuric acid of variable concentration at a pH range from 1.8 to 8.4. Sulfuric acid did not suppress smectite formation and gradual acid neutralization during basalt weathering led to montmorillonite formation at pH 3 followed by saponite at pH 4 and higher. Smectite formed through glass phase alteration and was accompanied by precipitation of calcium sulfate (anhydrite). Similar smectite and sulfate formation under acid sulfate conditions may have occurred in near-surface hydrothermal areas near magma bodies on Mars.

  16. Planned Complex Occupation-related Suicide by Sulfuric Acid Ingestion and Thorax Stab Wound: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Beltempo


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is a colourless, odorless liquid, which causes typical injury patterns such as cutaneous and ocular burns, respiratory complications from inhalation, and ingestion injuries (coagulative necrosis of the mucosa, gastric and intestinal perforations with significant dermal and mucosal injury because of its corrosive action. Most injuries caused by sulfuric acid ingestion are accidental, especially in the paediatric population. Intentional cases of ingestion have rarely been reported in adults as a method of suicide following a major depressive disorder. In this paper, we report the case of a 44-year-old woman who was found dead outside her home with a retained fillet knife embedded in her left chest wall and cutaneous chemical burns extending from her mouth down her chin and anterior torso. During the crime scene investigation, a half empty bottle of chemical drain cleaner containing concentrated sulfuric acid was found next to her body. An autopsy revealed chemical burns to the tongue, trachea, larynx, pharynx and oesophagus along with a blackish fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Histological analyses showed extensive corrosive changes in the gastrointestinal tract. Toxicological screening of blood and urine samples was negative; gastric contents contained a high quantity of concentrated (≈ 96% sulfuric acid with a pH value of < 1.0. Death was attributed to shock following sulfuric acid ingestion. Circumstantial evidence and autopsy findings proved that the manner of death was suicidal. Complex suicides can be challenging for the forensic pathologist because of the plurality of methods used. The authors highlight the importance of systematical exhaustive postmortem investigation in order to ascertain the cause and manner of death in cases of planned complex suicide.

  17. A combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis on sulfur metabolism pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana under simulated acid rain. (United States)

    Liu, Tingwu; Chen, Juan A; Wang, Wenhua; Simon, Martin; Wu, Feihua; Hu, Wenjun; Chen, Juan B; Zheng, Hailei


    With rapid economic development, most regions in southern China have suffered acid rain (AR) pollution. In our study, we analyzed the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis under simulated AR stress which provide one of the first case studies, in which the systematic responses in sulfur metabolism were characterized by high-throughput methods at different levels including proteomic, genomic and physiological approaches. Generally, we found that all of the processes related to sulfur metabolism responded to AR stress, including sulfur uptake, activation and also synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acid and other secondary metabolites. Finally, we provided a catalogue of the detected sulfur metabolic changes and reconstructed the coordinating network of their mutual influences. This study can help us to understand the mechanisms of plants to adapt to AR stress.

  18. Numerical simulation of condensation of sulfuric acid and water in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karvounis, Nikolas; Pang, Kar Mun; Mayer, Stefan


    In the present study, three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to examine the process of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O) condensation in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. A skeletal n-heptane chemical mechanism is coupled with a sulfur (S) subset...... to simulate the combustion process as well as the formation of sulfuric oxides (SOx) and H2SO4. The condensation process is simulated using a fluid film model which is coupled with the in-cylinder gas phase. Prior to the engine simulations, the fluid film condensation model is validated using the experimental...... data of sulfuric acid condensation rate in a laminar pipe flow. Next, the engine model is validated against the experimental sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfur trioxide (SO3) conversion obtained from the corresponding test engine. Both of the validation studies show a good agreement with the experimental...

  19. Iron dissolution of dust source materials during simulated acidic processing: the effect of sulfuric, acetic, and oxalic acids. (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H


    Atmospheric organic acids potentially display different capacities in iron (Fe) mobilization from atmospheric dust compared with inorganic acids, but few measurements have been made on this comparison. We report here a laboratory investigation of Fe mobilization of coal fly ash, a representative Fe-containing anthropogenic aerosol, and Arizona test dust, a reference source material for mineral dust, in pH 2 sulfuric acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid, respectively. The effects of pH and solar radiation on Fe dissolution have also been explored. The relative capacities of these three acids in Fe dissolution are in the order of oxalic acid > sulfuric acid > acetic acid. Oxalate forms mononuclear bidentate ligand with surface Fe and promotes Fe dissolution to the greatest extent. Photolysis of Fe-oxalate complexes further enhances Fe dissolution with the concomitant degradation of oxalate. These results suggest that ligand-promoted dissolution of Fe may play a more significant role in mobilizing Fe from atmospheric dust compared with proton-assisted processing. The role of atmospheric organic acids should be taken into account in global-biogeochemical modeling to better access dissolved atmospheric Fe deposition flux at the ocean surface.

  20. The roles of sulfuric acid in new particle formation and growth in the mega-city of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Yue


    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of gaseous sulfuric acid and particle number size distributions were performed to investigate aerosol nucleation and growth during CAREBeijing-2008. The analysis of the measured aerosols and sulfuric acid with an aerosol dynamic model shows the dominant role of sulfuric acid in new particle formation (NPF process but also in the subsequent growth in Beijing. Based on the data of twelve NPF events, the average formation rates (2–13 cm−3 s−1 show a linear correlation with the sulfuric acid concentrations (R2=0.85. Coagulation seems to play a significant role in reducing the number concentration of nucleation mode particles with the ratio of the coagulation loss to formation rate being 0.41±0.16. The apparent growth rates vary from 3 to 11 nm h−1. Condensation of sulfuric acid and its subsequent neutralization by ammonia and coagulation contribute to the apparent particle growth on average 45±18% and 34±17%, respectively. The 30% higher concentration of sulfate than organic compounds in particles during the seven sulfur-rich NPF events but 20% lower concentration of sulfate during the five sulfur-poor type suggest that organic compounds are an important contributor to the growth of the freshly nucleated particles, especially during the sulfur-poor cases.

  1. Smectite formation in the presence of sulfuric acid: Implications for acidic smectite formation on early Mars (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Niles, P. B.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.


    The excess of orbital detection of smectite deposits compared to carbonate deposits on the martian surface presents an enigma because smectite and carbonate formations are both favored alteration products of basalt under neutral to alkaline conditions. We propose that Mars experienced acidic events caused by sulfuric acid (H2SO4) that permitted phyllosilicate, but inhibited carbonate, formation. To experimentally verify this hypothesis, we report the first synthesis of smectite from Mars-analogue glass-rich basalt simulant (66 wt% glass, 32 wt% olivine, 2 wt% chromite) in the presence of H2SO4 under hydrothermal conditions (∼200 °C). Smectites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and electron microprobe to characterize mineralogy and chemical composition. Solution chemistry was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Basalt simulant suspensions in 11-42 mM H2SO4 were acidic with pH ≤ 2 at the beginning of incubation and varied from acidic (pH 1.8) to mildly alkaline (pH 8.4) at the end of incubation. Alteration of glass phase during reaction of the basalt simulant with H2SO4 led to formation of the dioctahedral smectite at final pH ∼3 and trioctahedral smectite saponite at final pH ∼4 and higher. Anhydrite and hematite formed in the final pH range from 1.8 to 8.4 while natroalunite was detected at pH 1.8. Hematite was precipitated as a result of oxidative dissolution of olivine present in Adirondack basalt simulant. Formation of secondary phases, including smectite, resulted in release of variable amounts of Si, Mg, Na and Ca while solubilization of Al and Fe was low. Comparison of mineralogical and solution chemistry data indicated that the type of smectite (i.e., dioctahedral vs trioctahedral) was likely controlled by Mg leaching from altering basalt and substantial Mg loss created favorable conditions for formation of dioctahedral smectite. We present a model

  2. Electro-dissolution of 30Nb-Ti alloys in methanolic sulfuric acid-Optimal conditions for electropolishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelakantan, Lakshman, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Pareek, Aparna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Hassel, Achim Walter [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)


    Highlights: > Electro-dissolution behaviour of Nb-Ti alloy in methanolic sulfuric acid. > Electro-dissolution process is mass transport limited in all concentrations. > Activation energy (E{sub a}) of dissolution is 16.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. > Influence of sulfuric acid hints dissolving ions as rate limiting species. > Electropolishing in methanolic-3 M sulfuric acid renders smooth surface. - Abstract: The electro-dissolution behaviour of a (30 at.%) Niobium-Titanium (NbTi) alloy in non-aqueous methanolic sulfuric acid solution using the rotating disc electrode (RDE) was ascertained. The optimal condition for electropolishing and the mechanism were proposed. The influence of the rotation rate, process temperature and sulfuric acid concentration on the dissolution kinetics was investigated. The dissolution rate (limiting current) increases linearly with increase in rotation rate and follows a Levich behaviour confirming a mass transport controlled process. The temperature dependence in terms of Arrhenius plot renders an activation energy value of E{sub a} = 16.1 kJ mol{sup -1} for the process. The dissolution rate shows a strong dependence on the sulfuric acid concentration (1 M, 3 M and 5 M). Higher sulfuric acid concentrations lead to decreased dissolution rates (limiting current). The dissolution process is mass transport controlled in all concentrations of sulfuric acid. From an electrochemical perspective, a 3 M sulfuric acid was chosen as optimum owing to better controllability of the material removal rate. The dissolving ions are the probable rate limiting species, indicating a compact salt-film mechanism. The average root mean square (RMS) roughness value for an electropolished surface was approximately 10 nm, which is significantly lower than a mechanically polished surface.

  3. Selective Stripping of Zr (IV) over Hf (IV) in Loaded D2EHPA Extracted from Strong Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling Yun; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)


    To develop a process for the selective extraction of Hf (IV) over Zr (IV) from a strong sulfuric acid solution, we investigated the stripping of Zr (IV) and Hf (IV) from loaded D2EHPA using alkaline reagents and various acid solutions. Since both Zr (IV) and Hf (IV) were quantitatively stripped by oxalic acid as well as by alkaline reagents (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}), it was difficult to separate the two metals during the stripping step. Among the tested inorganic acids (HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), only sulfuric acid could strip Zr (IV) and Hf (IV) and the stripping behavior was dependent on the sulfuric acid concentration employed in the extraction. When the extraction of the two metals by D2EHPA was conducted with a 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution, Zr (IV) was selectively stripped from the loaded D2EPA with a sulfuric acid solution of 3-5 M. A separation factor of 10 resulted from the stripping with a 4 M sulfuric acid solution.

  4. Particle size distributions in Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, growth and freezing of sulfuric acid droplets, and implications for cloud formation (United States)

    Dye, James E.; Baumgardner, D.; Gandrud, B. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Kelly, K. K.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.; Gary, B. L.


    The paper uses particle size and volume measurements obtained with the forward scattering spectrometer probe model 300 during January and February 1989 in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment to investigate processes important in the formation and growth of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. It is suggested on the basis of comparisons of the observations with expected sulfuric acid droplet deliquescence that in the Arctic a major fraction of the sulfuric acid droplets remain liquid until temperatures at least as low as 193 K. It is proposed that homogeneous freezing of the sulfuric acid droplets might occur near 190 K and might play a role in the formation of PSCs.

  5. Origin of sulfur species in acid sulfate-chloride thermal waters, northeastern Japan (United States)

    Kiyosu, Yasuhiro; Kurahashi, Makoto


    Acid sulfate-chloride thermal water samples collected together with fumarolic gases from various volcanic areas in northeastern Japan were studied chemically and isotogdically. δ 34S (COT) values of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide from these volcanic hot springs range from +4.0 to +31 and from -15.0 to -2.0% respectively, with δ 34S ys value of +2.5 to +31. The δ 34S of the sulfate in the more saline waters tends to become smaller with increasing ratio of SO 4 to Cl, although the chemical and isotopic composition of acid thermal water within some areas may be altered by secondary processes during the discharge of the thermal waters. This trend can be explained by the reaction of the volcanic gases, having S/Cl of 4 ~ 7 and total sulfur of ~0% in δ 34S, with ground water at 200°C, and/or the removal of sulfide phase depleted in 34S from the acid thermal water formed by the disproportionation of volcanic sulfur. The sulfur species in acid sulfate-chloride thermal water are shown to be volcanic exhalations.

  6. Using heat pipe to make isotherm condition in catalytic converters of sulfuric acid plants (United States)

    Yousefi, M.; Pahlavanzadeh, H.; Sadrameli, S. M.


    In this study, for the first time, it is tried to construct a pilot reactor, for surveying the possibility of creating isothermal condition in the catalytic convertors where SO2 is converted to SO3 in the sulfuric acid plants by heat pipe. The thermodynamic and thermo-kinetic conditions were considered the same as the sulfuric acid plants converters. Also, influence of SO2 gas flow rate on isothermal condition, has been studied. A thermo-siphon type heat pipe contains the sulfur + 5% iodine as working fluid, was used for disposing the heat of reaction from catalytic bed. Our results show that due to very high energy-efficiency, isothermal and passive heat transfer mechanism of heat pipe, it is possible to reach more than 95% conversion in one isothermal catalytic bed. As the results, heat pipe can be used as a certain piece of equipment to create isothermal condition in catalytic convertors of sulphuric acid plants. With this work a major evaluation in design of sulphuric acid plants can be taken place.

  7. Resistance of biofilm-covered mortars to microbiologically influenced deterioration simulated by sulfuric acid exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani, Sahar, E-mail:; Isgor, O. Burkan, E-mail:; Ormeci, Banu, E-mail:


    Following the reported success of biofilm applications on metal surfaces to inhibit microbiologically influenced corrosion, effectiveness and sustainability of E. coli DH5α biofilm on mortar surface to prevent microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) are investigated. Experiments simulating microbial attack were carried out by exposing incrementally biofilm-covered mortar specimens to sulfuric acid solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 6. Results showed that calcium concentration in control reactors without biofilm was 23–47% higher than the reactors with biofilm-covered mortar. Formation of amorphous silica gel as an indication of early stages of acid attack was observed only on the control mortar specimens without biofilm. During acidification, the biofilm continued to grow and its thickness almost doubled from ∼ 30 μm before acidification to ∼ 60 μm after acidification. These results demonstrated that E. coli DH5α biofilm was able to provide a protective and sustainable barrier on mortar surfaces against medium to strong sulfuric acid attack. -- Highlights: •Effectiveness of E.coli DH5α biofilm to prevent MICD was studied. •Conditions that lead to MICD were simulated by chemical acidification. •Biofilm-covered mortar specimens were exposed to sulfuric acid solutions. •The presence of biofilm helped reduce the chemically-induced mortar deterioration. •Biofilm remained alive and continued to grow during the acidification process.

  8. Bee Wax Propolis Extract as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors for 304SS in Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femiana Gapsari


    Full Text Available The inhibition properties of bee wax propolis (BWP extract on the 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid were conducted using potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and XRD. Quercetin (2-(3.4-dihydroxy phenyl-3.5.7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one was identified as the main compound in the BWP extract based on FTIR and HPLC analysis. The results showed that the inhibitor could retard the corrosion rate of 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid which reached 97.29% and 91.42% at 2000 ppm based on potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurement, respectively. The inhibition efficiency decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism of BWP extract on the 304SS was physisorption and obeyed Temkin adsorption isotherm equation. The thin protective layer on the 304SS surface was confirmed by XRD.

  9. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R


    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  10. Experimental particle formation rates spanning tropospheric sulfuric acid and ammonia abundances, ion production rates, and temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, Joao; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Dunne, Eimear M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Barmet, Peter; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Gordon, Hamish; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Ickes, Luisa; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Onnela, Antti; Ortega, Ismael K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Smith, James N.; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Wagner, Paul E.; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Ken; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim


    Binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water as well as ternary nucleation involving ammonia arethought to be the dominant processes responsible for new particle formation (NPF) in the cold temperaturesof the middle and upper troposphere. Ions are also thought to be important for particle nucleation inthese regions. However, global models presently lack experimentally measured NPF rates under controlledlaboratory conditions and so at present must rely on theoretical or empirical parameterizations. Here withdata obtained in the European Organization for Nuclear Research CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets)chamber, we present the first experimental survey of NPF rates spanning free tropospheric conditions. Theconditions during nucleation cover a temperature range from 208 to 298 K, sulfuric acid concentrationsbet ween 5 × 105and 1 × 109cm3, and ammonia mixing ratios from zero added ammonia, i.e., nominally purebinary, to a maximum of ~1400 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We performed nucleation s...

  11. Prolonged exposure of guinea pigs to sulfuric acid aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M.D.; Hendricks, R.H.; Gunn, F.D.; Critchlow, J.


    Guinea pigs were exposed to 1 to 4 mg/m/sup 3/, or sometimes 21 to 26 mg/m/sup 3/ acid aerosol with fine (0.59, medium (0.93, medium coarse (3.58 or coarse (4.28 particle sizes continuously for 18 to 139 days. Accidental overexposure killed 21 of 45. No guinea pigs were killed by chronic treatments. In fact, histopathological examination revealed only minor and reversible changes.

  12. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...... chemistry of the V2O5 based sulfuric acid catalysts and model systems...

  13. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions (United States)

    D. S. Shriner


    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2 ? 0.1 or pH 6.0 ? 0.2. Simulated "rain" of pH 3.2 resulted...

  14. Calibration of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer for the measurement of gaseous sulfuric acid. (United States)

    Kürten, Andreas; Rondo, Linda; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Curtius, Joachim


    The accurate measurement of the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration is crucial within many fields of atmospheric science. Instruments utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) measuring H(2)SO(4), therefore, require a careful calibration. We have set up a calibration source that can provide a stable and adjustable concentration of H(2)SO(4). The calibration system initiates the production of sulfuric acid through the oxidation of SO(2) by OH. The hydroxyl radical is produced by UV photolysis of water vapor. A numerical model calculates the H(2)SO(4) concentration provided at the outlet of the calibration source. From comparison of this concentration and the signals measured by CIMS, a calibration factor is derived. This factor is evaluated to be 1.1 × 10(10) cm(-3), which is in good agreement with values found in the literature for other CIMS instruments measuring H(2)SO(4). The calibration system is described in detail and the results are discussed. Because the setup is external to the CIMS instrument, it offers the possibility for future CIMS intercomparison measurements by providing defined and stable concentrations of sulfuric acid.

  15. Non-spectral interferences due to the presence of sulfuric acid in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Poyo, M. Carmen; Grindlay, Guillermo; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain); Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de, E-mail: [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Analytical Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281 - S12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mora, Juan, E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain)


    Results of a systematic study concerning non-spectral interferences from sulfuric acid containing matrices on a large number of elements in inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are presented in this work. The signals obtained with sulfuric acid solutions of different concentrations (up to 5% w w{sup −1}) have been compared with the corresponding signals for a 1% w w{sup −1−} nitric acid solution at different experimental conditions (i.e., sample uptake rates, nebulizer gas flows and r.f. powers). The signals observed for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +} and {sup 75}As{sup +} were significantly higher when using sulfuric acid matrices (up to 2.2-fold for {sup 128}Te{sup +} and {sup 78}Se{sup +} and 1.8-fold for {sup 75}As{sup +} in the presence of 5 w w{sup -1} sulfuric acid) for the whole range of experimental conditions tested. This is in agreement with previously reported observations. The signal for {sup 31}P{sup +} is also higher (1.1-fold) in the presence of sulfuric acid. The signal enhancements for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +}, {sup 75}As{sup +} and {sup 31}P{sup +} are explained in relation to an increase in the analyte ion population as a result of charge transfer reactions involving S{sup +} species in the plasma. Theoretical data suggest that Os, Sb, Pt, Ir, Zn and Hg could also be involved in sulfur-based charge transfer reactions, but no experimental evidence has been found. The presence of sulfuric acid gives rise to lower ion signals (about 10–20% lower) for the other nuclides tested, thus indicating the negative matrix effect caused by changes in the amount of analyte loading of the plasma. The elemental composition of a certified low-density polyethylene sample (ERM-EC681K) was determined by ICP-MS after two different sample digestion procedures, one of them including sulfuric acid. Element concentrations were in agreement with the certified values, irrespective of the acids used for the digestion. These

  16. Comparison of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids as catalysts in hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii). (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek


    In this study, hydrolysis of marine algal biomass Kappaphhycus alvarezii using two different acid catalysts was examined with the goal of identifying optimal reaction conditions for the formation of sugars and by-products. K. alvarezii were hydrolyzed by autoclave using sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as catalyst with different acid concentrations (0.1-1.0 M), substrate concentrations (1.0-13.5%), hydrolysis time (10-90 min) and hydrolysis temperatures (100-130 (°)C). A difference in galactose, glucose, reducing sugar and total sugar content was observed under the different hydrolysis conditions. Different by-product compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid were also observed under the different reaction conditions. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis were achieved at a sulfuric acid concentration, temperature and reaction time of 0.2 M, 130 °C and 15 min, respectively. These results may provide useful information for the development of more efficient systems for biofuel production from marine biomass.

  17. Sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid-catalyzed triacetone triperoxide (TATP) reaction mixtures: an aging study. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mark; Bilusich, Daniel


    The organic peroxide explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is regularly encountered by law enforcement agents in various stages of its production. This study utilizes solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to examine sulfuric acid-, hydrochloric acid-, and nitric acid-catalyzed TATP syntheses during the initial 24 h of these reactions at low temperatures (5-9°C). Additionally, aging of the reaction mixtures was examined at both low and ambient temperatures (19-21°C) for a further 9 days. For each experiment, TATP could be readily identified in the headspace above the reaction mixture 1 h subsequent to the combination of reagents; at 24 h, TATP and diacetone diperoxide (DADP) were prominent. TATP degraded more rapidly than DADP. Additionally, chlorinated acetones chloroacetone and 1,1,-dichloroacetone were identified in the headspace above the hydrochloric acid-catalyzed TATP reaction mixture. These were not present when the catalyst was sulfuric acid or nitric acid. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  18. Respiratory response of guinea pigs to sulfuric acid mist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.O.


    Guinea pigs were exposed to 23 to 42 mg/m/sup 3/ acid mist with a mass median diameter of 0.8, 2.5, or 7 for 1-h periods. Significant increase in resistance at all levels and sizes was observed. There was a concurrent decrease in compliance for 2.5- and sizes with exception of lowest level of exposure. Dose-effect with resistance vs concentration shows smaller sizes were more deleterious. The 2.5 were more harmful at higher concentrations (above approx. 15 mg/m/sup 3/). The particles produced a rapid response suggesting bronchoconstriction as the mechanism (change in resistance proportionately greater than change in compliance). This was similar to irritant gases. Conversely, 2.5- and particles acted slower and change in resistance paralleled the drop in compliance. High concentrations evoked edema and atelectasis. This was interpreted as closure of main bronchi rather than general constriction. Response was consistent with expected penetration.

  19. New particle formation from sulfuric acid and amines: Similarities and differences between mono-, di-, and trimethylamines (United States)

    Olenius, Tinja; Halonen, Roope; Kurtén, Theo; Henschel, Henning; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Riipinen, Ilona


    Amines are organic base species that are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Both theoretical and laboratory studies suggest that mono-, di-, and trimethylamines (MMA, DMA, and TMA, respectively) are capable of enhancing the initial steps of sulfuric acid-driven aerosol particle formation much more strongly than ammonia (Kurtén et al., 2008; Jen et al., 2014). Despite the potential importance for atmospheric new particle formation, quantitative estimates on the emissions and thermochemical properties of amines remain relatively uncertain. Because of this and also due to computational reasons, recent large-scale modeling studies have treated sulfuric acid-amine nucleation by introducing a single surrogate amine species, the total emissions of which combine together MMA, DMA and TMA but which resembles DMA or TMA in its various properties (e.g. Bergman et al., 2015). On the other hand, there are likely to be differences in the potentials of the three amines to enhance particle formation, causing uncertainties to the lumping approach. Systematic comparisons are needed to evaluate how to treat these species in atmospheric models and to assess what level of simplification is justifiable. In this work, we study the differences and similarities of MMA, DMA and TMA by modeling nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid, water, and each of the three amines. We simulate molecular cluster concentrations and formation rates at boundary layer conditions with a dynamic cluster population model using quantum chemistry-based cluster evaporation rates, and study the dependence of particle formation rate on precursor vapor concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. The results suggest that for the three amines, there are differences in the nucleation mechanism and hygroscopicity of molecular clusters. However, for DMA and TMA, formation of nanometer-sized particles and its dependence on ambient conditions is roughly similar: both

  20. The effect of dietary modulation of sulfur amino acids on cystathionine β synthase-deficient mice. (United States)

    Kruger, Warren D; Gupta, Sapna


    Cystathionine β synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme in the methionine and cysteine metabolic pathway, acting as a metabolic gatekeeper to regulate the flow of fixed sulfur from methionine to cysteine. Mutations in the CBS gene cause clinical CBS deficiency, a disease characterized by elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methionine and decreased plasma cysteine. The treatment goal for CBS-deficient patients is to normalize the metabolic values of these three metabolites using a combination of vitamin therapy and dietary manipulation. To better understand the effectiveness of nutritional treatment strategies, we have performed a series of long-term dietary manipulation studies using our previously developed Tg-I278T Cbs(-/-) mouse model of CBS deficiency and sibling Tg-I278T Cbs(+/-) controls. Tg-I278T Cbs(-/-) mice have undetectable levels of CBS activity, extremely elevated plasma tHcy, modestly elevated plasma methionine, and low plasma cysteine. They exhibit several easily assayable phenotypes, including osteoporosis, loss of fat mass, reduced life span, and facial alopecia. The diets used in these studies differed in the amounts of sulfur amino acids or sulfur amino acid precursors. In this review, we will discuss our findings and their relevance to CBS deficiency and the concept of gene-diet interaction. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Highly Efficient Sulfonic/Carboxylic Dual-Acid Synergistic Catalysis for Esterification Enabled by Sulfur-Rich Graphene Oxide. (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Luo, Xiang; Shi, Kaiqi; Wu, Tao; He, Feng; Zhou, Shoubin; Chen, George Z; Peng, Chuang


    A new sulfonic/carboxylic dual-acid catalyst based on sulfur-rich graphene oxide (GO-S) was readily prepared and used as a highly efficient and reusable solid acid catalyst toward the esterification of oleic acid with methanol for biodiesel production. Higher yields of methyl oleate (98 %) and over 3 times higher turnover frequencies (TOFs) were observed for the GO-S dual-acid catalyst, compared to liquid sulfuric acid or other carbon-based solid acid catalysts. The "acidity" of sulfonic acid groups was enhanced by the addition of carboxylic acid groups as the combination of the two acids enhances their inherent activity by associative interaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Influence of liquid and gas flow rates on sulfuric acid mist removal from air by packed bed tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammad Javad


    Full Text Available Abstract The possible emission of sulfuric acid mists from a laboratory scale, counter-current packed bed tower operated with a caustic scrubbing solution was studied. Acid mists were applied through a local exhaust hood. The emissions from the packed bed tower were monitored in three different categories of gas flow rate as well as three liquid flow rates, while other influencing parameters were kept almost constant. Air sampling and sulfuric acid measurement were carried out iso-kinetically using USEPA method 8. The acid mists were measured by the barium-thorin titration method. According to the results when the gas flow rate increased from 10 L/s to 30 L/s, the average removal efficiency increased significantly (p 3, respectively. L/G of 2–3 was recommended for designing purposes of a packed tower for sulfuric acid mists and vapors removal from contaminated air stream.

  3. Influence of dentin and enamel pretreatment with acidic sulfur compounds on adhesive performance. (United States)

    Ioannidis, Alexis; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R


    This study tested the potential hampering effects of acidic sulfur compounds (ASC) containing hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid, hydroxymethoxybenzene sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid, prior to self-etch and etch-and-rinse bonding procedures on enamel and dentin. According to the manufacturer, ASC should be applied after cavity preparation and prior to application of a primer in order to reduce the remaining biofilm in the preparation cavity. Despite promoted marketing, data on the investigated liquid are almost completely lacking. One hundred and fifty-two extracted mandibular bovine incisors were embedded and polished to expose either enamel (E) or dentin (D). Then, specimens were randomly divided and conditioned as follows (n = 12/group): ASC and consecutive phosphoric acid application (E1/D1), ASC (E2/D2; E5/D5), phosphoric acid (E3/D3), and no conditioning (E4/D4; E6/D6). Groups were then treated with either Optibond FL(®) (etch-and-rinse; 1-4) or Clearfil SE Bond(®) (self-etch; 5-6). Hollow acrylic cylinders were bonded with a hybrid composite resin (Filtek Supreme XTE®) to the specimens, and the shear bond strength was measured (1 mm/min). In addition, failure types were assessed. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffé post hoc test. For enamel, the highest shear bond strength values were obtained applying routine bonding procedures (23.5 ± 5.6 MPa for etch-and-rinse and 26.0 ± 6.0 MPa for self-etch, respectively). In contrast, dentin pretreatment with a combination of ASC and phosphoric acid led to the highest shear bond values (22.8 ± 4.1 MPa). This study shows that ASC prior to dental restoration placement cannot be recommended for etch-and-rinse procedures on enamel but is appropriate for dentin without interfering with routine bonding procedures. The application of acidic sulfur compounds prior to adhesive restoration placement should be restricted to dentin only as it may negatively

  4. Visualization of imbalances in sulfur assimilation and synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids at the single-cell level. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kristina; Grünberger, Alexander; Lausberg, Frank; Bott, Michael; Eggeling, Lothar


    We describe genetically encoded sensors which transmit elevated cytosolic concentrations of O-acetyl serine (OAS) and O-acetyl homoserine (OAH)-intermediates of l-cysteine and l-methionine synthesis-into an optical output. The sensor pSenOAS3 elicits 7.5-fold-increased fluorescence in cultures of a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain that excrete l-cysteine. Determination of the cytosolic OAS concentration revealed an increase to 0.13 mM, whereas the concentration in the reference strain was below the detection limit, indicating that incorporation of assimilatory sulfur is limited in the strain studied. In another strain, overexpression of metX encoding homoserine acetyltransferase resulted in an 8-fold increase in culture fluorescence at a cytosolic OAH concentration of 0.76 mM. We also assayed for consequences of extracellular sulfur supply and observed a graded fluorescence increase at decreasing sulfur concentrations below 400 μM. Overall, this demonstrates the usefulness of the sensors for monitoring intracellular sulfur availability. The sensors also enable monitoring at the single-cell level, and since related and close homologs of the transcription factor used in the constructed sensors are widespread among bacteria, this technology offers a new possibility of assaying in vivo for sulfur limitation and of doing this at the single-cell level.

  5. On the formation of sulfuric acid-water particles via homogeneous nucleation in the lower troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.


    Production of new sulfur derived particles via homogeneous nucleation between sulfuric acid and water vapors, and other related aerosol processes taking place in a variety of tropospheric environments, were studied using theoretical and model approaches. For nucleation to occur in the lower troposphere, cool and humid conditions combined with relatively strong solar radiation were usually required. Regardless of the system concerned, production of nuclei was found to be favored also by high SO{sub 2}(g) to fine particulate matter ratios. Urban post-fog situations, which are encountered commonly during severe air pollution episodes, were shown to favor new particle production considerably above the corresponding `background` conditions. A simple procedure for evaluating post-fog nucleation probabilities from routinely obtained data was developed and applied to real aerosol systems. Nucleation in the remote marine environment, which is an essential phenomenon in linking natural sulfur emissions to global climate change, was studied from a dynamic point of view. It was demonstrated that new particle production occurs more often in association with relative humidity transitions typical for many boundary layer processes than under averaged or steady conditions of the kind assumed explicitly in most earlier model studies. Power plant plumes were shown to be a particularly significant source of atmospheric nuclei, due primarily to their frequently high SO{sub 2}-to-particulate matter ratios. Factors affecting the probability of nucleation during plume dispersion were examined in detail, and finally, strategies for the control of in-plume particle production were analyzed. (author)

  6. Spectrophotometric study of the protonation processes of some indole derivatives in sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The protonation of 3-methylindole, D-tryptophan, 3-formylindole, 3-acetylindole and indolyl-2-carboxylic acid in sulfuric acid media was studied by UV spectro-scopy. The measurement of the absorbance at four selected wavelengths enabled the calculation of the corresponding molar absorptivities. The results were used to calculate the pKa value of the protonated form of the indole derivatives by the Hammett Method. The Hammett postulate (the slope of the plot log [c(BH+/c(B] vs. H should be equal to 1 was tested. The dissociation constants and solvent parameter m* were also obtained by applying the Excess Acidity Method. The position of the additional protons in the protonated compounds is discussed.

  7. Sulfur Cycle (United States)

    Hariss, R.; Niki, H.


    Among the general categories of tropospheric sulfur sources, anthropogenic sources have been quantified the most accurately. Research on fluxes of sulfur compounds from volcanic sources is now in progress. Natural sources of reduced sulfur compounds are highly variable in both space and time. Variables, such as soil temperature, hydrology (tidal and water table), and organic flux into the soil, all interact to determine microbial production and subsequent emissions of reduced sulfur compounds from anaerobic soils and sediments. Available information on sources of COS, CS2, DMS, and H2S to the troposphere in the following paragraphs are summarized; these are the major biogenic sulfur species with a clearly identified role in tropospheric chemistry. The oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 can often have a significant impact on the acidity of precipitation. A schematic representation of some important transformations and sinks for selected sulfur species is illustrated.

  8. Surface Plasmon Peak Resonance Discovered in Sulfuric Acid Treated PEDOT-PSS Conductive Polymers (United States)

    Andahazy, Wil; Baber, Ashleigh; Constantin, Costel

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) is one of the most promising transparent conductors which has applications in flexible electronics including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and organic field transistors (OFETs). Recently, scientists discovered that post-treatment with sulfuric acid of PEDOT-PSS thin films result in electrical conductivity increase and a UV absorption decrease due to the replacement of majority of PSS with sulfate ions (SO42-). However, the optical properties of the acid treated PEDOT-PSS thin films are not very well understood. In this project, PEDOT-PSS thin films were deposited by either drop casting or spin coating onto microscopic slides, and then submerged into sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. We performed optical spectroscopy by using a HS-190 variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer with a wavelength range of 200-2500 nm, and for the electrical properties we used a homemade van der Pauw set up. Our preliminary dielectric constants measurements show the existence of a plasmon resonance peak (PRP) present at 1100 nm. We will discuss the correlation between the PRP position and film thickness.

  9. Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Leaching of Alumina from Lampang Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Numluk


    Full Text Available The rapid development of the global alumina industry has led to a considerable increase in the production alumina and processing of alumina from non-bauxitic sources. Lampang clays comprise various minerals that contain about 22.70 wt% of extractable alumina. Local clay was ground, activated by calcination and treated with sulfuric acid to extract alumina. In the activation step, the effects of temperature and time on the extraction of alumina and iron were investigated. The leaching experiments were performed on clay samples with particle sizes less than 200 mesh. The samples were calcined at different temperatures, ranging from 450°C to 1050°C, and for different periods, ranging from 30 to 150 min. The optimum conditions for the extraction of alumina from Lampang clay include grinding the clay to pass through a 200 mesh sieve, calcining the ground clay at 750°C for 30 min, extracting the alumina from the calcined clay by leaching with 3M sulfuric acid, and using an acid to clay ratio of 80 wt% at 100°C for 120 min. An aluminum dissolution efficiency of 95.1 % was achieved under the conditions that resulted in the maximum dissolution efficiency of iron (26.6 %.

  10. Inhibition of enzymatic browning of chlorogenic acid by sulfur-containing compounds. (United States)

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Verloop, Annewieke J W; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry


    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO(3)) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectral analysis), oxygen consumption, and reaction product formation (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS) were monitored in time. It was found that the compounds showing antibrowning activity either prevented browning by forming colorless addition products with o-quinones of 5-CQA (NaHSO(3), cysteine, and glutathione) or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (NaHSO(3) and dithiothreitol). NaHSO(3) was different from the other sulfur-containing compounds investigated, because it showed a dual inhibitory effect on browning. Initial browning was prevented by trapping the o-quinones formed in colorless addition products (sulfochlorogenic acid), while at the same time, tyrosinase activity was inhibited in a time-dependent way, as shown by pre-incubation experiments of tyrosinase with NaHSO(3). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that sulfochlorogenic and cysteinylchlorogenic acids were not inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

  11. [Application of the vanillin sulfuric acid colorimetry-ultraviolet spectrometry on quality evaluation of Panax notoginseng]. (United States)

    Ding, Yong-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qing-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Jin, Hang


    In this study, Panax notoginseng samples were extracted by chloroform, ethanol and water, or by those extracted solution with 5% vanillin sulfuric acid to establish two kinds of UV fingerprint of P. notoginseng which were compared by applying the common and variation peak ratio dual index sequence analysis method and SIMCA software qualitative analysis. The results indicated that the optimization extraction time of P. notoginseng samples was 20 min with chloroform, ethanol and water extraction, but the fingerprint differed significantly after add vanillin sulfuric acid. The common peak ratios of UV fingerprint of P. notoginseng were scattered. The minimum was 25% (Y5-Y8), while the maximum was 84.38% (Y11-Y13, Y20-Y21). The maximum variation peak ratio was 177.78% (Y8-Y5), meanwhile, the variation peak ratios of several samples were more than 100%. However, the common peak ratios of UV fingerprint of P. notoginseng with vanillin sulfuric acid were concentrated (distributed in the range of 50%-70%): the minimum was 42.86%(Y1-Y19), whereas the maximum was 79.55% (Y22-Y23); the range of the variation peak ratios was also smaller with the ranges of 20%-50% in general. The result of the dual index sequence analysis was agreement with the fingerprint implied. The similarity of the UV fingerprint of the extracts of P. notoginseng after adding vanillin sulfuric acid was greater than before. Both the ages and origin was related with the difference of UV fingerprint. The similarity of the two samples with same age was more significant than those with different ages. The similarity and difference between samples was no correlation with the distance of geographic space, the near origin samples maybe have a significant similarity or difference. This method appears as good alternative for evaluate quality of the P. notoginseng and can distinguish at least two samples quantitatively, duo to it reaches the limitation of the multiple methods which only could be used to indistinctly

  12. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent. (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill


    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  13. Study of the kinetic behavior of mandelic acid oxidation by vanadium(V in sulfuric acid medium: effect of CTAB presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Augusto Ando


    Full Text Available The mandelic acid oxidation by vanadium (V in sulfuric acid medium was studied at 303 K. The reaction rate was determined spectrophotometrically by means of the formation of vanadium (IV at 760 nm. The oxidation reaction showed first order dependence in terms of vanadium (VThe mandelic acid oxidation by vanadium (V in sulfuric acid medium was studied at 303 K. The reaction rate was determined spectrophotometrically by means of the formation of vanadium (IV at 760 nm. The oxidation reaction showed first order dependence in terms of vanadium (V.

  14. Collisions of noble gases with supercooled sulfuric acid-water solutions. (United States)

    Behr, Peter; Scharfenort, Ulrich; Zellner, Reinhard


    The collisions of hyperthermal noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) with supercooled binary sulfuric acid-water mixtures (57-77 wt%) were explored in the temperature range between 210 and 240 K. The experiments were performed by directing a molecular beam of the respective gases onto a continuously renewed liquid surface and monitoring the velocity of the scattered molecules by mass spectrometry. Depending on the initial translational energies and molecular masses, we observe both inelastic scattering from the surface as well as thermalization followed by subsequent desorption. The experiments indicate that the repulsive momentum transfer in the inelastic scattering channel increases with increasing mass of the impinging gas, while it is only weakly affected by the initial velocities. The final energy of the thermally desorbing atoms can always be approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution equal to the liquid bulk phase temperature. The influence of the binary composition of the liquid phase is only noticeable in the case of Ne, whilst this dependence diminishes for gases with molecular masses >or=40 amu. The probability of thermalisation relative to inelastic scattering increases with the bulk phase temperature, independent of the molecular masses of the colliding gas. In contrast, the fractional energy transfer during collision does not increase with temperature, except for Neon. These results can be interpreted in the model framework of hard-sphere collisions of noble gases with the surface, during which water and sulfuric acid molecules interact independently with the impinging gas.

