Sample records for submerged axisymmetric jet

  1. Nonlinear Instabilities on an Axisymmetric Ferrofluid Jet (United States)

    Cornish, Michael; Papageorgiou, Demetrios


    The stability properties of an inviscid axisymmetric ferrofluid jet running over a current carrying rod are investigated. The rod generates an azimuthal magnetic field which can fully stabilize the Rayleigh-plateau instability for a sufficiently large magnetic field. However, long wave instability can occur when the magnetic field is below critical; this regime has not been studied nonlinearly unlike the above critical regime where the magnetic stabilization property has led to theoretical and experimental discoveries of solitary waves on the ferrofluid jet. We study the flow asymptotically near the critical value of the magnetic field. In the stable regime, we derive the Boussinesq equation. Our interest is in the unstable regime, where magnetic forces are slightly smaller than capillary forces. The Rayleigh-plateau instability is no longer suppressed and a weakly nonlinear long wave model is derived and studied analytically and computationally. The final part of the study follows the nonlinear evolution of the free surface for magnetic fields away from the critical level. A fully nonlinear long-wave theory will be used to derive reduced model equations to evaluate the nonlinear competition between capillary instability of the liquid jet and the stabilizing magnetic field.

  2. The axisymmetric jet in a rotating reference frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrie, A G W; Scott, J F; Godeferd, F; Cambon, C [LMFA, Ecole Centrale de Lyon (France); Duran-Matute, M; Flor, J-B [LEGI, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Danaila, L, E-mail: [CORIA, Universite de Rouen (France)


    The axisymmetric jet is a geometrically simple, statistically stationary example of inhomogenous turbulence. Considering conservation of volume and momentum, Morton et al. (1956) offered a prediction of jet development, characterised solely by an unknown, constant entrainment coefficient. The presence of background rotation complicates the kinematics of the entrainment, and without special treatment, the jet suffers a helical instability. Here, we present one technique which stabilises the axisymmetric jet, yet preserves its desirable turbulent properties. The jet offers a steady-state flow in which there is an axial variation of local Rossby number, and after decay along the axis to a critical value, cones of inertial waves emerge. In this paper, we demonstrate these features using our numerical software MOBILE, offer our solution to stabilise the jet, and explain the mechanisms involved.

  3. Transition and mixing in axisymmetric jets and vortex rings (United States)

    Allen, G. A., Jr.; Cantwell, B. J.


    A class of impulsively started, axisymmetric, laminar jets produced by a time dependent joint source of momentum are considered. These jets are different flows, each initially at rest in an unbounded fluid. The study is conducted at three levels of detail. First, a generalized set of analytic creeping flow solutions are derived with a method of flow classification. Second, from this set, three specific creeping flow solutions are studied in detail: the vortex ring, the round jet, and the ramp jet. This study involves derivation of vorticity, stream function, entrainment diagrams, and evolution of time lines through computer animation. From entrainment diagrams, critical points are derived and analyzed. The flow geometry is dictated by the properties and location of critical points which undergo bifurcation and topological transformation (a form of transition) with changing Reynolds number. Transition Reynolds numbers were calculated. A state space trajectory was derived describing the topological behavior of these critical points. This state space derivation yielded three states of motion which are universal for all axisymmetric jets. Third, the axisymmetric round jet is solved numerically using the unsteady laminar Navier Stokes equations. These equations were shown to be self similar for the round jet. Numerical calculations were performed up to a Reynolds number of 30 for a 60x60 point mesh. Animations generated from numerical solution showed each of the three states of motion for the round jet, including the Re = 30 case.

  4. Acoustic wave propagation in an axisymmetric swirling jet. (United States)

    Yu, J. C.; Mungur, P.


    An analysis has been developed to study the acoustic wave propagation in an axisymmetric swirling subsonic jet flow. The governing convected wave equation derived in the spherical coordinates includes mean shears, shear gradients and pressure gradients. The directivity patterns for various spinning and non-spinning modes due to the influence of the mean jet swirl were obtained by numerically integrating the governing wave equation. The mean flow field used in the computation was that obtained semiempirically for subsonic swirling turbulent jet and is completely specified once the degree of swirl is known. The dependence of sound directivity on jet Mach number, swirl ratio and frequency are discussed.

  5. Modeling axisymmetric flows dynamics of films, jets, and drops

    CERN Document Server

    Middleman, Stanley


    This concise book is intended to fulfill two purposes: to provide an important supplement to classic texts by carrying fluid dynamics students on into the realm of free boundary flows; and to demonstrate the art of mathematical modeling based on knowledge, intuition, and observation. In the authors words, the overall goal is make the complex simple, without losing the essence--the virtue--of the complexity.Modeling Axisymmetric Flows: Dynamics of Films, Jets, and Drops is the first book to cover the topics of axisymmetric laminar flows; free-boundary flows; and dynamics of drops, jets, and films. The text also features comparisons of models to experiments, and it includes a large selection of problems at the end of each chapter.Key Features* Contains problems at the end of each chapter* Compares real-world experimental data to theory* Provides one of the first comprehensive examinations of axisymmetric laminar flows, free-boundary flows, and dynamics of drops, jets, and films* Includes development of basic eq...