  15. On the composition of ammonia-sulfuric acid clusters during aerosol particle formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, S; Bianchi, F; Rondo, L; Duplissy, J; Kürten, A; Ortega, I K; Metzger, A; Schnitzhofer, R; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Dunne, E M; Ehn, M; Gagné, S; Ickes, L; Junninen, H; Hansel, A; Kerminen, V-M; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Mathot, S; Onnela, A; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Santos, F D; Sipilä, M; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Viisanen, Y; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Curtius, J; Donahue, N M; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R


    The formation of particles from precursor vapors is an important source of atmospheric aerosol. Research at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) facility at CERN tries to elucidate which vapors are responsible for this new particle formation, and how in detail it proceeds. Initial measurement campaigns at the CLOUD stainless-steel aerosol chamber focused on investigating particle formation from ammonia (NH3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Experiments were conducted in the presence of water, ozone and sulfur dioxide. Contaminant trace gases were suppressed at the technological limit. For this study, we mapped out the compositions of small NH3-H2SO4 clusters over a wide range of atmospherically relevant environmental conditions. We covered [NH3] in the range from 10. Positively charged clusters grew on average by Δm / Δn = 1.05 and were only observed at sufficiently high [NH3] / [H2SO4]. The H2SO4 molecules of these clusters are partially neutralized by NH3, in close resemblance to the acid-base bindings ...

  16. Effect of sulfuric acid etching of polyetheretherketone on the shear bond strength to resin cements. (United States)

    Sproesser, Oliver; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Uhrenbacher, Julia; Roos, Malgorzata; Gernet, Wolfgang; Stawarczyk, Bogna


    To examine the influence of etching duration on the bond strength of PEEK substrate in combination with different resin composite cements. In total, 448 PEEK specimens were fabricated, etched with sulfuric acid for 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 300 s and then luted with two conventional resin cements (RelyX ARC and Variolink II) and one self-adhesive resin cement (Clearfil SA Cement) (n = 18/subgroup). Non-etched specimens served as the control group. Specimens were stored in distilled water for 28 days at 37°C and shear bond strengths were measured. Data were analyzed nonparametrically using Kruskal-Wallis-H (p cements. The optimal etching duration varied with the type of resin composite: 60 s for RelyX ARC (15.3 ± 7.2 MPa), 90 s for Variolink II (15.2 ± 7.2 MPa), and 120 s for Clearfil SA Cement (6.4 ± 5.9 MPa). Regardless of etching duration, however, the self-etching resin composite cement showed significantly lower shear bond strength values when compared to groups luted with the conventional resin composites. Although sulfuric acid seems to be suitable and effective for PEEK surface pre-treatment, further investigations are required to examine the effect of other adhesive systems and cements.

  17. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment (United States)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica


    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  18. Mass spectrometric measurements of trace gases, ions, and condensed sulfuric acid in jet aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.; Klemm, M.; Wohlfrom, K.H.; Stilp, T.; Reiner, T.; Schneider, J.; Curtius, J.; Grimm, F.; Sierau, B.; Frenzel, A.; Scheid, J.; Kirchner, G.; Hauler, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We performed both ground based and aircraft based measurements of trace gases, ions, and condensed sulfuric acid in the wake of jet engines using quadrupole mass spectrometry in order to assess the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere. Within this paper we report on the most striking results which we obtained since 1992 within the project `Schadstoffe in der Luftfahrt`. Ions produced by the combuster (chemiions, CI) have been detected for the first time at ground in the flame of a laboratory kerosene burner and at ground behind several jet engines. About 3 x 10{sup 15} negative CI have been emitted per kg fuel burnt by modern turbofan engines. The composition-analysis of negative CI revealed that they consist of clusters containing HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, SO{sub 3}, and/or H{sub 2}O-molecules associated mainly to HSO{sub 4}{sup -} cores. At a plume age of 10 ms the precursor core ion NO{sub 3}{sup -} was only observed while the engines burnt fuel with a low sulfur content. Basing on a certain reaction scheme in the evolution of CI we calculated S(VI)(=SO{sub 3}+H{sub 2}SO{sub 4})-abundances and thereby an efficieny {epsilon} of fuel sulfur conversion to S(VI) of {epsilon}{approx}1%. The composition of ions measured under atmospheric conditions at 11 km altitude behind an Airbus A 310 at a distance of about 600 m (plume age: 3 sec) did not differ significantly from the composition of ions in the ambient atmosphere within the mass range of 1100 amu. Recently we detected SA in the condensed phase by evaporating the volatile components of aerosol particles and detection of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} using IMRMS (ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry) within the plume of a testing aircraft burning fuels with different sulfur contents at cruise altitude. The efficiency {epsilon} of fuel sulfur conversion into S(VI) was estimated to be at least 0.3%. IMRMS-measurements of several trace gases have been performed in the individual plumes of various airliners

  19. Enhanced acid rain and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals in Northern China (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Wang, Y.


    Atmospheric deposition is known to be important mechanism reducing air pollution. In response to the growing concern on the potential effects of the deposited material entering terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as their subsequent health effects, since 2007 we have established a 10-site monitoring network in Northern China, where particularly susceptible to severe air pollution. Wet and dry deposition was collected using an automatic wet-dry sampler. The presentation will focus on the new results of atmospheric deposition flux for a number of chemical species, such as nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus), acidic matters (e.g. sulfur and proton), heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, etc. This is to our knowledge the first detailed element budget study in the atmosphere across Northern China. We find that: (1) Over the 3 year period, 26% of precipitation events in the target area were more acid than pH 5.60 and these acidic events occurred in summer and autumn. The annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH value of precipitation was lower than 5.60 at most sites, which indicated the acidification of precipitation was not optimistic. The primary ions in precipitation were NH4+, Ca2+, SO42- and NO3-, with 10-sites-average concentrations of 221, 216, 216 and 80 μeq L-1, respectively. The ratio of SO42- to NO3- was 2.7; suggesting SO42- was the dominant acid component. (2) The deposited particles were neutral in general and the pH value increased from rural area to industrial and coastal sites. It is not surprising to note that the annual VWM pH value of precipitation was higher than 5.60 at three urban sites (Beijing and Tianjin mega cities) and one coastal site near the Bohai Bay, considering the fact that high buffer capacity of alkaline component, gas NH3 and mineral aerosols, at these sites compared to other places. (3) The 10-sites annual total deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds were 60 and 65 kg N/S ha-1 yr-1

  20. Elusive Sulfurous Acid: Gas-Phase Basicity and IR Signature of the Protonated Species. (United States)

    Sinha, Rajeev K; Scuderi, Debora; Maitre, Philippe; Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta


    The ion corresponding to protonated sulfurous acid, H3SO3(+), has been successfully delivered into the gas phase by electrospray ionization of the solution of a suitable precursor and an in-source fragmentation process. The neutral acid is a highly elusive molecule. However, its gas-phase basicity has been ascertained by means of a kinetic study of proton-transfer reactivity. The structure of the H3SO3(+) sampled ion has been probed by IRMPD spectroscopy in two complementary IR frequency ranges in conjunction with density functional theory calculations and found to conform to a trihydroxosulfonium ion. The characteristic IR signatures may aid in deciphering the presence of this species in extraterrestrial atmospheres.

  1. Enhanced fatty acid production in engineered chemolithoautotrophic bacteria using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Harry R.; Zhou, Peng; Jewell, Talia N.M.


    Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, such as H2S, while fixing CO2 are an untapped source of renewable bioproducts from sulfide-laden waste, such as municipal wastewater. In this study, we report engineering of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus...... denitrificans to produce up to 52-fold more fatty acids than the wild-type strain when grown with thiosulfate and CO2. A modified thioesterase gene from E. coli (‘tesA) was integrated into the T. denitrificans chromosome under the control of Pkan or one of two native T. denitrificans promoters. The relative...... strength of the two native promoters as assessed by fatty acid production in engineered strains was very similar to that assessed by expression of the cognate genes in the wild-type strain. This proof-of-principle study suggests that engineering sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria...

  2. Mass transfer during sulfuric acid concentration by evaporation into the air flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Lukashov


    Full Text Available This article shows the results of the study of mass transfer under periodic concentration of sulfuric acid by evaporation inthe gas flow, neutral with respect to the components of acid.Used mathematical model for mass transferbases on the proposed simplified physical representations.This model has allowed to construct an algorithm for calculation the coefficient of mass transfer from the liquid phase into the gas flow. The algorithm uses the experimental data of change the amount of acid and concentration of the water taken from the laboratory tests. Time-based Nusselt diffusion criterion represent the results of the study at different modes of the evaporation process.It has been found that the character of the influence of temperature and initial acid concentration on Nusselt diffusion criterion depends on the variation range of the mass fraction of water in the acid.It is shown that these dependences are well approximated by an exponential function from the dimensionless parameters of the process. This allows usingthem for calculation the mass transfer coefficient into the gas phase in a batch process of concentrating in the range of investigated modes.

  3. Bioethanol production from sodium hydroxide – dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rice husk via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Degradation of lignin from lignocellulosic biomass plays a main key role in converting of lignocelluloses to bioethanol. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is needed to enhance the fermentable sugars production from enzymatic hydrolysis. This research studied the effect of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on the ethanol production using alkaline-dilute acid pretreatment. This research used two stages of the pretreatment process. The first stage used NaOH solution with ratio of rice husk and NaOH solution (1:10 w/v. On the second stage, five concentrations of sulfuric acid of 1 to 5% at temperature of 121°C and various heating times (30–90 min were investigated. The ethanol production from pretreated rice husk was conducted by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF for various SSF times of 72-160 hr. The experimental results indicated that an increase in concentration of sulfuric acid capable to destroy the lignocellulosic structure of rice husk. The highest value of cellulose content was achieved about 88.84 % for acid pretreated material at H2SO4 concentration of 2% in 90 minutes. The lignin reduction ranged from 47.46% to 79.29%. The highest ethanol concentration obtained was 13.68 g/L for the SSF time of 120 hours and the sulfuric acid concentration of 3 %.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the sulfuric acid concentration process’ kinetics in electrochemical treatment of sulphate-containing eluates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola D. Gomelya


    Full Text Available The research exposes results obtained in sulphate-containing eluates electrochemical treatment using two-chamber anion exchange membrane MA-41electrolyzer. It is shown that the concentration of sulfuric acid can be increased by electrolysis up to 40%. The research included study of current voltage influencing the process’ effectiveness. The heterogeneous processes mathematical models at Delphi 7 environment are used to calculate the kinetic parameters of sulfuric acid solutions electrochemical processing using two-chamber electrolyzer divided with anionic membrane MA-41 into two sections. Based on the calculated rate constants, pre-exponential factor and activation energy authors obtained the Arrhenius equation.

  5. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eHug


    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  6. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Studies on the Conversion of Sucrose to Levulinic Acid and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Sulfuric Acid in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan-Soetedjo, Jenny N. M.; van de Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Abdilla, Ria M.; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; van Ginkel, Jacob; Heeres, Hero J.


    We here report experimental and kinetic modeling studies on the conversion of sucrose to levulinic acid (LA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in water using sulfuric acid as the catalyst. Both compounds are versatile building blocks for the synthesis of various biobased (bulk) chemicals. A total of

  7. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Studies on the Sulfuric Acid Catalyzed Conversion of D-Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Levulinic Acid in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fachri, Boy A.; Abdilla, Ria M.; van de Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Heeres, Hero J.


    Levulinic acid (LA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) have been identified as promising biomass-derived platform chemicals. A kinetic study on the conversion of D-fructose to HMF and LA in water using sulfuric acid as the catalyst has been performed in batch setups. The experiments were carried out

  8. Influence of Sulfuric Acid on the Performance of Ruthenium-based Catalysts in the Liquid-Phase Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ftouni, Jamal; Genuino, Homer C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571685; Muñoz-murillo, Ara; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397


    The presence of biogenic or process-derived impurities poses a major problem on the efficient catalytic hydrogenation of biomass-derived levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone; hence, studies on their influence on catalyst stability are now required. Herein, the influence of sulfuric acid as feed

  9. Relative Order of Sulfuric Acid, Bisulfate, Hydronium, and Cations at the Air-Water Interface. (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C


    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), bisulfate (HSO4(-)), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) are among the most abundant species in tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols due to high levels of atmospheric SO2 emitted from biomass burning and volcanic eruptions. The air/aqueous interfaces of sulfuric acid and bisulfate solutions play key roles in heterogeneous reactions, acid rain, radiative balance, and polar stratospheric cloud nucleation. Molecular-level knowledge about the interfacial distribution of these inorganic species and their perturbation of water organization facilitates a better understanding of the reactivity and growth of atmospheric aerosols and of the aerosol surface charge, thus shedding light on topics of air pollution, climate change, and thundercloud electrification. Here, the air/aqueous interface of NaHSO4, NH4HSO4, and Mg(HSO4)2 salt solutions as well as H2SO4 and HCl acid solutions are investigated by means of vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected (HD) VSFG spectroscopy. VSFG spectra of all acid solutions show higher SFG response in the OH-bonded region relative to neat water, with 1.1 M H2SO4 being more enhanced than 1.1 M HCl. In addition, VSFG spectra of bisulfate salt solutions highly resemble that of the dilute H2SO4 solution (0.26 M) at a comparable pH. HD-VSFG (Im χ((2))) spectra of acid and bisulfate salt solutions further reveal that hydrogen-bonded water molecules are oriented preferentially toward the bulk liquid phase. General agreement between Im χ((2)) spectra of 1.1 M H2SO4 and 1.1 M HCl acid solutions indicate that HSO4(-) ions have a similar surface preference as that of chloride (Cl(-)) ions. By comparing the direction and magnitude of the electric fields arising from the interfacial ion distributions and the concentration of each species, the most reasonable relative surface preference that can be deduced from a simplified model follows the order H3O(+) > HSO4(-) > Na(+), NH4(+), Mg(2+) > SO4(2-). Interestingly

  10. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1: Is It the Link between Sulfur Amino Acids and Lipid Metabolism? (United States)

    Poloni, Soraia; Blom, Henk J.; Schwartz, Ida V. D.


    An association between sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine, homocysteine and taurine) and lipid metabolism has been described in several experimental and population-based studies. Changes in the metabolism of these amino acids influence serum lipoprotein concentrations, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. However, recent evidence has suggested that the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) may be the link between these two metabolic pathways. SCD-1 is a key enzyme for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Its main substrates C16:0 and C18:0 and products palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) are the most abundant fatty acids in triglycerides, cholesterol esters and membrane phospholipids. A significant suppression of SCD-1 has been observed in several animal models with disrupted sulfur amino acid metabolism, and the activity of SCD-1 is also associated with the levels of these amino acids in humans. This enzyme also appears to be involved in the etiology of metabolic syndromes because its suppression results in decreased fat deposits (regardless of food intake), improved insulin sensitivity and higher basal energy expenditure. Interestingly, this anti-obesogenic phenotype has also been described in humans and animals with sulfur amino acid disorders, which is consistent with the hypothesis that SCD-1 activity is influenced by these amino acids, in particularly cysteine, which is a strong and independent predictor of SCD-1 activity and fat storage. In this narrative review, we discuss the evidence linking sulfur amino acids, SCD-1 and lipid metabolism. PMID:26046927

  11. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1: Is It the Link between Sulfur Amino Acids and Lipid Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Poloni


    Full Text Available An association between sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine, homocysteine and taurine and lipid metabolism has been described in several experimental and population-based studies. Changes in the metabolism of these amino acids influence serum lipoprotein concentrations, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. However, recent evidence has suggested that the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1 may be the link between these two metabolic pathways. SCD-1 is a key enzyme for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Its main substrates C16:0 and C18:0 and products palmitoleic acid (C16:1 and oleic acid (C18:1 are the most abundant fatty acids in triglycerides, cholesterol esters and membrane phospholipids. A significant suppression of SCD-1 has been observed in several animal models with disrupted sulfur amino acid metabolism, and the activity of SCD-1 is also associated with the levels of these amino acids in humans. This enzyme also appears to be involved in the etiology of metabolic syndromes because its suppression results in decreased fat deposits (regardless of food intake, improved insulin sensitivity and higher basal energy expenditure. Interestingly, this anti-obesogenic phenotype has also been described in humans and animals with sulfur amino acid disorders, which is consistent with the hypothesis that SCD-1 activity is influenced by these amino acids, in particularly cysteine, which is a strong and independent predictor of SCD-1 activity and fat storage. In this narrative review, we discuss the evidence linking sulfur amino acids, SCD-1 and lipid metabolism.

  12. submitter On the composition of ammonia–sulfuric-acid ion clusters during aerosol particle formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, S; Bianchi, F; Rondo, L; Duplissy, J; Kürten, A; Ortega, I K; Metzger, A; Schnitzhofer, R; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Dunne, E M; Ehn, M; Gagné, S; Ickes, L; Junninen, H; Hansel, A; Kerminen, V -M; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Mathot, S; Onnela, A; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Santos, F D; Sipilä, M; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Viisanen, Y; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Curtius, J; Donahue, N M; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R


    The formation of particles from precursor vapors is an important source of atmospheric aerosol. Research at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) facility at CERN tries to elucidate which vapors are responsible for this new-particle formation, and how in detail it proceeds. Initial measurement campaigns at the CLOUD stainless-steel aerosol chamber focused on investigating particle formation from ammonia $(NH_3)$ and sulfuric acid $(H-2SO_4)$. Experiments were conducted in the presence of water, ozone and sulfur dioxide. Contaminant trace gases were suppressed at the technological limit. For this study, we mapped out the compositions of small $NH_3–H_2SO_4$ clusters over a wide range of atmospherically relevant environmental conditions. We covered [NH3] in the range from 10. Positively charged clusters grew on average by Δm/Δn = 1.05 and were only observed at sufficiently high $[NH_3]$ / $[H_2SO_4]$. The $H_2SO_4$ molecules of these clusters are partially neutralized by $NH_3$, in close resemblance...

  13. Biogeography of sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus populations in extremely acidic cave biofilms. (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Schaperdoth, Irene; Macalady, Jennifer L


    Extremely acidic (pH 0-1.5) Acidithiobacillus-dominated biofilms known as snottites are found in sulfide-rich caves around the world. Given the extreme geochemistry and subsurface location of the biofilms, we hypothesized that snottite Acidithiobacillus populations would be genetically isolated. We therefore investigated biogeographic relationships among snottite Acidithiobacillus spp. separated by geographic distances ranging from meters to 1000s of kilometers. We determined genetic relationships among the populations using techniques with three levels of resolution: (i) 16S rRNA gene sequencing, (ii) 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing and (iii) multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST). We also used metagenomics to compare functional gene characteristics of select populations. Based on 16S rRNA genes, snottites in Italy and Mexico are dominated by different sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. Based on ITS sequences, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strains from different cave systems in Italy are genetically distinct. Based on MLST of isolates from Italy, genetic distance is positively correlated with geographic distance both among and within caves. However, metagenomics revealed that At. thiooxidans populations from different cave systems in Italy have different sulfur oxidation pathways and potentially other significant differences in metabolic capabilities. In light of those genomic differences, we argue that the observed correlation between genetic and geographic distance among snottite Acidithiobacillus populations is partially explained by an evolutionary model in which separate cave systems were stochastically colonized by different ancestral surface populations, which then continued to diverge and adapt in situ.

  14. Kinetic study of the manganese mine tailings leaching by organic reductant in sulfuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A.


    Full Text Available A kinetic study of the leaching of manganese mining residue by sulfuric acid and potassium oxalate has been investigated. The effects of the reaction agitation speed, manganese ore particle size, acid concentration, oxalate concentration and temperature on manganese rate dissolved. The leaching rates are significantly influenced by the Reaction temperature, to both concentration oxalate and acid. The observed effects of the relevant operating variables on the leaching rates are consistent with a kinetic model for chemical control. The apparent activation energy for the leaching of pyrolusite has been calculated using the Arrhenius expression and was found to be (63.7±2.9 kJ/mol. The experimental results indicate a reaction order of 1.07 for [H2SO4] concentration and 0.96 for [K2C2O4]. It is concluded that the reductive leaching of pyrolusite with potassium oxalate in acid medium is controlled by chemical reaction. The rate expression associated with the dissolution rate of pyrolusite depending on the parameters chosen may be summarized as follows: 1 - (1 - x1/3 = 1.45 10 7/r0.92 0 ∙ [H2SO4]1.07 [K2C2O4]0.96exp(-63735/RT∙t.

  15. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei. (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien


    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  16. Anodic Dissolution of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron with Different Pearlite Areas in Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Miyata


    Full Text Available The rate equation of anodic dissolution reaction of spheroidal graphite cast iron in sulfuric acid solutions at 298 K has been studied. The cast irons have different areas of pearlite. The anodic Tafel slope of 0.043 V decade−1 and the reaction order with respect to the hydroxyl ion activity of 1 are obtained by the linear potential sweep technique. The anodic current density does not depend on the area of pearlite. There is no difference in the anodic dissolution reaction mechanisms between pure iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron. The anodic current density of the cast iron is higher than that of the pure iron.

  17. Hydration of AN Acid Anhydride: the Water Complex of Acetic Sulfuric Anhydride (United States)

    Smith, CJ; Huff, Anna; Mackenzie, Becca; Leopold, Ken


    The water complex of acetic sulfuric anhydride (ASA, CH_{3}COOSO_{2}OH) has been observed by pulsed nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. ASA is formed in situ in the supersonic jet via the reaction of SO_{3} and acetic acid and subsequently forms a complex with water during the expansion. Spectra of the parent and fully deuterated form, as well as those of the species derived from CH_{3}^{13}COOH, have been observed. The fitted internal rotation barrier of the methyl group is 219.599(21), \\wn indicating the complexation with water lowers the internal rotation barrier of the methyl group by 9% relative to that of free ASA. The observed species is one of several isomers identified theoretically in which the water inserts into the intramolecular hydrogen bond of the ASA. Aspects of the intermolecular potential energy surface are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim HÜR


    Full Text Available This study examines usage of benzotriazole (Bt and N-mesyl benzotriazole (BtSO₂CH₃ for im- provement of corrosion resistance of low carbon steel (LCS in 0.1 M sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄. The inhibitor effect of Bt and BtSO₂CH₃ on the corrosion behavior of LCS was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance techniques. Under investigated experimental conditions these compounds showed a good corrosion inhibition. The inhibition efficiency of BtSO₂CH₃ was more than that of Bt. The potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that compounds are mixed type inhibitors. The inhibiting properties of compounds were found to depend on the concentration. The adsorption mechanism of compounds was investigated using different adsorption isotherms. The equilibrium constants and free energies of adsorption using the adsorption isotherms were calculated.

  19. Adsorption of Pb(II Ions on Sulfuric Acid Treated Leucaena leucocephala Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Noor Fhadzilah


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid treated Petai belalang (Leucaena leucocephala leaf powder (SLLP was used as an adsorbent for Pb(II ions removal. The experimental adsorption parameters investigated include pH, dosage and initial Pb(II concentration. Pb(II removal was more favored at a higher adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature. Adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second order model while Langmuir isotherm model recorded the value of maximum adsorption capacity (qmax of 222 mg/g. The major functional groups involved in the adsorption process were identified as hydroxyl, amino and ether as revealed by the FTIR analysis. The prepared adsorbent demonstrated a potential application for efficient removal of Pb(II ions from industrial wastewater.

  20. In vivo contribution of amino acid sulfur to cartilage proteoglycan sulfation (United States)

    Pecora, Fabio; Gualeni, Benedetta; Forlino, Antonella; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Tenni, Ruggero; Cetta, Giuseppe; Rossi, Antonio


    Cytoplasmic sulfate for sulfation reactions may be derived either from extracellular fluids or from catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and other thiols. In vitro studies have pointed out the potential relevance of sulfur-containing amino acids as sources for sulfation when extracellular sulfate concentration is low or when its transport is impaired such as in DTDST [DTD (diastrophic dysplasia) sulfate transporter] chondrodysplasias. In the present study, we have considered the contribution of cysteine and cysteine derivatives to in vivo macromolecular sulfation of cartilage by using the mouse model of DTD we have recently generated [Forlino, Piazza, Tiveron, Della Torre, Tatangelo, Bonafe, Gualeni, Romano, Pecora, Superti-Furga et al. (2005) Hum. Mol. Genet. 14, 859–871]. By intraperitoneal injection of [35S]cysteine in wild-type and mutant mice and determination of the specific activity of the chondroitin 4-sulfated disaccharide in cartilage, we demonstrated that the pathway by which sulfate is recruited from the intracellular oxidation of thiols is active in vivo. To check whether cysteine derivatives play a role, sulfation of cartilage proteoglycans was measured after treatment for 1 week of newborn mutant and wild-type mice with hypodermic NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine). The relative amount of sulfated disaccharides increased in mutant mice treated with NAC compared with the placebo group, indicating an increase in proteoglycan sulfation due to NAC catabolism, although pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the drug was rapidly removed from the bloodstream. In conclusion, cysteine contribution to cartilage proteoglycan sulfation in vivo is minimal under physiological conditions even if extracellular sulfate availability is low; however, the contribution of thiols to sulfation becomes significant by increasing their plasma concentration. PMID:16719839

  1. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao, E-mail:; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun


    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  2. Physiology and application of sulfur-reducing microorganisms from acidic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino, Anna Patrícya


    Sulfur cycle is one of the main geochemical cycles on Earth. Oxidation and reduction reactions of sulfur are mostly biotic and performed by microorganisms. In anaerobic conditions – marine and some freshwater systems, dissimilatory sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea are key

  3. Measurement of aerosol sulfuric acid 2. Pronounced layering in the free troposphere during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtius, J; Sierau, B; Arnold, F; de Reus, M; Strom, J; Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J


    Measurements of aerosol sulfuric acid in the free troposphere were performed in the vicinity of Tenerife, Canary Islands (28degreesN, 16degreesW), in July 1997. These measurements were carried out on board a Dutch Cessna Citation 11 research aircraft within the framework of the second Aerosol

  4. Highly effective removal of toxic Cr(VI) from wastewater using sulfuric acid-modified avocado seed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhaumik, M


    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid modified avocado seed (ASSA), as a low-cost carbonized adsorbent, was investigated for the removal of toxic Cr(VI) from water/wastewater in batch experiments. A low temperature (100 °C) chemical carbonization treatment was employed...

  5. Effect of Citric Acid on MoO3/Al2O3 Catalysts for Sulfur-Resistant Methanation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dajun Meng; Baowei Wang; Wenxia Yu; Weihan Wang; Zhenhua Li; Xinbin Ma


    A series of MoO3/Al2O3 catalysts with different amounts (molar ratio of CA/Mo = 0, 1, 1.5, and 2) of citric acid (CA) prepared by simultaneous impregnation were evaluated for sulfur-resistant methanation...

  6. Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates. (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P; Stocker, Roman


    Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d approximately 0.1 microm) at low velocity (U = 1.6 +/- 0.6 cmxs(-1), mean +/- SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re approximately 10(-3)) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-microm diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 microm (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-microm range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 microm) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean.

  7. Predicted effects of mineral neutralization and bisulfate formation on hydrogen ion concentration for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment. (United States)

    Lloyd, Todd A; Wyman, Charles E


    Dilute acid and water-only hemicellulose hydrolysis are being examined as part of a multiinstitutional cooperative effort to evaluate the performance of leading cellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies on a common basis. Cellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues and forest wastes, can have a significant mineral content. It has been shown that these minerals neutralize some of the acid during dilute acid pretreatment, reducing its effectiveness, and the higher solids loadings desired to minimize costs will require increased acid use to compensate. However, for sulfuric acid in particular, an equilibrium shift to formation of bisulfate during neutralization can further reduce hydrogen ion concentrations and compound the effect of neutralization. Because the equilibrium shift has a more pronounced effect at lower acid concentrations, additional acid is needed to compensate. Coupled with the effect of temperature on acid dissociation, these effects increase acid requirements to achieve a particular reaction rate unless minerals are removed prior to hydrolysis.

  8. Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Z. H., E-mail:; Lee, K. B.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Houston, P. A. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Guiney, I.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, The University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)


    In this work, we have compared SiN{sub x} passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1 μA/mm, which is much lower than that for SiN{sub x} passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7}) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ∼215 to 90 mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (D{sub it}) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiN{sub x} passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of D{sub it} and improves the surface related current collapse.

  9. [Effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families]. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yi-Tai; Feng, Da-Lan; Li, Sha


    The seeds from ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for different durations (0, 10, 15, and 20 min) , and the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index, as well as the seed relative water adsorption rate, soluble sugar and starch contents, and alpha-amylase activity during the germination, were determined, aimed to study the effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of H. hamabo and the differences of the seed germination among different H. hamabo provenance families. After treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index increased significantly, and the germination time shortened remarkably. Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 minutes had the best effect, i. e., the germination rate, germination energy, and germination index were up to 95.7%, 91.3%, and 13.28, respectively, and the germination time was the shortest. The seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index differed significantly with different provenance families, the highest germination index (15.13) being 2.12 times of the lowest germination index (7.15), and the highest germination energy (98.0%) being 1.77 times of the lowest one (55.5%). Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid accelerated the physiological and biochemical processes of seed germination, and the relative water absorption rate, soluble sugar content, and a-amylase activity were decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum at the early stage of germination. There was a significant negative relationship between the seed starch content and the seed germination index.

  10. Comparative analysis of the effect of pretreating aspen wood with aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid on its reactivity during enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Osipov, D. O.; Zorov, I. N.


    The effect of aspen wood pretreatment methods with the use of both aqueous solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and aqueous-organic solutions (ethanol, butanol) of sulfuric acid (organosolv) on the limiting degree of conversion of this type of raw material into simple sugars during enzymatic...... hydrolysis are compared. The effects of temperature, acid concentration, composition of organic phase (for sulfuric acid), and pressure (for nitric acid) on the effectiveness of pretreatment were analyzed. It is shown that the use of organosolv with 0.5% sulfuric acid allows us to increase the reactivity...... of ground wood by 300–400%, compared to the initial raw material. Pretreatment with a 4.8% aqueous solution of nitric acid (125°C, 1.8 MPa, 10 min) is shown to be most effective, as it increases the reactivity of the ground aspen wood by more than 500%....

  11. Numerical Simulation of Condensation of Sulfuric Acid and Water in a Large Two-stroke Marine Diesel Engine


    Walther, Jens Honore; Karvounis, Nikolas; Pang, Kar Mun


    We present results from computational fluid dynamics simulations of the condensation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O) in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. The model uses a reduced n-heptane skeletal chemical mechanism coupled with a sulfur subsetto simulate the combustion process and the formation of SOx and H2SO4. Condensation is modeled using a fluid film model coupled with the Eulerian in-cylindergas phase. The fluid film condensation model is validated against both experime...

  12. The effect of H2SO4 - amine clustering on chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurten, T.; Petaja, T.; Smith, J.


    The state-of-the art method for measuring atmospheric gas-phase sulfuric acid is chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on nitrate reagent ions. We have assessed the possible effect of the sulfuric acid molecules clustering with base molecules on CIMS measurements using computational...... chemistry. From the computational data, three conclusions can be drawn. First, a significant fraction of the gas-phase sulfuric acid molecules are very likely clustered with amines if the amine concentration is around or above a few ppt. Second, some fraction of these acid-amine clusters may not be charged...

  13. Open Access Discovery of alunite in Cross crater, Terra Sirenum, Mars: Evidence for acidic, sulfurous waters (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Mustard, John F.; Clark, Roger N.; Murchie, Scott L.; Breit, George N.; Wray, James J.; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, Francois; Carter, John; Calvin, Wendy M.; Benzel, William M.; Seelos, Kimberly D.


    Cross crater is a 65 km impact crater, located in the Noachian highlands of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars (30°S, 158°W), which hosts aluminum phyllosilicate deposits first detected by the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, L’Eau, les Glaces et l’Activitié (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer on Mars Express. Using high-resolution data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we examine Cross crater’s basin-filling sedimentary deposits. Visible/shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectra from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show absorptions diagnostic of alunite. Combining spectral data with high-resolution images, we map a large (10 km × 5 km) alunite-bearing deposit in southwest Cross crater, widespread kaolin-bearing sediments with variable amounts of alunite that are layered in waters at the time of its formation. Waters in Cross crater were likely supplied by regionally upwelling groundwaters as well as through an inlet valley from a small adjacent depression to the east, perhaps occasionally forming a lake or series of shallow playa lakes in the closed basin. Like nearby Columbus crater, Cross crater exhibits evidence for acid sulfate alteration, but the alteration in Cross is more extensive/complete. The large but localized occurrence of alunite suggests a localized, high-volume source of acidic waters or vapors, possibly supplied by sulfurous (H2S- and/or SO2-bearing) waters in contact with a magmatic source, upwelling steam or fluids through fracture zones. The unique, highly aluminous nature of the Cross crater deposits relative to other martian acid sulfate deposits indicates acid waters, high water throughput during alteration, atypically glassy and/or felsic materials, or a combination of these conditions.

  14. Ultrasound effects on zinc recovery from EAF dust by sulfuric acid leaching (United States)

    Brunelli, K.; Dabalà, M.


    In this work, an ultrasound-assisted leaching process was studied for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, in which zinc was mainly present in the form of franklinite (60%). Hydrometallurgy is emerging as a preferred process for the recovery of a variety of metals, and the use of ultrasound could offer advantages over the conventional leaching process, especially for the dissolution of franklinite. Franklinite is a refractory phase that is difficult to leach and represents the main obstacle in conventional hydrometallurgy processing. Atmospheric leaching with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.2-2.0 M) at two temperatures (323 and 353 K) was performed. The tests were conducted using both conventional and ultrasound-assisted leaching. After the leaching tests, the solid residues were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, whereas the leach liquor was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP). The use of ultrasound facilitated the dissolution of franklinite at low acid concentrations and resulted in a greater zinc recovery under all of the investigated operating conditions.

  15. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxi Wei

    Full Text Available Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid (HCl hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  16. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis. (United States)

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi


    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  17. New nanocomposites of polystyrene with polyaniline doped with lauryl sulfuric acid (United States)

    Pud, A. A.; Nikolayeva, O. A.; Vretik, L. O.; Noskov, Yu. V.; Ogurtsov, N. A.; Kruglyak, O. S.; Fedorenko, E. A.


    This work is concentrated on synthesis and investigation of new core-shell nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) with doped polyaniline (PANI). The latex containing PS nanoparticles with sizes of 15-30 nm was prepared by microemulsion polymerization of styrene in water media. The PS/PANI nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the PS latex media in a presence of lauryl sulfuric acid (LSA), which served as both dopant and plasticizer. The real content of PANI in the synthesized nanocomposites was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy method. The composition of the nanocomposites and oxidation state of the doped polyaniline were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The core-shell morphology of the nanocomposite nanoparticles was proved by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that conductivity and thermal behavior in air of these nanocomposites not only nonlinearly depended on the doped polyaniline content but also were strongly effected both by plasticizing properties of the acid-dopant and presence of the polyaniline shell. A possibility of application of these nanocomposites as sensor materials has been demonstrated.

  18. Production of spent mushroom substrate hydrolysates useful for cultivation of Lactococcus lactis by dilute sulfuric acid, cellulase and xylanase treatment. (United States)

    Qiao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Sun, Li-Fan; Liu, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hong-Ji; Zhang, Zhijun


    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was treated with dilute sulfuric acid followed by cellulase and xylanase treatment to produce hydrolysates that could be used as the basis for media for the production of value added products. A L9 (3(4)) orthogonal experiment was performed to optimize the acid treatment process. Pretreatment with 6% (w/w) dilute sulfuric acid at 120°C for 120 min provided the highest reducing sugar yield of 267.57 g/kg SMS. No furfural was detected in the hydrolysates. Exposure to 20PFU of cellulase and 200 XU of xylanase per gram of pretreated SMS at 40°C resulted in the release of 79.85 g/kg or reducing sugars per kg acid pretreated SMS. The dilute sulfuric acid could be recycled to process fresh SMS four times. SMS hydrolysates neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, or calcium hydroxide could be used as the carbon source for cultivation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 and a cell density of 2.9×10(11)CFU/mL could be obtained. The results provide a foundation for the development of value-added products based on SMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of DOC in Acid-Sensitive Maine Lakes to Decreasing Sulfur Deposition (1993 - 2009) (United States)

    Oelsner, G. P.; Sanclements, M.; McKnight, D. M.; Stoddard, J. L.


    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, there has been a concurrent increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in many lakes and streams which has been difficult to interpret. To assess the biogeochemical processes driving increasing DOC concentrations we analyzed archived samples from 9 acid-sensitive lakes in Maine collected between 1993 and 2009 using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence index (FI) was calculated for all samples. The FI represents the ratio of the emission intensity at 450 nm to 550 nm at an excitation wavelength of 370 nm and provides information regarding the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM). This index has a value of approximately 1.9 for microbially derived fluvic acids and a value of approximately 1.4 for terrestrially (higher-plant) derived fluvic acids. All four lakes with increasing DOC trends had concomitant decreases in the FI index. Two of five lakes with no significant DOC trend also demonstrated no trend in FI values over time, while three lakes revealed a decrease in FI values. To confirm that the FI measured in whole water was primarily reflective of fulvic acids (FA), XAD-resin was used to isolate FA from a subset of samples. Analysis of the FA indicates that the FI values for the humic substances are slightly higher, yet well correlated with whole water samples. This suggests that despite prolonged storage in plastic, the FI trends are meaningful. The FI trends suggest a terrestrial source for the increasing DOC and may be driven by increased DOM production from soils experiencing decreased acid loading. Decreases in sulfate deposition can increase soil pH and soil organic matter solubility, as well as decrease the ionic strength of the soil solution, and

  20. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakura, Y.; Hirato, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Studies are conducted to develop a new wet method for copper concentrates to replace the conventional dry smelting method for the settlement of problems involving the processing of impurities for environmental protection. A specimen of pyrites polycrystals is subjected to leaching at 80 {degree}C in a strongly acidic cupric solution. Findings are that the element sulfur generated in this process does not impede leaching and only approximately 4% of the sulfur is oxidized into sulfur ions; that the presence of more than 2g/liter of bromide ions produced during bromine-aid leaching of gold changes the structure of sulfur for the inhibition of leaching; that circulation of a bromine-containing leaching liquid is not desired since even a small amount of approximately 0.02mol/liter inhibits the leaching rate. Controlled potential electrolysis is performed for the anode in an acid solution containing CuCl, NaCl, and NaBr, for the observation of oxidation/reduction potentials predicted by Nernst`s equation. It is then disclosed that bromine is more effective than chlorine in gold leaching and that the solution potential during leaching agent regeneration enables the monitoring of solution constitution. 2 refs.

  1. The enhancement mechanism of glycolic acid on the formation of atmospheric sulfuric acid-ammonia molecular clusters (United States)

    Zhang, Haijie; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Zhang, Xiuhui; Molinero, Valeria; Zhang, Yunhong; Li, Zesheng


    Highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules, which span a wide range of low volatilities, are capable of driving particle formation as well as the initial growth of particles in the atmosphere. However, their participant mechanism in new particle formation still remains largely ambiguous. Here we present an investigation of the potentially participant mechanism of the simplest hydroxyl acid, glycolic acid (GA) on clusters formation by sulfuric acid (SA) and ammonia (A). Density functional theory calculations at the M062X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory combining with atmospheric cluster dynamics code simulations of (𝐒𝐀)xṡ𝐀yṡ(𝐆𝐀)z cluster (y≤x + z ≤ 3) systems at different temperatures (298, 278, 258, 238, and 218 K) give direct evidence of the enhancement effect of GA on the formation rates of SA-A-based clusters at high concentration of GA and T = 238 K and 218 K. Moreover, within GA's enhancement concentrations, the enhancement strength R of GA presents a positive dependence on its atmospheric concentrations and a negative dependence on temperature. A competitive relationship between SA and GA has been identified through the negative dependence of R on the concentrations of SA. The influence of A on R is more complex that R first increases, reaching a maximum value, and then decreases with the increasing concentration of A. Finally, the combination of the traced growth paths of the system with the enhancement strength of GA suggests a "catalytic" enhancement mechanism of GA where GA acts as a mediate bridge for the formation of pure SA-A-based clusters.

  2. Electrochemical Properties of Sulfurized-Polyacrylonitrile Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Effect of Polyacrylic Acid Binder and Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Min; Hwang, Jang-Yeon; Aurbach, Doron; Sun, Yang-Kook


    Sulfurized carbonized polyacrylonitrile (S-CPAN) is a promising cathode material for Li-S batteries owing to the absence of polysulfide dissolution phenomena in the electrolyte solutions and thus the lack of a detrimental shuttle mechanism. However, challenges remain in achieving high performance at practical loading because of large volume expansion of S-CPAN electrodes and lithium anode degradation at high current densities. To mitigate this problem, we propose a novel cell design including poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) binder for improved integrity of the composite electrodes and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as additive in the electrolyte solutions for stabilizing the lithium metal surface. As a result, these cells delivered high initial discharge capacity of 1500 mAh g-1 and a superior cycling stability ∼98.5% capacity retention after 100 cycles, 0.5 C rate, and high sulfur loading of 3.0 mg cm-2. Scaled-up 260 mAh pouch cells are working very well, highlighting the practical importance of this work.

  3. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi


    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  4. Individual and combined effects of fluoranthene, phenanthrene, mannitol and sulfuric acid on marigold (Calendula officinalis). (United States)

    Khpalwak, Wahdatullah; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif M; Sakugawa, Hiroshi


    A study was conducted to characterize marigold stress response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (oxidative stress inducers) with and without sulfuric acid (S.Acid; pH 3) (acid-stress inducer), and to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of mannitol (Mann). Marigold (Calendula officinalis) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse and fumigated with fluoranthene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), Mann, and S.Acid individually and in various combinations for 40 days. Various physiological and biochemical parameters among others were analyzed using standard methods. The results revealed that fumigation of FLU induced oxidative stress to the plants via ROS generation leading to negative effects on photosynthesis at near saturating irradiance (A max ), stomatal conductance (G s ), internal carbon dioxide concentration (C i ), leaf water relations and chlorophyll pigments. Significant per cent inhibition of A max (54%), G s (86%) and C i (32%), as well as per cent reductions in chlorophyll a (Chl.a) (33%), Chl.b (34%), and total chlorophyll (Tot. Chl) (48%) contents were recorded in FLU fumigated treatment in comparison to control. Combination of Mann with FLU scavenged the generated ROS and substantially lowered the oxidative stress on the plants hence all the measured parameters were not significantly different from control. PHE fumigation had varied effects on marigold plants and was not as deleterious as FLU. Combined fumigation of S.Acid with both the PAHs had significant negative effect on leaf water relations, and positive effect on fresh and turgid weight of the plants but had no effect on the other measured parameters. The lowest proline contents and highest catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in FLU fumigated plants further confirmed that oxidative stress was imposed via the generation of ROS. From the results, it is evident that Mann could be an efficient scavenger of ROS-generated by FLU in the marigold plants. We recommend Mann to

  5. Ice condensation on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate: Implications for polar stratospheric ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fortin


    Full Text Available The mechanism of ice nucleation to form Type 2 PSCs is important for controlling the ice particle size and hence the possible dehydration in the polar winter stratosphere. This paper probes heterogeneous ice nucleation on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT. Laboratory experiments were performed using a thin-film, high-vacuum apparatus in which the condensed phase is monitored via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water pressure is monitored with the combination of an MKS baratron and an ionization gauge. Results show that SAT is an efficient ice nucleus with a critical ice saturation ratio of S*ice = 1.3 to 1.02 over the temperature range 169.8-194.5 K. This corresponds to a necessary supercooling of 0.1-1.3 K below the ice frost point. The laboratory data is used as input for a microphysical/photochemical model to probe the effect that this heterogeneous nucleation mechanism could have on Type 2 PSC formation and stratospheric dehydration. In the model simulations, even a very small number of SAT particles (e.g., 10-3 cm-3 result in ice nucleation on SAT as the dominant mechanism for Type 2 PSC formation. As a result, Type 2 PSC formation is more widespread, leading to larger-scale dehydration. The characteristics of the clouds are controlled by the assumed number of SAT particles present, demonstrating that a proper treatment of SAT is critical for correctly modeling Type 2 PSC formation and stratospheric dehydration.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Tian; Charles Reece; Michael Kelley; Sean Corcoran


    Niobium surfaces are commonly electropolished in an effort to obtain optimally smooth surfaces for high-field SRF cavity applications. We report the first use of controlled electrochemical analysis techniques to characterize electropolishing of Nb in a sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte. Through the use of a reference electrode we are able to clearly distinguish the anode, cathode polarization potentials as well as the electrolyte voltage drop that sum to the applied power supply voltage. We then separate the temperature and HF concentration dependence of each. We also report the first use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on this system. EIS results are consistent with a presence of a compact salt film at the Nb/electrolyte interface that is responsible for the limiting current. Microscopic understanding of the basic Nb EP mechanism is expected to provide an appropriate foundation with which to optimize the preparation of high-field niobium cavity surfaces. The implication of EIS for monitoring Nb surface during electropolishing shows this technology could be potentially used as a source of on-line feedback.

  7. Performance of a corona ion source for measurement of sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kürten


    Full Text Available The performance of an ion source based on corona discharge has been studied. This source is used for the detection of gaseous sulfuric acid by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS through the reaction of NO3 ions with H2SO4. The ion source is operated under atmospheric pressure and its design is similar to the one of a radioactive (americium-241 ion source which has been used previously. The results show that the detection limit for the corona ion source is sufficiently good for most applications. For an integration time of 1 min it is ~6 × 104 molecule cm−3 of H2SO4. In addition, only a small cross-sensitivity to SO2 has been observed for concentrations as high as 1 ppmv in the sample gas. This low sensitivity to SO2 is achieved even without the addition of an OH scavenger. When comparing the new corona ion source with the americium ion source for the same provided H2SO4 concentration, both ion sources yield almost identical values. These features make the corona ion source investigated here favorable over the more commonly used radioactive ion sources for most applications where H2SO4 is measured by CIMS.

  8. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments (United States)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.


    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  9. Changing trends in sulfur emissions in Asia: implications for acid deposition, air pollution, and climate. (United States)

    Carmichael, Gregory R; Streets, David G; Calori, Giuseppe; Amann, Markus; Jacobson, Mark Z; Hansen, James; Ueda, Hiromasa


    In the early 1990s, it was projected that annual SO2 emissions in Asia might grow to 80-110 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. Based on new high-resolution estimates from 1975 to 2000, we calculate that SO2 emissions in Asia might grow only to 40-45 Tg yr(-1) by 2020. The main reason for this lower estimate is a decline of SO2 emissions from 1995 to 2000 in China, which emits about two-thirds of Asian SO2. The decline was due to a reduction in industrial coal use, a slowdown of the Chinese economy, and the closure of small and inefficient plants, among other reasons. One effect of the reduction in SO2 emissions in China has been a reduction in acid deposition not only in China but also in Japan. Reductions should also improve visibility and reduce health problems. SO2 emission reductions may increase global warming, but this warming effect could be partially offset by reductions in the emissions of black carbon. How SO2 emissions in the region change in the coming decades will depend on many competing factors (economic growth, pollution control laws, etc.). However a continuation of current trends would result in sulfur emissions lower than any IPCC forecasts.

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Stainless Steel 304 in the Sulfuric Acid Environment Due to Prestrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badaruddin


    Full Text Available The aim of  research is to investigate the effect of prestrain  on the stress corossion cracking behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel in the sulfuric acid of 10% concentration  under the static cantilever loading according to ASTM E-1681 standart. The specimen of 304 Stainless steel was strain up over the yield strength until reaching the uniform strain of 5% and 10% using servopulser UTM 9506 under the  displacement control of 0,3 mm/sec. The results of test  show that the prestrain of 5%  specimen is faster  failure than both  of  the prestrain of 10% and unprestrain specimen. It was caused by both of the decrease of ductility and  the short   incubation period. The change of deflection could be only recorded under  the loading 20% of yield strength. Intergranular crack was the prestrain of 10% specimen under the static loading of  616 MPa. Whereas,  for the prestrain of 10% specimen transgranular crack  was found under the static loading of 554,4 MPa. The prestrain of 5% specimen was mixed crack  under the static loading of 369.6 MPa. Higher dislocation density on the layer surface due to plastic deformation with increasing the percentage of pre-strain, so more difficult hydrogen diffused into the crack tip. Consequently, The incubation period can be prolonged.

  11. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds and Gaseous Sulfuric Acid During the 2008 CAREBEIJING Campaign (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Zheng, J.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.


    Air quality in Beijing has been a hot topic recently, because Beijing hosted the 2008 summer Olympics. To combat the problem, China ordered numerous factories shut down or used only sporadically during the games to limit air pollution in the area. Another major step involved ordering about one-half of the city's 3.3 million vehicles off the road during the games, allowing only cars on roads with odd or even-numbered license plates on alternate days until the games were over. In addition, China has implemented new auto emission standards since March 2009 with regulations that are similar to those used throughout Europe. Our team at the Texas A&M participated in the 2008 CAREBEIJING campaign, with the objectives of studying the complex chemistry of the air in Beijing, looking at emission controls and their effectiveness, studying the surrounding air from other regions and how it can affect Beijing's air, and comparing all of our findings with air quality in other cities we have examined, such as Mexico City and Houston. In this talk, preliminary results of measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gaseous sulfuric acid will be presented to discuss the trends of VOCs and new particle formation associated with the traffic control.

  12. A simple modeling study of the Ce(IV) regeneration in sulfuric acid solutions. (United States)

    Ren, Xiulian; Wei, Qifeng


    The electrochemical regeneration of Ce(IV) for mediated electrochemical oxidation in sulfuric acid media was investigated in an electrolytic membrane reactor. A simple kinetic model was developed to analyze and simulate the regeneration of Ce(IV) in the electrolysis process. The model was based on the Faraday's law and the mass balance of components in the reactor. The key operating conditions of the initial electrolyte concentration and the regeneration time were analyzed. It was found that the simulating model agreed well with the experimental data for regeneration of Ce(IV). Experimental results showed that Ce(SO₄)⁻₂ is the active species. The decomposition of surface complex of Ce(IV) at the anode surface is the rate determining step. Constant-current electrolysis shows that the high proton and Ce(III) concentrations are electrochemically favorable for the regeneration of Ce(IV). The current efficiency for regeneration of Ce(IV) decrease obviously with the increase of SO(4)(2-) concentration from 0.8 to 2.4mol/L. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Submicrometer grating light bar for a color-separation backlight. (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Lee, Chi-Hung; Yang, Tzu-Chun; Ting, Chia-Jen; Lin, Tsung-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Chieh


    A light bar patterned using a submicrometer grating was designed to replace conventional dye color filters for color liquid crystal displays. The light bar generates color rays by transmitting them from side-lit color light-emitting diodes through the submicrometer grating. These angular color rays are then redirected by a V-grooved light guide, and then converged by a lens array and mapped to corresponding subpixel positions to efficiently display color images. The results show that 106% of the National Television System Committee (NTSC) color space in a blue-green-red-green (B-G-R-G) repeating pattern display pixel layout can be achieved.

  14. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.


    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed in greenhouse or field to simulated rain of pH 3.2 +- 0.1 or pH 6.0 +- 0.2. Simulated rain of pH 3.2 resulted in: (1) an 86% inhibition in telia production of Cronartium fusiforme on Quercus phellos; (2) a 66% inhibition of reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; (3) a 10% decrease in the severity of Uromyces phaseoli on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; and (4) an inhibition of Rhizobium nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max by an average of 73%. Effects on halo blight of kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola) depended upon the segment of the disease cycle in which the rain occurred: simulated rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants before inoculation stimulated disease development; suspension of inoculum in rain of pH 3.2 decreased inoculum potential; and rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development. Scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular waxes on leaves of Quercus phellos and Phaseolus vulgaris showed marked erosion of those surfaces by rain of pH 3.2, indicating possible influences on the structure and function of plant cuticles. These results suggest that the acidity of rain is a new parameter of environmental concern, and underline the need for study of the consequences of prolonged exposure of both agronomic and natural ecosystems to this stress factor.

  15. Investigation of Enhanced Leaching of Lithium from α-Spodumene Using Hydrofluoric and Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Guo


    Full Text Available An effective method using hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid was proposed to enhance the leaching of lithium from α-spodumene, without calcination that is subjected to 1000 °C for phase transformation. The thermodynamic feasibility of the reactions was firstly verified. Dissolution conditions were tested to maximize the leaching efficiency of lithium and with efficient utilization of hydrofluoric acid (HF served as evaluation criteria. The results showed that 96% of lithium could be transferred into lixivium with an ore/HF/H2SO4 ratio of 1:3:2 (g/mL/mL, at 100 °C for 3 h. Due to the fact that HF molecules were the main reaction form, the dissolution behaviors were theoretically represented and investigated by dissolution in HF/H2SO4. When combined with chemical elements analyses and characterizations, the results of the dissolution behaviors revealed that α-spodumene and albite were preferentially dissolved over quartz. Insoluble fluoroaluminates, such as AlF3, cryolite (Na3AlF6 and cryolithionite (Na3Li3Al2F12, were generated and might be further partially dissolved by H2SO4. Fluorosilicates, such as K2SiF6, Na2SiF6, or KNaSiF6, were also generated as a part of the insoluble residues. This work provides fundamental insight into the role of HF/H2SO4 played in the dissolution of α-spodumene, and sheds light on a novel and promising process to efficiently extract lithium.

  16. A study on the estimation of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism by the determination of urinary sulfate and taurine. (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Kajikawa, R; Ubuka, T


    Sulfate and taurine are major end products of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism in mammals including humans, and they are excreted in urine. Average excretions micromol/mg of creatinine) in the morning urine of 58 female college students were: total (free plus ester) sulfate (a). 12.53 +/- 3.85; free sulfate, 11.57 +/- 3.69; taurine, 0.78 +/- 0.53. Ratio of total sulfate and taurine was 10 : 0.6. Regression lines obtained by plotting total sulfate, free sulfate, or total sulfate plus taurine against urea have shown that the former excretions are significantly correlated with urea excretion. Excretion of total sulfate at zero point of urea excretion (b). was 5.30, which corresponded to 42.3% of average excretion (12.53) and was assumed to be derived from dietary sulfate. The difference 7.23 (a - b) seemed to be derived from sulfur-containing amino acids. It was pointed out that the difference of average sulfate excretion and sulfate excretion at zero urea excretion, namely a - b, was appropriate for the metabolic index of sulfur-containing amino acids of the group examined. As free sulfate constituted 92.3% of total sulfate, excretion of ester sulfate was at a constant level, and that of taurine was not significantly correlated with urea excretion, the value of free sulfate corresponding to the value a - b of total sulfate mentioned above seemed to be a reliable and convenient index in the assessment of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism.

  17. Comparative techno-economic analysis of steam explosion, dilute sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion and biological pretreatments of corn stover. (United States)

    Baral, Nawa Raj; Shah, Ajay


    Pretreatment is required to destroy recalcitrant structure of lignocelluloses and then transform into fermentable sugars. This study assessed techno-economics of steam explosion, dilute sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion and biological pretreatments, and identified bottlenecks and operational targets for process improvement. Techno-economic models of these pretreatment processes for a cellulosic biorefinery of 113.5 million liters butanol per year excluding fermentation and wastewater treatment sections were developed using a modelling software-SuperPro Designer. Experimental data of the selected pretreatment processes based on corn stover were gathered from recent publications, and used for this analysis. Estimated sugar production costs ($/kg) via steam explosion, dilute sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion and biological methods were 0.43, 0.42, 0.65 and 1.41, respectively. The results suggest steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatment methods might be good alternatives at present state of technology and other pretreatment methods require research and development efforts to be competitive with these pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role? (United States)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E.


    This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH2 chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH3+ adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S22-) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH2 to NH3+ species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  19. A statistical approach to the experimental design of the sulfuric acid leaching of gold-copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes F.D.


    Full Text Available The high grade of copper in the Igarapé Bahia (Brazil gold-copper ore prevents the direct application of the classic cyanidation process. Copper oxides and sulfides react with cyanides in solution, causing a high consumption of leach reagent and thereby raising processing costs and decreasing recovery of gold. Studies have showm that a feasible route for this ore would be a pretreatment for copper minerals removal prior to the cyanidation stage. The goal of this experimental work was to study the experimental conditions required for copper removal from Igarapé Bahia gold-copper ore by sulfuric acid leaching by applying a statistical approach to the experimental design. By using the Plackett Burman method, it was possible to select the variables that had the largest influence on the percentage of copper extracted at the sulfuric acid leaching stage. These were temperature of leach solution, stirring speed, concentration of sulfuric acid in the leach solution and particle size of the ore. The influence of the individual effects of these variables and their interactions on the experimental response were analyzed by applying the replicated full factorial design method. Finally, the selected variables were optimized by the ascending path statistical method, which determined the best experimental conditions for leaching to achieve the highest percentage of copper extracted. Using the optimized conditions, the best leaching results showed a copper extraction of 75.5%.

  20. Selective recovery of soil-borne metal contaminants through integrated solubilization by biogenic sulfuric acid and precipitation by biogenic sulfide. (United States)

    Fang, Di; Zhang, Ruichang; Liu, Xue; Zhou, Lixiang


    A hybrid process combining solubilization via sulfuric acid produced by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with precipitation via sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated to isolate soil-borne metal contaminants as purified metal-sulfides. The highly efficient two-step acidification process involved bioproduction of sulfuric acid in a culture medium containing 30% (v/v) of sludge filtrate (SF). Soil was added to the culture after maximum acid production. Solubilization efficiencies of 95% for Zn, 76% for Cu and 97% for Cd were achieved after 16 days. At pH 1.9, 3.0 and 4.0, 99% of Cu(2+), 96% of Cd(3+) and 93% of Zn(2+), respectively, were precipitated from the soil leachate by sulfide transported from sulfidogenic bioreactor via N(2) sparging, resulting in final effluent metal contents at the ppb-level. The introduction of SF did not affect the precipitation kinetics and purity of the recovered precipitates. Ultimately, 75% of Cu and 86% of Zn were recovered from the soil as pure CuS and ZnS (confirmed by SEM-EDS and XRD). These results demonstrate the potential of the integrated method for the selective production of valuable metals from metal contamination in soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Surface annealing pretreatment on pyrite surfaces can select molecular adsorption. • Enriched monosulfide species on pyrite (100) surface favors NH{sub 2} adsorption form. • Enriching disulfide species on pyrite (100) surface promotes NH{sub 3}{sup +} adsorption form. • Unique structure of each aminoacid provides a particular fingerprint in the process. • Spectroscopy evidence, pretreatment surface processes drives molecular adsorption. - Abstract: This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH{sub 2} chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH{sub 3}{sup +} adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S{sub 2}{sup 2−}) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH{sub 2} to NH{sub 3}{sup +} species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  2. Modeling the condensation of sulfuric acid and water on the cylinder liner of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Mayer, Stefan; Eskildsen, Svend S.


    Corrosive wear of cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines that burn heavy fuel oil containing sulfur is coupled to the formation of gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO3) and subsequent combined condensation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O) vapor. The present work seeks to address...... how fuel sulfur content, charge air humidity and liner temperature variations affects the deposition of water and sulfuric acid at low load operation. A phenomenological engine model is applied to simulate the formation of cylinder/bulk gas combustion products and dew points comply with H2O–H2SO4...... vapor liquid equilibrium. By assuming homogenous cylinder gas mixtures condensation is modeled using a convective heat and mass transfer analogy combined with realistic liner temperature profiles. Condensation of water is significantly altered by the liner temperature and charge air humidity while...

  3. Study on copper kinetics in processing sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc with sulfuric acid leaching under pressure (United States)

    Wen-bo, LUO; Ji-kun, WANG; Yin, GAN


    Sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc is processed with pressure acid leaching. Research is conducted on the copper kinetic. The stirring rate is set at 600 rpm which could eliminate the influence of external diffusions. Research is conducted on the factors affecting the copper leaching kinetic are temperature, pressure, concentration of sulfuric acid, particle size. The result shows that the apparent activity energy is 50.7 KJ/mol. We could determine that the copper leaching process is shrinking core model of chemical reaction control and work out the leaching equation.

  4. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.


    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid were studied on several host-parasite systems. Plants were exposed, in greenhouse or field, to simulated rain of pH 3.2+ or - 0.1 or pH 6.0 + or - 0.2. Simulated rain of pH 3.2 resulted in: an 86% inhibition in telia production of Cronartium fusiforme on Quercus phellos; a 66% inhibition of reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; a 10% decrease in the severity of Uromyces phaseoli on field-grown Phaseolus vulgaris; and an inhibition of Rhizobium nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max by an average of 73%. Effects on halo blight of kidney bean (caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola) depended upon the segment of the disease cycle in which the rain occurred: simulated rain of pH 3.2 applied to plants before inoculation stimulated disease development; suspension of inoculum in ''rain'' of pH 3.2 decreased inoculum potential; and (c) ''rain'' of pH 3.2 applied to plants after infection inhibited disease development. Scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular waxes on leaves of Quercus phellos and Phaseolus vulgaris showed marked erosion of those surfaces by rain of pH 3.2, indicating possible influences on the structure and function of plant cuticles.

  5. Uptake of gas phase sulfur species methanesulfonic acid, dimethylsulfoxide, and dimethyl sulfone by aqueous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Shorter, J.A.; Davidovits, P. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Worsnop, D.R.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)


    Biogenic reduced sulfur species are emitted from the oceans and then oxidized in the marine boundary layer. The gas/liquid interactions of these oxidized species must be understood in order to evaluate the relative contributions to marine boundary layer aerosol levels from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and to assess the overall impact of these aerosols on global climate. A key parameter in understanding these interactions is the mass accommodation coefficient, which is simply the probability that a gas phase molecule enters into a liquid on striking the liquid surface. The mass accommodation coefficients for dimethylsulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, and methanesulfonic acid into water have been measured as a function of temperature (260-280 K), pH (1-14), and NaCl concentration (0-3.5 M). The experimental method employs a monodispersed train of fast droplets in a low-pressure flow reactor. The mass accommodation coefficients show a negative temperature dependence varying from {approximately} 0.1 to {approximately} 0.2 over the range of temperatures studied. The measured uptake is independent of pH and NaCl concentration in the ranges studied. The mass accommodation coefficients are well expressed in terms of an observed Gibbs free energy {Delta}G{sub obs}{sup No.} - T{Delta}S{sub obs}{sup No.} as {alpha}/(1 - {alpha}) = exp (-{Delta}G{sub obs}{sup No.}/RT). The results are discussed in terms of a previously described uptake model. In the marine boundary layer, mass transfer of these species into aerosols will be limited by mass accommodation for aerosols with diameters of less than 2 {mu}m. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Thermochemical destruction of asbestos-containing roofing slate and the feasibility of using recycled waste sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seong-Nam, E-mail: [Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seongkyeong [Environmental Resource Recirculation Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Kyeongseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-708 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hojoo [Indoor Environment and Noise Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex, Kyeongseo-dong, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-708 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Asbestos-containing roofing slates (ACS) were thermochemically treated. • 5 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with 100 °C heating for 10–24 h showed complete disappearance. • Asbestiform of ACS was changed to non-asbestiform after treatment. • Favorable destruction was occurred at the Mg(OH){sub 2} layer rather than SiO{sub 2} sheet. • Equivalent treatability of waste acid brightened the feasibility of this approach. -- Abstract: In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a thermochemical technique on ∼17% chrysotile-containing roofing sheet or slate (ACS), in which 5 N sulfuric acid-digestive destruction was incorporated with 10–24-h heating at 100 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the polarized light microscopy (PLM) results have clearly shown that raw chrysotile asbestos was converted to non-asbestiform material with no crystallinity by the low temperature thermochemical treatment. As an alternative to the use of pricey sulfuric acid, waste sulfuric acid discharged from a semiconductor manufacturing process was reused for the asbestos-fracturing purpose, and it was found that similar removals could be obtained under the same experimental conditions, promising the practical applicability of thermochemical treatment of ACWs. A thermodynamic understanding based on the extraction rates of magnesium and silica from a chrysotile structure has revealed that the destruction of chrysotile by acid-digestion is greatly influenced by the reaction temperatures, showing a 80.3-fold increase in the reaction rate by raising the temperature by 30–100 °C. The overall destruction is dependent upon the breaking-up of the silicon-oxide layer – a rate-limiting step. This study is meaningful in showing that the low temperature thermochemical treatment is feasible as an ACW-treatment method.

  7. Computational and electrochemical investigation for corrosion inhibition of nickel in molar sulfuric acid by dihydrazide derivatives. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry


    Full Text Available Correlation of the efficiency of some dihydrazide derivatives, namely malonic acid (MAD, succinic acid (SAD and adipic acid (AAD dihydrazide, against the corrosion of nickel in 1 M sulfuric acid solution is discussed using electrochemical polarization method and quantum chemical calculations based on the ab initio method. The quantum chemical parameters calculated are, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, the gap energy (ΔE, the dipole moment (μ, the softness (σ and the total energy (TE. The relations between the inhibition efficiency and some quantum parameters are discussed and correlations are proposed. The protection efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices. Dihydrazide inhibitor (AAD exhibited the highest inhibition efficiency.

  8. Ion-exclusion chromatographic behavior of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids on a sulfonated styrene--divinylbenzene co-polymer resin column with sulfuric acid containing various alcohols as eluent. (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi


    The addition of C1-C7 alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, heptanol, hexanol and heptanol) to dilute sulfuric acid as eluent in ion-exclusion chromatography using a highly sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin (TSKgel SCX) in the H+ form as the stationary phase was carried out for the simultaneous separations of both (a) C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, 2-methylvaleric, isocaproic, caproic, 2,2-dimethyl-n-valeric, 2-methylhexanoic, 5-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and (b) benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, hemimellitic, trimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic and salicylic acids and phenol). Heptanol was the most effective modifier in ion-exclusion chromatography for the improvement of peak shapes and a reduction in retention volumes for higher aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and relatively highly sensitive conductimetric detection for these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved on the TSKgel SCX column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 30 min using 0.5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.025% heptanol as eluent. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive UV detection at 200 nm for these benzenecarboxylic acids were also achieved on the TSKgel SCX column in 30 min using 5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.075% heptanol as eluent.

  9. The stimulatory effect of the organic sulfur supplement, mercaptopropane sulfonic acid on cellulolytic rumen microorganisms and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed low sulfur roughages. (United States)

    McSweeney, C S; Denman, S E; Conlan, L L; Prasad, C S; Anandan, S; Chandrasekharaiah, M; Sampath, K T


    Two metabolism trials (experiments 1 and 2) were conducted to examine the effect of the organic S compound, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid (MPS) on feed intake, fiber digestibility, rumen fermentation and abundance of cellulolytic rumen microorganisms in cattle fed low S (Urea was provided in all treatments to compensate for the N deficiency (Sulfur supplementation did not significantly change whole tract dry matter digestibility or intake, even though sulfate and MPS supplementation was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of the fibrolytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes and anaerobic rumen fungi. Ruminal sulfide levels were significantly higher in the sulfate treatment, which indicated that the bioavailability of the two S atoms in the MPS molecule may be low in the rumen. Based on this observation, experiment 2 was conducted in which twice the amount of S was provided in the form of MPS (8.0 g/day) compared with sodium sulfate (6.6 g/day) to heifers (275 ± 9 kg liveweight) fed rice straw. Supplementation with MPS compared with sulfate in experiment 2 resulted in an increase in concentration of total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia utilization without a change in feed intake or whole tract fiber digestibility even though S and N were above requirement for growing cattle in both these treatment groups. In conclusion, supplementation of an S deficient low-quality roughage diet with either MPS or sodium sulfate, in conjunction with urea N, improved rumen fermentation, which was reflected in an increase in urinary purine excretion. However, MPS appeared to have a greater effect on stimulating short-chain fatty acid production and ammonia utilization when provided at higher concentrations than sulfate. Thus, the metabolism of MPS in the rumen needs to be investigated further in comparison with inorganic forms of S as it may prove to be more effective in stimulating fermentation of roughage diets.

  10. U-Pb dating of speleogenetic dolomite: A new sulfuric acid speleogenesis chronometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Polyak


    Full Text Available The 1100-meter Big Room elevation level of Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico USA, formed 4 Ma by hypogenic sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS. The age of the Big Room level of 4.0 ± 0.2 Ma was previously determined by dating alunite, a byproduct of speleogenesis, using the 40Ar/39Ar method. Duplication of these results is possible by radiometric dating of other byproducts interpreted to be speleogenetic (a byproduct of speleogenesis such as calcite and dolomite in certain settings. XRD and TEM analyses of sample 94044, a piece of crust collected within the Big Room level of SAS just below Left Hand Tunnel indicate that this dolomite sample we interpret to be speleogenetic is as well-ordered crystallographically as the Permian bedrock dolomite, possibly reflecting its SAS origin. Three U-Pb analyses were performed on subsamples A1, A2, and A3 of sample 94044, and two, A1 & A2, produced out-of-secular equilibrium results due to the presence of authigenic quartz and/or later re-distribution of uranium in the dolomite crust, which prevented the calculation of an isochron age. Because subsample 94044-A3 exhibited δ234U and 230Th/238U values consistent with secular equilibrium, we were able to generate a 238U/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb model age of 4.1 ± 1.3 Ma on the dolomite crust (94044 that we interpret to be reliable. The 4.1 Ma age of the speleogenetic dolomite crust agrees with the 4 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age for the timing of speleogenesis of the Big Room level. While 40Ar/39Ar-dating of speleogenetic alunite- and jarosite-group minerals remains the primary way to determine absolute timing of hypogenic SAS, here we demonstrate that U-Pb dating of speleogenetic dolomite can be used to compliment or independently measure the timing of SAS. This method of dating SAS could be applicable in caves where the more soluble SAS-indicator minerals such as gypsum, alunite, and jarosite have been removed.

  11. Direct Surface Tension Measurements of Individual Sub-Micrometer Particles Using Atomic Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Lee, Hansol D; Estillore, Armando D; Morris, Holly S; Ray, Kamal K; Alejandro, Aldair; Grassian, Vicki H; Tivanski, Alexei V


    Understanding the role of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate and the environment is of great interest due to their high number concentration throughout the Earth's atmosphere. Despite being of fundamental importance, direct surface tension measurements of SSA relevant sub-micrometer particles are rare, largely due to their extremely small volumes. Herein, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to directly measure the surface tension of individual sub-micrometer SSA particle mimics at ambient temperature and varying relative humidity (RH). Specifically, we probed both atmospherically relevant and fundamentally important model systems including electrolyte salts, dicarboxylic acids, and saccharides as single components and mixtures. Our results show that the single particle surface tension depends on RH or solute mole percentage and chemical composition. Moreover, for liquid droplets at and below 100 Pa s in viscosity, or at corresponding RH, we show good agreement between the AFM single particle and the bulk solution surface tension measurements at overlapping concentration ranges. Thus, direct surface tension measurements of individual particles using AFM is shown over a wide range of chemical systems as a function of RH, solute mole percentage, and viscosity than previously reported.

  12. Sulfuric Acid Vapor in the Atmosphere of Venus as Observed by the Venus Express Radio Science Experiment VeRa (United States)

    Oschlisniok, Janusz; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia; Bird, Michael; Andert, Thomas


    The cloud deck within Venus' atmosphere, which covers the entire planet between approx. 50 and 70 km altitude, consists mostly of liquid and gaseous sulfuric acid. The gaseous part increases strongly just below the main clouds and builds an approx. 15 km thick haze layer of H2SO4. This region is responsible for a strong absorption of radio waves as seen in Mariner, Pioneer Venus, Magellan and Venera radio science observations. The amount of H2SO4 is derived from the observed absorption as a function of altitude and latitude. The radio science experiment VeRa onboard Venus Express probed the atmosphere of Venus between 2006 and 2015 with radio signals at 13 cm (S-band) and 3.6 cm (X-band) wavelengths. The orbit of the Venus Express spacecraft allowed to sound the atmosphere over a wide range of latitudes and local times providing a global picture of the sulfuric acid vapor distribution. We present absorptivity and H2SO4 profiles derived from X-band signal attenuation for the time of the entire Venus Express mission. More than 600 H2SO4 profiles show the global sulfuric acid vapor distribution covering the northern and southern hemisphere on the day- and night side of the planet. A distinct latitudinal H2SO4 gradient and a southern northern symmetry are clearly visible. Observations over 8 years allow to study also long-term variations. Indications for temporal H2SO4 variations are found, at least at northern polar latitudes. The results shall be compared with observations retrieved by other experiments (VIRTIS, SPICAV) onboard Venus Express as well as with previous observations like Mariner, Pioneer Venus and the Magellan spacecraft.

  13. Oxidation of clindamycin phosphate by chromium(VI in aqueous sulfuric acid medium—A kinetic and mechanistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar K. Durgannavar


    Full Text Available Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of clindamycin phosphate by potassium dichromate in aqueous sulfuric acid medium is studied spectrophotometrically at 25°C at a constant ionic strength of 3.60 mol dm−3. The stoichiometry of the reaction is determined and it was found that one mole of clindamycin phosphate consumes two moles of chromium(VI (1:2. The oxidation products are characterized and confirmed by spectral studies such as IR, GC-MS and LC-MS. The reaction is first order each in chromium(VI and clindamycin phosphate concentrations. An increase in the sulfuric acid concentration causes an increase of the reaction rate. The order with respect to acid concentration is found to be 1.65. From the results of kinetic studies, reaction stoichiometry and product analysis a suitable free radical mechanism is proposed. Based on investigation of the reaction at different temperatures, computation of the activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the proposed mechanism was evaluated.

  14. Preparing ultrafine PbS powders from the scrap lead-acid battery by sulfurization and inert gas condensation (United States)

    Xia, Huipeng; Zhan, Lu; Xie, Bing


    A novel method for preparing ultrafine PbS powders involving sulfurization combined with inert gas condensation is developed in this paper, which is applicable to recycle Pb from lead paste of spent lead-acid batteries. Initially, the effects of the evaporation and condensation temperature, the inert gas pressure, the condensation distance and substrate on the morphology of as-obtained PbS ultrafine particles are intensively investigated using sulfur powders and lead particles as reagents. Highly dispersed and homogeneous PbS nanoparticles can be prepared under the optimized conditions which are 1223 K heating temperature, 573 K condensation temperature, 100 Pa inert gas pressure and 60 cm condensation distance. Furthermore, this method is successfully applied to recycle Pb from the lead paste of spent lead acid battery to prepare PbS ultrafine powders. This work does not only provide the theoretical fundamental for PbS preparation, but also provides a novel and efficient method for recycling spent lead-acid battery with high added-value products.

  15. Water and Temperature Stresses Impact Canola (Brassica napus L.) Fatty Acid, Protein, and Yield over Nitrogen and Sulfur. (United States)

    Hammac, W Ashley; Maaz, Tai M; Koenig, Richard T; Burke, Ian C; Pan, William L


    Interactive effects of weather and soil nutrient status often control crop productivity. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilizer rate, soil water, and atmospheric temperature on canola (Brassica napus L.) fatty acid (FA), total oil, protein, and grain yield. Nitrogen and sulfur were assessed in a 4-yr study with two locations, five N rates (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg ha-1), and two S rates (0 and 17 kg ha-1). Water and temperature were assessed using variability across 12 site-years of dryland canola production. Effects of N and S were inconsistent. Unsaturated FA, oleic acid, grain oil, protein, and theoretical maximum grain yield were highly related to water and temperature variability across the site-years. A nonlinear model identified water and temperature conditions that enabled production of maximum unsaturated FA content, oleic acid content, total oil, protein, and theoretical maximum grain yield. Water and temperature variability played a larger role than soil nutrient status on canola grain constituents and yield.

  16. Determination of Copper-Based Fungicides by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Digestion Procedure with Sulfuric and Nitric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Milinović


    Full Text Available Copper-based fungicides can be effectively digested by treatment with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid in exactly 15 minutes for the rapid determination via copper using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Under optimum conditions, the results of copper fungicide analysis were consistent to those obtained by the AOAC’s recommended method. Recovery values ranged from 98.63 to 103.40%. Relative standard deviation values are lower than 2%. The proposed digestion procedure applied for determination of copper ranged from 100 to 594 g Cu kg-1 in different commercial fungicideproducts.


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    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to know the effect of length of soaked time in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 solution to the dormancy breaking upon the oil palm seeds. The experiment show that soaking seeds for 12 and 10 minutes in the acid solution resulted dormancy breaking were reached after 61.3 days, while soaking seed for 2 minutes in the same solution breaking of dormancy was reached after 73.5 days. By soaked oil palm seeds in sulfuric acid solution gave highest germination percentage (80%, peak value of germination was 0.77%/day, by an average of 0.73%/day. So that, by soaked oil palm seed in sulfuric acid solution for 12 minutes was able to increase vigor, viability, rate of germination and growth uniformity.

  18. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.


    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  19. Quantitative comparison of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and their sulfur-fumigated products by three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. (United States)

    Chen, Liangmian; Kotani, Akira; Kusu, Fumiyo; Wang, Zhimin; Zhu, Jingjing; Hakamata, Hideki


    For the determination of seven caffeoylquinic acids [neochlorogenic acid (NcA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CcA), chlorogenic acid (CA), caffeic acid (CfA), isochlorogenic acid A (Ic A), isochlorogenic acid B (Ic B), isochlorogenic acid C (Ic C)] and two flavonoids [luteolin 7-O-glucoside (LtG) and luteolin (Lt)], a three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-3ECD) method was established. Chromatographic peak heights were proportional to each concentration, ranging from 2.5 to 100 ng/mL for NcA, CA, CcA, and CfA, and ranging from 2.5 to 250 ng/mL for LtG, Ic B, Ic A, Ic C, and Lt, respectively. The present LC-3ECD method was applied to the quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in four cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and their sulfur-fumigated products. It was found that 60% of LtG and more than 47% of caffeoylquinic acids were lost during the sulfur fumigation processing. Sulfur fumigation showed a destructive effect on the C. morifolium flowers. In addition, principle component analyses (PCA) were performed using the results of the quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids to compare the "sameness" and "differences" of these analytes in C. morifolium flowers and the sulfur-fumigated products. PCA score plots showed that the four cultivars of C. morifolium flowers were clearly classified into four groups, and that significant differences were also found between the non-fumigated C. morifolium flowers and the sulfur-fumigated products. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the present LC-3ECD method coupled with PCA is applicable to the variation analysis of different C. morifolium flower samples.