  6. Interference in axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyk Emil


    Full Text Available The paper presents research of phenomena of mechanical wave interference during generate synthetic jets in actuator with two executive elements (speakers. Two speakers work with the same or other phase using the phenomenon of mechanical wave interference (sound wave. In effect the volume of ingestion and expulsion flow is a sum of two speakers' work. In this paper is presented analysis of operation so constructed axisymetric actuator and influence of phase shift - between work of the speakers - on actuator’s operation.

  7. Linear stability analysis of supersonic axisymmetric jets

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    Zhenhua Wan


    Full Text Available Stabilities of supersonic jets are examined with different velocities, momentum thicknesses, and core temperatures. Amplification rates of instability waves at inlet are evaluated by linear stability theory (LST. It is found that increased velocity and core temperature would increase amplification rates substantially and such influence varies for different azimuthal wavenumbers. The most unstable modes in thin momentum thickness cases usually have higher frequencies and azimuthal wavenumbers. Mode switching is observed for low azimuthal wavenumbers, but it appears merely in high velocity cases. In addition, the results provided by linear parabolized stability equations show that the mean-flow divergence affects the spatial evolution of instability waves greatly. The most amplified instability waves globally are sometimes found to be different from that given by LST.

  8. Refraction and Shielding of Noise in Non-Axisymmetric Jets (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas


    This paper examines the shielding effect of the mean flow and refraction of sound in non-axisymmetric jets. A general three-dimensional ray-acoustic approach is applied. The methodology is independent of the exit geometry and may account for jet spreading and transverse as well as streamwise flow gradients. We assume that noise is dominated by small-scale turbulence. The source correlation terms, as described by the acoustic analogy approach, are simplified and a model is proposed that relates the source strength to 7/2 power of turbulence kinetic energy. Local characteristics of the source such as its strength, time- or length-scale, convection velocity and characteristic frequency are inferred from the mean flow considerations. Compressible Navier Stokes equations are solved with a k-e turbulence model. Numerical predictions are presented for a Mach 1.5, aspect ratio 2:1 elliptic jet. The predicted sound pressure level directivity demonstrates favorable agreement with reported data, indicating a relative quiet zone on the side of the major axis of the elliptic jet.

  9. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben


    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  10. Stabilizing effect of elasticity on the inertial instability of submerged viscoelastic liquid jets (United States)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; McKinley, Gareth


    The stability of submerged Newtonian and viscoelastic liquid jets is studied experimentally using flow visualization. Precise control of the amplitude and frequency of the imposed linear perturbations is achieved through a piezoelectric actuator attached to the nozzle. By illuminating the jet with a strobe light driven at a frequency slightly less than the frequency of the perturbation we slow down the apparent motion by large factors ( 100 , 000) and capture the phenomena with high temporal and spatial resolution. Newtonian liquid jets become unstable at moderate Reynolds numbers (Rej 150) and sinuous or varicose patterns emerge and grow in amplitude. As the jet moves downstream, the varicose waves gradually pile up in the sinuous ones due to the difference in their corresponding wave speeds, leading to a unique chevron-like morphology. Experiments with model viscoelastic polymer solutions show that this inertial instability is fully stabilized sufficiently large levels of elasticity. We compare our experimental results with the theoretical predictions of an elastic Rayleigh equation for an axisymmetric jet and show that the presence of streamline tension is indeed the stabilizing effect for inertioelastic jets.

  11. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of the Externally Excited Axisymmetric Mode in Reacting, Swirling Jets (United States)

    Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim


    This study investigates the forced response characteristics of axisymmetric structures in density-stratified swirling jets. The reacting, swirling jet is an important canonical flow field for modern combustion systems. This work is motivated by the combustion instability problem for such systems, where acoustically excited vortical structures may drive oscillatory heat release of combustion. Previous hydrodynamics studies have shown that the stability of helical structures is highly sensitive to the swirl number. However, the combustion literature has shown that axisymmetric structures (in contrast to helical structures) are often responsible for most of the heat release response. Therefore, this work performs a spatial stability analysis to study the swirl number sensitivity of the forced response of the axisymmetric mode. A spatio-temporal analysis is conducted in tandem to investigate the swirl number sensitivity of the impulse response of this mode. The results show that at low values of the swirl number, the axisymmetric mode stability is a weak function of the swirl number, but that new modes and stability bifurcations appear at high swirl numbers.

  12. Prediction of jet flows from the axisymmetric supersonic nozzle (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kendall, M. A. F.; Costigan, G.; Bellhouse, B. J.

    This study is motivated by the authors' interest in developing a needle-free powdered vaccine delivery device, the Epidermal Powdered Injection system(EPI). The behaviour of a supersonic jet, which accelerates powdered vaccines in micro-form to a sufficient momentum to penetrate the outer layer of human skin or mucosal tissue, is therefore of great importance. In this paper, a well established Modified Implicit Flux Vector Splitting (MIFVS) solver for the Navier-Stokes equations is extended to numerically study the transient supersonic jet flows of interest. A low Reynolds number k-ɛ turbulence model, with the compressibility effect considered, is integrated into MIFVS solver to the prediction of the turbulent structures and interactions with inherent shock systems. The results for the NASA validation case NPARC, Contoured Shock Tube and Venturi of EPI system are discussed.