  20. Luminescence features from conical bubble collapse in 1,2 propanediol and its perturbation adding sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete, M; Godinez, F A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Col. Copilco Universidad, Delegacion de Coyoacan, Mexico, D. F. Codigo Postal 04360, Instituto de Ingenieria, Lab. de Fotofisica (Mexico); Sanchez, C [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Col. Copilco Universidad, Delegacion de Coyoacan, Mexico, D. F. Codigo Postal 04360, Lab. de Fotonica y Microondas (Mexico); Mejia, E V; Villagran, M, E-mail: [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria No. 3000, Col. Copilco Universidad, Delegacion de Coyoacan, Mexico, D. F. Codigo Postal 04360 (Mexico)


    A summary of experimental findings on the luminescence from bubble collapse, CBL, varying the gas inert bubble content, the driving pressure and perturbing the liquid piston with small quantities of sulfuric acid is presented. The temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics of the luminescence regarding with dynamic features of collapse are also examinees. CBL was reproduced using Argon gas, and 1, 2-propanediol as liquid piston. In general, the pulse shape exhibits a large variety of profiles. The luminescence intensity was increased two-fold and the pulse width decreased almost to half when the liquid was disturbed with sulfuric acid. Spectrally, the Swan, CH and CN lines were observed at low volume of Ar gas and low driving pressure, lines of OH{sup 0}, Na*, K* always appear superimposed on an underlying continuum background. De-excitation of sodium atom at 589 nm and two satellites diffuse bands at {approx}554 nm and {approx}620 nm from alkali-metal-argon exciplexes was observed in both systems under certain conditions. All these findings point towards several sources of light emission that are generated during the compression time line, resulting in temporally and spatially inhomogeneous pulse. A mechanism for explain the bright CBL is broached.


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    F. J. Justel


    Full Text Available AbstractIn Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different temperatures (293.15 to 318.15 K, and its effect on physical properties (density, viscosity, and solubility. Knowledge of these properties and solubility data are useful in the leaching process and in the design of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystallization plants from the leaching process using seawater by means of the addition of sulfuric acid.

  2. Gaseous ion-composition measurements in the young exhaust plume of jet aircraft at cruising altitudes. Implications for aerosols and gaseous sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.; Wohlfrom, K.H.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J.; Gollinger, K. [Max-Planck-Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schumann, U.; Busen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere


    Mass spectrometric measurements were made in the young exhaust plume of an Airbus (A310) at cruising altitudes at distances between 400 and 800 m behind the Airbus (averaged plume age: 3.4 sec). The measurements indicate that gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) number densities were less than 1.3 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} which is smaller than the expected total sulfuric acid. Hence the missing sulfuric acid must have been in the aerosol phase. These measurements also indicate a total aerosol surface area density A{sub T} {<=} 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} per cm{sup 3} which is consistent with simultaneously measured soot and water contrail particles. However, homogeneous nucleation leading to (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub y}-clusters can not be ruled out. (author) 16 refs.

  3. Mechanism of Early Stage Corrosion for Boric-sulfuric Acid Anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li Alloy Under Tropical Marine Atmosphere

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    LUO Chen


    Full Text Available Optical microscopy(OM, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, EDX and EIS combined with ultramicrotomy were employed to investigate the micro morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical properties of anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li alloy before and after atmospheric corrosion. The results show that when electrolytes containing combinations of tartaric-sulfuric or boric-sulfuric acid are used to grow the films at different temperatures, boric acid addition and higher temperature allow for higher current density that speeds up the film growth. The pore geometry and structure is similar for different electrolytes. Dispersive dark rusty spots composed of O, Al, Cl, Cu are present on the boric-sulfuric acid anodized specimen after exposure in tropical marine atmosphere for 1 month. Deposition of white corrosion product is found on the specimen surface as well. Severe pitting occurs and develops deeply into the alloy substrate after elongated outdoor exposure. Corrosion propagation is associated with θ-phase particles.


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    Nuryono Nuryono


    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  5. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi


    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  6. Recovery of nickel from spent NiO/Al2O3 catalyst through sulfuric acid leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction. (United States)

    Nazemi, M K; Rashchi, F


    Effective recovery of nickel (Ni) from spent NiO/Al(2)O(3) catalyst in a simple hydrometallurgical route is suggested. Nickel recovery of 99.5% was achieved with sulfuric acid leaching. The leach liquor was partly neutralized and nickel ammonium sulfate was precipitated by adding ammonia. The nickel in the supernatant was concentrated by solvent extraction using D2EHPA and subsequently stripped back into sulfuric acid and returned to the precipitation stage. Necessary counter current extraction and stripping stages were determined in McCabe-Thiele diagrams. The suggested method appears simple and very effective in recovering nickel from spent catalysts from the petrochemical industry.

  7. Facile preparation of super-hydrophilic poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric using dilute sulfuric acid under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fang [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Yuansong [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China)


    Highlights: • A durable super-hydrophilic PET fabric was prepared using dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation. • Dilute sulfuric acid was gradually concentrated enough to sulfonate PET fabric. • Microwave irradiation made PET fabric modification highly efficient. • The mechanical properties of modified PET fibers were kept well. • The method was novel, rapid, and eco-friendly. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was greatly modified by using dilute sulfuric acid, which gradually became concentrated enough to sulfonate the fabric when microwave irradiation (MW) was applied. The modified PET fabric was super-hydrophilic. Modifying the fabric caused the water contact angle to decrease from 132.46 (for the unmodified fabric) to 0°, the water absorption rate to increase from 36.45 to 119.78%, and the capillary rise height to increase from 0.4 to 14.4 cm. The hydrophilicity of the modified PET fabric was not affected by washing it many times. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that there were sulfonic acid groups on the modified fibers. Almost no difference between the surfaces of the unmodified and modified PET fibers was found using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that the unmodified and modified fabrics had similar thermostabilities. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline structures of the unmodified and modified fibers showed that they were almost the same. The strength, elasticity, and rigidity of the unmodified fabric were retained by the modified fabric. The modified fabric had better dyeing properties than the unmodified fabric.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilization on Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Potato (United States)


    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is used routinely in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation to maximize yield. However, it also affects sugar and free amino acid concentrations in potato tubers, and this has potential implications for food quality and safety because free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results in the formation of color, aroma, and flavor compounds, but also some undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the final stages of the reaction is asparagine. Another mineral, sulfur (S), also has profound effects on tuber composition. In this study, 13 varieties of potato were grown in a field trial in 2010 and treated with different combinations of N and S. Potatoes were analyzed immediately after harvest to show the effect of N and S fertilization on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential. The study showed that N application can affect acrylamide-forming potential in potatoes but that the effect is type- (French fry, chipping, and boiling) and variety-dependent, with most varieties showing an increase in acrylamide formation in response to increased N but two showing a decrease. S application reduced glucose concentrations and mitigated the effect of high N application on the acrylamide-forming potential of some of the French fry-type potatoes. PMID:23768004

  9. Oxidation of alginate and pectate biopolymers by cerium(IV) in perchloric and sulfuric acid solutions: A comparative kinetic and mechanistic study. (United States)

    Fawzy, Ahmed


    The kinetics of oxidation of alginate (Alg) and pectate (Pec) carbohydrate biopolymers was studied by spectrophotometry in aqueous perchloric and sulfuric acid solutions at fixed ionic strengths and temperature. In both acids, the reactions showed a first order dependence on [Ce(IV)], whereas the orders with respect to biopolymer concentrations are less than unity. In perchloric acid, the reactions exhibited less than unit orders with respect to [H(+)] whereas those proceeded in sulfuric acid showed negative fractional-first order dependences on [H(+)]. The effect of ionic strength and dielectric constant was studied. Probable mechanistic schemes for oxidation reactions were proposed. In both acids, the final oxidation products were characterized as mono-keto derivatives of both biopolymers. The activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanisms were computed and discussed. The rate laws were derived and the reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanisms were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

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    H. Herrmann


    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  11. Facile synthesis of CdS nanocrystals using thioglycolic acid as a sulfur source and stabilizer in aqueous solution

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    Liya Zhou


    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for the synthesis of CdS nanocrystals (NCs using thioglycolic acid (TGA as a sulfur source and stabilizer with the presence of hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous medium. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the product was of zinc-blend crystal structure in a sphere-like shape. The room-temperature luminescence spectra revealed that the emission peak of CdS NCs prepared in relatively short refluxing times (10-120 min could be tuned from 518 nm to 610 nm, and the photoluminescence quantum yield of the as-prepared CdS NCs could reach as high as 12.6%. In addition, the mechanism of the CdS nanocrystals formation was preliminarily discussed.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigation of organic compounds as inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman76169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, S.M.A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman76169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pilvar, P. [Department of Chemistry, Payame noor University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Three synthesized organic compounds were tested as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in sulfuric acid medium by potentiostatic polarization, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM techniques. Quantum chemical parameters were also calculated to characterize adsorption mechanism. Acceptable correlations were obtained between inhibition efficiency and the calculated quantum chemical parameters. It was found that the investigated compounds exhibit a good inhibition effect especially at 8-10 ppm range concentration, which makes them commercially important. The adsorption of inhibitors on the surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of activation energy and the thermodynamic parameters, such as K{sub ads}, {Delta}G{sub ads}{sup o}, {Delta}H{sub ads}{sup o} and {Delta}S{sub ads}{sup o} were calculated.

  13. Separation of heterocyclic compounds from hydropyrolysis oil and testing their activity as corrosion inhibitors in 1 M sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M. (Zaklad Karbochemii PAN, Gliwice (Poland))


    Investigates inhibiting properties of coal derived oil concentrates. Hard coal was subject to hydropyrolysis at 600 C and 4 MPa. Coal analysis was provided. Chromatography was employed to separate concentrates of N, O and S compounds from oil fractions. Columns were filled with Amberlite IRA-904 and Amberlyst 15 ion exchange resins as well as with Attapulgus clay. Ten fractions/concentrates were obtained. Their ability to protect StO steel against corrosion in 1 M solution of sulfuric acid was tested and compared to that of a standard compound (S-isothioureide-N-methine-m-phenylenediamine) and a petroleum-derived concentrate of strong bases. The results obtained are tabulated. Some concentrates were found to promote corrosion. It was possible in some cases to determine a threshold concentration of N, below which corrosion was promoted. High resolution mass spectrometry was applied to analyze eight concentrates. Molecular weights and molecular compositions for identified compounds are tabulated. 17 refs.

  14. Effect of cold deformation on the electrochemical behaviour of 304L stainless steel in contaminated sulfuric acid environment (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Su, Huaizhi; Ying, Guobing; Dong, Chaofang; Li, Xiaogang


    The effect of cold deformation on the microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behaviour of 304L stainless steel in contaminated sulfuric acid solutions (simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cells environments) were evaluated using electron backscatter diffraction analyses, electrochemical measurements, and surface analyses. The internal microstructure,including the grain sizes, angles of the grain boundaries, low coincidence site lattice boundaries, and phase transformations, was changed due to the cold deformation. No noticeable modifications of the pitting corrosion potential were observed during the various deformations, except for a slight enhancement in the passive current density with an increase in the deformation. The CrO3 and metal Ni species in the passive film were investigated after deformation. After heavy deformation (greater than 60%), nickel oxides were detected. Moreover, the Cr/Fe and O2-/OH- ratios in the passive film were higher before deformation, and they decreased with an increase in the deformation level.

  15. The challenge of measuring sulfuric acid aerosols: number concentration and size evaluation using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brachert, L.; Mertens, J.; Khakharia, P.M.; Schaber, K.


    In this study, two different methods for the measurement of the sulfuric acid aerosol which is formed in wet flue gas cleaning processes have been investigated. The condensation particle counter (UFCPC, PALAS GmbH) provides information about the number concentration. With the electrical low pressure

  16. A Green Solventless Protocol for the Synthesis of β-Enaminones and β-Enamino Esters Using Silica Sulfuric Acid as a Highly Efficient, Heterogeneous and Reusable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasaninejad


    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid is utilized as a green, highly efficient, heterogeneous and recyclable catalyst for the preparation of β-enaminones and β-enamino esters from amines and β-dicarbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions at 80 °C. Using this method, the title compounds are produced in high to excellent yields and in short reaction times.

  17. Comparison of sulfurous acid generator and alternate amendments to improve the quality of saline-sodic water for sustainable rice yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zia, M.H.; Ghafoor, A.; Saifullah,; Boers, T.M.


    The prolonged irrigation with marginal quality water can cause secondary salinization of soils, which necessitates for better understanding of water management alternatives. Relative performance of sulfuric acid and gypsum is still controversial to counter sodium hazards in soil/water system. As an

  18. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis


    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…



  20. Oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediate (sCI radicals as a crucial source for atmospheric sulfuric acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy


    Full Text Available The effect of increased reaction rates of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs with SO2 to produce sulfuric acid is investigated using data from two different locations, SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. Results from MALTE, a zero-dimensional model, show that using previous values for the rate coefficients of sCI + SO2, the model underestimates gas phase H2SO4 by up to a factor of two when compared to measurements. Using the rate coefficients recently calculated by Mauldin et al. (2012 increases sulfuric acid by 30–40%. Increasing the rate coefficient for formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO with SO2 according to the values recommended by Welz et al. (2012 increases the H2SO4 yield by 3–6%. Taken together, these increases lead to the conclusion that, depending on their concentrations, the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with SO2 could contribute as much as 33–46% to atmospheric sulfuric acid gas phase concentrations at ground level. Using the SMEAR II data, results from SOSA, a one-dimensional model, show that the contribution from sCI reactions to sulfuric acid production is most important in the canopy, where the concentrations of organic compounds are the highest, but can have significant effects on sulfuric acid concentrations up to 100 m. The recent findings that the reaction of sCI + SO2 is much faster than previously thought together with these results show that the inclusion of this new oxidation mechanism could be crucial in regional as well as global models.

  1. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

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    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  2. The Inhibition of Aluminum Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid by Poly(1-vinyl-3-alkyl-imidazolium Hexafluorophosphate

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    Paulina Arellanes-Lozada


    Full Text Available Compounds of poly(ionic liquids (PILs, derived from imidazole with different alkylic chain lengths located in the third position of the imidazolium ring (poly(1-vinyl-3-dodecyl-imidazolium (PImC12, poly(1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium (PImC8 and poly(1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium (PImC4 hexafluorophosphate were synthesized. These compounds were tested as corrosion inhibitors on aluminum alloy AA6061 in diluted sulfuric acid (0.1–1 M H2SO4 by weight loss tests, polarization resistance measurements and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Langmuir’s isotherms suggested film formation on bare alloy while standard free energy indicated inhibition by a physisorption process. However, compound efficiencies as inhibitors ranked low (PImC12 > PImC8 > PImC4 to reach 61% for PImC12 in highly diluted acidic solution. Apparently, the high mobility of sulfates favored their adsorption in comparison to PILs. The surface film displayed general corrosion, and pitting occurred as a consequence of PILs’ partial inhibition along with a continuous dissolution of defective patchy film on formation. A slight improvement in efficiency was displayed by compounds having high molecular weight and a long alkyl chain, as a consequence of steric hindrance and PIL interactions.

  3. Determination and structural correlation of pKBH+ for meta- and para- substituted benzamides in sulfuric acid solutions

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    Full Text Available The protonation of some meta and para substituted benzamides in sulfuric acid solutions was studied by UV spectroscopy in the 190–350 nm region. Principal component analysis was applied to separate the effect of protonation from the medium effect. The spectral region 200–350 nm was used for the calculation of the ionization ratio from coefficient of the first principal component, which explains about 95–98 % of the total variability. The dissociation constants as well as the solvation parameters m* and f were calculated using the excess acidity method and the Bunnett–Olsen method. The pKBH+ values obtained with the HA function (defined by the average m* -values are in satisfactory agreement with those calculated with the previously mentioned methods. The pKBH+ values were correlated with structure using the Hammett (r = – 0.91 and Taft approach. It was found that the inductive effect is more relevant than the resonance one for both substituted benzamides (meta and para.

  4. Effect of Sulfur Acid Corrosion on the Luminescent Intensity of Plasma-Sprayed YAG:Ce Coatings (United States)

    Wang, Weize; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Hehui; Yu, Jingye; Wu, Liangmin


    In order to monitor the corrosion condition of components, plasma-sprayed YAG:Ce coating was prepared for the detection, which could develop the application of plasma spraying. The effect of sulfuric acid corrosion on the microstructure, phase composition and luminescence intensity of coatings was studied. The powder was synthesized by the high-temperature solid-state method. Microstructure and phases were characterized through using SEM and XRD, respectively. Effect of immersion time in the acid was studied on the luminescence intensity. It was found that the phase composition of the powder was dominated by YAG (Y3Al5O12). More pores could be observed in coatings with the increase in immersion time. Sprayed coatings mainly included phases of YAG and YAP (YAlO3). The position of the XRD peaks of coatings was changing during the immersion. The luminescence intensity showed the fluctuation tendency with the immersion time, which related to the coating porosity, phase composition and the migration of the diffract peak.

  5. submitter Modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine-water nanoparticle growth in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlm, L; Schobesberger, S; Praplan, A P; Kim, J; Tikkanen, O -P; Lawler, M J; Smith, J N; Tröstl, J; Acosta Navarro, J C; Baltensperger, U; Bianchi, F; Donahue, N M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Jokinen, T; Keskinen, H; Kirkby, J; Kürten, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Schallhart, S; Simon, M; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I


    Dimethylamine (DMA) has a stabilizing effect on sulfuric acid (SA) clusters, and the SA and DMA molecules and clusters likely play important roles in both aerosol particle formation and growth in the atmosphere. We use the monodisperse particle growth model for acid-base chemistry in nanoparticle growth (MABNAG) together with direct and indirect observations from the CLOUD4 and CLOUD7 experiments in the cosmics leaving outdoor droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN to investigate the size and composition evolution of freshly formed particles consisting of SA, DMA, and water as they grow to 20 nm in dry diameter. Hygroscopic growth factors are measured using a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA), which combined with simulations of particle water uptake using the thermodynamic extended-aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) constrain the chemical composition. MABNAG predicts a particle-phase ratio between DMA and SA molecules of 1.1–1.3 for a 2 nm particle and DMA gas-phase mixing ratio...

  6. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities. (United States)

    Van Wyngarden, A L; Pérez-Montaño, S; Bui, J V H; Li, E S W; Nelson, T E; Ha, K T; Leong, L; Iraci, L T

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  7. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities (United States)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.


    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40–80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  8. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina


    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  9. Laboratory Measurements of Sulfuric Acid Vapor Opacity at Millimeter Wavelengths Under Venus Conditions (United States)

    Akins, Alexander Brooks; Steffes, Paul G.


    Radio astronomical observations of the lower-cloud and sub-cloud regions of the Venusian atmosphere at millimeter wavelengths can provide insight into the nature of the sub-cloud sulfur chemistry. Previous observations (de Pater et al., Icarus 90, 1991 and Sagawa, J. Natl. Inst. of Inf. And Comm. Tech. 55, 2008) indicate substantial variations in Venus disc brightness at millimeter wavelengths, likely due to variations in SO2 and H2SO4 vapor abundances. Although previous measurements of H2SO4 vapor opacity provide accurate information at centimeter wavelengths (Kolodner and Steffes, Icarus 132, 1998), extrapolation to millimeter wavelength observations is speculative. A Fabry-Perot open resonator with a quality factor in excess of 15,000 has been designed to measure the opacity of H2SO4 vapor in a CO2 atmosphere under Venus temperature and pressure conditions below the clouds. The resonator system has been designed using corrosion-resistant materials to ensure data integrity. Opacity measurements made with this system target the 2-4 millimeter wavelength range, applicable to recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of Venus. Initial laboratory results for H2SO4 vapor opacity will be presented, and the implications of these results for pressure broadened opacity formalisms will be discussed. In addition to radio astronomical observations, these results of these measurements can aid in the interpretation of radiometer and radio occultation measurements from future Venus missions, such as the Venera D orbiter. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Workings Program under grant NNX17AB19G.

  10. Nitrate Removal by Acid-Washed Sulfur Modified Iron (SMI) and Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) (United States)

    Han, K.; Ko, J.; Hong, U.; Lim, J.; Park, S.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.


    Sulfur Modified Iron (SMI) and Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) have been extensively studied for its ability to reduce different contaminants, including nitrate in groundwater. Although nitrate reduction with ZVI was reported as early as 1964, research projects using the materials as an alternative for nitrate removal have emerged only recently. Therefore, further investigations are still need to maximize the efficiency of nitrate removal using SMI and ZVI. In current work, we determined the mixing ratio, effects of acidification of SMI and ZVI, and need of pH controlling to obtain the highest nitrate removal rate, increasing amount of less expensive compound, ZVI, than SMI. In the results, nitrate removal by only ZVI or SMI was 32.53% and 0.69%, respectively. Although SMI:ZVI(1:4; g/g) was the best mixing ratio for the highest nitrate removal rate, it did not improve the removal rate compared to it when we used only ZVI or SMI. However, the acidified SMI and ZVI (1:4; g/g) with 0.5 N-HCl for 8 hr increased nitrate removal from 32% to 87%. Through the test, we found that using SMI and ZVI (1:4; g/g) acidified is an appropriate method to remediate nitrate-contaminated groundwater with the highest efficiency, increasing ratio of cheaper compound ZVI. Although SMI and ZVI showed the higher nitrate removal rate in low pH in other works, in case of using acidified SMI and ZVI, pH controlling did not affect the nitrate removal rate.

  11. Dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty in production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, L.; Gudnason, M. M.; Madruga, D.


    The work concerns a laboratory investigation of a method to achieve dimensional measurements with submicrometer uncertainty under conditions that are typical of a production environment. The method involves the concurrent determination of dimensions and material properties from measurements carried...... out over time. A laboratory set-up was developed comprising a pair of electronic probes mounted on a Zerodur block featuring near zero thermal expansion. Three temperature sensors, data acquisition system, and a temperature regulated plate for heating the workpiece were implemented. Investigations...... gauge blocks along with their uncertainties were estimated directly from the measurements. The length of the two workpieces at the reference temperature of 20 °C was extrapolated from the measurements and compared to certificate values. The investigations have documented that the developed approach...

  12. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  13. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness. (United States)

    Schmid, T E; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Schmid, E; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Dollinger, G


    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm(-1)) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE(MN) = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE(D) = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm(2) matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm(2) matrix applied protons (RBE(MN) = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE(D) = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a (12)C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u(-1)). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for (12)C ions (RBE(MN) = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE(D) = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  14. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides (United States)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  15. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating. (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan


    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  16. HOBr in sulfuric acid solutions: Solubility and reaction with HCl as a function of temperature and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waschewsky, G.C.G.; Abbatt, J.P.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of the Geophysical Sciences


    Although the total atmospheric loading of inorganic bromine is relatively low, not exceeding a few tens of parts per trillion, there has been considerable interest in recent years in the heterogeneous interactions which brominated species undergo in the atmosphere. A detailed study of the interaction of HOBr and HCl in cold sulfuric acid solutions has been performed using a coated-wall flow tube coupled to an electron-impact mass spectrometer. The liquid-phase bimolecular rate constants, measured over a temperature range from 213 to 238 K and in solutions from 59.7 to 70.1 wt % composition, show a strong positive dependence on both acid composition and temperature. The solubility of HOBr has also been measured in these solutions by analyzing its time-dependent uptake. Henry`s Law constants (H) determined from the measured values of HD{sup 1/2} and the liquid-phase diffusion coefficient (D) are independent of acid composition over the above range of solution compositions. The values of H demonstrate a clear Clausius-Clapeyron temperature dependence, with a heat of solution of {minus}9 {+-} 1 kcal/mol. When the atmospheric importance of these data is assessed, two conclusions are reached. In the stratosphere, under aerosol conditions observed soon after the Mt. Pinatubo volcano eruption, the rates of HCl activation via the HOBr/HCl heterogeneous reaction are comparable with the rate of activation via gas-phase reaction with OH at relatively warm temperatures (205--220 K), where other HCl-activating heterogeneous reactions occur slowly. In the high Arctic boundary layer, it is possible that significant HCl activation could occur when elevated levels of photochemically active bromine are present.

  17. An Estimation of Longitudinal Strength Reduction of Unidirectional E-glass/Epoxy Composite Exposed to Sulfuric Acid Using a Micromechanics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mehrdad Shokrieh


    Full Text Available A new model is proposed in this research to calculate the longitudinal strengthof unidirectional E-glass reinforced polymer composites exposed to sulfuricacid environment, using a micromechanics model. In the proposed method,it is assumed that the residual strength of the degraded composites under acidic environment can be calculated by knowing the degraded strength properties of the constituent materials. In order to measure the properties of the degraded epoxy resins and E-glass fibers, corrosion tests are performed on them when exposed to 5% sulfuric acid for different immersion times. Acid penetration in composites is a time consuming phenomenon. Thus, before the acid reaches to inside region of composites, the degraded composites cross-section can be divided to two regions, namely intact and degraded regions. In this stage, a simple model is suggested to estimate the acid penetration depth in the degraded composites. Based on the corrosion mechanisms of glass fibers, the energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX results of different points of composites cross-section are used to estimate the acid penetration depth in composites. Both the acid penetration depth model and micromechanics model are used to calculate the longitudinal strength of intact and degraded regions for different immersion times. Thus, the longitudinal strength of degraded composites can be calculated. Moreover, some similar unidirectional E-glass/ epoxy composites exposed to sulfuric acid for different immersion times are tested to measure the longitudinal strength of them. The theoretical results are in good agreements with those experimentally measured.

  18. Cytotoxic effects of sulfuric acid mist, carbon particulates, and their mixtures on hamster tracheal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, L.J. (IIT Research Inst., Chicago, IL); Bryne, M.M.; Fenters, J.D.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.


    Hamster tracheal tissue was used to study the effects of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mist, carbon particles, and mixtures of the two on cilia beating frequency and morphological alterations of respiratory epithelium. Hamsters were exposed for 3 h to 1.1 mg/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (mean size, 0.12 and 1.5 mg/m/sup 3/ carbon (mean size, 0.3 particle aerosols alone or in combination. Trachea of animals exposed in vivo to the mixture and held in vivo showed cytotoxic effects in the epithelium that were greater than those produced by either the acid mist or carbon alone. In tracheas of hamsters exposed in vivo and maintained in vitro the damage produced by acid mist-carbon mixture did not differ significantly from that produced by acid mist per se but was greater than that observed after exposure to carbon. Organ cultures of tracheal rings exposed for 3 h to a 1:10/sup 6/ dilution of concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 100 carbon produced epithelial damage in vitro similar to that seen in in vivo exposures. The extent of recovery over a period of 72 h was also studied following different combinations of in vivo and in vitro exposure and/or maintenance.

  19. Investigation of the effect of piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid on corrosion of iron in sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. laamari


    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid (PPA on the corrosion of iron in 1 M H2SO4 solution has been investigated by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The presence of (PPA reduces remarkably the corrosion rate of iron in acidic solution. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of iron was studied in the range of 298–328 K. Results clearly reveal that the (PPA behaves as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor with the highest inhibition at 5 × 10−3 M. The adsorption of PPA on the iron surface obeys the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm.

  20. Ethanol-induced liver injury and changes in sulfur amino acid metabolomics in glutathione peroxidase and catalase double knockout mice. (United States)

    Kim, Sun J; Lee, Joo W; Jung, Young S; Kwon, Do Y; Park, Hee K; Ryu, Chang S; Kim, Sang K; Oh, Goo T; Kim, Young C


    Oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species is suggested to be the major mechanism of alcohol-induced liver injury. We investigated the effects of glutathione peroxidase-1 and catalase double deficiency (Gpx-1(-/-)/Cat(-/-)) on liver injury and changes in the sulfur amino acid metabolism induced by binge ethanol administration. Ethanol (5 g/kg) was administered orally to the wild-type and the Gpx-1(-/-)/Cat(-/-) mice every 12 h for a total of three doses. Mice were sacrificed 6 h after the final dose. The Gpx-1/Cat deficiency alone increased malondialdehyde levels in liver significantly. Hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) activity and S-adenosylmethionine levels were decreased, however, glutathione contents were not changed. Ethanol administration to the Gpx-1(-/-)/Cat(-/-) mice increased the elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase activity, plasma homocysteine levels, hepatic fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation compared with the wild-type animals challenged with ethanol. Also the reduction of MAT activity and S-adenosylmethionine levels was enhanced, but MATI/III expression was increased significantly. The results indicate that Gpx-1 and Cat have critical roles in the protection of liver against binge ethanol exposure. Augmentation of ethanol-induced oxidative stress may be responsible for the impairment of the transsulfuration reactions and the aggravation of acute liver injury in the Gpx-1(-/-)/Cat(-/-) mice.

  1. Benevolent behavior of Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in sulfuric acid solution (United States)

    Pitchaipillai, Muthukrishnan; Raj, Karthik; Balasubramanian, Jeyaprabha; Periakaruppan, Prakash


    The ethanolic extract of Kleinia grandiflora leaves was characterized and tested for its potential anticorrosion properties on mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 medium using mass-loss analysis, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel was studied in the range of 308 to 328 K. The inhibition efficiency was observed to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. Polarization curves revealed that the Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract is a mixed inhibitor. Impedance diagrams revealed that an increase of Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract concentration increased the charge transfer resistance and decreased the double-layer capacitance. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir's model, with a standard free energy of adsorption (Δ G ads) of -18.62 kJ/mol. The obtained results indicate that the Kleinia grandiflora leaf extract can serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in a sulfuric acid medium.

  2. Microbial community structure and sulfur biogeochemistry in mildly-acidic sulfidic geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. (United States)

    Macur, R E; Jay, Z J; Taylor, W P; Kozubal, M A; Kocar, B D; Inskeep, W P


    Geothermal and hydrothermal waters often contain high concentrations of dissolved sulfide, which reacts with oxygen (abiotically or biotically) to yield elemental sulfur and other sulfur species that may support microbial metabolism. The primary goal of this study was to elucidate predominant biogeochemical processes important in sulfur biogeochemistry by identifying predominant sulfur species and describing microbial community structure within high-temperature, hypoxic, sulfur sediments ranging in pH from 4.2 to 6.1. Detailed analysis of aqueous species and solid phases present in hypoxic sulfur sediments revealed unique habitats containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfide, thiosulfate, and arsenite, as well as rhombohedral and spherical elemental sulfur and/or sulfide phases such as orpiment, stibnite, and pyrite, as well as alunite and quartz. Results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing show that these sediments are dominated by Crenarchaeota of the orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Numerous cultivated representatives of these lineages, as well as the Thermoproteales strain (WP30) isolated in this study, require complex sources of carbon and respire elemental sulfur. We describe a new archaeal isolate (strain WP30) belonging to the order Thermoproteales (phylum Crenarchaeota, 98% identity to Pyrobaculum/Thermoproteus spp. 16S rRNA genes), which was obtained from sulfur sediments using in situ geochemical composition to design cultivation medium. This isolate produces sulfide during growth, which further promotes the formation of sulfide phases including orpiment, stibnite, or pyrite, depending on solution conditions. Geochemical, molecular, and physiological data were integrated to suggest primary factors controlling microbial community structure and function in high-temperature sulfur sediments. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Estimation of the optimum standardized ileal digestible total sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio in late finishing gilts fed low protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids. (United States)

    Ma, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Liu, Xutong; Thacker, Philip; Qiao, Shiyan


    A total of 90 gilts were used to investigate the effects of various standard ileal digestible (SID) total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) to lysine (Lys) ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low crude protein (CP) diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAA). Graded levels of crystalline methionine (Met) (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 or 1.1 g/kg) were added to the basal diet to produce diets providing SID TSAA to Lys ratios of 0.48, 0.53, 0.58, 0.63 or 0.68. At the termination of the experiment, 30 gilts (one pig per pen) with an average body weight (BW) of 120 kg were killed to evaluate carcass traits. Increasing the SID TSAA to Lys ratio increased average daily gain (ADG) (linear and quadratic effect, P gilts. No effects were obtained for carcass traits. The optimum SID TSAA to Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize FCR and SUN levels were 0.57, 0.58 and 0.53 using a linear-break point model and 0.64, 0.62 and 0.61 using a quadratic model. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Microporous novolac-derived carbon beads/sulfur hybrid cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Choudhury, Soumyadip; Krüner, Benjamin; Massuti-Ballester, Pau; Tolosa, Aura; Prehal, Christian; Grobelsek, Ingrid; Paris, Oskar; Borchardt, Lars; Presser, Volker


    Novolac-derived nanoporous carbon beads were used as conductive matrix for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes. We employed a facile self-emulsifying synthesis to obtain sub-micrometer novolac-derived carbon beads with nanopores. After pyrolysis, the carbon beads showed already a specific surface area of 640 m2 g-1 which was increased to 2080 m2 g-1 after physical activation. The non-activated and the activated carbon beads represent nanoporous carbon with a medium and a high surface area, respectively. This allows us to assess the influence of the porosity on the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur battery cathodes. The carbon/sulfur hybrids were obtained from two different approaches of sulfur infiltration: melt-infusion of sulfur (annealing) and in situ formation of sulfur from sodium thiosulfate. The best performance (∼880 mAh gsulfur-1 at low charge rate; 5th cycle) and high performance stability (>600 mAh gsulfur-1 after 100 cycles) were found for the activated carbon beads when using melt infusion of sulfur.

  5. Dimeric and monomeric surfactants derived from sulfur-containing amino acids. (United States)

    Faustino, Célia M C; Calado, António R T; Garcia-Rio, Luís


    Anionic urea-based dimeric (gemini) surfactants derived from the amino acids L-cystine, D-cystine and DL-cystine, as well as monomeric surfactants derived from L-cysteine, L-methionine and L-cysteic acid were synthesized and their solution properties characterized by electrical conductivity, equilibrium surface tension, and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The geminis studied showed the lowest critical micelle concentration (cmc) values, however the monomeric cysteine counterpart exhibited superior efficiency in lowering surface tension, an unusual finding that can be attributed to the free sulfhydryl group. Chirality seems to play a role in the surface active properties of the gemini surfactants, but not on micelle formation. All the surfactants studied showed a higher preference for adsorption at the air/water interface rather than to form micelles, a fact that may be related to the urea moiety. The polarity of the interfacial region, measured with the solvatochromic probe E(T)(30) (Reichardt's betaine dye), was similar to sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micelles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying the Hygroscopic Growth of Individual Submicrometer Particles with Atomic Force Microscopy. (United States)

    Morris, Holly S; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Grassian, Vicki H; Tivanski, Alexei V


    The water uptake behavior of atmospheric aerosol dictates their climate effects. In many studies, aerosol particles are deposited onto solid substrates to measure water uptake; however, the effects of the substrate are not well understood. Furthermore, in some cases, methods used to analyze and quantify water uptake of substrate deposited particles use a two-dimensional (2D) analysis to monitor growth by following changes in the particle diameter with relative humidity (RH). However, this 2D analysis assumes that the droplet grows equally in all directions. If particle growth is not isotropic in height and diameter, this assumption can cause inaccuracies when quantifying hygroscopic growth factors (GFs), where GF for a for a spherical particle is defined as the ratio of the particle diameter at a particular relative humidity divided by the dry particle diameter (typically about 5% RH). However, as shown here, anisotropic growth can occur in some cases. In these cases, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the growth is needed. This study introduces a way to quantify the hygroscopic growth of substrate deposited particles composed of model systems relevant to atmospheric aerosols using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which gives information on both the particle height and area and thus a three-dimensional view of each particle. In this study, we compare GFs of submicrometer sized particles composed of single component sodium chloride (NaCl) and malonic acid (MA), as well as binary mixtures of NaCl and MA, and NaCl and nonanoic acid (NA) determined by AFM using area (2D) equivalent diameters, similar to conventional microscopy methods, to GFs determined using volume (3D) equivalent diameter. We also compare these values to GFs determined by a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA; substrate free, 3D method). It was found that utilizing volume equivalent diameter for quantifying GFs with AFM agreed well with those determined by substrate-free HTDMA

  7. Focusing of sub-micrometer particles and bacteria enabled by two-dimensional acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antfolk, M.; Muller, Peter Barkholt; Augustsson, P.


    particles as small as 0.5 μm in diameter in microchannels of square or rectangular cross sections, is demonstrated. Numerical analysis was used to determine generic transverse particle trajectories in the channels, which revealed spiral-shaped trajectories of the sub-micrometer particles towards the center......Handling of sub-micrometer bioparticles such as bacteria are becoming increasingly important in the biomedical field and in environmental and food analysis. As a result, there is an increased need for less labor-intensive and time-consuming handling methods. Here, an acoustophoresis......-based microfluidic chip that uses ultrasound to focus sub-micrometer particles and bacteria, is presented. The ability to focus sub-micrometer bioparticles in a standing one-dimensional acoustic wave is generally limited by the acoustic-streaming-induced drag force, which becomes increasingly significant the smaller...

  8. About scavenging of near-water submicrometer aerosol in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions (United States)

    Polkin, V. V.; Polkin, Vas. V.


    Situations with scavenging of submicrometer aerosol particles by precipitation are analyzed. Experiments were carries out in Arctic region (NABOS expedition) onboard research vessels "Akademik Fedorov" and "Professor Khlyustin" in August-September 2013.

  9. Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased. (United States)

    Elango, Rajavel; Humayun, Mohammad A; Turner, Justine M; Rafii, Mahroukh; Langos, Veronika; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B


    Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown.Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI.Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg · kg-1 · d-1) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg · kg-1 · d-1) with 21 mg · kg-1 · d-1 Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-13C]Phe to 13CO2 (F13CO2). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F13CO2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F13CO2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites.Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg · kg-1 · d-1 and 7.3 and 10.9 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg · kg-1 · d-1 and 5.8 and 7.3 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant (P requirement, suggesting reduced remethylation rates. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. The Relationship Between Corrosion and the Biological Sulfur Cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Brenda


    .... Sulfur and sulfur compounds, including sulfides, bisulfides, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), thiosulfates, polythionates and sulfuric acid, may be trapped or bound up in biofilms causing direct corrosion of materials...

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 Bulk Metallic Glass in Sulfuric Acid Solutions (United States)

    Fan, H. B.; Zheng, W.; Wang, G. Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Shen, J.


    An Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 bulk metallic glass with a diameter of 5 mm was prepared with the copper-mold-casting method. The corrosion resistance of this amorphous steel in sulfuric-acid solutions was determined by electrochemical measurements. The passive film formed on the surface of the alloy after immersion in the 0.5-mol/l H2SO4 solution for 1 week was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion resistance of the amorphous steel in the 1 mol/l-H2SO4 solution is superior to a stainless steel (SUS 321), and is almost the same as Ti6Al4V, which shows that the amorphous steel has an excellent corrosion resistance in sulfuric-acid solutions. As the concentration of the sulfuric-acid solutions increases from 0.5 mol/l to 4 mol/l, the corrosion resistance of the amorphous steel decreases. The XPS result reveals that a bilayer structure of protective film formed on the surface of the amorphous steel in a H2SO4 solution. The compositions of the inner part of the film are MoO2, Cr2O3, CoO, and FeO, and those of the outer film are MoO3, Cr(OH)3, Co(OH)2, and Fe(OH)3.

  12. Sulfur and chlorine play a non-acid base role in periparturient calcium homeostasis. (United States)

    Roche, J R; Morton, J; Kolver, E S


    The increased risk of periparturient hypocalcaemia through offering high-K feeds in the precalving period has been reported previously. Two experiments (experiment 1 and 2) investigated the effect of KCl fertilizer on pasture mineral concentration, the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), and the subsequent effect of this on periparturient plasma and urine mineral status. Experiment 2 examined the effect of precalving Mg source (MgO, MgSO4, and MgCl2) and postcalving Ca supplementation on the concentration of Ca and Mg in plasma and urine. Unexpectedly, pasture DCAD increased (P = 0.06) from 434 to 535 mEq/kg DM in experiment 1 as pasture K concentration decreased from 4.2 to 3.5%, primarily because of a corresponding and greater decrease in pasture Cl concentration (from 1.9 to 1.3%). Plasma Ca or Mg concentrations were not affected by pasture K concentration. A linear decline (P urine Mg suggested a decline in Mg absorption as pasture K increased. In experiment 2, pasture DCAD decreased (P urine pH was not affected by the declining DCAD. Postcalving plasma Ca concentration was affected by precalving Mg source with MgSO4 > MgCl2 > MgO. Differences in acid-base balance do not explain the difference between Mg salts. These results indicate that precalving dietary S and Cl concentration plays an important role in Ca homeostasis, in addition to its role in acid-base balance. Supplementation with Ca postcalving increased plasma Ca concentration for 2 d postcalving. Milk production was not affected.

  13. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang


    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g-1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hydrochloric acid solution (HP), while the mean molecular weight of SP was lower than that of HP. Compared with HP, SP exhibited higher viscosity and better emulsifying property. Based on the yield and physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Lower pressure heating steam is practical for the distributed dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment. (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Weiliang; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Bao, Jie


    Most studies paid more attention to the pretreatment temperature and the resulted pretreatment efficiency, while ignored the heating media and their scalability to an industry scale. This study aimed to use a relative low pressure heating steam easily provided by steam boiler to meet the requirement of distributed dry dilute acid pretreatment. The results showed that the physical properties of the pretreated corn stover were maintained stable using the steam pressure varying from 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 to 2.1MPa. Enzymatic hydrolysis and high solids loading simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results were also satisfying. CFD simulation indicated that the high injection velocity of the low pressure steam resulted in a high steam holdup and made the mixing time of steam and solid corn stover during pretreatment much shorter in comparison with the higher pressure steam. This study provides a design basis for the boiler requirement in distributed pretreatment concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of OsOsub(4) catalyzed oxidation of chalcones by Cesub(4) in aqueous acetic sulfuric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, P.V.; Adinarayana, M.; Sethuram, B.; Rao, T.N. (Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Kinetics of OsOsub(4) catalyzed oxidation of chalcones by Cesup(4+) was studied in aqueous acetic-sulfuric acid medium in the temperature range 313 to 338 K. The order in oxidant is zero while the order with respect to substrate and catalyst are each fractional. The rate of the reaction decreased with increase in percentage of acetic acid while (Hsup(+)) had practically no effect on the rate. The rates of various substituted chalcones are given. A mechanism in which formation of a cyclic ester between chalcone and OsOsub(4) in a fast step followed by its decomposition in a rate-determining step is envisaged.

  16. Impact of sulfuric and nitric acids on carbonate dissolution, and the associated deficit of CO2 uptake in the upper-middle reaches of the Wujiang River, China (United States)

    Huang, Qi-bo; Qin, Xiao-qun; Liu, Peng-yu; Zhang, Lian-kai; Su, Chun-tian


    Carbonate weathering and the CO2 consumption in karstic area are extensive affected by anthropogenic activities, especially sulfuric and nitric acids usage in the upper-middle reaches of Wujiang River, China. The carbonic acid would be substituted by protons from sulfuric and nitric acids which can be reduce CO2 absorption. Therefore, The goal of this study was to highlight the impacts of sulfuric and nitric acids on carbonate dissolution and the associated deficit of CO2 uptaking during carbonate weathering. The hydrochemistries and carbon isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon from groundwater were measured during the rainy season (July; 41 samples) and post-rainy season (October; 26 samples). Our results show that Ca2 + and Mg2 + were the dominant cations (55.87-98.52%), and HCO3- was the dominant anion (63.63-92.87%). The combined concentrations of Ca2 + and Mg2 + commonly exceeded the equivalent concentration of HCO3-, with calculated [Ca2 + + Mg2 +]/[HCO3-] equivalent ratios of 1.09-2.12. The mean measured groundwater δ13CDIC value (- 11.38‰) was higher than that expected for carbonate dissolution mediated solely by carbonic acid (- 11.5‰), and the strong positive correlation of these values with [SO42 - + NO3-]/HCO3- showed that additional SO42 - and NO3- were required to compensate for this cation excess. Nitric and sulfuric acids are, therefore, suggested to have acted as the additional proton-promoted weathering agents of carbonate in the region, alongside carbonic acid. The mean contribution of atmospheric/pedospheric CO2 to the total aquatic HCO3- decreased by 15.67% (rainy season) and 14.17% (post-rainy season) due to the contributions made by these acids. The annual mean deficit of soil CO2 uptake by carbonate weathering across the study area was 14.92%, which suggests that previous workers may have overestimated the absorption of CO2 by carbonate weathering in other karstic areas worldwide.

  17. Comparative effects of sulfuric and nitric acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial community in subtropical plantation of Yangtze River Delta region. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Wenrui; Wang, Ling; Xie, Dejin; Huo, Wentong; Wu, Yanwen; Zhang, Jinchi


    Acid rain is mainly caused by dissolution of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and has a significant negative effect on ecosystems. The relative composition of acid rain is changing gradually from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to nitric acid rain (NAR) with the rapidly growing amount of nitrogen deposition. In this study, we investigated the impact of simulated SAR and NAR on litter decomposition and the soil microbial community over four seasons since March 2015. Results first showed that the effects of acid rain on litter decomposition and soil microbial were positive in the early period of the experiment, except for SAR on soil microbes. Second, soil pH with NAR decreased more rapidly with the amount of acid rain increased in summer than with SAR treatments. Only strongly acid rain (both SAR and NAR) was capable of depressing litter decomposition and its inhibitory effect was stronger on leaf than on fine root litter. Meanwhile, NAR had a higher inhibitory effect on litter decomposition than SAR. Third, in summer, autumn and winter, PLFAs were negatively impacted by the increased acidity level resulting from both SAR and NAR. However, higher acidity level of NAR (pH=2.5) had the strongest inhibitory impact on soil microbial activity, especially in summer. In addition, Gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) and fungi (18:1ω9) were more sensitive to both SAR and NAR, and actinomycetes was more sensitive to SAR intensity. Finally, soil total carbon, total nitrogen and pH were the most important soil property factors affecting soil microbial activity, and high microbial indices (fungi/bacteria) with high soil pH. Our results suggest that the ratio of SO4(2-) to NO3(-) in acid rain is an important factor which could affect litter decomposition and soil microbial in subtropical forest of China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li


    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  19. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi


    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  20. Petrographic and isotopic evidence for late-stage processes in sulfuric acid caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Arthur N.


    Full Text Available Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains have experienced many modifications since their final phase of sulfuric acid speleogenesis several million years ago. Petrographic and geochemical data reveal details of the change from H2SO4 to CO2-dominated reactions. The H2SO4 dissolution front acquired a coating of replacement gypsum with local pockets of anhydrite and by-products of altered clay, including Fe-Mn oxides. Alteration of bedrock beneath the gypsum produced a white micritized rind with small negative shifts in δ13C and δ18O. Solution basins contain records of the earliest post-speleogenetic processes: corroded bedrock, residual anhydrite, Fe-Mn oxides from fluctuating pH and Eh, mammillary calcite, and dolomitization. Later meteoric water removed or recrystallized much of the gypsum and early micrite, and replaced some gypsum with calcite. Mammillary crusts demonstrate fluctuating groundwater, with calcite layers interrupted by films of Fe-Mn oxides precipitated during periodic inflow of anoxic water. Condensation moisture (from local evaporation absorbs CO2 from cave air, corroding earlier features and lowering their δ13C and δ18O. Drips of condensation water deposit minerals mainly by evaporation, which increases δ18O in the speleothems while δ13C remains nearly constant. By forcing calcite precipitation, evaporation raises the Mg content of remaining water and subsequent precipitates. Dolomite (both primary and replacive is abundant. In areas of low air circulation, water on and within carbonate speleothems equilibrates with cave-air CO2, causing minerals to recrystallize with glassy textures. Fluorite on young evaporative speleothems suggests a recent release of deep-source HF gas and absorption by droplets of condensation water.

  1. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyong Tong

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs, such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  2. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Xie, Can; Ma, Lei; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yongsheng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao


    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA) content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR) catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs), such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  3. Evolution of Submicrometer Organic Aerosols during a Complete Residential Coal Combustion Process. (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming


    In the absence of particulate matter (PM) control devices, residential coal combustion contributes significantly to ambient PM pollution. Characterizing PM emissions from residential coal combustion with high time resolution is beneficial for developing control policies and evaluating the environmental impact of PM. This study reports the evolution of submicrometer organic aerosols (OA) during a complete residential coal combustion process, that is, from fire start to fire extinction. Three commonly used coal types (bituminous, anthracite, and semicoke coals) were evaluated in a typical residential stove in China. For all three types of coal, the OA emission exhibited distinct characteristics in the four stages, that is, ignition, fierce combustion, relatively stable combustion, and ember combustion. OA emissions during the ignition stage accounted for 58.2-85.4% of the total OA emission of a complete combustion process. The OA concentration decreased rapidly during the fierce combustion stage and remained low during the relatively stable combustion stage. During these two stages, a significant ion peak of m/z 73 from organic acids were observed. The degree of oxidation of the OA increased from the first stage to the last stage. Implications for ambient OA source-apportionment and residential PM emission characterization and control are discussed.

  4. Chlorobaculum tepidum Modulates Amino Acid Composition in Response to Energy Availability, as Revealed by a Systematic Exploration of the Energy Landscape of Phototrophic Sulfur Oxidation. (United States)

    Levy, Amalie T; Lee, Kelvin H; Hanson, Thomas E


    Microbial sulfur metabolism, particularly the formation and consumption of insoluble elemental sulfur (S(0)), is an important biogeochemical engine that has been harnessed for applications ranging from bioleaching and biomining to remediation of waste streams. Chlorobaculum tepidum, a low-light-adapted photoautolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, oxidizes multiple sulfur species and displays a preference for more reduced electron donors: sulfide > S(0) > thiosulfate. To understand this preference in the context of light energy availability, an "energy landscape" of phototrophic sulfur oxidation was constructed by varying electron donor identity, light flux, and culture duration. Biomass and cellular parameters of C. tepidum cultures grown across this landscape were analyzed. From these data, a correction factor for colorimetric protein assays was developed, enabling more accurate biomass measurements for C. tepidum, as well as other organisms. C. tepidum's bulk amino acid composition correlated with energy landscape parameters, including a tendency toward less energetically expensive amino acids under reduced light flux. This correlation, paired with an observation of increased cell size and storage carbon production under electron-rich growth conditions, suggests that C. tepidum has evolved to cope with changing energy availability by tuning its proteome for energetic efficiency and storing compounds for leaner times. How microbes cope with and adapt to varying energy availability is an important factor in understanding microbial ecology and in designing efficient biotechnological processes. We explored the response of a model phototrophic organism, Chlorobaculum tepidum, across a factorial experimental design that enabled simultaneous variation and analysis of multiple growth conditions, what we term the "energy landscape." C. tepidum biomass composition shifted toward less energetically expensive amino acids at low light levels. This observation provides


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono


    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of Sangiran diatomaceous earth pre-treatment with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid (HCl on the kinetics of adsorption for Cr(III in aqueous solution has been studied. The research has been carried out by mixing an amount of diatomeaeous earth with HCl or H2SO4 in various concentrations for two hours at temperature of 150 - 200°C. The mixture was washed with water until neutral, and the residue was dried at 70°C for four hours. The result then was used as adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out by mixing an amount of adsorbent with Cr(III solution in various contact times. Ion adsorbed was determined by analyzing filtrate using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of pre-treatment on adsorption kinetics was evaluated based on kinetic parameters, i.e. constant of adsorption rate by using Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and using two-process kinetics (fast and slow processes. Adsorption kinetics calculated using LH equation gave negative value for adsorption rate constant of zero order (k0. On the other words, the LH kinetics might not be applied for adsorption of Cr(III to diatomaceous earth adsorbent. Results of kinetics study approached using two processes (fast and slow showed that adsorption of Cr(III occurred in two processes with rate constant of fast adsorption, kc, 0.041/min, rate constant of slow adsorption, kl, 0.0089/min, and of slow desorption, k'l, 0.089/menit. Pre-treatment with HCl up to 10 M decreased either kc, kl or k'l, while pre-treatment with H2SO4 1M increased kc to 0.061/min, decreased kl to 0.00424 and k'l to 0.0139/min. On pre-treatment with H2SO4 higher than 6 M significantly decreased three constants above. Based on the Gibbs energy change (4.31 - 6.79 kJ/mole showed that adsorption involved physical interaction.   Keywords: adsorption, chromium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics, Langmuir-Hinshelwood

  6. Exploring Nested Reaction Fronts to Understand How Oxygen Cracks Rocks, Carbonic and Sulfuric Acids Dissolve Rocks, and Water Transports Rocks during Weathering (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Gu, X.; Sullivan, P. L.; Kim, H.; Stinchcomb, G. E.; Lebedeva, M.; Balashov, V. N.


    To first order, weathering is the reaction of rocks with oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, etc.), acids (carbonic, sulfuric, and organic acids), and water. To explore weathering we have been studying the depth intervals in soils, saprolite, and weathering rock where mineral reactions are localized - "reaction fronts". We limit the study to ridges or catchments in climates where precipitation is greater than potential evapotranspiration. For example, in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, we observe reaction fronts that generally define very rough surfaces in 3D that mimic the land surface topography, although with lower relief. Overall, the fronts form nested curved surfaces. In Shale Hills, the deepest reaction fronts are oxidation of pyrite, and dissolution of carbonate. The carbonate is inferred to dissolve at least partly due to the sulfuric acid produced by the pyrite. In addition to pyrite, chlorite also starts to oxidize at the water table. We hypothesize that these dissolution and oxidation reactions open pores and cause microfracturing that open the rock to infiltration of advecting meteoric waters. At much shallower depths, illite is observed to dissolve. In Shale Hills, these reaction fronts - pyrite, carbonate, illite - separate over meters beneath the ridges. Such separated reaction fronts have also been observed in other fractured lithologies where oxidation is the deepest reaction and is associated with weathering-induced fractures. In contrast, in some massive mafic rocks, reaction fronts are almost co-located. By studying the geometry of reaction fronts, it may be possible to elucidate the relative importance of how oxygen cracks rocks; carbonic, organic, and sulfuric acids dissolve rocks; and water mobilizes rock materials during weathering.

  7. Surface organic monolayers control the hygroscopic growth of submicrometer particles at high relative humidity. (United States)

    Ruehl, Christopher R; Wilson, Kevin R


    Although many organic molecules commonly found in the atmosphere are known to be surface-active in macroscopic aqueous solutions, the impact of surface partitioning of organic molecules to a microscopic aqueous droplet interface remains unclear. Here we measure the droplet size formed, at a relative humidity (∼99.9%) just below saturation, on submicrometer particles containing an ammonium sulfate core and an organic layer of a model compound of varying thickness. The 12 model organic compounds are a series of dicarboxylic acids (C3 to C10), cis-pinonic, oleic, lauric, and myristic acids, which represent a broad range in solubility from miscible (malonic acid) to insoluble. The variation in droplet size with increasing organic aerosol fraction cannot be explained by assuming the organic material is dissolved in the bulk droplet. Instead, the wet droplet diameters exhibit a complex and nonlinear dependence on organic aerosol volume fraction, leading to hygroscopic growth that is in some cases smaller and in others larger than that predicted by bulk solubility alone. For palmitic and stearic acid, small droplets at or below the detection limit of the instrument are observed, indicating significant kinetic limitations for water uptake, which are consistent with mass accommodation coefficients on the order of 10(-4). A model based on the two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state is used to explain the complex droplet growth with organic aerosol fraction and dry diameter. The model suggests that mono- and dicarboxylic acids with limited water solubility partition to the droplet surface and reduce surface tension only after a two-dimensional condensed monolayer is formed. Two relatively soluble compounds, malonic and glutaric acid, also appear to form surface phases, which increase hygroscopicity. There is a clear alternation in the threshold for droplet growth observed for odd and even carbon number diacids, which is explained in the model by differences in the

  8. Properties of Sulfur Concrete. (United States)


    sulfur 19 11 Effect of H2 S on compressive strength of sulfur concretes 21 12 Modulus of rupture vs. temperature for raw sulfur and a sulfur mortar 22 13...sulfur, Jordaan investigated the effects of hydrogen sulfide on sulfur concrete. Concretes were made with different mixtures of pyrrhotite and flyash ...temperature for raw sulfur and a sulfur mortar (Ref. 19). eabove results were obtained with a sulfur mortar and raw sulfur; however, sulfur concrete could be

  9. Osmotolerance in Escherichia coli Is Improved by Activation of Copper Efflux Genes or Supplementation with Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids. (United States)

    Xiao, Mengyong; Zhu, Xinna; Fan, Feiyu; Xu, Hongtao; Tang, Jinlei; Qin, Ying; Ma, Yanhe; Zhang, Xueli


    Improvement in the osmotolerance of Escherichia coli is essential for the production of high titers of various bioproducts. In this work, a cusS mutation that was identified in the previously constructed high-succinate-producing E. coli strain HX024 was investigated for its effect on osmotolerance. CusS is part of the two-component system CusSR that protects cells from Ag(I) and Cu(I) toxicity. Changing cusS from strain HX024 back to its original sequence led to a 24% decrease in cell mass and succinate titer under osmotic stress (12% glucose). When cultivated with a high initial glucose concentration (12%), introduction of the cusS mutation into parental strain Suc-T110 led to a 21% increase in cell mass and a 40% increase in succinate titer. When the medium was supplemented with 30 g/liter disodium succinate, the cusS mutation led to a 120% increase in cell mass and a 492% increase in succinate titer. Introducing the cusS mutation into the wild-type strain ATCC 8739 led to increases in cell mass of 87% with 20% glucose and 36% using 30 g/liter disodium succinate. The cusS mutation increased the expression of cusCFBA , and gene expression levels were found to be positively related to osmotolerance abilities. Because high osmotic stress has been associated with deleterious accumulation of Cu(I) in the periplasm, activation of CusCFBA may alleviate this effect by transporting Cu(I) out of the cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by supplementing sulfur-containing amino acids that can chelate Cu(I). Adding methionine or cysteine to the medium increased the osmotolerance of E. coli under anaerobic conditions. IMPORTANCE In this work, an activating Cus copper efflux system was found to increase the osmotolerance of E. coli In addition, new osmoprotectants were identified. Supplementation with methionine or cysteine led to an increase in osmotolerance of E. coli under anaerobic conditions. These new strategies for improving osmotolerance will be useful for improving the

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of metal dissolution and inhibitor adsorption processes in the low carbon steel/mimosa tannin/sulfuric acid system (United States)

    Martinez, Sanja; Stern, Ivica


    The corrosion rates in the presence of mimosa tannin as a low carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in sulfuric acid media, were measured by the weight loss method, in the range of temperatures from 20 to 60 °C. The Temkin, Frumkin and Freundlich isotherms were tested for their fit to the experimental data. The free energies and enthalpies for the adsorption process and the apparent activation energies, enthalpies and entropies of the dissolution process were determined. The fundamental thermodynamic functions were used to glean important information about the mimosa tannin inhibitory behavior. The results were explained in terms of chemical thermodynamics.

  11. A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover. (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Wyman, Charles E


    Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160 °C for 40 min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric xylose yield of 93.1% compared to a maximum of only 71.5% for hydrothermal (no added mineral acid) pretreatment at 180 °C for 30 min. To explain differences in dilute acid and hydrothermal yields, a fast reacting xylan fraction (0.0889) was assumed to be able to directly form monomeric xylose while a slow reacting portion (0.9111) must first form oligomers during hydrothermal pretreatment. Two reactions to oligomers were proposed: reversible from fast reacting xylan and irreversible from slow reacting xylan. A kinetic model and its analytical solution simulated xylan removal data well for dilute acid and hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover. These results suggested that autocatalytic reactions from xylan to furfural in hydrothermal pretreatment were controlled by oligomeric xylose decomposition, while acid-catalytic reactions in dilute acid pretreatment were controlled by monomeric xylose decomposition. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sulfur Mustard (United States)

    ... and HT. Sulfur mustard sometimes smells like garlic, onions, or mustard and sometimes has no odor. It ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure ...

  13. Hydrogen template assisted electrodeposition of sub-micrometer wires composing honeycomb-like porous Pb films (United States)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Xing, Xiaoli; Chung, Chan-Hwa


    High surface area porous Pb films are electrodeposited using a hydrogen bubble dynamic template. The influence of the experimental parameters on the morphology features such as the pore size, wall thickness, and sub-micrometer size features is investigated. Two structural transformations between sub-micrometer wires and particles obtained by adjusting the HClO4 concentration are observed. At a low HClO4 concentration, the growth of sub-micrometer wires is favored. The deposition of particles or wires covered by particles is observed at higher H+ concentrations. The addition of sodium citrate as an additive facilitates the preservation of Pb in the form of wires. Adjusting the concentration of Pb(ClO4)2·3H2O influences the mass transfer of Pb and affects its morphology. At low concentrations, the deposition of porous Pb films composed of porous wires is shown. The additional deposition of particles on wires is observed at high concentrations. The formation process of honeycomb-like porous structures is revealed by analysis of films deposited during different deposition time. The influence of the current density on the micro and sub-micrometer scale morphologies is presented.

  14. Hygroscopic behavior of individual submicrometer particles studied by X-ray spectromicroscopy. (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Tivanski, Alexei V


    A novel application of single particle scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is presented for quantitative analysis of hygroscopic properties and phase transitions of individual submicrometer particles. The approach utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited individual particles to water vapor at different relative humidity followed by STXM/NEXAFS spectromicroscopy analysis. The hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and NaNO(3) submicrometer particles were measured to evaluate the utility of the approach. An analytical approach for quantification of a water-to-solute ratio within an individual submicrometer particle during hydration and dehydration cycles is presented. The results for the deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions and quantitative measurements of water-to-solute ratios are found in excellent agreement with available literature data. Oxygen K-edge NEXAFS spectra of submicrometer sodium halide droplets are reported along with a unique experimental observation of the formation of the halide-water anionic complex in NaBr and NaI microdimensional droplets. The analytical approach provides a unique opportunity for spectromicroscopy studies of water uptake on environmental particles collected in both laboratory and field studies.

  15. M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features (United States)

    Brueck, Steven R.J.; Chen, Xiaolan; Zaidi, Saleem; Devine, Daniel J.


    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

  16. Reactivity of pi-complexes of Ti, V, and Nb towards dithioacetic acid: Synthesis and structure of novel metal sulfur-containing complexes (United States)

    Duraj, Stan A.; Andras, Maria T.; Hepp, Aloysius F.


    In order to use sulfur-containing resources economically and with minimal environmental damage, it is important to understand the desulfurization processes. Hydrodesulfurization, for example, is carried out on the surface of a heterogeneous metal sulfide catalyst. Studies of simple, soluble inorganic systems provide information regarding the structure and reactivity of sulfur-containing compounds with metal complexes. Further, consistent with recent trends in materials chemistry, many model compounds warrant further study as catalyst precursors. The reactivity of low-valent organometallic sandwich pi-complexes toward dithiocarboxylic acids is described. For example, treatment of bisbenzene vanadium with CH3CSSH affords a divanadium tetrakis(dithioacetate) complex. The crystallographically determined V-V bond distance, 2.800(2), is nearly the same as the V-V bond distance in a V(mu-nu squared-S2)2V' unit in the mineral patonite (VS4)n. The stability of the V2S4 core in the dimer is demonstrated by evidence of V2S4(+) in the mass spectrum (70 eV, solid probe) of the vanadium dimer. Several other systems relevant to HDS catalysis are also discussed.

  17. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, F.; Takasu, T.; Ito, H. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In the refining process for the production of copper from pyrites, heat treatment is carried out in a neutral atmosphere so that part of the sulphur will be collected in the form of simple sulfur and that pyrites naturally low in reactivity will be made active. A basic study is also conducted of a very high speed electrolytic method. The chemical aspects of pyrites which are various in composition (mainly CuFeS2) are clarified by X-ray diffraction, and then is subjected to heat-treatment in a 773K-1073K argon atmosphere. There is a decrease in the amount of sulfur at a temperatures not lower than 973K. The X-ray main diffraction line splits for the emergence of some lower angle diffraction lines. The specimen is then subjected to a leach test in a copper chloride base liquor, to disclose that leachability grows remarkably higher in the presence of a great change in the X-ray diffraction lattice constant. An experiment follows in which an electrolyte is allowed to flow at a high speed for accelerating the rate of electrolytic refining in an effort to prevent the passivation of anode and deposition of dendrite on the cathode that is apt to occur when the current density is high. Passivation is prevented when the flow rate is 10m/min or higher in the vicinity of the anode surface for the formation of a smooth electrodeposited surface. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Sulfite (SO 3 2– ) þ4 Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) þ6 Sulfate (SO 4 2– ) þ8 and reductive mode, each fueling the other, either in a dynamic instantaneous manner in space or sequentially over time. Sulfur and its species are important geochem- Organic S (R–SH) C... be too specific. It is argued that many microbes could be facultative, autotrophic at times, and hetero- trophic at other, assimilating simple organic substrates that are available. Thus microbes like Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. have also been...

  19. Effect of the applied potential of the near surface microstructure of a 316L steel submitted to tribocorrosion in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, M [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Stadelmann, P [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Mischler, S [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)


    The tribocorrosion behaviour of a 316L austenitic stainless steel sliding against alumina was investigated under electrochemical control in sulfuric acid using a tribometer with a ball on flat configuration. Tests were conducted by applying either a passive potential (metal covered by an oxide film) or a cathodic potential (no passive film, negligible corrosion) to the steel. Friction, wear and anodic current were monitored. The near surface microstructure of wear tracks was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher wear was observed at the passive potential compared with the cathodic potential. Chemical reactions could not account for this difference in deterioration. TEM analysis revealed that the plastic behaviour of the metal, and thus its response to wear, depends on the prevailing electrochemical conditions, the passive potential showing larger deformation than the cathodic. This effect was attributed to the presence of the passive film that induces residual stresses and interferes with dislocation activity.

  20. Silica sulfuric acid: a reusable solid catalyst for one pot synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pathak


    Full Text Available A convenient and efficient methodology for the synthesis of densely substituted pyrrole-fused isocoumarins, which employs solid-supported silica sulfuric acid (SSA as catalyst, has been developed. When the mixture of ninhydrin adducts of acetylacetone/ethyl acetoacetate and primary amines was heated on the solid surface of SSA under solvent-free conditions, the pyrrole-fused isocoumarins were formed in good yields. This synthetic method has several advantages such as the employment of solvent-free reaction conditions without the use of any toxic reagents and metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation, the use of a recyclable catalyst, the low cost, the easy availability of the starting materials, and the excellent yields of products.

  1. Mass accommodation coefficient measurements for HNO3, HCl and N2O5 on water, ice and aqueous sulfuric acid droplet surfaces (United States)

    Worsnop, Douglas; Zahniser, Mark; Kolb, Charles; Watson, Lyn; Vandoren, Jane; Jayne, John; Davidovits, Paul


    Preliminary results are reported of the direct measurement of accommodation coefficients for HNO3, N2O5 and HCl on water drops, aqueous sulfuric acid drops and ice particles. The heterogeneous chemistry of these species together with ClONO2 has been implicated in the ozone depletion observed in the Antarctic stratosphere during the spring in the last eight years. The most plausible chemical mechanism involves the removal of nitrogen oxide species via condensation on ice particles in polar stratospheric clouds resulting in a increase in the active chlorine species responsible for the ozone depletion. The observation of low NO2 and high ClO densities in the Antarctic stratosphere last summer appear to be consistent with such a mechanism.

  2. Use of probabilistic safety analysis for design of emergency mitigation systems in hydrogen producer plant with sulfur-iodine technology, Section II: sulfuric acid decomposition; Uso de analisis probabilistico de seguridad para el diseno de sistemas de mitigacion de emergencia en planta productora de hidrogeno con tecnologia azufre-iodo, Seccion II: descomposicion de acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, A.; Nelson E, P. F.; Francois L, J. L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail:


    Over the last decades, the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases has prompted the development of technologies for the production of clean fuels through the use of primary energy resources of zero emissions, as the heat of nuclear reactors of high temperature. Within these technologies, one of the most promising is the hydrogen production by sulfur-iodine cycle coupled to a high temperature reactor initially proposed by General Atomics. By their nature and because it will be large-scale plants, the development of these technologies from its present phase to its procurement and construction, will have to incorporate emergency mitigation systems in all its parts and interconnections to prevent undesired events that could put threaten the plant integrity and the nearby area. For the particular case of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle, most analysis have focused on hydrogen explosions and failures in the primary cooling systems. While these events are the most catastrophic, is that there are also many other events that even taking less direct consequences, could jeopardize the plant operation, the people safety of nearby communities and carry the same economic consequences. In this study we analyzed one of these events, which is the formation of a toxic cloud prompted by uncontrolled leakage of concentrated sulfuric acid in the second section of sulfur-iodine process of General Atomics. In this section, the sulfuric acid concentration is near to 90% in conditions of high temperature and positive pressure. Under these conditions the sulfuric acid and sulfur oxides from the reactor will form a toxic cloud that the have contact with the plant personnel could cause fatalities, or to reach a town would cause suffocation, respiratory problems and eye irritation. The methodology used for this study is the supported design in probabilistic safety analysis. Mitigation systems were postulated based on the isolation of a possible leak, the neutralization of a pond of

  3. [Influence of Sulfuric Acid to Karst Hydrochemical and δ13CDIC in the Upper and Middle Reaches of the Wujiang River]. (United States)

    Huang, Qi-bo; Qin, Xiao-qun; Liu, Peng-yu; Zhang, Lian-kai; Su, Chun-tian


    Groundwater and surface water from the Upper and Middle Reaches of the Wujiang River were sampled and analyzed for the hydrochemistry and Carbon isotope in DIC. Then hydrochemical characteristics and the main influencing factors were investigated, and the contributions of carbonate dissolution by sulphuric acid to total(Ca2+ + Mg2+) and HCO3 were calculated using the stoichiometry method. The results showed that the advantage cations of groundwater and surface water is Ca2+, which accounted for more than 50% and the advantage anions is HCO3- and SO(4)2-, which accounted for more than 85%. The hydrochemical characteristics of most samples were of Ca-HCO3 type, and a small part of HCO3.SO4-Ca, reflecting a few samples affected by SO(4)2- from human source. The δ13CDIC of groundwater and surface water, varying from -12. 98%o to -6. 36%o with a changeable molar ratio between (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and HCO3- of 1. 11 to 1. 90, indicated that sulfuric acid has an important influence on hydrochemistry and δ3CDIC. The contributions of carbonate dissolution by sulphuric acid to total (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and HCO3 in groundwater ranged from 20. 59% to 92. 87% (average 51. 50%), and from 11. 47% to 86. 69% (average 36. 90%). While the contributions of carbonate dissolution by sulphuric acid to total (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and HCO3- in surface water ranged from 56. 14% to 94. 55% (with an average of 76. 89%), and 39. 02% to 89. 66% (with an average of 64.24%), respectively, demonstrated that sulphuric acid is an important agent of carbon rock weathering. The results of this study have a great significance for the protection and development and utilization of water resources in the Wujiang River basin and for karst carbon cycle research.

  4. Oxyhalogen-sulfur chemistry: kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of chemoprotectant, sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, MESNA, by acidic bromate and aqueous bromine. (United States)

    Adigun, Risikat Ajibola; Mhike, Morgen; Mbiya, Wilbes; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B; Simoyi, Reuben H


    The oxidation of a well-known chemoprotectant in anticancer therapies, sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, MESNA, by acidic bromate and aqueous bromine was studied in acidic medium. Stoichiometry of the reaction is: BrO3(-) + HSCH2CH2SO3H → Br(-) + HO3SCH2CH2SO3H. In excess bromate conditions the stoichiometry was deduced to be: 6BrO3(-) + 5HSCH2CH2SO3H + 6H(+) → 3Br2 + 5HO3SCH2CH2SO3H + 3H2O. The direct reaction of bromine and MESNA gave a stoichiometric ratio of 3:1: 3Br2 + HSCH2CH2SO3H + 3H2O → HO3SCH2CH2SO3H + 6Br(-) + 6H(+). This direct reaction is very fast; within limits of the mixing time of the stopped-flow spectrophotometer and with a bimolecular rate constant of 1.95 ± 0.05 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Despite the strong oxidizing agents utilized, there is no cleavage of the C-S bond and no sulfate production was detected. The ESI-MS data show that the reaction proceeds via a predominantly nonradical pathway of three consecutive 2-electron transfers on the sulfur center to obtain the product 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid, a well-known medium for the delivery of psychotic drugs. Thiyl radicals were detected but the absence of autocatalytic kinetics indicated that the radical pathway was a minor oxidation route. ESI-MS data showed that the S-oxide, contrary to known behavior of organosulfur compounds, is much more stable than the sulfinic acid. In conditions where the oxidizing equivalents are limited to a 4-electron transfer to only the sulfinic acid, the products obtained are a mixture of the S-oxide and the sulfonic acid with negligible amounts of the sulfinic acid. It appears the S-oxide is the preferred conformation over the sulfenic acid since no sulfenic acids have ever been stabilized without bulky substituent groups. The overall reaction scheme could be described and modeled by a minimal network of 18 reactions in which the major oxidants are HOBr and Br2(aq).

  5. Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano


    Replication of sub-micrometer structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper replica and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of induction heating embedded into the mold for the improvement of nanopattern replication....... A tool insert having a surface containing functional geometries in the sub-micrometer range was produced using aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. In order to provide elevated mold temperatures necessary for the complete replica of the pattern, a new mold setup was developed, which allows...... rapid heating of the cavity wall using an induction heating system. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple placed in the mold insert. The system was used to heat up the cavity wall with heating rates of up to 10 K/s. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used...

  6. Submicrometer particles and their effects on the association between air temperature and mortality in Brisbane, Australia. (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Tong, Shilu; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Yu, Weiwei


    Air temperature and pollution can jointly affect human health. Submicrometer particles appearing to have particularly harmful effects compared with the coarse ones. However, little is known about how the association between temperature and mortality is affected by these particles. This study examined the association between air temperature and mortality before and after adjustment for particle concentrations among different age and disease groups from 1995 to 2000 in Brisbane, Australia. The monitoring of particle size distribution within the 15-750nm range was carried out by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. Corresponding climate and air pollutant data were collected from relevant government agencies. The association between temperature and mortality was quantified using a Poisson time-series model within a distributed lag non-linear modelling framework. The results showed that the effects of air temperature on mortality were lower among the elderly and people with respiratory diseases, and greater among people with cardiovascular diseases after controlling for submicrometer particle concentrations. Submicrometer particles seem to be an important confounder for the temperature-mortality relationship, particularly among vulnerable groups, and should be taken into account when assessing the impacts of air temperature on human health. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification (United States)

    Zhiqiang Li; Zehui Jiang; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Xuejun Pan


    The response and behavior of bamboo green, timber, and yellow of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) to three pretreatments, sulfite (SPORL), dilute acid (DA), and alkali (NaOH), were investigated and compared with varied chemical loadings at 180

  8. FiveS rRNA sequences and fatty acid profiles of colourless sulfur-oxidising bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Ortiz-conde, B.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; Colwell, R.R.

    of these organisms have defied identification by API (Appareils et Procedes d'Identification) and biology systems. Hence, computer-aided MIS (Microbial Identification System) has been used to define their relatedness through fatty acid profiles. To characterize...

  9. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria. (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G; Jaramillo-Riveri, Sebastian; Baxter, Douglas J; Cannon, William R


    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, material flux, and thermodynamic profiles of the oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on modeling states using statistical thermodynamics and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the self-organization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals.

  10. Sulfur Assimilation in Developing Lupin Cotyledons Could Contribute Significantly to the Accumulation of Organic Sulfur Reserves in the Seed (United States)

    Tabe, Linda Marie; Droux, Michel


    It is currently assumed that the assimilation of sulfur into reduced forms occurs predominantly in the leaves of plants. However, developing seeds have a strong requirement for sulfur amino acids for storage protein synthesis. We have assessed the capacity of developing seeds of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) for sulfur assimilation. Cotyledons of developing lupin seeds were able to transfer the sulfur atom from 35S-labeled sulfate into seed proteins in vitro, demonstrating the ability of the developing cotyledons to perform all the steps of sulfur reduction and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis. Oxidized sulfur constituted approximately 30% of the sulfur in mature seeds of lupins grown in the field and almost all of the sulfur detected in phloem exuded from developing pods. The activities of three enzymes of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway were found in developing cotyledons in quantities theoretically sufficient to account for all of the sulfur amino acids that accumulate in the protein of mature lupin seeds. We conclude that sulfur assimilation by developing cotyledons is likely to be an important source of sulfur amino acids for the synthesis of storage proteins during lupin seed maturation. PMID:11351081

  11. Deciphering the Biophysical Effects of Oxidizing Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in Interferon-beta-1a using MS and HDX-MS (United States)

    Houde, Damian J.; Bou-Assaf, George M.; Berkowitz, Steven A.


    Introduction of a chemical change to one or more amino acids in a protein's polypeptide chain can result in various effects on its higher-order structure (HOS) and biophysical behavior (or properties). These effects range from no detectable change to significant structural or conformational alteration that can greatly affect the protein's biophysical properties and its resulting biological function. The ability to reliably detect the absence or presence of such changes is essential to understanding the structure-function relationship in a protein and in the successful commercial development of protein-based drugs (biopharmaceuticals). In this paper, we focus our attention on the latter by specifically elucidating the impact of oxidation on the HOS, structural dynamics, and biophysical properties of interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a). Oxidation is a common biochemical modification that occurs in many biopharmaceuticals, specifically in two naturally-occurring sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. To carry out this work, we used combinations of hydrogen peroxide and pH to differentially oxidize IFNβ-1a (to focus on only methionine oxidation versus methionine and cysteine oxidation). We then employed several analytical and biophysical techniques to acquire information about the differential impact of these two oxidation scenarios on IFNβ-1a. In particular, the use of MS-based techniques, especially HDX-MS, play a dominant role in revealing the differential effects.

  12. Inhibition investigation and determination of some quantum chemical parameters of 1-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)thiosemicarbazide on steel alloys in sulfuric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S.M.A.; Bahrami, M.J.; Dorehgiraee, A. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The inhibition effect of 1-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (DBT) on the corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel and mild steel in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution was investigated using weight loss and potentiostatic polarization methods. The experimental results suggest that DBT inhibits the corrosion of the steels in acid solution. The inhibition efficiencies increased as the concentration of the compound was increased. The calculated inhibition efficiencies from the two investigated methods were in good agreement. Potentiostatic polarization measurements indicate that DBT acts as a mixed type inhibitor for both alloys. The adsorption of inhibitor on the steel surfaces obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The structure of DBT was optimized using PM3 semi-empirical method. Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), energy levels, E{sub LUMO} - E{sub HOMO} (energy gap), dipole moment ({mu}), and Mulliken charge densities for this molecule were computed and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the surfaces of the alloys. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Two-Stage Separation of V(IV) and Al(III) by Crystallization and Solvent Extraction from Aluminum-Rich Sulfuric Acid Leaching Solution of Stone Coal (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing; Liu, Hong


    To improve separation of V(IV) and Al(III) from aluminum-rich sulfuric acid leaching solution of stone coal, the two-stage separation by crystallization and solvent extraction methods have been developed. A co-extraction coefficient ( k) was put forward to evaluate comprehensively co-extraction extent in different solutions. In the crystallization stage, 68.2% of aluminum can be removed from the solution. In the solvent extraction stage, vanadium was selectively extracted using di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid/tri-n-butyl phosphate from the crystalline mother solution, followed by H2SO4 stripped efficiently. A V2O5 product with purity of 98.39% and only 0.10% Al was obtained after oxidation, precipitation, and calcination. Compared with vanadium extraction from solution without crystallization, the counter-current extraction stage of vanadium can be decreased from 6 to 3 and co-extraction coefficient ( k) decreased from 2.51 to 0.58 with two-stage separation. It is suggested that the aluminum removal by crystallization can evidently weaken the influence of aluminum co-extraction on vanadium extraction and improve the selectivity of solvent extraction for vanadium.