  13. Modeling Sound Propagation Through Non-Axisymmetric Jets (United States)

    Leib, Stewart J.


    A method for computing the far-field adjoint Green's function of the generalized acoustic analogy equations under a locally parallel mean flow approximation is presented. The method is based on expanding the mean-flow-dependent coefficients in the governing equation and the scalar Green's function in truncated Fourier series in the azimuthal direction and a finite difference approximation in the radial direction in circular cylindrical coordinates. The combined spectral/finite difference method yields a highly banded system of algebraic equations that can be efficiently solved using a standard sparse system solver. The method is applied to test cases, with mean flow specified by analytical functions, corresponding to two noise reduction concepts of current interest: the offset jet and the fluid shield. Sample results for the Green's function are given for these two test cases and recommendations made as to the use of the method as part of a RANS-based jet noise prediction code.

  14. Technology for formation of axisymmetric free jets with long laminar region (United States)

    Reshmin, A.; Sudarikova, A.; Teplovodskii, S.; Zayko, J.


    A new technology for formation of axisymmetric free jets with a long laminar region is presented in the work. Such jets are created by of a compact device and experimentally studied in the Reynolds number range from 2000 to 13000. The device is capable of creation a jet of 0.12 m diameter. Numerical simulations are conducted with the purpose to analyse the flow inside the device and its impact on the jet velocity profile. Also calculations are conducted in order to find a way for a jet laminar region prolongation. Based on the calculations, the device parameters are corrected and the jet laminar region length is magnified from the size of 5.5 to 6.5 jet diameters. Free jets with long initial laminar regions and the diameter more than 0.1 m are advantageous for detailed research of perturbation growth and transition to turbulence in round jets, and can also be used to organize air curtains in order to protect objects in medicine and high–accurate industries.

  15. Nonlinear axisymmetric and three-dimensional vorticity dynamics in a swirling jet model (United States)

    Martin, J. E.; Meiburg, E.


    The mechanisms of vorticity concentration, reorientation, and stretching are investigated in a simplified swirling jet model, consisting of a line vortex along the jet axis surrounded by a jet shear layer with both azimuthal and streamwise vorticity. Inviscid three-dimensional vortex dynamics simulations demonstrate the nonlinear interaction and competition between a centrifugal instability and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities feeding on both components of the base flow vorticity. Under axisymmetric flow conditions, it is found that the swirl leads to the emergence of counterrotating vortex rings, whose circulation, in the absence of viscosity, can grow without bounds. Scaling laws are provided for the growth of these rings, which trigger a pinch-off mechanism resulting in a strong decrease of the local jet diameter. In the presence of an azimuthal disturbance, the nonlinear evolution of the flow depends strongly on the initial ratio of the azimuthal and axisymmetric perturbation amplitudes. The long term dynamics of the jet can be dominated by counterrotating vortex rings connected by braid vortices, by like-signed rings and streamwise braid vortices, or by wavy streamwise vortices alone.

  16. Characteristics of premixed flames stabilized in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner with tip modification

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daejoong


    The stabilization characteristics of premixed flames in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner have been experimentally investigated. This burner utilized the Coanda effect on top of a burner tip. The initially spherical burner tip was modified to a flat tip and a concave tip in order to improve flame stabilization by providing enough space for flow recirculation above the burner tip region. The flow characteristics have been visualized using a schlieren technique. Small-scale turbulence structure has been observed mainly in the interaction jet region (located downstream of the recirculation region) for large jet velocity (Reynolds number >11,500). An appreciable amount of air entrainment was exhibited from the half-angle of the jet spread, approximately 20. The averaged planar laser-induced fluorescence images of the flames for this large velocity demonstrated that the strong signal of OH radicals, representing reaction zones, existed in the recirculation zone, while it was weak in the interaction jet region due to intermittency and local extinction by the generation of small scale turbulence. The OH radical signals strengthened again in the merged jet region (downstream of the interaction jet region). In extreme cases of Reynolds number over 19,000, a unique flame exhibiting OH radicals only in the recirculation zone was observed for the concave tip. The flame stabilization has been mapped by varying jet velocity and equivalence ratio, and the result showed that the stabilization characteristics were improved appreciably from the initial spherical tip design, especially for rich mixtures. The flow fields measured by a laser Doppler velocimetry confirmed the existence of recirculation zone and the expansion of the recirculation zones for the modified tips. The temperature profile measured by a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy exhibited an intermittent nature, especially near the recirculation zone.

  17. Time–frequency analysis of submerged synthetic jet (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Saha, Arun K.; Panigrahi, P. K.