  14. Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization. (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; van Dongen, Bart E; Lockyer, Nick P; Bull, Ian D; Orr, Patrick J


    Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we use pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to assess the mode of preservation of fossil microstructures, confirmed as melanosomes based on the presence of melanin, preserved in frogs from the Late Miocene Libros biota (NE Spain). Our results reveal a high abundance of organosulfur compounds and non-sulfurized fatty acid methyl esters in both the fossil tissues and host sediment; chemical signatures in the fossil tissues are inconsistent with preservation of phaeomelanin. Our results reflect preservation via the diagenetic incorporation of sulfur, i.e. sulfurization (natural vulcanization), and other polymerization processes. Organosulfur compounds and/or elevated concentrations of sulfur have been reported from melanosomes preserved in various invertebrate and vertebrate fossils and depositional settings, suggesting that preservation through sulfurization is likely to be widespread. Future studies of sulfur-rich fossil melanosomes require that the geochemistry of the host sediment is tested for evidence of sulfurization in order to constrain interpretations of potential phaeomelanosomes and thus of original integumentary colour in fossils.

  15. A combined experimental and computational study of the mechanism of fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethylsulfoxide using Amberlyst 70, PO43-/niobic acid, or sulfuric acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Das, Anirban [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weitz, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalyzed dehydration of d-fructose in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) using; Amberlyst 70, PO43-/niobic acid, and sulfuric acid as catalysts. The reaction has been studied and intermediates characterized using; 13C, 1H, and 17O NMR, and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI–MS). High level G4MP2 theory calculations are used to understand the thermodynamic landscape for the reaction mechanism in DMSO. We have experimentally identified two key intermediates in the dehydration of fructose to form HMF that were also identified, using theory, as local minima on the potential surface for reaction. A third intermediate, a species capable of undergoing keto–enol tautomerism, was also experimentally detected. However, it was not possible to experimentally distinguish between the keto and the enol forms. These data with different catalysts are consistent with common intermediates along the reaction pathway from fructose to HMF in DMSO. The role of oxygen in producing acidic species in reactions carried out in DMSO in presence of air is also discussed.

  16. Sulfur in Distillers Grains for Dairy Cattle (United States)

    Sulfur is an essential element needed by animals for many functions. About 0.15% of the body weight is sulfur. It is found in the amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, and taurine; in chondroitin sulfate of cartilage; and in the B-vitamins, thiamin and biotin. Methionine, thiam...



    Justel,F. J.; Claros, M.; Taboada, M. E.


    Abstract In Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different...

  18. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain. (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei


    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Corrosion inhibition in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions of high strength maraging steel by aminophenyl tetrazole as a corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M., E-mail: [Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), Advanced Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, PO. Box 800, Al-Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); National Research Centre (NRC), Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt)


    The corrosion of high strength maraging steel after varied immersion times in concentrated solution, 2.0 M, of sulfuric acid has been investigated. The work was also extended to study the effect of 5-(3-aminophenyl)-tetrazole (APTA) on the inhibition of the steel corrosion. The study has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. EIS spectra showed that the corrosion and polarization resistances decrease with increasing the immersion time of the steel before measurement and increase in the presence of APTA and the increase of its concentration. Polarization data agreed with the EIS measurements and indicated that the increase of immersion time increases the corrosion of steel by increasing its corrosion current and corrosion rate and lowering its polarization resistance. On the other hand, the addition of APTA and the increase of its concentration minimized the corrosion of steel through decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance at all exposure test periods. SEM and EDX investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the maraging steel in the 2.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the APTA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  20. Hydrogen embrittlement in superaustenitic stainless steels welded unions in sulfuric acid; Fragilizacao por hidrogenio em juntas soldadas de acos inoxidaveis superausteniticos em acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, T. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais e Tratamento de Superficies (LaMaTS)]. E-mail:; Kuromoto, N.K. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Nanopropriedades Mecanicas; Paredes, R.S.C. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    The embrittlement of the austenitic stainless steel by hydrogen has been known for more than four decades. Researches done into the behavior of the hydrogenated homogeneous structures, under cathodic charging at room temperature, have shown that the hydrogen induces phase transformations and nucleation of retarded superficial cracks during the outgassing which is followed by the end of the hydrogenation. The results obtained upon austenitic and superaustenitic stainless steels are few considering the changes produced in welded unions. The aim of this work is to evaluate mechanical properties of material and its relation to the nucleation of the cracks in the austenitic steels welds type AISI 904L submitted to hydrogenated solutions. The samples have been welded through the process MIG/MAG; the hydrogenation has been made catholically in a sulfuric acid solution of 1N, with variable time of 1 to 4 hours at the room temperature. An anode of platinum in and density of current 1000 A/m{sup 2} has been used. The outgassing has occurred at the room temperature. Many retarded superficial cracks with different morphologies have been observed. Regarding the hardness measure, major alterations in all the regions of the sample have not been noticed. (author)

  1. The Effects of Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Sheet Resistance and Transmittance in Poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: Poly(styrenesulfonate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teen-Hang Meen


    Full Text Available The conductivity of poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS films by adding various molar concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 was improved and studied in this paper. The sheet resistance of the doped PEDOT: PSS film was enhanced with increasing the ratio of H2SO4, but it drops after the maximum sheet resistance. The reason for this phenomenon is resulting from the fact that the H2SO4 preferentially react with the sorbitol which is so-called the pinacol rearrangement. The nonconductive anions of some PSS− were substituted by the conductive anions of hydrogen sulfate (HSO4- when the residual H2SO4 reacted with PSS. In addition to the substitution reaction, PEDOT chains were increasingly aggregated with increasing the ratio of H2SO4. After doped H2SO4, the sheet resistance of H2SO4-doped PEDOT: PSS film is improved nearly 36%; the surface roughness is reduced from 1.268 nm to 0.822 nm and the transmittance is up to 91.9% in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm.

  2. Effect of Immersion Time and Cooling Mode on the Electrochemical Behavior of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Sulfuric Acid Medium (United States)

    Lekbir, Choukri; Dahoun, Nessrine; Guetitech, Asma; Hacid, Abdenour; Ziouche, Aicha; Ouaad, Kamel; Djadoun, Amar


    In this work, we investigated the influence of galvanizing immersion time and cooling modes environments on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel, in 1 M sulfuric acid electrolyte at room temperature using potentiodynamic polarization technique. In addition, the evolution of thickness, structure and microstructure of zinc coatings for different immersion times and two cooling modes (air and water) is characterized, respectively, by using of Elcometer scan probe, x-ray diffraction and metallography analysis. The analysis of the behavior of steel and galvanized steel, vis-a-vis corrosion, by means of corrosion characteristic parameters as anodic (β a) and cathodic (β c) Tafel slopes, corrosion potential (E corr), corrosion current density (i corr), corrosion rate (CR) and polarization resistance (R p), reveals that the galvanized steel has anticorrosion properties much better than that of steel. More the immersion time increases, more the zinc coatings thickness increases, and more these properties become better. The comparison between the two cooling modes shows that the coatings of zinc produced by hot-dip galvanization and air-cooled provides a much better protection to steel against corrosion than those cooled by quenching in water which exhibit a brittle corrosive behavior due to the presence of cracks.

  3. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane


    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  4. Enhancement of gold grade through arsenic removal in the gold concentrate using sulfuric acid baking and hot water leaching (United States)

    On, Hyun-sung; Lim, Dae-hack; Myung, Eun-ji; Kim, Hyun-soo; Park, Cheon-young


    In order to improve gold recovery, in general, the roasting process is carried out on gold concentrate. However in this process, Arsenic(As) is released from the gold concentrate and valuable elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb are converted into oxides. This causes air pollution through the release of As and loss of valuable elements by discarding the oxide minerals in the tailings. In order to prevent the release of As and the loss of valuable metals, an acid baking experiment was carried out on the gold concentrate with the addition of an H2SO4 solution. The baking effect, H2SO4 concentration effect and the effects of changing the baking time were examined using an electric furnace. In experimental results, soluble metal sulfates such as Rhomboclase and Mikasite were formed in the baked samples as seen through XRD analysis. In hot(70 degree Celsius) water leaching of the roast and baked samples, As the contents leached were 60 times more in the baked sample than the roast sample, and the Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contents were 17, 10, 14, 13 times in the baked sample than in the roast sample, respectively. In the water leached solid-residues, the maximum gold grade was upgraded by 33% due to the acid baking effect. It is confirmed that acid baking with H2SO4 prevented As release into the air and the recovery of valuable metals through hot water leaching such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb which were formerly discarded in the tailings. Acknowledgment : This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  5. Nanostructured PbO2-PANi composite materials for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in acidic sulfuric medium (United States)

    Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Binh Phan, Thi; Tot Pham, Thi; Hieu Vu, Huu


    Hybrid materials based on PbO2 and PANi were prepared by cyclic voltammetry combined with chemical method. Firstly, PbO2 and PbO2-PANi were deposited on stainless steel by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1. Next, they were immersed in acidic aniline solution (0.1 M) to form new fresh PbO2-PANi composites. The properties of materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, IR- spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrocatalytic oxidation for methanol of all PbO2-PANi layers was investigated in acidic medium by potentiodynamic measure at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1 in the range of 1.4 V to 2.2 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl electrode. The obtained results indicated that the composites prepared by above combined method could significantly enhance the electrocatalysis for oxidation of methanol.

  6. Impact of Chinese anthropogenic emissions on submicrometer aerosol concentration at Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iida


    Full Text Available Rapid Asian economic development might engender secondary impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles over the western Pacific after conversion of gaseous pollutants such as SO2. To elucidate changes in aerosol concentrations in leeward areas undergoing remarkable industrialization, the number-size distributions of submicrometer (0.3–1.0 μm aerosols were measured at Murododaira (36.6° N, 137.6° E, 2450 m a.s.l. on the western flank of Mount Tateyama in central Japan during January 1999–February 2009. Nighttime data obtained from 2400 to 0500 were used to analyze free-tropospheric aerosol concentration. Monthly average volume concentrations were calculated for months with >50% daily data coverage. Volume concentrations of submicrometer aerosols were high in spring to early summer and low in winter. Significant increasing trends at 95% confidence levels were found for volume concentrations in winter–spring. Simulated monthly anthropogenic aerosol concentrations at Mt. Tateyama from results of regional aerosol modeling with emission inventory up to 2005 showed seasonal variation and winter–spring increasing trends similar to those of observed aerosol concentration. According to the model analyses, the contribution of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations derived from China was high during winter–spring (60–80% of total anthropogenic aerosols at Mt. Tateyama. This accords with the increasing trend observed for winter–spring. Because SO42− is the dominant component of total anthropogenic aerosols, these results suggest that increasing anthropogenic emissions, especially for SO2, in China, engender enhancement of submicrometer-diameter aerosols over Japan during winter–spring.

  7. The effect of organic acids and sulfur dioxide on C4 compound production and β-glucosidase activity of Oenococcus oeni from wines under acidic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturano C


    Full Text Available Carmen Maturano,1 Luciana del Valle Rivero,2 María José Rodríguez Vaquero,2 Fabiana María Saguir2 1Institute for Research and Development in Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Alternative Energy (PROBIEN, CONICET, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Comahue, Neuquén, 2Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacy, National University of Tucuman, Tucumán, Argentina Abstract: The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of l-malic and citric acids and SO2 on two biochemical properties (diacetyl/acetoin/2,3-butanediol formation and β-glucosidase activity relevant to flavor development in six Oenococcus oeni strains from wines at pH 4.8 and 3.8. Cells were cultured in MRS without citrate (control medium and combined with l-malic acid (2 g/L, citric acid (0.7 g/L, and SO2 (80 mg/L at pH 4.8 and 3.8. All the test strains grew at all conditions tested including in the presence of SO2 and at initial pH 3.8, even though growth parameters were maximum in the presence of both the acids at pH 4.8. Organic acids were depleted totally regardless of the condition examined, in which degradation of l-malic acid was faster than that of citric acid. Diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol levels significantly varied depending on the strain for a given condition, for example, at pH 4.8 in control medium the highest value (6.55±0.31 mg/L, strain MS25 represented almost threefold the lowest one (2.43±0.22 mg/L, strain MS9. There was also variability for each strain depending on the initial pH (strains MS25, MS27, and MS48 and the presence of organic acids (all strains except MS25 but not SO2. In addition, among strains there was a trend toward mainly diacetyl formation (55%–75%. O. oeni MS9, MS20, and MS46 yielding adequate diacetyl levels were selected for investigating specific β-glucosidase activity and its possible cell localization. Cell suspensions of all the selected strains exhibited positive

  8. The Optimum Production Method for Quality Improvement of Recycled Aggregates Using Sulfuric Acid and the Abrasion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseog Kim


    Full Text Available There has been increased deconstruction and demolition of reinforced concrete structures due to the aging of the structures and redevelopment of urban areas resulting in the generation of massive amounts of construction. The production volume of waste concrete is projected to increase rapidly over 100 million tons by 2020. However, due to the high cement paste content, recycled aggregates have low density and high absorption ratio. They are mostly used for land reclamation purposes with low added value instead of multiple approaches. This study was performed to determine an effective method to remove cement paste from recycled aggregates by using the abrasion and substituting the process water with acidic water. The aim of this study is to analyze the quality of the recycled fine aggregates produced by a complex method and investigate the optimum manufacturing conditions for recycled fine aggregates based on the design of experiment. The experimental parameters considered were water ratio, coarse aggregate ratio, and abrasion time and, as a result of the experiment, data concerning the properties of recycled sand were obtained. It was found that high-quality recycled fine aggregates can be obtained with 8.57 min of abrasion-crusher time and a recycled coarse aggregate ratio of over 1.5.

  9. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production. (United States)

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F


    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  10. Sub-micrometer adhesion modulation on polymer surfaces containing gratings produced by two-beam interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, M. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Vass, Cs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Kurdi, G. [Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Heiner, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Deli, M. [Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Temesvari krt. 62, H-6726 Szeged (Hungary); Bor, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Marti, O. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)


    Grating-like structures having a period of 416 nm were produced on the surface of poly-carbonate films by two-beam interference realized by the fourth harmonic of Nd:Yag laser. The period of the structures was half of that the applied master grating, the ratio of the width of the valleys to the period was tuned by the intensity, the depth of the modulation was increased by the number of laser pulses. Pulsed force mode atomic force microscopy was applied to study the topography and the adhesion on structured surfaces with sub-micrometer resolution. The adhesion modulation caused by the topography was calculated along line cross-sections of the AFM pictures taking into account the tip and surface geometry. The separation of the effects of the topography and the laser-induced material changes proved that the adhesion is increased at the areas illuminated by laser beam having a fluence above the melting threshold. The laser-induced material changes cause an additional adhesion increase at the valleys of the structure. It was shown that the adherence of albumin results in dense packing on poly-carbonate surface parts having sub-micrometer periodic adhesion modulation.

  11. Reaction of iodine atoms with submicrometer squalane and squalene droplets: mechanistic insights into heterogeneous reactions. (United States)

    Popolan-Vaida, Denisia M; Wilson, Kevin R; Leone, Stephen R


    The gas-phase reaction of iodine atoms with hydrocarbon molecules is energetically unfavorable, and there is no direct evidence for iodinated product formation by either H abstraction or I addition reactions at ambient temperature. Here we consider the possible heterogeneous reaction of I atoms with submicrometer droplets composed of a saturated alkane, squalane (Sq), and an unsaturated alkene, squalene (Sqe). The investigations are performed in an atmospheric pressure photochemical flow tube reactor in conjunction with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer and a scanning mobility particle sizer. Squalane, a branched alkane, is unreactive toward I atoms within the signal-to-noise, and an upper limit of the effective reactive uptake coefficient is estimated to be γI(Sq) ≤ 8.58 × 10(–7). In contrast, the reaction of I atoms with unsaturated submicrometer squalene droplets results in observable iodinated squalene products. The effective reactive uptake coefficient of I atom with squalene particles is determined to be γI(Sqe) = (1.20 ± 0.52) × 10(–4) at an average I concentration of 1.5 × 10(14) molecules·cm(–3).

  12. Organically bound sulfur in refractory organic substances. (United States)

    Abbt-Braun, G; Jahnel, J B


    The sulfur compounds of refractory organic substances (ROS) of different origin have been characterized. Total organic sulfur was determined by elemental analysis. Sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine were analyzed chromatographically after hydrolysis with HCl or by proteolytic digestion using enzymes. The results obtained from elemental analysis show that the total amount of sulfur is strongly dependent on the origin of the samples, because of different environmental factors during the formation of ROS. For naturally occurring samples isolated from soil seepage water, bog lake water and ground water the carbon-to-sulfur atomic ratios (C/S) decrease with the stage of humification, because of preferential loss of carbon. In humic acids (HA) isolated from secondary effluent the high value of the nitrogen-to-sulfur ratio (N/S) was indicative of a large amount of protein-derived nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In the solutions from acid hydrolysis the total amount of amino acid carbon related to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was generally less than 5%. Percentages of cystine related to all the amino acids detected were in the range 4 to 16%; methionine was below the detection limit for most samples. The results show that cystine is very important among the amino acids released. Enzymatic release generally resulted in smaller amounts of amino acids, indicating that these molecules are not only present in bioavailable protein-like structures. The data were compared with those from other approaches reported in the literature for the speciation of sulfur forms in ROS, including potentiometric titration, differential reduction methods, and spectroscopic investigations.

  13. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  14. Corrosion Study of Mild Steel in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solution Using 4-Methyl-4H-1,2,4-Triazole-3-Thiol and 2-Mercaptonicotinic Acid-An Experimental and Theoretical Study. (United States)

    Mehmeti, Valbonë V; Berisha, Avni R


    The corrosion behavior of mild steel in 0.1 M aqueous sulfuric acid medium has been studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, quantum chemical calculations, and molecular dynamic simulations in the presence and absence of 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 2-mercaptonicotinic acid. Potentiodynamic measurements indicate that these compounds mostly act as mixed inhibitors due to their adsorption on the mild steel surface. The goal of the study was to use theoretical calculations to better understand the inhibition. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the adsorption behavior of the studied molecules onto Fe (1 1 1) and Fe2O3 (1 1 1) surface. The molecules were also studied with the density functional theory (DFT), using the B3LYP functional in order to determine the relationship between the molecular structure and the corrosion inhibition behavior. More accurate adsorption energies between the studied molecules and iron or iron oxide were calculated by using DFT with periodic boundary conditions. The calculated theoretical parameters gave important assistance into the understanding the corrosion inhibition mechanism expressed by the molecules and are in full agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Removal of P-chloro Phenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Chestnut Shell Modified by Sulfuric Acid: Study of Adsorption Kinetic and Isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Godini


    Full Text Available Background: Present of p-chloro phenol in the environment due to high toxicity, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, powerful odor production and stability in the environment caused to be categorized as priority pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of p-chloro phenol from aqueous solution using chestnut shell modified by sulfuric acid. Methods: This study was an experimental study and chestnut shell (Quercus brantii Var. persica was used as an adsorbent. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration on the adsorption process were evaluated, in a batch scale. The characterizations of the raw and modified adsorbent were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometer (XRD. Langmuir and Fruindlich isotherm models and pseudo-first order kinetic, pseudo-second order kinetic were evaluated by experimental data. Results: The results showed that the removal efficiency of p-chloro phenol increased with increasing of the contact time and adsorbent dosage, and had a reverse effect with increasing of pH and p-chloro phenol initial concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity of p-chloro phenol by modified chestnut shell adsorbent was achieved of 3.33 mg/g and the maximum removal efficiency of p-chloro phenol was 87 percent at pH=4. The experimental data were well descripted by Freundlich isotherm (R2>0.92 and pseudo-second order kinetic (R2>0.94. Conclusion: This study showed that the chestnut shell could be effectively used at removal of p-chloro phenol from aqueous solutions. As the chestnut shell is a waste, so it can be applied as an adsorbent for removal of pollutants such as p-chloro phenol.

  16. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén


    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine-H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine-HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  17. Influence of several non ferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez-Mateos, F. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain))


    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from sulfuric picking processes several kinds of ferrous oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained which can be used like raw materials for the chemical industry. Generally, in this process different mixtures of then are obtained and only in the most drastic conditions, pure products can be obtained. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Al(III), Zn(II) and Mo(VI) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes, selecting the most favorable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  18. Bioleaching of metals from soils or sediments using the microbial sulfur cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichy, R.


    Reduced inorganic sulfur species like elemental sulfur or sulfide are sensitive to changes in oxidative environments. Generally, inorganic reduced sulfur exists in natural environments in a solid phase, whereas its oxidation leads to sulfur solubilization and a production of acidity. This

  19. Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries (United States)

    Cui, Yanhui; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Junwei; Liang, Xiao; Baker, Andrew P.; Qu, Deyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huayu; Zhang, Xinhe


    Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

  20. Thermoelectric properties of Si/CoSi2 sub-micrometer composites prepared by melt-spinning technique (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Ohishi, Yuji; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke


    We here report on the influence of CoSi2 precipitates on the thermoelectric properties of heavily doped p-type Si. A simple self-assembly process using a melt-spinning technique followed by spark plasma sintering is introduced to prepare bulk Si/CoSi2 composites with a nominal composition of (Si0.99B0.01)95Co5. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations present clear evidence of a sub-micrometer CoSi2 phase with a size ranging from 50 to 500 nm. These sub-micrometer precipitates resulted in a retention of the high electrical performance of heavily doped Si, while simultaneously reducing thermal conductivity by over 20% compared to a coarse CoSi2 phase (1-10 μm) in a comparative sample prepared by arc melting and spark plasma sintering. As a result, a figure of merit ZT value of 0.21 at 1073 K was achieved in the sub-micrometer Si/CoSi2, an increase of 16% compared with the ZT value for homogeneous p-type Si with a similar carrier concentration. This suggests that the self-assembled sub-micrometer inclusions effectively enhanced the thermoelectric performance of Si-based thermoelectric materials.

  1. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard


    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...... of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from H2S dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the H2S contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than...... with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...

  2. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen


    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A

  3. Theoretical studies of the marine sulfur cycle (United States)

    Toon, Owen B.; Kasting, James B.; Liu, May S.


    Several reduced sulfur compounds are produced by marine organisms and then enter the atmosphere, where they are oxidized and ultimately returned to the ocean or the land. The oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) flux, in particular, represents a significant fraction of the annual global sulfur input to the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, this gas is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane sulfonic acid, and other organic acids which are relatively stable and about which little is known. SO2 is a short lived gas which, in turn, is converted to sulfuric acid and other sulfate compounds which contribute significantly to acid rain. Because of the complexity of the sulfur system, it is not well understood even in the unperturbed atmosphere. However, a number of new observations and experiments have led to a significant increase in the understanding of this system. A number of one dimensional model experiments were conducted on the gas phase part of the marine sulfur cycle. The results indicate the measured concentration of DMS and the amplitude of its diurnal cycle are in agreement with estimates of its global flux. It was also found that DMS can make a large contribution to the background SO2 concentration in the free troposphere. Estimates of CS2 concentrations in the atmosphere are inconsistent with estimated fluxes; however, measured reaction rates are consistent with the observed steep tropospheric gradient in CS2. Observations of CS2 are extremely sparse. Further study is planned.

  4. Electro-optical and dielectric characterization of submicrometer-sized PDLC films (United States)

    Krishna Koduru, Hari


    This report concerns thin films (25 µm thickness) of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composites having submicrometer-sized nematic liquid crystal domains. Such PDLC films were prepared by performing photo-induced phase separation of mixed soft material composed from the room-temperature nematic liquid crystal 4-n-heptyl cyanobiphenyl (7CB) and photo-curable polymer NOA-65. Being of interest for electro-optical (EO) and other applications driven by alternating-current electric field, the produced composites were studied by EO measurements and complex impedance spectroscopy. For the examined soft-solid composite material with a large content of submicro-confined nematic, was obtained information about the dielectric permittivity and molecular dynamics, useful for practice.

  5. Structural, chemical and optical properties of the polyethylene–copper sulfide composite thin films synthesized using polythionic acid as sulfur source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancutiene, Ingrida [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu st. 19, LT-50254 Kaunas (Lithuania); Navea, Juan G. [Chemistry Department, Skidmore College, 815N. Broadway, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 (United States); Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: Several crystalline copper sulfide phases (spionkopite, anilite, digenite, djurleite, chalcocite) were obtained in as synthesized samples (PE-Cu{sub x}S) and elucidated using XRD. Thickness of the films obtained ranged from several microns to ∼18 μm and depended on the Cu(II/I) exposure time. Bandgap of the materials obtained was measured and ranged from 1.88 to 1.17 eV. Importantly, heating samples, many copper sulfide crystalline phase containing films at 100 °C in inert atmosphere invariably resulted in a single copper sulfide, anilite (Cu{sub 1.75}S), phase. - Highlights: • We investigated deposition of a single phase copper sulfide on polyethylene. • A single sulfur precursor – H{sub 2}S{sub 33}O{sub 6} – was used. • Increasing exposure time to Cu(II/I) yielded Cu{sub x}S with higher x values. • Heating at 100 °C in N{sub 2} resulted in a single anilite (Cu{sub 1.75}S) phase. • Cu(I) and Cu(II) compounds were detected using XPS. - Abstract: Synthesis and properties of thin copper sulfide films deposited on polyethylene were explored for the development of low cost hybrid organic–inorganic photovoltaic materials. Polyethylene was used as a model organic host material for thin copper sulfide film formation. Adsorption–diffusion method was used which utilized consecutive exposure of polyethylene to polythionic acid followed by aqueous Cu(II/I) solution. Several crystalline copper sulfide phases were obtained in synthesized samples and elucidated using X-ray diffraction. Surface chemical composition determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of copper sulfides in combination with copper hydroxide. Thickness of the composite material films ranged from several microns to ∼18 μm and depended on the Cu(II/I) exposure time. Bandgap of the materials obtained was measured and ranged from 1.88 to 1.17 eV. Importantly, heating these complex copper sulfide crystalline phase containing films at 100

  6. Investigations on the "Extreme" Microbial Methane Cycle within the Sediments of an Acidic Impoundment of the Inactive Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine: Herman Pit, Clear Lake, California. (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Baesman, S. M.; Miller, L. G.; Wei, J. H. C.; Welander, P. V.


    The inactive Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine is located in a volcanic region having geothermal flow and gas inputs into the Herman Pit impoundment. The acidic (pH 2 - 4) waters of the Herman Pit are permeated by hundreds of continuous flow gas seeps that contain CO2, H2S and CH4. We sampled one seep and found it to be composed of 95 % CO2 and 5 % CH4, in agreement with earlier measurements. Only a trace of ethane (10 - 20 ppm) was found and propane was below detection, resulting in a high CH4/C2H6 + C3H8 ratio of > 5,000, while the δ13CH4 and the δ13CO2 were respectively - 24 and - 11 per mil. Collectively, these results suggested a complex origin for the methane, being made up of a thermogenic component resulting from pyrolysis of buried organics, along with an active methanogenic portion. The relatively 12C-enriched value for the CO2 suggested a reworking of the ebullitive methane by methanotrophic bacteria. We found that dissolved methane in the collected water from 2-4 m depth was high (~ 400 µM), which would support methanotrophy in the lake's aerobic biomes. We therefore tested the ability of bottom sediments to consume methane by conducting aerobic incubations of slurried bottom sediments. Methane was removed from the headspace of live slurries, and subsequent additions of methane to the headspace over the course of 2-3 months resulted in faster removal rates suggesting a buildup of the population of methanotrophs. This activity could be transferred to an artificial medium originally devised for the cultivation of acidophilic iron oxidizing bacteria (Silverman and Lundgren, 1959; J. Bacteriol. 77: 642 - 647), suggesting the possibility of future cultivation of acidophilic methanotrophs. A successful extraction of some hopanoid compounds from the sediments was achieved, although the results were too preliminary at the time of this writing to identify any hopanoids specifically linked to methanotrophic bacteria. Further efforts to amplify functional genes for

  7. The Sulfur Cycle (United States)

    Kellogg, W. W.; And Others


    A model estimating the contributions of sulfur compounds by natural and human activities, and the rate of removal of sulfur from the atmosphere, is based on a review of the existing literature. Areas requiring additional research are identified. (AL)

  8. Formation and Order Enhancement of submicrometer and nanoscale features in thin films (United States)

    Lau, Cindy Yee Cin

    The wide applications of two-dimensionally ordered submicrometer features have stimulated the development of cheap and fast fabrication techniques throughout the years. We showed that electrohydrodynamic patterning, which is known to produce ordered pillar arrays on polymer thin film at micrometer scale, could be extended to create submicrometer features as small as 351 +/- 78 nm quickly and economically. However, the dielectric breakdown of polymer imposed a fundamental limit on further reducing the feature size to nanoscale. We overcame the limited resolution by bottom-up colloidal assemblies which used nanoparticles between 49.8 +/- 8.7 nm and 117.6 +/- 6.7 nm as building blocks. By employing flow-coating deposition, we were able to control the deposited amount and achieve large area of uniform colloidal film easily. However, the single crystalline domain of a close-packed monolayer remained limited due to the restricted time for ordering through lateral capillary pressure before the particles were in contact. That motivated the deposition of initially ordered colloidal dispersions, attained through deionizing the solutions to extend electrostatic double layers for long-range repulsion. Although the deposited amount agreed reasonably well with our model adapted for a power-law fluid, the shear-thinning viscosity and final structure both revealed that the initial order was destroyed at high shear. On the other hand, the particle order was partially sustained during low shear depositions, yet the domain size was not particularly extensive. We attributed the limited order to the high compressibility of double layer during the evaporation phase. To improve the order of a colloidal monolayer, we investigated the effect of excess free ligands on 8.0 +/- 0.3 nm gold nanoparticles deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We showed that the excess ligands, oleylamine, not only improved the order of particles that were deposited together with them, but could also

  9. Secondary submicrometer impact cratering on the surface of asteroid 25143 Itokawa (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Yakame, Shogo; Karouji, Yuzuru; Uesugi, Masayuki; Langenhorst, Falko


    Particle RA-QD02-0265 returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa displayed a unique abundance of submicrometer-sized (≤500 nm) impact craters, which are rarely observed among the Hayabusa samples. The particle consists of intensely twinned diopside that was subjected to a large-scale shock event before exposure to the space environment on the surface of 25143 Itokawa. Intense (sub-)micrometer-scale impact cratering may suggest a long surface exposure and, hence, a long residence time of regolith material on the surface of small asteroids, bearing implications for the dynamical evolution of these bodies. However, our combined FE-SEM and FIB/TEM study shows that the degree of solar wind-induced space weathering and the accumulation of solar flare tracks are not exceptionally different from other Hayabusa particles with surface exposure ages estimated to be less than 1 ka. A 500 nm wide crater on the surface of RA-QD02-0265 exhibits microstructural damage to a depth of 400 nm below its floor and contains residues of Fe-Ni metal, excluding a formation by space craft exhausts or curatorial handling. The geometrical clustering among the 15 craters is unlikely random, and we conclude that the craters have formed through the impacts of secondary projectiles (at least partially Fe-Ni metal) created in a nearby (micro-)impact event. Besides structural damage by the solar wind and deposition of impact-generated melts and vapors, secondary impact cratering on the submicrometer-scale is another potential mechanism to modify the spectral properties of individual regolith grains. The lack of extensively exposed regolith grains supports a dynamic regolith on the surface of 25143 Itokawa.

  10. Structure of a fatty acid-binding protein from Bacillus subtilis determined by sulfur-SAD phasing using in-house chromium radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nan, Jie; Zhou, Yanfeng; Yang, Cheng


    Sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (S-SAD) and halide-soaking methods are increasingly being used for ab initio phasing. With the introduction of in-house Cr X-ray sources, these methods benefit from the enhanced anomalous scattering of S and halide atoms, respectively. Here, these met......Sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (S-SAD) and halide-soaking methods are increasingly being used for ab initio phasing. With the introduction of in-house Cr X-ray sources, these methods benefit from the enhanced anomalous scattering of S and halide atoms, respectively. Here......, these methods were combined to determine the crystal structure of BsDegV, a DegV protein-family member from Bacillus subtilis. The protein was cocrystallized with bromide and low-redundancy data were collected to 2.5 A resolution using Cr Kalpha radiation. 17 heavy-atom sites (ten sulfurs and seven bromides......) were located using standard methods. The anomalous scattering of some of the BsDegV S atoms and Br atoms was weak, thus neither sulfurs nor bromides could be used alone for structure determination using the collected data. When all 17 heavy-atom sites were used for SAD phasing, an easily interpretable...

  11. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  12. Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling


    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise.

    Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin.

    For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm, a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass

  13. submitter Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Rondo, L; Bianchi, F; Duplissy, J; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Makhmutov, V; Petäjä, T; Praplan, A P; Riccobono, F; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J


    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary sys...

  14. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle. (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L


    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pvitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole body protein deposition and plasma amino acid profiles in growing and/or finishing pigs fed increasing levels of sulfur amino acids with and without Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge. (United States)

    Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Frey, B; Payne, H G; Pluske, J R


    A split plot experiment with 72 male pigs weighing 52.9 ± 0.39 kg (mean ± SEM) was conducted to examine AA partitioning and body protein deposition (PD) in response to increasing dietary sulfur amino acids (SAA) with or without immune system (IS) activation. The main plot was with and without IS activation, and 4 diets containing different amounts of standardized ileal digestible (SID) SAA (SAA to Lys ratios of 0.45, 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75) were the subplots. Activation of IS was achieved by intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS; serotype 055:B5, Sigma; 30 μg/kg BW) every Monday and Thursday, with control pigs injected with sterile saline. Maximum body PD, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and minimum plasma urea content were achieved at SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.55 in saline-injected pigs but were achieved at a SID SAA:Lys ratio of 0.75 in IS-activated pigs. Immune system activation increased rectal temperature (P < 0.05), plasma haptoglobin (1.1 vs. 2.0 mg/mL; P < 0.001), and the proportion of neutrophils (0.39 vs. 0.42; P < 0.05) and decreased serum albumin content (38.4 vs. 36.8 g/L; P < 0.01). Increasing dietary SAA had no effects on these variables. Immune system-activated pigs had lower levels of homocysteine (Hcy; P < 0.001) and a lower Ser content (P < 0.05). Results showed that increasing dietary SAA as DL-methionine in growing and/or finishing pigs altered plasma AA contents, and that use efficiency of the AA was improved when greater levels of SAA were supplemented in IS-activated pigs.

  16. Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfur-reducing carboxydotrophic bacterium from an acidic hot spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Kawaichi, Satoshi


    ) grew chemolithoautotrophically on CO (100% in the gas phase) with reduction of ferric citrate, amorphous iron (III) oxide, 9,10-anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur. No carboxydotrophic growth occurred with sulfate, sulfite, nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptor. During...... growth on CO, H(2) and CO(2) were produced. Growth occurred on molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source. Growth was observed on various organic compounds under an N(2) atmosphere with the reduction of ferric iron. The temperature range for carboxydotrophic growth...... belongs to the thermophilic carboxydotrophic bacterial genus Carboxydothermus, with sequence similarities of 94.1-96.6% to members of this genus. The isolate can be distinguished from other members of the genus Carboxydothermus by its ability to grow with elemental sulfur or thiosulfate coupled to CO...

  17. Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hausmann, Bela; Pelikan, Claus; Herbold, Craig W


    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic...... peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur......-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur...

  18. Performance of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient submicrometer particles from a softmist inhaler in a characteristic model of the airways. (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Tian, Geng; Li, Xiang; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael


    Excipient enhanced growth (EEG) of inhaled submicrometer pharmaceutical aerosols is a recently proposed method intended to significantly reduce extrathoracic deposition and improve lung delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the size increase of combination drug and hygroscopic excipient particles in a characteristic model of the airways during inhalation using both in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The airway model included a characteristic mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) region through the third bifurcation and was enclosed in a chamber geometry used to simulate the thermodynamic conditions of the lungs. Both in vitro results and CFD simulations were in close agreement and indicated that EEG delivery of combination submicrometer particles could nearly eliminate MT deposition for inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols. Compared with current inhalers, the proposed delivery approach represents a 1-2 order of magnitude reduction in MT deposition. Transient inhalation was found to influence the final size of the aerosol based on changes in residence times and relative humidity values. Aerosol sizes following EEG when exiting the chamber (2.75-4.61 μm) for all cases of initial submicrometer combination particles were equivalent to or larger than many conventional pharmaceutical aerosols that frequently have MMADs in the range of 2-3 μm.

  19. The global sulfur cycle (United States)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)


    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  20. Characterization of dual-phase steel microstructure by combined submicrometer EBSD and EPMA carbon measurements. (United States)

    Pinard, Philippe T; Schwedt, Alexander; Ramazani, Ali; Prahl, Ulrich; Richter, Silvia


    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurements are combined to characterize an industrial produced dual-phase steel containing some bainite fraction. High-resolution carbon mappings acquired on a field emission electron microprobe are utilized to validate and improve the identification of the constituents (ferrite, martensite, and bainite) performed by EBSD using the image quality and kernel average misorientation. The combination eliminates the ambiguity between the identification of bainite and transformation-induced dislocation zones, encountered if only the kernel average misorientation is considered. The detection of carbon in high misorientation regions confirms the presence of bainite. These results are corroborated by secondary electron images after nital etching. Limitations of this combined method due to differences between the spatial resolution of EBSD and EPMA are assessed. Moreover, a quantification procedure adapted to carbon analysis is presented and used to measure the carbon concentration in martensite and bainite on a submicrometer scale. From measurements on reference materials, this method gives an accuracy of 0.02 wt% C and a precision better than 0.05 wt% C despite unavoidable effects of hydrocarbon contamination.

  1. Sub-micrometer resolution proximity X-ray microscope with digital image registration. (United States)

    Chkhalo, N I; Pestov, A E; Salashchenko, N N; Sherbakov, A V; Skorokhodov, E V; Svechnikov, M V


    A compact laboratory proximity soft X-ray microscope providing submicrometer spatial resolution and digital image registration is described. The microscope consists of a laser-plasma soft X-ray radiation source, a Schwarzschild objective to illuminate the test sample, and a two-coordinate detector for image registration. Radiation, which passes through the sample under study, generates an absorption image on the front surface of the detector. Optical ceramic YAG:Ce was used to convert the X-rays into visible light. An image was transferred from the scintillator to a charge-coupled device camera with a Mitutoyo Plan Apo series lens. The detector's design allows the use of lenses with numerical apertures of NA = 0.14, 0.28, and 0.55 without changing the dimensions and arrangement of the elements of the device. This design allows one to change the magnification, spatial resolution, and field of view of the X-ray microscope. A spatial resolution better than 0.7 μm and an energy conversion efficiency of the X-ray radiation with a wavelength of 13.5 nm into visible light collected by the detector of 7.2% were achieved with the largest aperture lens.

  2. Single molecule analysis of bacterial polymerase chain reaction products in submicrometer fluidic channels. (United States)

    Stavis, Samuel M; Corgié, Stéphane C; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Craighead, Harold G; Walker, Larry P


    Laser induced fluorescence in submicrometer fluidic channels was used to characterize the synthesis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from a model bacterial system in order to explore the advantages and limitations of on chip real time single molecule PCR analysis. Single oligonucleotide universal bacterial primers and PCR amplicons from the 16S rDNA of Thermobifida fusca (325 bp) were directly detected at all phases of the reaction with low sample consumption and without post-amplification purification or size screening. Primers were fluorescently labeled with single Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorophores, resulting in double labeled, two color amplicons. PCR products were driven electrokinetically through a fused silica channel with a 250 nm by 500 nm rectangular cross section. Lasers with 488 nm and 568 nm wavelengths were focused and overlapped on the channel for fluorescence excitation. All molecules entering the channel were rapidly and uniformly analyzed. Photon burst analysis was used to detect and identify individual primers and amplicons, and fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy were used to account for analyte flow speed. Conventional gel and capillary electrophoresis were also used to characterize the PCR amplification, and the results of differences in detection sensitivity and analyte discrimination were examined. Limits were imposed by the purity and labeling efficiency of the PCR reagents, which must be improved in parallel with increases in detection sensitivity.