    The coherent structures transport the finite body of fluid mass through rolling which plays an important role in heat transfer, boundary layer control, mixing, cooling, propulsion and other engineering applications. A synthetic jet in the form of a train of vortex rings having coherent structures of different length scales is expected to be useful in these applications. The propagation and sustainability of these coherent structures (vortex rings) in downstream direction characterize the performance of synthetic jet. In the present study, the velocity signal acquired using the S-type hot-film probe along the synthetic jet centerline has been taken for the spectral analysis. One circular and three rectangular orifices of aspect ratio 1, 2 and 4 actuating at 1, 6 and 18 Hz frequency have been used for creating different synthetic jets. The laser induced fluorescence images are used to study the flow structures qualitatively and help in explaining the velocity signal for detection of coherent structures. The study depicts four regions as vortex rollup and suction region (X/D h ≤ 3), steadily translating region (X/D h ≤ 3–8), vortex breakup region (X/Dh ≤ 4–8) and dissipation of small-scale vortices (X/D h ≤ 8–15). The presence of coherent structures localized in physical and temporal domain is analyzed for the characterization of synthetic jet. Due to pulsatile nature of synthetic jet, analysis of velocity time trace or signal in time, frequency and combined time–frequency domain assist in characterizing the signatures of coherent structures. It has been observed that the maximum energy is in the first harmonic of actuation frequency, which decreases slowly in downstream direction at 6 Hz compared to 1 and 18 Hz of actuation.

  18. Effect of geometrical parameters on submerged cavitation jet discharged from profiled central-body nozzle (United States)

    Yang, Minguan; Xiao, Shengnan; Kang, Can; Wang, Yuli


    The flow characteristics of cavitation jets are essential issues among relevant studies. The physical properties of the jet are largely determined by the geometrical parameters of the nozzle. The structure and cavitation jets characteristics of the angular-nozzle and the self-resonating cavitation nozzle have been extensively studied, but little research is conducted in the central-body cavitation nozzle mainly because of its hard processing and the cavitation jet effect not satisfactory. In this paper, a novel central-body nozzle (a non-plunger central-body nozzle with square outlet) is studied to solve above problems. Submerged jets discharged from the novel central-body nozzle are simulated, employing the full cavitation model. The impact of nozzle configuration on jet properties is analyzed. The analysis results indicate that when central-body relative diameter keeps constant, there is an optimal contraction degree of nozzle's outlet, which can induce intense cavitation in the jet. The central-body relative diameter also affects jet profiles. In the case of large central-body relative diameter, most of the bubbles settle in the jet core. On the contrary, a smaller relative diameter makes bubbles concentrate in the interface between the jet and its surrounding fluid. Moreover, the shorter outlet part allows the cavitation zone further extend in both the axial and racial directions. The research results further consummate the study on the central-body nozzles and the correlation between cavitation jet and the structure, and elementarily reveal the mechanism of cavitation jet produced in a non-plunger novel central-body nozzle and the effect of the structure parameters on the cavitation jet, moreover, provide the theoretical basis for the optimal design of the nozzle.

  19. Transformation of spectra of refraction index fluctuations in axisymmetric supersonic jet with the increase in the distance from the nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakasov Dmitrii


    Full Text Available In this paper the results of reconstruction of the radial dependence of refraction index fluctuations spectra in axisymmetric supersonic jet from laser transillumination data are presented. The reconstruction algorithm uses experimental spectra of laser radiation, received behind the jet, and the distribution of time-averaged axial air velocity within the jet. Laser transillumination experiments were performed on the Vertical Jet Unit of ITAM SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia. Reconstruction results show the refraction index spectra obey the power-law model, with power index different from that of the Kolmogorov turbulence model (−11/3. Within the first two barrels of the jet the power index is changing from ~−1 near the nozzle to ~−2.7 near the second Mach disk. Also some variations of power index and amplitude coefficient with the distance from the jet axis are found.

  20. Prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior of a submerged shell with non-axisymmetric internal substructures by a condensed transfer function method (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Maxit, L.; Guyader, J.-L.; Leissing, T.


    The vibroacoustic behavior of axisymmetric stiffened shells immersed in water has been intensively studied in the past. On the contrary, little attention has been paid to the modeling of these shells coupled to non-axisymmetric internal frames. Indeed, breaking the axisymmetry couples the circumferential orders of the Fourier series and considerably increases the computational costs. In order to tackle this issue, we propose a sub-structuring approach called the Condensed Transfer Function (CTF) method that will allow assembling a model of axisymmetric stiffened shell with models of non-axisymmetric internal frames. The CTF method is developed in the general case of mechanical subsystems coupled along curves. A set of orthonormal functions called condensation functions, which depend on the curvilinear abscissa along the coupling line, is considered. This set is then used as a basis for approximating and decomposing the displacements and the applied forces at the line junctions. Thanks to the definition and calculation of condensed transfer functions for each uncoupled subsystem and by using the superposition principle for passive linear systems, the behavior of the coupled subsystems can be deduced. A plane plate is considered as a test case to study the convergence of the method with respect to the type and the number of condensation functions taken into account. The CTF method is then applied to couple a submerged non-periodically stiffened shell described using the Circumferential Admittance Approach (CAA) with internal substructures described by Finite Element Method (FEM). The influence of non-axisymmetric internal substructures can finally be studied and it is shown that it tends to increase the radiation efficiency of the shell and can modify the vibrational and acoustic energy distribution.

  1. Experimental studies of the stress state of the surface layer of detailat treatment with submerged jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Олександрович Анділахай


    Full Text Available In the instrument and electrical industry was the use of the method of abrasive machining submerged jet, which is the most promising method for abrasive blasting of small parts of low stiffness. This method eliminates the main drawback сhip plants - abrasion channel nozzles or injection nozzles, but the state of the surface layer of machined parts are poorly understood and to make maximum use of the potential to provide the required quality parameters. The study of the state of the surfaces of parts resulting from abrasive blasting traditional methods, dedicated work, which define quality indicators: microhardness depth residual stress, as well as their nature (compressive, tensile. However, known from the literature values correspond to the conditions of surface treatment of parts in a fixed state with an abrasive material through the feed nozzle, and therefore the dynamics of the interaction of a single abrasive grain and significantly different parts. The process in question, and different modes of processing characteristics of the abrasive grains. In the paper, a series of experimental studies designed to assess the state of machined surfaces of parts as a result of abrasion submerged jets. It is established that during the treatment the non-oriented disorderly traces overlay the abrasive grains on the treated surface, thereby forming a tight skin layer thickness of 4 - 5 micrometers. Processed surface gets cold working, as evidenced by the study of microhardness before and after abrasive machining in a free state submerged jets

  2. Scale resolving computation of submerged wall jets on flat wall with different roughness heights (United States)

    Paik, Joongcheol; Bombardelli, Fabian


    Scale-adaptive simulation is used to investigate the response of velocity and turbulence in submerged wall jets to abrupt changes from smooth to rough beds. The submerged wall jets were experimentally investigated by Dey and Sarkar [JFM, 556, 337, 2006] at the Reynolds number of 17500 the Froude number of 4.09 and the submergence ratio of 1.12 on different rough beds that were generated by uniform sediments of different median diameters The SAS is carried out by means of a second-order-accurate finite volume method in space and time and the effect of bottom roughness is treated by the approach of Cebeci (2004). The evolution of free surface is captured by employing the two-phase volume of fluid (VOF) technique. The numerical results obtained by the SAS approach, incorporated with the VOF and the rough wall treatment, are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The computed turbulent boundary layer grows more quickly and the depression of the free surface is more increased on the rough wall than those on smooth wall. The size of the fully developed zone shrinks and the decay rate of maximum streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress components are faster with increase in the wall roughness. Supported by NSF and NRF of Korea.

  3. Traction Drive Inverter Cooling with Submerged Liquid Jet Impingement on Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S.; Narumanchi, S.; Moreno, G.


    Jet impingement is one means to improve thermal management for power electronics in electric-drive traction vehicles. Jet impingement on microfin-enhanced surfaces further augments heat transfer and thermal performance. A channel flow heat exchanger from a commercial inverter was characterized as a baseline system for comparison with two new prototype designs using liquid jet impingement on plain and microfinned enhanced surfaces. The submerged jets can target areas with the highest heat flux to provide local cooling, such as areas under insulated-gate bipolar transistors and diode devices. Low power experiments, where four diodes were powered, dissipated 105 W of heat and were used to validate computational fluid dynamics modeling of the baseline and prototype designs. Experiments and modeling used typical automotive flow rates using water-ethylene glycol as a coolant (50%-50% by volume). The computational fluid dynamics model was used to predict full inverter power heat dissipation. The channel flow and jet impingement configurations were tested at full inverter power of 40 to 100 kW (output power) on a dynamometer, translating to an approximate heat dissipation of 1 to 2 kW. With jet impingement, the cold plate material is not critical for the thermal pathway. A high-temperature plastic was used that could eventually be injection molded or formed, with the jets formed from a basic aluminum plate with orifices acting as nozzles. Long-term reliability of the jet nozzles and impingement on enhanced surfaces was examined. For jet impingement on microfinned surfaces, thermal performance increased 17%. Along with a weight reduction of approximately 3 kg, the specific power (kW/kg) increased by 36%, with an increase in power density (kW/L) of 12% compared with the baseline channel flow configuration.

  4. Applicability of submerged jet model to describe the liquid sample load into measuring chamber of micron and submillimeter sizes (United States)

    Bulyanitsa, A. L.; Belousov, K. I.; Evstrapov, A. A.


    The load of a liquid sample into a measuring chamber is one of the stages of substance analysis in modern devices. Fluid flow is effectively calculated by numerical simulation using application packages, for example, COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS. In the same time it is often desirable to have an approximate analytical solution. The applicability of a submerged jet model for simulation the liquid sample load is considered for the chamber with sizes from hundreds micrometers to several millimeters. The paper examines the extent to which the introduction of amendments to the jet cutting and its replacement with an energy equivalent jet provide acceptable accuracy for evaluation of the loading process dynamics.

  5. Flow and acoustic characteristics of non-axisymmetric jets at subsonic conditions (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja; Valentich, Griffin; Kumar, Rajan; Alvi, Farrukh


    Flow and acoustic behavior of two asymmetric, rectangular (AR = 4) and elliptic (AR = 2.5), jets are studied and compared to an equivalent area round jet. The jets are operated at a Mach number of 0.9 and temperature ratio of 1. Time-averaged flow field measurements are carried out using planar and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. In addition, far-field microphone measurements are performed to compare jet acoustics. Mean flow field results demonstrate that for the given Mach number and aspect ratios, rectangular and elliptic jet properties are somewhat modified compared to the round jet. The elliptic jet exhibits properties that are intermediate between two geometric extremes. Moderately enhanced mixing in asymmetric jets as a result of weak streamwise vortices is evidenced by overall shorter potential core, faster centerline velocity decay, and higher shear layer growth rates. Centerline turbulence levels and transverse shear stress distribution also show enhanced fluctuations for non-circular jets. Compared to their major axis planes, relatively higher turbulence levels are measured in the minor axis planes for both rectangular and elliptic jets. Far-field acoustic measurements reveal the asymmetric nature of the sound field. Compared to the round jet, major axis orientation for asymmetric jets is observed to provide moderate acoustic benefit in the downstream direction. However, enhanced fluctuations in the minor axis plane result in a marginal noise augmentation at moderate to high frequencies in this plane for downstream polar angles.