  3. A linear piezoelectric stepper motor with submicrometer step size and centimeter travel range. (United States)

    Judy, J W; Polla, D L; Robbins, W P


    A linear stepper motor capable of submicrometer controlled movement has been constructed using the piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate (PZT). This motor consists of a 25.4-mmx12.7-mmx1.6-mm piezoelectric driving element connected between a glider base and an attached load. The device is inset in a trench to constrain motion to one dimension. An electrode on the bottom of the glider is used with an electrode on the top of the trench to implement an electrostatic clamp. This clamp enables the stepper motor to climb slopes of up to 12 degrees , whereas without the clamp only slopes of 6 degrees or less are tolerated. A linear inertial sliding motion can be achieved by expanding and contracting the piezoelectric bar, but the addition of the electrostatic clamp enhances the movement capabilities of the glider by the periodic clamping and unclamping of the glider. Glider velocities of 5.7-476 mum/s are measured by timing the movement of the glider over a 1.0-mm portion of the track through an optical microscope. Displacement steps of 0.07-1.1 mum are calculated by dividing the measured glider velocity by the frequency of the applied voltage pulses. Displacement step size and glider velocity are controlled by the application of PZT extension voltages ranging from +/-(60-340) V.

  4. High Gain Submicrometer Optical Amplifier at Near-Infrared Communication Band. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Yang, Sen; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong; Guo, Pengfei; Liang, Junwu; Huang, Yu; Pan, Anlian; Duan, Xiangfeng


    Nanoscale near-infrared optical amplification is important but remains a challenge to achieve. Here we report a unique design of silicon and erbium silicate core-shell nanowires for high gain submicrometer optical amplification in the near-infrared communication band. The high refraction index silicon core is used to tightly confine the optical field within the submicron structures, and the single crystalline erbium-ytterbium silicates shell is used as the highly efficient gain medium. Both theoretical and experimental results show that, by systematically tuning the core diameter and shell thickness, a large portion of the optical power can be selectively confined to the erbium silicate shell gain medium to enable a low loss waveguide and high gain optical amplifier. Experimental results further demonstrate that an optimized core-shell nanowire can exhibit an excellent net gain up to 31  dB mm(-1), which is more than 20 times larger than the previously reported best results on the micron-scale optical amplifiers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer


    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  6. Effects of sulfur oxides on eicosanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.C.; Miller, P.D.; Amdur, M.O. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo (USA))


    Ultrafine metal oxides and SO2 react during coal combustion or smelting operations to form primary emissions coated with an acidic SOx layer. Ongoing work in this laboratory has examined the effects of sulfur oxides on pulmonary functions of guinea pigs. We have previously reported that 20 micrograms/m3 acidic sulfur oxide as a surface layer on ultrafine ZnO particles decreases lung volumes, decreases carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and causes lung inflammation in guinea pigs after 4 daily 3-h exposures. It also produces bronchial hypersensitivity following a single 1-h exposure. The importance of this surface layer is demonstrated by our observation that 200 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid droplets of equivalent size are needed to produce the same degree of hypersensitivity. This study characterized the concentration-dependent effects of in vivo exposures to sulfur oxides on arachidonic acid metabolism in the guinea pig lung, and investigated the time course and the relation between eicosanoid composition and pulmonary functions. We focused specifically on four cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, that is, prostaglandins (PG) E1, F2 alpha, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane (Tx) B2, and two groups of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4, and F4). Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine ZnO aerosol (count median diameter = 0.05 microns, sigma g = 1.80) with a layer of acidic sulfur oxide on the surface of the particles. Lung lavage was collected after exposures, and the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Concentration-dependent promotion of PGF2 alpha and concentration-dependent suppression of LtB4 were observed. The increased PGF2 alpha was associated with depressed vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lungs measured in guinea pigs exposed to the same atmosphere described in a previous study.

  7. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    and, thus, odor removal in these systems. In this context, two processes based on the absorptive oxidation of sulfur compounds in trickling filters containing metal catalysts were examined. One process with iron chelated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to remove hydrogen sulfide...... that the original sample composition was significantly impaired due to adsorption and diffusion at the walls of the measuring equipment. Generally, sulfur compounds were best preserved in both olfactometers and sample bags, while carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol and trimethylamine were found to undergo substantial......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...

  8. The biology of reactive sulfur species (RSS). (United States)

    Gruhlke, Martin C H; Slusarenko, Alan J


    Sulfur is an essential and quantitatively important element for living organisms. Plants contain on average approximately 1 g S kg⁻¹ dry weight (for comparison plants contain approximately 15 g N kg⁻¹ dry weight). Sulfur is a constituent of many organic molecules, for example amino acids such as cysteine and methionine and the small tripeptide glutathione, but sulfur is also essential in the form of Fe-S clusters for the activity of many enzymes, particularly those involved in redox reactions. Sulfur chemistry is therefore important. In particular, sulfur in the form of thiol groups is central to manifold aspects of metabolism. Because thiol groups are oxidized and reduced easily and reversibly, the redox control of cellular metabolism has become an increasing focus of research. In the same way that oxygen and nitrogen have reactive species (ROS and RNS), sulfur too can form reactive molecular species (RSS), for example when a -SH group is oxidized. Indeed, several redox reactions occur via RSS intermediates. Several naturally occurring S-containing molecules are themselves RSS and because they are physiologically active they make up part of the intrinsic plant defence repertoire against herbivore and pathogen attack. Furthermore, RSS can also be used as redox-active pharmacological tools to study cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to familiarize the general reader with some of the chemical concepts, terminology and biology of selected RSS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The sulfur chemistry of shiitake mushroom. (United States)

    Sneeden, Eileen Yu; Harris, Hugh H; Pickering, Ingrid J; Prince, Roger C; Johnson, Sherida; Li, Xiaojie; Block, Eric; George, Graham N


    Allium herbs, such as Chinese chive, garlic, and onion, share a common sulfur biochemistry that occurs on cell breakage. Sulfoxide precursors are converted enzymatically to sulfenic acid intermediates and thence to a variety of pungent and in some cases noxious sulfur species that probably act to deter herbivores. Very similar biochemistry has been proposed to occur in shiitake mushrooms. Prior to the present work, our understanding of the sulfur biochemistry of these plants and fungi has been derived largely from conventional analysis procedures. We have used in situ sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in intact and disrupted allium plants and shiitake mushroom. The expected changes in sulfur forms following cell breakage are indeed observed for the alliums, but no significant changes occur for the fungus. Thus, any changes involving the sulfur-containing compounds of shiitake mushroom following cell breakage occur to a far smaller extent than those involving allium plants, presumably reflecting the need in shiitake for action by multiple enzymes, namely a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and a C-S lyase. The shiitake C-S lyase occurs in far lower concentrations than the corresponding enzyme in garlic. Furthermore, cleavage of the flavorant precursor by the shiitake C-S lyase is reported to cease before cleavage of the precursor has been completed, presumably due to a product or suicide inhibition mechanism.

  10. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan


    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes. (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi


    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes.

  12. X-Ray Nanofocus CT: Visualising Of Internal 3D-Structures With Submicrometer Resolution (United States)

    Weinekoetter, Christian


    High-resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows the visualization and failure analysis of the internal micro structure of objects—even if they have complicated 3D-structures where 2D X-ray microscopy would give unclear information. During the past several years, computed tomography has progressed to higher resolution and quicker reconstruction of the 3D-volume. Most recently it even allows a three-dimensional look into the inside of materials with submicron resolution. With the use of nanofocus® tube technology, nanoCT®-systems are pushing forward into application fields that were exclusive to high cost and rare available synchrotron techniques. The study was performed with the new nanotom, a very compact laboratory system which allows the analysis of samples up to 120 mm in diameter and weighing up to 1 kg with exceptional voxel-resolution down to volumes, the nanotom® includes a variety of effective software tools to reduce ring-artefacts and correct beam hardenings or drift effects which occurred during data acquisition. The resulting CT volume data set can be displayed in various ways, for example by virtual slicing and sectional views in any direction of the volume. By the fact that this requires only a mouse click, this technique will substitute destructive mechanical slicing and cutting in many applications. The initial CT results obtained with the nanotom® demonstrate that it is now possible to analyze the three-dimensional micro structure of materials and small objects with submicrometer resolution. Any internal difference in material, density or porosity within a sample can be visualized and data like distances can be measured. NanoCT® widely expands the spectrum of detectable micro-structures. The nanotom® opens a new dimension of 3D-microanalysis and will replace more destructive methods—saving costs and time per sample inspected.

  13. Simultaneous activation/sulfurization method for production of sulfurized activated carbons: characterization and Hg(II) adsorption capacity. (United States)

    Shamsijazeyi, Hadi; Kaghazchi, Tahereh


    As an inexpensive method for modification of activated carbons (ACs), sulfurization has attracted significant attention. However, the resulting sulfurized activated carbons (SACs) often are less porous than the original ACs. In this work, we propose a new method for concurrent sulfurization/activation that can lead to preparation of SACs with more porosity than the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. By using scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and iodine number experiments, the porous structure of the SACs has been compared with that of non-sulfurized ACs. The specific surface areas of SACs are higher than the corresponding ACs, regardless of the type of activation agents used. For instance, the specific surface area of SAC and AC activated with phosphoric acid is 1,637 and 1,338 m(2)/g, respectively. Additionally, sulfur contents and surface charges (pHpzc) of the SACs and non-sulfurized ACs are compared. In fact, the SACs have higher sulfur contents and more acidic surfaces. Furthermore, the Hg(II) adsorption capacity of SACs has been compared with the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. The Hg(II) adsorption isotherms on a selected SAC is measured at different pH values and temperatures. Hg(II) adsorptions as high as 293 mg/g are observed by using SACs prepared by the method proposed in this study.

  14. Chemical desulfurization of petroleum fractions for ultra-low sulfur fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad Farhat; Ahmed, Shakil [H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Al-Malki, Abdullah [Research and Development Center, Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)


    An improved desulfurization process for removing sulfur from hydro treated diesel oil based on the oxidation of thiophenic type sulfur-containing compounds with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and acetic acid (AcOH) using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst has been studied. The experimental results show that the sulfone content in the oxidation product increased rapidly with an increase in acetic acid and sulfuric acid ratios from 1:0 to 2:1 mole ratios. The maximum DBT conversion (wt.%) was at 2:1 mole ratio of acetic acid/sulfuric acid. This oxidation process is found to be capable of removing up to 90% of the sulfur compounds in hydro treated real fuels and can provide an alternative way to meet the future sulfur environmental requirements. Fifty eight sulfur-containing compounds were identified in hydro treated diesel sample. The sulfur compounds that have been identified in the hydro treated diesel include mainly refractory sulfur compounds (thiophenes and multi ring aromatic sulfur compounds, such as dibenzothiophene (DBT)). Sulfur species in typically hydro treated diesel and ring number distribution in 254-385 C cut are also reported. (author)

  15. Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H2S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towler, Gavin P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H2S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H2S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO2, but is not affected by N2 or H2. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900°C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600°C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H2S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO2, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H2S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO2 and H2S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO2 and CS2 also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H2S decomposition in the presence of CO2. A process for recovery of sulfur from H2S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO2 and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S2, CO, H2 and H2O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600°C prevents loss Of S2 during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO2 and H2S. Unreacted CO2 and H2S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H2 and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H2S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) by bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in sulfuric acid medium; Extracao liquido-liquido de ferro (III) e titanio (IV) pelo acido bis-(2-etil-hexil) fosforico (D2EHPA) em meio de acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glauco Correa da; Cunha, Jose Waldemar Silva Dias da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Materiais Nucleares; Dweck, Jo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Processos Inorganicos; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica]. E-mail:


    This work presents a study on the separation of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) from sulfuric acid leaching solutions of ilmenite (FeTiO{sub 3}) using liquid-liquid extraction with D2EHPA in n-dodecane as extracting agent. The distribution coefficients (K{sub D}) of the elements related to free acidity and concentration of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) were determined. Free acidity was changed from 3x10{sup -2} to 11.88 mol L{sup -1} and D2EHPA concentration was fixed at 1.5 mol L{sup 1}. Recovery of final products as well as recycling of wastes generated in the process were also investigated. The LLE process as a feasible alternative to obtain high-purity TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  17. Structure of amorphous sulfur

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eichinger, BE


    Full Text Available are reversible, implying that the gel is fluxional. It decomposes at higher temperatures as chain scission competes with branching. The hypervalent structure provides an essential insight into the chemistry of elemental sulfur....

  18. Scatterometry for semiconductor sub-micrometer and nanometer critical dimension metrology (United States)

    Al-Assaad, Rayan M.

    Scatterometry1 is one optical measurement technique that has been explored extensively for semiconductor sub-micrometer dimensional metrology. The technique refers to the measurements of reflected power upon the interaction of an incident beam with some periodic surface (grating). The characteristics of the diffractive surface affect directly the acquired measurements. Therefore it is possible to resolve some information about the grating line profile and dimensions from the measurements, which is referred to as the inverse scatterometry problem. As technology is continuously pushing lithographic processes to sub-nanometer precision2, aspects of the inverse scatterometry problem related to the accurate estimation and modeling of errors and the enhancement of the optimization methods become of great importance. For this purpose the effects of measurement errors on the estimated grating profile are analyzed in this dissertation and optimization methods are proposed to improve the accuracies in the estimated geometrical parameters for various grating profiles in real experimental conditions. A technique based on the information content analysis of the measurement data is further suggested to reduce the number of measurements required without the loss in the solution accuracies resulting in lower cost and more suitable real time implementation. Theoretical and experimental results are presented to validate these studies where the solutions to the profile parameters are accomplished by implementing a linear regression technique3. In addition a new scheme is proposed to address resolving more difficult profile parameters with sub-wavelength dimensions (sub-100 nm) that are until now subject to ongoing investigation with inconclusive results. The proposed approach consists of using a large number of angular reflectance measurements with linearly polarized TM incidence. In the case where the profile dimensions are many times smaller than the light wavelength, the parameter

  19. Sulfur metabolism in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eMangold


    Full Text Available Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of inorganic sulfur compounds. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and inorganic sulfur compound metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide quinone reductase (sqr, tetrathionate hydrolase (tth, two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ, sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor, and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC in A. caldus inorganic sulfur compound metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid, elemental sulfur versus planktonic cells. This study has provided insights into sulfur metabolism of this acidophilic chemolithotroph and gene expression during attachment to solid elemental sulfur.

  20. Corrosion Study of Mild Steel in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solution Using 4-Methyl-4H-1,2,4-Triazole-3-Thiol and 2-Mercaptonicotinic Acid—An Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbonë V. Mehmeti


    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of mild steel in 0.1 M aqueous sulfuric acid medium has been studied using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, quantum chemical calculations, and molecular dynamic simulations in the presence and absence of 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 2-mercaptonicotinic acid. Potentiodynamic measurements indicate that these compounds mostly act as mixed inhibitors due to their adsorption on the mild steel surface. The goal of the study was to use theoretical calculations to better understand the inhibition. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the adsorption behavior of the studied molecules onto Fe (1 1 1 and Fe2O3 (1 1 1 surface. The molecules were also studied with the density functional theory (DFT, using the B3LYP functional in order to determine the relationship between the molecular structure and the corrosion inhibition behavior. More accurate adsorption energies between the studied molecules and iron or iron oxide were calculated by using DFT with periodic boundary conditions. The calculated theoretical parameters gave important assistance into the understanding the corrosion inhibition mechanism expressed by the molecules and are in full agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Applications of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. 2-propenesulfenic and 2-propenesulfinic acids, diallyl trisulfane S-oxide, and other reactive sulfur compounds from crushed garlic and other Alliums. (United States)

    Block, Eric; Dane, A John; Thomas, Siji; Cody, Robert B


    Through the use of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), 2-propenesulfenic acid, an intermediate long postulated as being formed when garlic ( Allium sativum ) is crushed, has been detected for the first time and determined by mass spectrometric methods to have a half-life of garlic, along with allicin and related thiosulfinates, allyl alcohol, sulfur dioxide, propene, and pyruvate as coproducts. A commercial dietary supplement containing garlic powder, which was sampled after crushing, was found to contain alliin, methiin, and S-allylcysteine and produced allicin upon addition of water. DART-MS detection of 1-butenesulfenic acid from the ornamental A. siculum is also reported. (Z)-Propanethial S-oxide (onion lachrymatory factor), absent in garlic, is found to be formed from crushed elephant garlic ( Allium ampeloprasum ), consistent with the classification of this plant as a closer relative of leek than of garlic. Mixtures of thiosulfinates, lachrymatory thial S-oxides, and related compounds are directly observed from crushed leek ( Allium porrum ) and Chinese chive ( Allium tuberosum ). Disulfanes and polysulfanes are detected only when the Allium samples are heated, consistent with earlier conclusions that these are not primary products from cut or crushed alliums.

  2. Development of an ordered array of optoelectrochemical individually readable sensors with submicrometer dimensions: application to remote electrochemiluminescence imaging. (United States)

    Chovin, Arnaud; Garrigue, Patrick; Vinatier, Philippe; Sojic, Neso


    A novel array of optoelectrochemical submicrometer sensors for remote electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging is presented. This device was fabricated by chemical etching of a coherent optical fiber bundle to produce a nanotip array. The surface of the etched bundle was sputter-coated with a thin layer of indium tin oxide in order to create a transparent and electrically conductive surface that is insulated eventually by a new electrophoretic paint except for the apex of the tip. These fabrication steps produced an ordered array of optoelectrochemical sensors with submicrometer dimensions that retains the optical fiber bundle architecture. The electrochemical behavior of the sensor array was independently characterized by cyclic voltammetry and ECL experiments. The steady-state current indicates that the sensors are diffusively independent. This sensor array was further studied with a co-reactant ECL model system, such as Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/TPrA. We clearly observed an ordered array of individual ECL micrometer spots, which corresponds to the sensor array structure. While the sensors of the array are not individually addressable electrochemically, we could establish that the sensors are optically independent and individually readable. Finally, we show that remote ECL imaging is performed quantitatively through the optoelectrochemical sensor array itself.

  3. Production of Glycolic Acid by Chemolithotrophic Iron- and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria and Its Role in Delineating and Sustaining Acidophilic Sulfide Mineral-Oxidizing Consortia▿ (United States)

    Ñancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie


    Glycolic acid was detected as an exudate in actively growing cultures of three chemolithotrophic acidophiles that are important in biomining operations, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus (At.) ferrooxidans, and At. caldus. Although similar concentrations of glycolic acid were found in all cases, the concentrations corresponded to ca. 24% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in cultures of L. ferriphilum but only ca. 5% of the total DOC in cultures of the two Acidithiobacillus spp. Rapid acidification (to pH 1.0) of the culture medium of At. caldus resulted in a large increase in the level of DOC, although the concentration of glycolic acid did not change in proportion. The archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum grew in the cell-free spent medium of At. caldus; glycolic acid was not metabolized, although other unidentified compounds in the DOC pool were metabolized. Glycolic acid exhibited levels of toxicity with 21 strains of acidophiles screened similar to those of acetic acid. The most sensitive species were chemolithotrophs (L. ferriphilum and At. ferrivorans), while the most tolerant species were chemoorganotrophs (Acidocella, Acidobacterium, and Ferroplasma species), and the ability to metabolize glycolic acid appeared to be restricted (among acidophiles) to Firmicutes (chiefly Sulfobacillus spp.). Results of this study help explain why Sulfobacillus spp. rather than other acidophiles are the main organic carbon-degrading bacteria in continuously fed stirred tanks used to bioprocess sulfide mineral concentrates and also why temporary cessation of pH control in these systems, resulting in rapid acidification, often results in a plume of the archaeon Ferroplasma. PMID:19933342

  4. Sulfur 'Concrete' for Lunar Applications - Environmental Considerations (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.


    Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. For the purpose of this Technical Memorandum, it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. With this stipulation, it is then noted that the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. The work presented here evaluates two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant as an aggregate addition. One set was subjected to extended periods in high vacuum to evaluate sublimation issues, and the other was cycled between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate their subsequent mechanical integrity. Results are presented from both investigations, discussed, and put into the context of the lunar environment.

  5. Sulfur-Doped Porphyrinic Carbon Nanostructures Synthesized with Amorphous MoS2 for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in an Acidic Medium. (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Suk; Han, Sang-Beom; Kwak, Da-Hee; Lee, Gyu-Ho; Choi, In-Ae; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Ma, Kyeng-Bae; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kwon, Hye-Jin; Park, Kyung-Won


    To develop doped carbon nanostructures as non-precious metal cathode catalysts, nanocomposites were synthesized by using SBA-15 and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin-iron(III) chloride with different ratios of amorphous MoS2 precursor. From various analyses, it was found that, during pyrolysis at 900 °C under an N2 atmosphere, the amorphous MoS2 precursor decomposed into Mo and S, facilitating the formation of graphene sheet-like carbon with MoC and doping of sulfur in the carbon. In the nanocomposite formed from 10 wt % MoS2 precursor (denoted as Mo/S/PC-10), most of the MoS2 was decomposed, thus forming S-doped carbon, which was grown on the MoC phase without crystalline MoS2 . Furthermore, Mo/S/PC-10 exhibited better performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (specific activity of 1.23 mA cm(-2) at 0.9 V and half-wave potential of 0.864 V) than a commercial Pt catalyst, owing to a heteroatom-doped carbon nanostructure with a fairly high specific surface area. In the polarization curve of the unit-cell performance measured at 80 °C under ambient pressure, Mo/S/PC-10 as a cathode catalyst exhibited an optimal power density of 314 mW cm(-2) and a current density of 280 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Sub-Micrometer Magnetic Nanocomposites: Insights into the Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles Interactions on the Optimization of SAR and MRI Performance. (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Gallo, Juan; Stroppa, Daniel G; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; Bañobre-López, Manuel


    There is increasing interest in the development of new magnetic polymeric carriers for biomedical applications such as trigger-controlled drug release, magnetic hyperthermia (MH) for the treatment of cancer, and as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This work describes the synthesis of sub-micrometer and magnetic polymer nanocomposite capsules (MPNCs) by combining in one single platform the biodegradable polymer poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and different concentrations of ∼8 nm oleic acid (OA)-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@OA), employing the oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The MPNCs showed a significant increase in particle size from ∼400 to ∼800 nm as the magnetic loading in the organic-inorganic hybrids increases from 1.0% to 10%. The MPNCs presented high incorporation efficiency of Fe3O4@OA nanoparticles, good colloidal stability, and super-paramagnetic properties. Interestingly, electron microscopy results showed that the Fe3O4@OA nanoparticles were preferentially located at the surface of the capsules. Evaluation of the magnetic properties showed that the saturation magnetization and the blocking temperature of the MPNCs samples increased as a function of the Fe3O4@OA loading. All the MPNCs exhibited heating when subjected to MH, and showed good specific absorption rates. Use of the formulations decreased the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of water protons' nuclei, with excellent transverse relaxivity (r2) values, especially in the case of the formulation with lowest Fe3O4@OA loading. Furthermore, the MPNCs-cell interaction was studied, and MPNCs showed lower cellular toxicity to normal cells compared to cancer cells. These findings help in understanding the relationships between magnetic nanoparticles and polymeric capsules, opening perspectives for their potential clinical uses as simultaneous heating sources and imaging probes in MH and MRI, respectively.

  7. Sulfuric Acid on Europa's Surface and the Radiolytic Sulfur Cycle (United States)

    Carlson, R.; Johnson, R.; Anderson, M.


    Galileo infrared spectra of Europa's surface show distorted water bands that have been attributed to hydrated evaporite salts (McCord et al., J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11827, 1999) or to the scattering properties of ice (Dalton and Clark, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1081, 1998).

  8. Understanding the Nonproductive Enzyme Adsorption and Physicochemical Properties of Residual Lignins in Moso Bamboo Pretreated with Sulfuric Acid and Kraft Pulping. (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Min, Douyong; Lai, Chenhuan; Yong, Qiang


    In this work, to elucidate why the acid-pretreated bamboo shows disappointingly low enzymatic digestibility comparing to the alkali-pretreated bamboo, residual lignins in acid-pretreated and kraft pulped bamboo were isolated and analyzed by adsorption isotherm to evaluate their extents of nonproductive enzyme adsorption. Meanwhile, physicochemical properties of the isolated lignins were analyzed and a relationship was established with non-productive adsorption. Results showed that the adsorption affinity and binding strength of cellulase on acid-pretreated bamboo lignin (MWLa) was significantly higher than that on residual lignin in pulped bamboo (MWLp). The maximum adsorption capacity of cellulase on MWLp was 129.49 mg/g lignin, which was lower than that on MWLa (160.25 mg/g lignin). When isolated lignins were added into the Avicel hydrolysis solution, the inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of MWLa was found to be considerably stronger than that with MWLp. The cellulase adsorption on isolated lignins was correlated positively with hydrophobicity, phenolic hydroxyl group, and degree of condensation but negatively with surface charges and aliphatic hydroxyl group. These results suggest that the higher nonproductive cellulase adsorption and physicochemical properties of residual lignin in acid-pretreated bamboo may be responsible for its disappointingly low enzymatic digestibility.

  9. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  10. Utilization of fumarate by sulfur-reducing bacteria Desulfuromonas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Сhayka


    Full Text Available The main goal of the work was to study the utilization of fumarate by sulfur-reducing bacteria Desulfuromonas sp. under different growth conditions and accumulation of hydrogen sulfide by bacteria in the media with sulfur and different electron donors. Sulfur-reducing bacteria Desulfuromonas sp., isolated from soil in Yazivske sulfur deposit, were used in the reasearch. Bacteria were grown in the medium Postgate C without sulfates. The content of hydrogen sulfide was determined by formation of methylene blue. The content of organic acids (fumarate, succinate, lactate, acetate was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The biomass of cells was determined by the photoelectrocolorymetry method using KFK-3. The highest level of accumulation of hydrogen sulfide by bacteria Desulfuromonas sp. was found in media with sodium lactate and sodium pyruvate. The maximal concentration of hydrogen sulfide was 1.9 mM. Maximal accumulation of biomass was observed in the media with malate, lactate and fumarate with the presence of elemental sulfur. Sulfur-reducing bacteria Desulfuromonas sp. are able to utilize fumarate as an electron donor and acceptor in the absence of elemental sulfur in the medium. After the incubation of Desulfuromonas sp. in the medium with fumarate, chromatographic analysis of culture liquid showed that fumarate is converted to succinate and small quantities of acetate The presence of acetate is, probably, due to the particularaties of the functioning of citric acid cycle in bacteria of the genus Desulfuromonas. Consequently, the results indicate that the fumarate serves as a donor and acceptor of electrons.The simultaneous introduction of two electron donors – fumarate and elemental sulfur – was accompanied by inhibition of sulfur reduction. After an additional source of carbon (sodium lactate and electron acceptor (elemental sulfur was added to the medium with fumarate a fivefold increase of sulfidogenic

  11. Sodium sulfur battery seal (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati


    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  12. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids. (United States)

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut


    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulated effects of sulfur deposition on nutrient cycling in class I wilderness areas (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Dale W. Johnson; William T. Swank; William Jackson


    As a consequence of human land use, population growth, and industrialization, wilderness and other natural areas can be threatened by air pollution, climate change, and exotic diseases or pests. Air pollution in the form of acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia....

  14. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bunsen [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  15. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya


    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  16. Photochemical Formation of Sulfur-Containing Aerosols (United States)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica


    In order to understand planetary climate systems, modeling the properties of atmospheric aerosols is vital. Aerosol formation plays an important role in planetary climates and is tied to feedback loops that can either warm or cool a planet. Sulfur compounds are known to play an important role in new particle aerosol formation and have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere; however, several discrepancies arise when comparing observations of the Venusian atmosphere with model predictions. This suggests that there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is concerning given recent renewed interest in sulfate injections in the stratosphere for solar radiation management geo-engineering schemes. We investigate the role of sunlight as a potential driver of the formation of sulfur-containing aerosols. I will present recent work investigating the generation of large quantities of aerosol from the irradiation of mixtures of SO_2 with water and organic species, using a solar simulator that mimics the light that is available in the Earth's troposphere and the Venusian middle atmosphere. I will present on recent work done in our lab suggesting the formation of sulfurous acid, H_2SO_3, and describe experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally I will present on new work showing the highly reactive nature of electronically excited SO_2 with saturated alkane species. The implications of this photochemically induced sulfur aerosol formation in the atmosphere of Earth and other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  17. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  18. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  19. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzeh, F.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan)], E-mail:; Amr, A.S. [Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan)


    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly (P{<=}0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  20. Evaluation of protein content, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins for gamma-irradiated semolina before and after milling of durum wheat (United States)

    Azzeh, F. S.; Amr, A. S.


    Influenced of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on total nitrogen, lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids content and electrophoretic patterns of soluble proteins of semolina was studied. The effect of irradiation before and after milling on previous parameters was also investigated. Protein content of semolina was not affected with gamma irradiation before and after milling. Up to 10 kGy dose, cystine and methionine were not significantly changed, although they increased slightly with increasing irradiation dose. Lysine content decreased significantly ( P≤0.05) at irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy. At 10 kGy dose, lysine decreased 5% and 14% for irradiated semolina and that obtained from irradiated wheat grains, respectively. The bands number and intensity of soluble proteins decreased with increasing irradiation dose higher than 5 kGy, as shown on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Irradiated semolina and semolina obtained from irradiated wheat grains at 10 kGy showed 13 and 15 bands, respectively. Unirradiated sample showed 19 bands.

  1. Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of High Strength Low Alloy Steel in 2.0 M Sulfuric Acid Solutions by 3-Amino-1,2,3-triazole as a Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif


    Full Text Available The corrosion and corrosion inhibition of high strength low alloy (HSLA steel after 10 min and 60 min immersion in 2.0 M H2SO4 solution by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATA were reported. Several electrochemical techniques along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS were employed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the increase of immersion time from 10 min to 60 min significantly decreased both the solution and polarization resistance for the steel in the sulfuric acid solution. The increase of immersion time increased the anodic, cathodic, and corrosion currents, while it decreased the polarization resistance as indicated by the potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The addition of 1.0 mM ATA remarkably decreased the corrosion of the steel and this effect was found to increase with increasing its concentration to 5.0 mM. SEM and EDS investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the HSLA steel in the 2.0 M H2SO4 solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the ATA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  2. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.


    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  3. Resistance of different materials used in sewers systems:Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and High density polyethylene (HDPE), to sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.




    The behaviour of PVC, PP and HDPE used in sewer systems exposed to acid and sulfate solutions was investigated at 25°C and 40°C. Gravimetric characterization proves that PVC has a fickian behavior. It shows also, that PP has a non-fickian behavior, characterized by a rapid acceleration of water absorption, and the HDPE has a fickian behavior at 25°C, while it has a non-fickian behavior at 40°C, characterized by a weight loss after a certain aging period. The prolongation of th...

  4. Improvement of the Early-Age Compressive Strength, Water Permeability, and Sulfuric Acid Resistance of Scoria-Based Mortars/Concrete Using Limestone Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Al-Swaidani


    Full Text Available Natural pozzolan is being widely used as cement replacement. Despite the economic, ecological, and technical benefits of its adding, it is often associated with shortcomings such as the need of moist-curing for longer time and a lower early strength. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of adding limestone filler on the compressive strength and durability of mortars/concrete containing scoria. Sixteen types of binders with different replacement levels of scoria (0, 10, 20, and 30% and limestone (0, 5, 10, and 15% were prepared. The development of the compressive strength of mortar/concrete specimens was investigated after 2, 7, 28, and 90 days’ curing. In addition, the acid resistance of the 28 days’ cured mortars was evaluated after 90 days’ exposure to 5% H2SO4. Concrete permeability was also evaluated after 2, 7, 28, and 90 days’ curing. Test results revealed that there was an increase in the early-age compressive strength and a decrease in water penetration depths with adding limestone filler. Contrary to expectation, the best acid resistance to 5% H2SO4 solution was noted in the mortars containing 15% limestone. Based on the results obtained, an empirical equation was derived to predict the compressive strength of mortars.

  5. Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Nitrogen and Sulfur Dual-Doped Graphene as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid and Methanol Oxidation. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Jixin; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ma, Zhongyuan; Huang, Huajie; Zhang, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Huang, Wei; Wu, Yuping


    Optimized designing of highly active electrocatalysts has been regarded as a critical point to the development of portable fuel cell systems with high power density. Here we report a facile and cost-effective strategy to synthesis of ultrafine Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on N and S dual-doped graphene (NS-G) nanosheets as multifunctional electrocatalysts for both direct formic acid fuel cell and direct methanol fuel cell. The incorporation of N and S atoms into graphene frameworks is achieved by a thermal treatment process, followed by the controlled growth of Pd NPs via a solvothermal approach. Owning to the unique structural features as well as the strong synergistic effects, the resulting Pd/NS-G hybrid exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic performance toward both formic acid and methanol electro-oxidation, such as higher anodic peak current densities and more exceptional catalytic stability than those of Pd/Vulcan XC-72R and Pd/undoped graphene catalysts. These findings open up new possibility in the construction of advanced Pd-based catalysts, which is conducive to solving the current bottlenecks of fuel cell technologies.

  6. The Seasonality of Sulfur transport and deposition to a Western Pennsylvania Watershed (United States)

    Snow, J. A.; Livingston, J.


    Watersheds in the eastern U.S., particularly in western PA, are impacted by elevated acidity that is often attributed to acid mine drainage. However, atmospheric sources of acidity, such as sulfur deposition, may also affect watershed acidity. The Connoquenessing watershed (CW), which incorporates the major metropolitan area of Pittsburgh and surrounding communities, is particularly impacted by these processes. An analysis of atmospheric wind and precipitation patterns were determined using NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectories for 2004. These trajectories were clustered using GIS and matched with sulfur deposition data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and sulfur emission data from the Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of this study was three-fold: to determine the seasonality and spatial variability of atmospheric transport patterns that contribute to possible deposition into the CW; to determine the relationship between atmospheric transport patterns and emission inventories; and to determine the relationship between atmospheric transport patterns and sulfur deposition to the CW. Results indicate three major pathways that produced high sulfur levels in atmospheric samples. First, sulfur is transported via westerly winds from sources in Ohio to the eastern United States. Second, sulfur increased in concentration during high pressure systems; however precipitation was relatively low suggesting little actual wet deposition. And last, high sulfur concentrations were associated with strong boundary layer inversions, which presumably trapped local emissions near the surface. The three transport pathways identified in this study show sulfur deposition is a potentially significant source of increased acidity to the CW.

  7. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Borba Dias


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  8. Mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionation during reoxidative sulfur cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellerin, André; Bui, Thi Hao; Rough, Mikaella


    The multiple sulfur isotope composition of porewater sulfate from the anoxic marine sapropel of Mangrove Lake, Bermuda was measured in order to establish how multiple sulfur isotopes are fractionated during reoxidative sulfur cycling. The porewater-sulfate d34S and D33S dataset exhibits the disti......The multiple sulfur isotope composition of porewater sulfate from the anoxic marine sapropel of Mangrove Lake, Bermuda was measured in order to establish how multiple sulfur isotopes are fractionated during reoxidative sulfur cycling. The porewater-sulfate d34S and D33S dataset exhibits......, informed by the chemistry of sulfur intermediate compounds in Mangrove Lake, reveals that sulfate reduction produces a relatively small intrinsic fractionation and that an active reoxidative sulfur cycle increases the fractionation of the measured values. Based on the model results, the reoxidative cycle...... of Mangrove Lake appears to include sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur followed by the disproportionation of the elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide. This model also indicates that the reoxidative sulfur cycle of Mangrove Lake turns over from 50 to 80% of the sulfide produced by microbial sulfate...

  9. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants. (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper


    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiling of Aspergillus flavipes in Response to Sulfur Starvation.

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    Ashraf S A El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavipes has received considerable interest due to its potential to produce therapeutic enzymes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. In natural habitats, A. flavipes survives under sulfur limitations by mobilizing endogenous and exogenous sulfur to operate diverse cellular processes. Sulfur limitation affects virulence and pathogenicity, and modulates proteome of sulfur assimilating enzymes of several fungi. However, there are no previous reports aimed at exploring effects of sulfur limitation on the regulation of A. flavipes sulfur metabolism enzymes at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and proteomic levels. In this report, we show that sulfur limitation affects morphological and physiological responses of A. flavipes. Transcription and enzymatic activities of several key sulfur metabolism genes, ATP-sulfurylase, sulfite reductase, methionine permease, cysteine synthase, cystathionine β- and γ-lyase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were increased under sulfur starvation conditions. A 50 kDa protein band was strongly induced by sulfur starvation, and the proteomic analyses of this protein band using LC-MS/MS revealed similarity to many proteins involved in the sulfur metabolism pathway.

  11. Sulfur balance of sulfur dioxide-ethanol-water fractionation of sugarcane straw. (United States)

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail


    The sulfur balance of SO 2 -ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane (SC) straw was investigated. Hydrogen sulfite and sulfite anions are nearly absent in the liquors, despite cations present in straw, whose effect is thus limited to neutralization of lignosulfonic acids decreasing the acidity. Higher degree of sulfonation was observed for dissolved straw lignin compared to wood lignin (0.8-0.9 vs. 0.25 S/C9). Sulfur dioxide amounts of 0.9-1.2, 4.1-4.3 and 44-49g per straw were bound to pulp, precipitated lignin and lignosulfonic acid, respectively, while the rest of SO 2 was recovered by distillation from the spent fractionation suspensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Minimal sulfur requirement for growth and sulfur-dependent metabolism of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Hao


    Full Text Available Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon that uses peptides as carbon and energy sources. Elemental sulfur (S° is obligately required for its growth and is reduced to H2S. The metabolic functions and mechanisms of S° reduction were explored by examining S°-dependent growth and activities of key enzymes present in this organism. All three forms of S° tested—sublimed S°, colloidal S° and polysulfide—were used by S. marinus, and no other sulfur-containing compounds could replace S°. Elemental sulfur did not serve as physical support but appeared to function as an electron acceptor. The minimal S° concentration required for optimal growth was 0.05% (w/v. At this concentration, there appeared to be a metabolic transition from H2 production to S° reduction. Some enzymatic activities related to S°-dependent metabolism, including sulfur reductase, hydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and electron transfer activities, were detected in cell-free extracts of S. marinus. These results indicate that S° plays an essential role in the heterotrophic metabolism of S. marinus. Reducing equivalents generated by the oxidation of amino acids from peptidolysis may be transferred to sulfur reductase and hydrogenase, which then catalyze the production of H2S and H2, respectively.

  13. A composite of hollow carbon nanospheres and sulfur-rich polymers for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Zeng, Xierong; He, Qianjun; Zheng, Xianfeng; Chen, Shuangshuang; Tu, Wenxuan; Zou, Jizhao


    Lithium-sulfur batteries are the most promising candidates for future high-energy applications because of the unparalleled capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1). However, lithium-sulfur batteries have limited cycle life and rate capability due to the dissolution of polysulfides and the extremely low electronic conductivity of sulfur. To solve these issues, various porous carbons including hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) have been used for improving the conductivity. However, these methods still suffer from polysulfides dissolution/loss owing to their weak physical adsorption to polysulfides. Herein, we introduced a covalent grafting route to composite the HCNs and the vulcanized trithiocyanuric acid (TTCA). The composite exhibits a high loading of the vulcanized TTCA by the HCNs with high surface area and large pore volume, and covalent bonds to sulfur, effectively depressing the dissolution of polysulfides. The first discharge capacity of the composite reaches 1430 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1227 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  14. Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica

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    Ai-Li Guo


    Full Text Available Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.