  6. Passive generation of streamwise vorticity in axisymmetric jets using half delta-wing vortex generators and its effect on jet mixing (United States)

    Carletti, Mark J.

    This research focuses on enhancing the mixing characteristics of an axisymmetric jet through the placement of small triangular teeth, or vortex generators, inside the jet nozzle. The performance of vortex generators has been shown to be a strong function of their size, shape, orientation and location, as well as jet exit conditions. For larger generators, the mass flow rate increased by as much as 50% at 8 jet diameters downstream, and the length of the potential core is reduced by over 70%. The performance of the vortex generators is also found to improve at higher Mach number flows (0.21 to 0.71), where compressibility effects would otherwise decrease the jet's mixing rate. At low angles of attack, the generator produces a single vortex, adding streamwise vorticity to the flow, blocking only a small portion of the jet exit. As the angle of attack of the vortex generators is increased beyond 30sp°, there is a transition in the production of vorticity, as a secondary vortex begins to form. After approximately 40sp°, the blockage of the generator nearly triples, as a counter-rotating pair of vortices is shed. For these higher angles of attack, the flow patterns and vorticity produced is very similar to that observed in tab flows. In comparing vortex generator flows to delta tab flows, equivalent increases in mass flow rate were observed for nozzles of equal flow blockages. Suggesting that increased jet mixing is a strong function of the blockage associated with the mixing device. Also examined is the effect of internal placement of tabs and vortex generators. The performance of vortex generators is slightly enhanced by placing them inside the nozzle, 1.5 jet diameters from the jet exit. The effect of delta tabs, on the other hand, which depends on a large pressure drop across the tooth, is drastically reduced when they are placed inside the jet nozzle. Finally, this work has several practical applications in the aeronautical community. It is part of a preliminary

  7. Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. I Two-dimensional mixing layers. II - Axisymmetric jets (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.


    An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.

  8. Mass Transfer Studies with Submerged Impinging Jets in Closed Cylindrical Electrolytic Cell in the Presence of Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feroz


    Full Text Available An experimental study of mass transfer in forced convective flow of fluid electrolyte through submerged jets impinging normal to the target surface in a closed cylindrical cell in the presence of solids (Porcelain beads is reported. The pertinent dynamic and geometric variables of this study are flow rate, diameter of the nozzle, height of the nozzle from the target surface and solids fraction. The mass transfer measurements, made by the electrochemical method propose empirical correlations in the impingement and decreasing coefficient regions.

  9. Stabilization and structure of n-heptane tribrachial flames in axisymmetric laminar jets

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio


    A set of tribrachial flames of n-heptane/air is simulated with finite rate chemistry and detailed transport in a realistic laminar jet configuration for which experimental data are available. The flames differ by the temperature of the unburnt mixture and stabilization height, which controls the mixture fraction gradient ahead of the flame front. The simulations reproduce the lift-off heights in the experiments, showing that the flame stabilizes further downstream as the unburnt temperature decreases. For the lowest unburnt temperature, resulting in a weak mixture fraction gradient at the tribrachial point, positive stretch along the rich premixed wing leads to an increase in the rate of chemical reaction in the whole flame. The tribrachial flame burning velocity exceeds that in the unstretched, one-dimensional flame. For the highest temperature, the flame stabilizes closest to the nozzle. Large flame tilt, large mixture fraction gradient, and small radius of curvature lead to a reduction in the heat release rate and the flame propagates slower than its one-dimensional counterpart. The observed behavior is explained with a detailed analysis of the flame geometry, differential diffusion effects, flame stretch, and transport of heat and mass from the burnt gases to the flame front. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  10. Improving of Mixing by Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) System in a Large Industrial Storage Tank by CFD Techniques (United States)

    Barekatain, H.; Hashemabadi, S. H.


    This paper reports the result of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study on the Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) mixing system in a large industrial crude oil storage tank (one million barrels). This system has been installed on the tank just for reduction of sludge, but improper installation causes more accumulation of sludge on one side of tank. The main question is: How can we improve the mixing operation in this tank? For the purpose, a three dimensional modeling is carried out using an in-house CFD code and RNG k-ɛ model for turbulence prediction. The results show that pump suction location and crude oil velocity in tank are most effective factors on the sludge amount. Then, different ways such as increasing of jet flow rate, increasing and decreasing of tank height and reducing of nozzle diameter have been investigated. Finally, in this case, the results show the sedimentation of sludge in whole tank can be removed by 20% increasing of jet flow rate.

  11. Modification of vortex dynamics and transport properties of transitional axisymmetric jets using zero-net-mass-flux actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Önder, Asim; Meyers, Johan, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    We study the near field of a zero-net-mass-flux (ZNMF) actuated round jet using direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number of the jet Re{sub D} = 2000 and three ZNMF actuators are used, evenly distributed over a circle, and directed towards the main jet. The actuators are triggered in phase, and have a relatively low momentum coefficient of C{sub μ} = 0.0049 each. We study four different control frequencies with Strouhal numbers ranging from St{sub D} = 0.165 to St{sub D} = 1.32; next to that, also two uncontrolled baseline cases are included in the study. We find that this type of ZNMF actuation leads to strong deformations of the near-field jet region that are very similar to those observed for non-circular jets. At the end of the jet's potential core (x/D = 5), the jet-column cross section is deformed into a hexagram-like geometry that results from strong modifications of the vortex structures. Two mechanisms lead to these modifications, i.e., (i) self-deformation of the jet's primary vortex rings started by distortions in their azimuthal curvature by the actuation, and (ii) production of side jets by the development and subsequent detachment of secondary streamwise vortex pairs. Further downstream (x/D = 10), the jet transforms into a triangular pattern, as the sharp corner regions of the hexagram entrain fluid and spread. We further investigate the global characteristics of the actuated jets. In particular when using the jet preferred frequency, i.e., St{sub D} = 0.33, parameters such as entrainment, centerline decay rate, and mean turbulent kinetic energy are significantly increased. Furthermore, high frequency actuation, i.e., St{sub D} = 1.32, is found to suppress the mechanisms leading to large scale structure growth and turbulent kinetic energy production. The simulations further include a passive scalar equation, and passive scalar mixing is also quantified and visualized.

  12. Generation Mechanism and Prediction Model for Low Frequency Noise Induced by Energy Dissipating Submerged Jets during Flood Discharge from a High Dam. (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Zhang, Wenjiao; Guo, Qizhong; Liu, Fang


    As flood water is discharged from a high dam, low frequency (i.e., lower than 10 Hz) noise (LFN) associated with air pulsation is generated and propagated in the surrounding areas, causing environmental problems such as vibrations of windows and doors and discomfort of residents and construction workers. To study the generation mechanisms and key influencing factors of LFN induced by energy dissipation through submerged jets at a high dam, detailed prototype observations and analyses of LFN are conducted. The discharge flow field is simulated using a gas-liquid turbulent flow model, and the vorticity fluctuation characteristics are then analyzed. The mathematical model for the LFN intensity is developed based on vortex sound theory and a turbulent flow model, verified by prototype observations. The model results reveal that the vorticity fluctuation in strong shear layers around the high-velocity submerged jets is highly correlated with the on-site LFN, and the strong shear layers are the main regions of acoustic source for the LFN. In addition, the predicted and observed magnitudes of LFN intensity agree quite well. This is the first time that the LFN intensity has been shown to be able to be predicted quantitatively.

  13. The ground vortex flow field associated with a jet in a cross flow impinging on a ground plane for uniform and annular turbulent axisymmetric jets. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Cavage, William M.; Kuhlman, John M.


    An experimental study was conducted of the impingement of a single circular jet on a ground plane in a cross flow. This geometry is a simplified model of the interaction of propulsive jet exhaust from a V/STOL aircraft with the ground in forward flight. Jets were oriented normal to the cross flow and ground plane. Jet size, cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio, ground plane-to-jet board spacing, and jet exit turbulence level and mean velocity profile shape were all varied to determine their effects on the size of the ground vortex interaction region which forms on the ground plane, using smoke injection into the jet. Three component laser Doppler velocimeter measurements were made with a commercial three color system for the case of a uniform jet with exit spacing equal to 5.5 diameters and cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio equal to 0.11. The flow visualization data compared well for equivalent runs of the same nondimensional jet exit spacing and the same velocity ratio for different diameter nozzles, except at very low velocity ratios and for the larger nozzle, where tunnel blockage became significant. Variation of observed ground vortex size with cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio was consistent with previous studies. Observed effects of jet size and ground plane-to-jet board spacing were relatively small. Jet exit turbulence level effects were also small. However, an annular jet with a low velocity central core was found to have a significantly smaller ground vortex than an equivalent uniform jet at the same values of cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio and jet exit-to-ground plane spacing. This may suggest a means of altering ground vortex behavior somewhat, and points out the importance of proper simulation of jet exit velocity conditions. LV data indicated unsteady turbulence levels in the ground vortex in excess of 70 percent.

  14. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  15. Quantitative shearography in axisymmetric gas temperature measurements (United States)

    VanDerWege, Brad A.; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Hochgreb, Simone


    This paper describes the use of shearing interferometry (shearography) for the quantitative measurement of gas temperatures in axisymmetric systems in which vibration and shock are substantial, and measurement time is limited. The setup and principle of operation of the interferometer are described, as well as Fourier-transform-based fringe pattern analysis, Abel transform, and sensitivity of the phase lead to temperature calculation. A helium jet and a Bunsen burner flame are shown as verification of the diagnostic. The accuracy of the measured temperature profile is shown to be limited by the Abel transform and is critically dependent on the reference temperature used.