  15. Assessing Potential Acidification of Marine Archaeological Wood Based on Concentration of Sulfur Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The presence of sulfur in marine archaeological wood presents a challenge to conservation. Upon exposure to oxygen, sulfur compounds in waterlogged wooden artifacts are being oxidized, producing sulfuric acid. This speeds the degradation of the wood, potentially damaging specimens beyond repair. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to identify the species of sulfur present in samples from the timbers of the Mary Rose, a preserved 16th century warship known to undergo degradation through acidification. The results presented here show that sulfur content varied significantly on a local scale. Only certain species of sulfur have the potential to produce sulfuric acid by contact with oxygen and seawater in situ, such as iron sulfides and elemental sulfur. Organic sulfurs, such as the amino acids cysteine and methionine, may produce acid but are integral parts of the wood's structure and may not be released from the organic matrix. The sulfur species contained in the sample reflect the exposure to oxygen while submerged, and this exposure can differ greatly over time and position. A better understanding of the species pathway to acidifications required, along with its location, in order to suggest a more customized and effective preservation strategy. Waterlogged archaeological wood, frequently in the form of shipwrecks, is being excavated for historical purposes in many countries around the world. Even after extensive efforts towards preservation, scientists are discovering that accumulation of sulfate salts results in acidic conditions on the surfaces of the artifacts. Sulfuric acid degrades structural fibers in the wood by acid hydrolysis of cellulose, accelerating the decomposition of the ship timbers. Determining the sulfur content of waterlogged wood is now of great importance in maritime archaeology. Artifact preservation is often more time consuming and expensive than the original excavation; but it is key to the availability of objects for

  16. Investigation of Influential Parameters in Deep Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene with Hydrogen Peroxide and Formic Acid


    Alireza Haghighat Mamaghani; Shohreh Fatemi; Mehrdad Asgari


    An effective oxidative system consisting of hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, and sulfuric acid followed by an extractive stage were implemented to remove dibenzothiophene in the simulated fuel oil. The results revealed such a great performance in the case of H2O2 in the presence of formic and sulfuric acids that led to the removal of sulfur compounds. Sulfuric acid was employed to increase the acidity of media as well as catalytic activity together with formic acid. The oxidation reaction was ...

  17. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap (United States)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R.

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25 °C. Alkaline leaching with 6 M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30 min at 30 °C using 0.1-1.0 M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1 M to 2 M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide.

  18. Efficacy of a Blend of Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Surface Tissue. (United States)

    Scott-Bullard, Britteny R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Bred; Belk, Keith E


    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca. 6 log CFU/cm 2 ) on the adipose side in a laboratory-scale spray cabinet with multistrain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 (5 strains), non-O157 STEC (12 strains), Salmonella (6 strains), or E. coli biotype I (5 strains). Treatment parameters evaluated were two SSS pH values (1.5 and 1.0) and two spray application pressures (13 and 22 lb/in 2 ). Untreated inoculated beef tissue samples served as controls for initial bacterial populations. Overall, the SSS treatments lowered inoculated (6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/cm 2 ) bacterial populations by 0.6 to 1.5 log CFU/cm 2 (P coli inocula; however, solution pH did have a significant effect (P coli inoculum to the SSS treatments was similar (P ≥ 0.05) to that of the pathogenic inocula tested, making the E. coli biotype I strains viable surrogate organisms for in-plant validation of SSS efficacy on beef. The application of SSS at the tested parameters to prerigor beef surface tissue may be an effective intervention for controlling pathogens in a commercial beef harvest process.

  19. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  20. Modern applications for a total sulfur reduction distillation method - what’s old is new again (United States)


    Background The use of a boiling mixture of hydriodic acid, hypophosphorous acid, and hydrochloric acid to reduce any variety of sulfur compounds has been in use in various applications since the first appearance of this method in the literature in the 1920’s. In the realm of sulfur geochemistry, this method remains a useful, but under-utilized technique. Presented here is a detailed description of the distillation set-up and procedure, as well as an overview of potential applications of this method for marine sulfur biogeochemistry/isotope studies. The presented applications include the sulfur isotope analysis of extremely low amounts of sulfate from saline water, the conversion of radiolabeled sulfate into sulfide, the extraction of refractory sulfur from marine sediments, and the use of this method to assess sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay sediments. Results The STrongly Reducing hydrIodic/hypoPhosphorous/hydrochloric acid (STRIP) reagent is capable of rapidly reducing a wide range of sulfur compounds, including the most oxidized form, sulfate, to hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of as little as approximately 5 micromole sulfate is possible, with a sulfur isotope composition reproducibility of 0.3 permil. Conclusions Although developed many decades ago, this distillation method remains relevant for many modern applications. The STRIP distillation quickly and quantitatively converts sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide which can be readily collected in a silver nitrate trap for further use. An application of this method to a study of sulfur cycling in Aarhus Bay demonstrates that we account for all of the sulfur compounds in pore-water, effectively closing the mass balance of sulfur cycling. PMID:24808759

  1. Utilization of 'elemental' sulfur by different phototrophic sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae): A sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy study (United States)

    Franz, B.; Lichtenberg, H.; Dahl, C.; Hormes, J.; Prange, A.


    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are generally able to use elemental sulfur as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Elemental sulfur is mainly a mixture of cyclo-octasulfur and polymeric sulfur. The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum strongly prefers the polymeric sulfur fraction showing that sulfur speciation has a strong influence on availability of elemental sulfur. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to investigate whether polymeric sulfur is also the preferred sulfur species in other purple sulfur bacteria belonging to the families Chromatiaceae and Ecothiorodospiraceae. The cultures were fed with 50 mM of elemental sulfur consisting of 68% polymeric sulfur and 30% cyclo-octasulfur. In all cultures, elemental sulfur was converted into intra- or extracellular sulfur globules, respectively, and further oxidized to sulfate. Sulfate concentrations were determined by HPLC and turbidometric assays, respectively. However, the added elemental sulfur was only partly used by the bacteria, one part of the 'elemental sulfur' remained in the cultures and was not taken up. XANES spectroscopy revealed that only the polymeric sulfur fraction was taken up by all cultures investigated. This strongly indicates that polymeric 'chain-like' sulfur is the form preferably used by phototrophic sulfur bacteria.

  2. Study of sulfur dioxide adsorption on Y zeolite

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    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide adsorptive properties of Y zeolite, the structure of which was confirmed by XRD, were investigated at temperatures within the 25–200 ºC range and sulfur dioxide concentrations between 0.9 to 6 % (vol./vol.. It was found that this sorbent possesses a relatively high adsorption capacity. The Y zeolite did not lose its activity during 20 adsorption-desorption-regeneration cycles. The manner in which sulfur dioxide is adsorbed on Y type zeolite was also investigated by analyzing the sample with and without adsorbed SO2, using IR spectroscopy, as well as total and Lewis acidity measurements. The sulfur dioxide molecule is probably adsorbed by hydrogen bonding to one or two conveniently positioned surface hydroxyl groups.

  3. Statistical analysis and parameterization of the hygroscopic growth of the sub-micrometer urban background aerosol in Beijing (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhijun; Ma, Nan; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred


    The take-up of water of aerosol particles plays an important role in heavy haze formation over North China Plain, since it is related with particle mass concentration, visibility degradation, and particle chemistry. In the present study, we investigated the size-resolved hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles (smaller than 350 nm) on a basis of 9-month Hygroscopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measurement in the urban background atmosphere of Beijing. The mean hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values derived from averaging over the entire sampling period for particles of 50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm, 150 nm, 250 nm, and 350 nm in diameters were 0.14 ± 0.07, 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.21 ± 0.09, and 0.23 ± 0.12, respectively, indicating the dominance of organics in the sub-micrometer urban aerosols. In the spring, summer, and autumn, the number fraction of hydrophilic particles increased with increasing particle size, resulting in an increasing trend of overall particle hygroscopicity with enhanced particle size. Differently, the overall mean κ values peaked in the range of 75-150 nm and decreased for particles larger than 150 nm in diameter during wintertime. Such size-dependency of κ in winter was related to the strong primary particle emissions from coal combustion during domestic heating period. The number fraction of hydrophobic particles such as freshly emitted soot decreased with increasing PM2.5 mass concentration, indicating aged and internal mixed particles were dominant in the severe particulate matter pollution. Parameterization schemes of the HGF as a function of relative humidity (RH) and particle size between 50 and 350 nm were determined for different seasons and pollution levels. The HGFs calculated from the parameterizations agree well with the measured HGFs at 20-90% RH. The parameterizations can be applied to determine the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles at ambient conditions for the area

  4. Dealing with methionine/homocysteine sulfur: cysteine metabolism to taurine and inorganic sulfur. (United States)

    Stipanuk, Martha H; Ueki, Iori


    Synthesis of cysteine as a product of the transsulfuration pathway can be viewed as part of methionine or homocysteine degradation, with cysteine being the vehicle for sulfur conversion to end products (sulfate, taurine) that can be excreted in the urine. Transsulfuration is regulated by stimulation of cystathionine β-synthase and inhibition of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase in response to changes in the level of S-adenosylmethionine, and this promotes homocysteine degradation when methionine availability is high. Cysteine is catabolized by several desulfuration reactions that release sulfur in a reduced oxidation state, generating sulfane sulfur or hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), which can be further oxidized to sulfate. Cysteine desulfuration is accomplished by alternate reactions catalyzed by cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. Cysteine is also catabolized by pathways that require the initial oxidation of the cysteine thiol by cysteine dioxygenase to form cysteinesulfinate. The oxidative pathway leads to production of taurine and sulfate in a ratio of approximately 2:1. Relative metabolism of cysteine by desulfuration versus oxidative pathways is influenced by cysteine dioxygenase activity, which is low in animals fed low-protein diets and high in animals fed excess sulfur amino acids. Thus, desulfuration reactions dominate when cysteine is deficient, whereas oxidative catabolism dominates when cysteine is in excess. In rats consuming a diet with an adequate level of sulfur amino acids, about two thirds of cysteine catabolism occurs by oxidative pathways and one third by desulfuration pathways. Cysteine dioxygenase is robustly regulated in response to cysteine availability and may function to provide a pathway to siphon cysteine to less toxic metabolites than those produced by cysteine desulfuration reactions.

  5. Submicrometer Hollow Bioglass Cones Deposited by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Formation Mechanism, Properties, and Prospective Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Besleaga, C; Ion, L; Maraloiu, V A; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F


    This work reports on the unprecedented magnetron sputtering deposition of submicrometric hollow cones of bioactive glass at low temperature in the absence of any template or catalyst. The influence of sputtering conditions on the formation and development of bioglass cones was studied. It was shown that larger populations of well-developed cones could be achieved by increasing the argon sputtering pressure. A mechanism describing the growth of bioglass hollow cones is presented, offering the links for process control and reproducibility of the cone features. The composition, structure, and morphology of the as-synthesized hollow cones were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), grazing incidence geometry X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The in vitro biological performance, assessed by degradation tests (ISO 10993-14) and cytocompatibility assays (ISO 10993-5) in endothelial cell cultures, was excellent. This allied with resorbability and the unique morphological features make the submicrometer hollow cones interesting candidate material devices for focal transitory permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier in the treatment of carcinoma and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields. (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye


    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  7. A method to transfer an individual graphene flake to a target position with a precision of sub-micrometer (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Yin, Weihong; Han, Qin; Yang, Xiaohong; Ye, Han; Lü, Qianqian; Yin, Dongdong


    Graphene field-effect transistors have been intensively studied. However, in order to fabricate devices with more complicated structures, such as the integration with waveguide and other two-dimensional materials, we need to transfer the exfoliated graphene samples to a target position. Due to the small area of exfoliated graphene and its random distribution, the transfer method requires rather high precision. In this paper, we systematically study a method to selectively transfer mechanically exfoliated graphene samples to a target position with a precision of sub-micrometer. To characterize the doping level of this method, we transfer graphene flakes to pre-patterned metal electrodes, forming graphene field-effect transistors. The hole doping of graphene is calculated to be 2.16 × {10}12{{{cm}}}-2. In addition, we fabricate a waveguide-integrated multilayer graphene photodetector to demonstrate the viability and accuracy of this method. A photocurrent as high as 0.4 μA is obtained, corresponding to a photoresponsivity of 0.48 mA/W. The device performs uniformly in nine illumination cycles. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFB0402404), the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA031401, 2015AA016902, 2015AA016904), and the National Natural Foundation of China (Nos. 61674136, 61176053, 61274069, 61435002).

  8. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina


    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  9. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology. (United States)


    the final waste. The combustion off-gas from the sludge burning process is scrubbed with water in a Peabody Process Systems’ scrubber with the... scrubber effluent sent to a wastewater tank for neutralization with NaOH. The wastewater is maintained as neutral as possible (a pH of 7 to 8). The contents...lbs. H20 CS NH3 OH 4340Sb. 2 44,0 1,52 lb.. CaO 4 4350 ls A050 lbClear eonzd 2 Toeeccl .056 lb.. CaS4 SO CS 2.52 lbs. Sol.CaS (Bais Deig Fow ats t

  10. Dissolution of chromium in sulfuric acid

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    J. P. POPIC


    Full Text Available By combining electrochemical corrosion rate measurements and spectrophotometric analysis of the electrolyte it was shown that at room temperature chromium dissolves in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 + H2SO4 (pH 1 solution as Cr(II and Cr(III ions in he ratio Cr(II : Cr(III @ 7 : 1. This process was stable over 4 h without any detectable change. The total corrosion rate of chromium calculated from the analytical data is about 12 times higher, than that determined electrochemically by cathodic Tafel line extrapolation to the corrosion potential. This finding was confirmed by applying the weight-loss method for the determination of the corrosion rate. This enormous difference between these experimentally determined corrosion rates can be explained by the rather fast, “anomalous” dissolution process proposed by Kolotyrkin and coworkers (chemical reaction of Cr with H2O molecules occurring simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process.


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    gives the products in good yields and high selectivity and prevents problems which many associate with solvent use such as cost, handling, safety and pollution. The reusability of the catalyst was checked by separating SSA from the reaction mixture by simple filtration, washing with CH2Cl2, and drying in a vaccum oven at ...

  12. Lithium-Sulfur Capacitors. (United States)

    Kim, Mok-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Xi, Kai; Kumar, R Vasant; Jung, Dae Soo; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Roh, Kwang Chul


    Although many existing hybrid energy storage systems demonstrate promising electrochemical performances, imbalances between the energies and kinetics of the two electrodes must be resolved to allow their widespread commercialization. As such, the development of a new class of energy storage systems is a particular challenge, since future systems will require a single device to provide both a high gravimetric energy and a high power density. In this context, we herein report the design of novel lithium-sulfur capacitors. The resulting asymmetric systems exhibited energy densities of 23.9-236.4 Wh kg-1 and power densities of 72.2-4097.3 W kg-1, which are the highest reported values for an asymmetric system to date. This approach involved the use of a pre-lithiated anode and a hybrid cathode material exhibiting anion adsorption-desorption in addition to the electrochemical reduction and oxidation of sulfur at almost identical rates. This novel strategy yielded both high energy and power densities, and therefore establishes a new benchmark for hybrid systems.

  13. Liquid sulfur mustard exposure. (United States)

    Newmark, Jonathan; Langer, Janice M; Capacio, Benedict; Barr, John; McIntosh, Roger G


    A 35-year-old active duty service member sustained a 6.5% body surface area burn as a result of exposure to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, which is the most severe mustard exposure of a U.S. military member since World War II that is known to us. New techniques were used to demonstrate the detectable persistence of mustard metabolites in the patient's blood for at least 41 days after exposure, validating these techniques for the first time for a human mustard patient; they were also used for the first time with human mustard blister fluid. The techniques extend eightfold the period of time that mustard exposure can be definitively diagnosed, compared with previous techniques. Although this patient's lesions were never life-threatening, he required 2 weeks of intensive burn care. He has been left with ongoing posttraumatic stress disorder and has had an incomplete dermatological recovery. In a major terrorist attack involving many patients exposed to sulfur mustard, care resources would be depleted quickly.

  14. Reductive roasting of iron-rich manganese oxide ore with elemental sulfur for selective manganese extraction

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    You Z.


    Full Text Available It is very important to selectively reduce manganese oxide over iron oxide for extraction of Mn from iron-rich manganese ore. In this study, reductive roasting of an iron-rich manganese oxide ore with elemental sulfur as reductant was investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that manganese dioxide can be selectively reduced with elemental sulfur and extracted via acid leaching, which was largely depended on the sulfur addition. Lower sulfur addition (S/Mn molar ratio2.0 and the roasting temperature exerted a significant impact on the phase composition of roasted product.

  15. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery (United States)

    Mikkor, Mati


    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  16. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kouyoumdjian


    Full Text Available Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH42SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO32 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean

  17. Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.W.


    The microbial desulfurization of organosulfur compounds occurs by unprecedented and largely unexplored biochemical processes. A study of such biotic desulfurizations can be expected to give rise to new and useful chemistry and enzymology. The potential value of understanding and harnessing these processes is seen in relation to the need for methods for the removal of organically bound sulfur from coal and the degradation of organic sulfur-containing pollutants. This research effort has been directed towards an examination of desulfurization ability in well characterized microorganisms, the isolation of bacteria with desulfurization ability from natural sources, the characterization and mechanistic evaluation of the observed biocatalytic processes, the development of biomimetic synthetic organic chemistry based on biotic desulfurization mechanisms and the design and preparation of improved coal model compounds for use in microbial selection processes. A systematic approach to studying biodesulfurizations was undertaken in which organosulfur compounds have been broken down into classes based on the oxidation state of the sulfur atom and the structure of the rest of the organic material. Microbes have been evaluated in terms of ability to degrade organosulfur compounds with sulfur in its sulfonic acid oxidation state. These compounds are likely intermediates in coal desulfurization and are present in the environment as persistent pollutants in the form of detergents. It is known that oxygen bonded to sulfur lowers the carbon-sulfur bond energy, providing a thermodynamic basis for starting with this class of compounds.

  18. Promotion of cashmere growth by sulfur supplements in cashmere goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Feng


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate effects of inorganic and organic sulfur supplements on cashmere growth and their differences. Thirty-six six-month-old female Liaoning cashmere goats with a body weight of approximately 25 kg and good health were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, ZnSO4 and HMBi (2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio butyric acid isopropyl ester. The three groups were fed a basal diet, a ZnSO4 diet (supplemented with 0.63% ZnSO4.H2O and an HMBi diet (supplemented with 1.27% HMBi, respectively. Blood and cashmere samples were collected at the end of the three-month experimental period. The plasma concentrations of total protein, urea nitrogen, ammonia and amino acids; the cashmere content of amino acids and sulfur contents; the cashmere growth rates; and the diameter of the cashmere fibres were determined. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with ZnSO4 or HMBi can decrease the plasma urea nitrogen concentration and increase concentrations of total protein and methionine in plasma. In addition, the two types of sulfur supplements appeared to increase the methionine, cysteine and sulfur contents in cashmere fibres. Furthermore, the supplements can accelerate cashmere growth, with no significant effect on cashmere fineness. The promotion of cashmere growth probably stems from the improvement in the protein metabolic balance, sulfur retention and sulfur-containing amino acids synthesis in cashmere goats following the ZnSO4 or HMBi supplementation. In general, the ZnSO4 supplement promotes greater cashmere growth than the HMBi supplement under the experimental conditions.

  19. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols (United States)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.

    A two dimensional, axisymmetric flowfield model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the Concorde engine on the formation and growth of volatile H2SO4/H2O aerosols in the near field plume. Rased on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, results are shown for between 2% and 20% conversion of the fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 and H2SO4) in engine. The primary motivation is to provide estimates for the changes in the number density and surface area density of sulfuric acid aerosols due to sulfur oxidation in the engine. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of sulfur emissions at the exhaust exit, in addition to soot properties, to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions.

  20. Influence of Aggregate Coated with Modified Sulfur on the Properties of Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swoo-Heon Lee


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the mixing design of concrete having modified sulfur-coated aggregate (MSCA to enhance the durability of Portland cement concrete. The mechanical properties and durability of the proposed MSCA concrete were evaluated experimentally. Melting-modified sulfur was mixed with aggregate in order to coat the aggregate surface at a speed of 20 rpm for 120 s. The MSCA with modified sulfur corresponding to 5% of the cement weight did not significantly affect the flexural strength in a prism concrete beam specimen, regardless of the water-cement ratio (W/C. However, a dosage of more than 7.5% decreased the flexural strength. On the other hand, the MSCA considerably improved the resistance to the sulfuric acid and the freezing-thawing, regardless of the sulfur dosage in the MSCA. The coating modified sulfur of 5% dosage consequently led to good results for the mechanical properties and durability of MSCA concrete.

  1. Influence of Aggregate Coated with Modified Sulfur on the Properties of Cement Concrete. (United States)

    Lee, Swoo-Heon; Hong, Ki-Nam; Park, Jae-Kyu; Ko, Jung


    This paper proposes the mixing design of concrete having modified sulfur-coated aggregate (MSCA) to enhance the durability of Portland cement concrete. The mechanical properties and durability of the proposed MSCA concrete were evaluated experimentally. Melting-modified sulfur was mixed with aggregate in order to coat the aggregate surface at a speed of 20 rpm for 120 s. The MSCA with modified sulfur corresponding to 5% of the cement weight did not significantly affect the flexural strength in a prism concrete beam specimen, regardless of the water-cement ratio (W/C). However, a dosage of more than 7.5% decreased the flexural strength. On the other hand, the MSCA considerably improved the resistance to the sulfuric acid and the freezing-thawing, regardless of the sulfur dosage in the MSCA. The coating modified sulfur of 5% dosage consequently led to good results for the mechanical properties and durability of MSCA concrete.

  2. Enumeration of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms on deteriorating stone of the angkor monuments, Cambodia. (United States)

    Li, Xianshu; Arai, Hideo; Shimoda, Ichita; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Katayama, Yoko


    Annual change in the density of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms on sandstone was enumerated to know the effects on the deterioration of stone materials of the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. Samples were obtained from total 12 stations at the Angkor Wat, Bayon, and Phnom Krom temples between 1998 and 2007. Sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms enumerated in a mineral salts medium supplemented with elemental sulfur as the sole energy source had a density of 10(1)-10(5) MPN (g sample)(-1). The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms of the samples collected at Angkor Wat have tended to decrease in density since 2002; on the other hand, relatively constant values have been recorded in the samples of Bayon and Phnom Krom. These results suggest that the sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms on the stone play an important role in the decay of the building blocks by excreting sulfuric acid.

  3. Spatial dependence of reduced sulfur in Everglades dissolved organic matter controlled by sulfate enrichment (United States)

    Poulin, Brett A.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Nagy, Kathryn L.; Stubbins, Aron; Dittmar, Thorsten; Orem, William H.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Aiken, George R.


    Sulfate inputs to the Florida Everglades stimulate sulfidic conditions in freshwater wetland sediments that affect ecological and biogeochemical processes. An unexplored implication of sulfate enrichment is alteration of the content and speciation of sulfur in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which influences the reactivity of DOM with trace metals. Here, we describe the vertical and lateral spatial dependence of sulfur chemistry in the hydrophobic organic acid fraction of DOM from unimpacted and sulfate-impacted Everglades wetlands using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Spatial variation in DOM sulfur content and speciation reflects the degree of sulfate enrichment and resulting sulfide concentrations in sediment pore waters. Sulfur is incorporated into DOM predominantly as highly reduced species in sulfidic pore waters. Sulfur-enriched DOM in sediment pore waters exchanges with overlying surface waters and the sulfur likely undergoes oxidative transformations in the water column. Across all wetland sites and depths, the total sulfur content of DOM correlated with the relative abundance of highly reduced sulfur functionality. The results identify sulfate input as a primary determinant on DOM sulfur chemistry to be considered in the context of wetland restoration and sulfur and trace metal cycling.

  4. Spatial Dependence of Reduced Sulfur in Everglades Dissolved Organic Matter Controlled by Sulfate Enrichment. (United States)

    Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Nagy, Kathryn L; Stubbins, Aron; Dittmar, Thorsten; Orem, William; Krabbenhoft, David P; Aiken, George R


    Sulfate inputs to the Florida Everglades stimulate sulfidic conditions in freshwater wetland sediments that affect ecological and biogeochemical processes. An unexplored implication of sulfate enrichment is alteration of the content and speciation of sulfur in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which influences the reactivity of DOM with trace metals. Here, we describe the vertical and lateral spatial dependence of sulfur chemistry in the hydrophobic organic acid fraction of DOM from unimpacted and sulfate-impacted Everglades wetlands using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Spatial variation in DOM sulfur content and speciation reflects the degree of sulfate enrichment and resulting sulfide concentrations in sediment pore waters. Sulfur is incorporated into DOM predominantly as highly reduced species in sulfidic pore waters. Sulfur-enriched DOM in sediment pore waters exchanges with overlying surface waters and the sulfur likely undergoes oxidative transformations in the water column. Across all wetland sites and depths, the total sulfur content of DOM correlated with the relative abundance of highly reduced sulfur functionality. The results identify sulfate input as a primary determinant on DOM sulfur chemistry to be considered in the context of wetland restoration and sulfur and trace metal cycling.

  5. Extração líquido-líquido de ferro(III e titânio(IV pelo ácido bis-(2-etil-hexil fosfórico (D2EHPA em meio de ácido sulfúrico Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE of Fe(III and Ti(IV by bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA in sulfuric acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Corrêa da Silva


    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the separation of Fe(III and Ti(IV from sulfuric acid leaching solutions of ilmenite (FeTiO3 using liquid-liquid extraction with D2EHPA in n-dodecane as extracting agent. The distribution coefficients (K D of the elements related to free acidity and concentration of Fe(III and Ti(IV were determined. Free acidity was changed from 3x10-2 to 11.88 mol L-1 and D2EHPA concentration was fixed at 1.5 mol L-1. Recovery of final products as well as recycling of wastes generated in the process were also investigated. The LLE process as a feasible alternative to obtain high-purity TiO2.

  6. Recovering sulfurs from wastes; Recuperacion de sulfuros desde efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.; Guala, M.; Flores, H. [Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica; Spekuljak, Z; Robaina, E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    A tannery sulfur recuperation process is proposed. The effluent liquid is supersaturated with sulphydric acid, by means acidification at controlled temperature and pressure, and a consequent venting of the clean gas. It is absorbed in a basic solution, and recovering for reutilization. The lab experiences and the results are presented. Technological solution are found to employ this process in industrial applications. (author)

  7. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de...

  8. Microbial sulfur cycle in two hydrothermal chimneys on the Southwest Indian Ridge. (United States)

    Cao, Huiluo; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze; Qian, Pei-Yuan


    Sulfur is an important element in sustaining microbial communities present in hydrothermal vents. Sulfur oxidation has been extensively studied due to its importance in chemosynthetic pathways in hydrothermal fields; however, less is known about sulfate reduction. Here, the metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys located on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were pyrosequenced to elucidate the associated microbial sulfur cycle. A taxonomic summary of known genes revealed a few dominant bacteria that participated in the microbial sulfur cycle, particularly sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The metagenomes studied contained highly abundant genes related to sulfur oxidation and reduction. Several carbon metabolic pathways, in particular the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycles for CO2 fixation, were identified in sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria. In contrast, highly abundant genes related to the oxidation of short-chain alkanes were grouped with sulfate-reducing bacteria, suggesting an important role for short-chain alkanes in the sulfur cycle. Furthermore, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were associated with enrichment for genes involved in the denitrification pathway, while sulfate-reducing bacteria displayed enrichment for genes responsible for hydrogen utilization. In conclusion, this study provides insights regarding major microbial metabolic activities that are driven by the sulfur cycle in low-temperature hydrothermal chimneys present on an ultraslow midocean ridge. There have been limited studies on chimney sulfides located at ultraslow-spreading ridges. The analysis of metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge suggests the presence of a microbial sulfur cycle. The sulfur cycle should be centralized within a microbial community that displays enrichment for sulfur metabolism-related genes. The present study elucidated a significant role of the microbial sulfur

  9. Electricity generation from an inorganic sulfur compound containing mining wastewater by acidophilic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Gaofeng; Christel, Stephan; Roman, Pawel; Wong, Zhen Lim; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Dopson, Mark


    Sulfide mineral processing often produces large quantities of wastewaters containing acid-generating inorganic sulfur compounds. If released untreated, these wastewaters can cause catastrophic environmental damage. In this study, microbial fuel cells were inoculated with acidophilic

  10. Acid rain and sugar maple decline (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg


    Through the increased combustion of fossil fuels, humans have dramatically increased pollutant additions of sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere where it conbines with water to form sulfuric and nitric acids, creating acid rain (Driscoll et al. 2001). Incoming acid rain has various impacts on human and natural systems, including the accelerated degradation of built...

  11. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin


    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  12. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin


    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  13. Damages of satsuma mandarine due to soot and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.


    Small spots like a citrus melanose spot (disease spot by Diaporthe Citri) and relatively larger spots occurred on satsuma mandarine fruit due to soot of factories in Shikoku district in 1973. Thirteen kinds of soot collected from various districts of Japan were used for this experiment. Several soots showed pH 0.47 in 25% suspension and 1.60 in 1% suspension. These strong acid soots caused severe injuries with 2 mg per square centimeter of fruit surface, or injuries with 0.5 ml of 0.2% solution per fruit. Acidity of soot could be related to content of sulfur in fuel. Soot which was desulfurized by ammonia and contained much of ammonium also had a strong effect of fruit in spite of their rather weak acidity. Pure ammonium sulfide also caused severe injury on satusma mandarine fruit, and the salt diluted by 50% active carbon also injured fruit. A term of contact of soot on fruit was a factor for injury. Because sulfur content of leaves generally well indicate the integrating concentration of sulfur dioxide, sulfur content of satsuma mandarine leaves was determined, and the other nutritional elements of leaves and soils were also analyzed. According to leaf analysis, nutritional status of satsuma mandarine trees was normal, and content of nutritional elements of soils was also normal.

  14. Sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.


    Bacterial sulfate reduction occurs in all marine sediments that contain organic matter. Aqueous sulfide (HS-, H2S), one of the initial products of bacterial sulfide reduction, is extremely reactive with iron bearing minerals: sulfur is fixed into sediments as iron sulfide (first FeS and then Fe2S2). A working definition is given of sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments. Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments are examined.

  15. Níveis de aminoácidos sulfurados totais para poedeiras semi-pesadas após a muda forçada Total sulfur amino acids levels for semi heavy weight laying hens after forced molt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Laurentiz


    Full Text Available Cento e sessenta e duas poedeiras semipesadas anteriormente submetidas à muda forçada foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e nove repetições de seis aves para cada. Os tratamentos consistiram no fornecimento de rações contendo 0,45, 0,60 e 0,75% de aminoácidos sulfurados totais (AAST durante 30 dias após o término da muda forçada (fase de pós-muda. Após os 30 dias, cada um dos tratamentos adotados na fase de pós-muda foi desmembrado nos mesmos níveis de AAST, compondo, portanto, um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3x3 (3 níveis de AAST da fase pós-muda - 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75% x 3 níveis de AAST na fase de produção - 0,45; 0,60 e 0,75%, sendo os tratamentos nesta fase compostos de três repetições de seis aves cada. Na fase de pós-muda, o menor nível de AAST determinou menores valores para consumo de ração (POne hundred and sixty two brown laying hens after the induced molt were randomly assigned to three treatments with nine replications and six birds each. The treatments consisted of 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA in the diets for 30 days after the end of induced molt (postmolt phase. After 30 days, each one of the treatments used in the postmolt phase was dismembered in the same TSAA levels, composing therefore a completely randomized desing in a factorial arrangement 3x3 (3 levels of TSAA in the postmolt phase - 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% x 3 TSAA levels in the production phase - 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75%. The treatments in the production phase were composed of three replications of six birds each. At the production phase the performance and egg quality were evaluated for 4 periods of 21 days. At postmolt phase the lower TSAA level (0.45% determined lower values (P<0.01 for feed intake, TSAA intake and body weight. The TSAA levels used in the postmolt phase affected (P<0.05 only the egg weight and the smaller weight were determined by 0

  16. The origin of sulfur-bearing species on the surfaces of icy satellites (United States)

    Strazzulla, Giovanni; Garozzo, Mario; Gomis, Oscar


    We present experimental results in order to understand the physico-chemical effects induced by fast ions irradiating sulfur bearing molecules. The experiments are relevant both to Solar System objects (icy satellites, comets, TNOs) and icy mantles on grains in the interstellar medium. Here we concentrate on the application to the Galilean moons that are exposed to high energetic particle fluxes in the jovian magnetosphere. In particular we show that: Implantation of sulfur ions into water ice produces hydrated sulfuric acid with high efficiency providing an important contribution to the sulfur cycle on the surfaces of Europa and other jovian satellites. Implantation of protons into sulfur dioxide produces mainly SO 3, polymers, and O 3 but not H-S bonds. The suggested hypothesis that H implantation could result in the formation of H 2SO 3 on Io is not confirmed by our experiments. Irradiation of sulfur dioxide mainly produces SO 3 and sulfur polymers. Irradiation and subsequent warming of H 2S induces the formation of a sulfurous residue that exhibits S-H bonds. Water ice has been deposited on refractory sulfurous materials originating from SO 2 or H 2S irradiation. We looked to the formation of new species at the interface (ion mixing). We have not found evidence for the efficient synthesis of SO 2. In the case of residues rich in species containing S-H bonds, H 2S is re-formed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M


    The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer

  18. Study of sulfur and vanadium in heavy petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, J.M.


    Sulfur compounds in heavy oil fractions (>450/sup 0/C) are studied in the first part of this work. After chemical oxidation by metachloroperbenzoic acid to obtain sulfones, sulfur compounds are analyzed by infrared spectroscopy for their qualitative and quantitative repartition. The method can be applied for the study of sulfur containing molecules before and after structural modifications of petroleum fractions by any chemical refining processes. In a second part vanadium is characterized in asphalt by physicochemical and chemical methods. 80% of the vanadium in a Boscan asphalt is under the form of porphyrins. Different associations are evidenced in petroleum fractions and metalloporphyrins, but the liaison between the vanadyl group and heterocondensate from asphalts is the more frequent.

  19. Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast (United States)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.


    Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

  20. The Influence of Fuel Sulfur on the Operation of Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov

    The present work focusses on SO3/H2SO4 formation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) condensation in a large low speed 2-stroke marine diesel engine. SO3 formation is treated theoretically from a formulated multizone engine model described in this work that includes a detailed and validated sulfur reaction...... and experimental results are used for a rough validation of the theoretical model. Gaseous sulfuric acid does not form in the hot cylinder/bulk gasses but more exactly from a fast reaction between SO3 and H2O at the cooled cylinder liner surface and modeled information about SO3 formation is applied in order...... point temperatures that generally range between 190 °C – 225 °C depending on the operational conditions and fuel sulfur content. Independent of operational conditions the most aggressive acid condenses within the first 50 crank angles after top dead center due to the high cylinder pressure....

  1. Hygroscopicity of the submicrometer aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sjogren


    Full Text Available Data from measurements of hygroscopic growth of submicrometer aerosol with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA during four campaigns at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The campaigns took place during the years 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2005, each lasting approximately one month. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF, i.e. the relative change in particle diameter from dry diameter, D0, to diameter measured at higher relative humidity, RH are presented for three distinct air mass types, namely for: 1 free tropospheric winter conditions, 2 planetary boundary layer influenced air masses (during a summer period and 3 Saharan dust events (SDE. The GF values at 85% RH (D0=100 nm were 1.40±0.11 and 1.29±0.08 for the first two situations while for SDE a bimodal GF distribution was often found. No phase changes were observed when the RH was varied between 10–90%, and the continuous water uptake could be well described with a single-parameter empirical model. The frequency distributions of the average hygroscopic growth factors and the width of the retrieved growth factor distributions (indicating whether the aerosol is internally or externally mixed are presented, which can be used for modeling purposes.

    Measurements of size resolved chemical composition were performed with an aerosol mass spectrometer in parallel to the GF measurements. This made it possible to estimate the apparent ensemble mean GF of the organics (GForg using inverse ZSR (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson modeling. GForg was found to be ~1.20 at aw=0.85, which is at the upper end of previous laboratory and field data though still in agreement with the highly aged and oxidized nature of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  2. Fabrication of sub-micrometer PMOSFETs with sub-100 nm p sup + -n shallow junctions using Group III dual ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-M. (Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Steckl, A.J. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)


    Fabrication of sub-micrometer PMOSFETs with sub-100 nm p{sup +}-n source/drain junctions using all Group III ({sup 69}Ga, {sup 115}In, {sup 11}B, {sup 49}BF{sub 2}) dual ion implantation is reported. We have obtained low leakage p{sup +}-n shallow junctions with a depth less than 70 nm by implanting various combinations of Group III species in conjunction with low temperature rapid thermal annealing (25/3 keV Ga/B implant annealed at 600{sup 0}C for 30 s; 50/5 keV and 30/3 keV, In/B implants annealed at 900{sup 0}C for 10 s). Sub-micrometer (0.6-0.95 {mu}m) PMOSFETs have been fabricated with this technique. The Ga/B-implanted transistors exhibit a subthreshold slope of 95-105 mV/decade and yield a maximum transconductance of 35-45 mS/mm. The corresponding values for the In/B-implanted FETs are 100-110 mV/decade and 30-40 mS/mm. (author).

  3. Sulfur deposition simulations over China, Japan, and Korea: a model intercomparison study for abating sulfur emission. (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Chang, Lim-Seok; Meng, Fan; Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yuanhang; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Jong-Jae; He, Youjiang; Xu, Jun; Sato, Keiichi; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Duan, Lei; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Song, Chang-Keun; Ban, Soo-Jin; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Sunwoo, Young; Lee, Tae-Young


    In response to increasing trends in sulfur deposition in Northeast Asia, three countries in the region (China, Japan, and Korea) agreed to devise abatement strategies. The concepts of critical loads and source-receptor (S-R) relationships provide guidance for formulating such strategies. Based on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project, this study analyzes sulfur deposition data in order to optimize acidic loads over the three countries. The three groups involved in this study carried out a full year (2002) of sulfur deposition modeling over the geographic region spanning the three countries, using three air quality models: MM5-CMAQ, MM5-RAQM, and RAMS-CADM, employed by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean modeling groups, respectively. Each model employed its own meteorological numerical model and model parameters. Only the emission rates for SO(2) and NO(x) obtained from the LTP project were the common parameter used in the three models. Three models revealed some bias from dry to wet deposition, particularly the latter because of the bias in annual precipitation. This finding points to the need for further sensitivity tests of the wet removal rates in association with underlying cloud-precipitation physics and parameterizations. Despite this bias, the annual total (dry plus wet) sulfur deposition predicted by the models were surprisingly very similar. The ensemble average annual total deposition was 7,203.6 ± 370 kt S with a minimal mean fractional error (MFE) of 8.95 ± 5.24 % and a pattern correlation (PC) of 0.89-0.93 between the models. This exercise revealed that despite rather poor error scores in comparison with observations, these consistent total deposition values across the three models, based on LTP group's input data assumptions, suggest a plausible S-R relationship that can be applied to the next task of designing cost-effective emission abatement strategies.

  4. Quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Cao, Gang; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Xiaocheng


    In the present study, quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation was applied to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results showed that the average contents of six flavonoids (cynaroside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, luteolin, apigenin, and diosmetin) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples decreased by about 6.2%, 3.5%, 22.0%, 33.3%, 26.0%, and 36.9%, respectively, while the average contents of two organic acids (chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples increased by about 16.8% and 7.6%, respectively. Furthermore, high dosage sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium could induce hydropic degeneration in epithelial cells of the renal tubule and interstitial edema. This indicates that sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium may lead to renal toxicity.

  5. Sulfur-doped ordered mesoporous carbons: A stability-improving sulfur host for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes (United States