  16. US State Submerged Lands (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  17. Investigation of the concave curvature effect for an impinging jet flow (United States)

    Aillaud, P.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Duchaine, F.


    The concave curvature effect for an impinging jet flow is discussed in this paper. To do so, a submerged axisymmetric isothermal impinging jet at a Reynolds number (based on the nozzle diameter and the bulk velocity at the nozzle outlet) Re=23 000 and for a nozzle to plate distance of two jet diameters H =2 D is considered. This investigation is done numerically using a wall-resolved large-eddy simulation. Two geometrical arrangements are studied. These correspond to a jet impinging on a flat plate and a jet impinging on a hemispherical concave plate with a relative curvature D /d =0.089 , where d is the concave plate diameter. A detailed comparison shows that both flow configurations are very similar in terms of flow dynamics and heat transfer behaviors. The same mechanisms, coming from the initial jet instability and driving the heat transfer at the wall, are found for both geometries. However, a reduction of the mean wall heat transfer is reported for the jet impinging on the concave surface when compared to the flat plate impingement. This reduction mainly comes from the alleviation of the secondary peak. The deterioration of wall heat transfer is shown to be caused by a reduction in the intensity of the intermittent cold fluid injections generated by the secondary structures. These weaker events are assumed to be the consequence of the stabilizing normal pressure gradient, in the outer layer of the wall jet, induced by the concave curvature of the plate. This result goes against the current consensus, inherited from boundary layer studies, that is to say, that concave curvature enhances the heat transfer rate at the wall due to the formation of Görtler vortices. In an attempt to explain the contradictory result of the present study, a discussion is proposed in this paper showing that the commonly used analogy with boundary layer results must be made with care owing to several inherent differences between impinging jet and boundary layer flows.

  18. Stability of a compressible swirling jet (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.


    Temporal linear stability of a compressible swirling axisymmetric jet is considered. It is found that with the addition of a modest amount of swirl, instability growth rates are substantially increased. Additionally, rotating jets are found to be highly unstable for disturbances with high aximuthal wave numbers. Such disturbances are absent for the case of non-swirling jets. Most importantly, it is found that the stabilizing influence of increasing Mach number is diminished with the introduction of swirl to the jet flow.

  19. Axisymmetric finite deformation membrane problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.W.


    Many biomechanic problems involve the analysis of finite deformation axisymmetric membranes. This paper presents the general formulation for solving a class of axisymmetric membrane problems. The material nonlinearity, as well as the geometric nonlinearity, is considered. Two methods are presented to solve these problems. The first method is solving a set of differential equilibrium equations. The governing equations are reduced to three first-order ordinary-differential equations with explicit derivatives. The second method is the Ritz method where a general potential energy functional valid for all axisymmetric deformed positions is presented. The geometric admissible functions that govern the deformed configuration are written in terms of a series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined by the minimum potential energy principle that of all geometric admissible deformed configurations, the equilibrium configuration minimizes the potential energy. Some examples are presented. A comparison between these two methods is mentioned.

  20. Jet propulsion without inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E


    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies, and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented, and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e. jetting) surfaces are considered, and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increas...

  1. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  2. Scattering by an axisymmetric edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  3. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer


    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  4. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation (United States)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.


    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated experimentally with high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry, inside and outside the confinement (concave surface) of a root canal, and compared to theoretical predictions for these jets. The efficacy of irrigation fluid refreshment with respect to the typical reaction time of the antimicrobial fluid with a biofilm is characterized with a non-dimensional Damköhler number. The pressure that these jets induce on a wall or at the apex of the root canal is also measured. The axisymmetric jet is found to be stable and its velocity agrees with the theoretical prediction for this type of jet, however, a confinement causes instabilities to the jet. The confinement of the root canal has a pronounced influence on the flow, for both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric jet, by reducing the velocities by one order of magnitude and increasing the pressure at the apex. The non-axisymmetric jet inside the confinement shows a cascade of eddies with decreasing velocities, which at the apex does not provide adequate irrigation fluid refreshment.

  5. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Submerged vanes are airfoils which are in general placed at certain angle with respect to the flow direction in a channel to induce artificial circulations downstream. By virtue of these artificially generated circulations, submerged vanes were utilized to protect banks of rivers against erosion, to control shifting of rivers, to avoid ...

  6. Optimization of submerged vane parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Sharma

    velocities simulated from CFD using standard k-x model were very much in accordance with what it was measured by Wang and Odgaard [4]. Thus, model can be used to study the turbulence characteristics around submerged vanes and to predict various parameters downstream of the submerged vanes. After the model ...

  7. Experimental investigation of effect of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.


    An experimental study of the interaction between a lift jet and an aircraft wing for a jet VTOL aircraft was performed for the simplified model of an unheated, subsonic, circular jet exiting at right angles to a flat plate into a uniform subsonic crosswind. The effects of jet dynamic pressure decay rate upon the jet location and jet induced pressure distribution on the plate were studied over a range of jet to crossflow velocity ratios of 2.2 or = R or = 10. Jet decay rate was varied through use of cylindrical centerbodies with flat or hemispherical tips submerged in the jet nozzle at various depths below the jet exit plane. Quicker jet dynamic pressure decay, caused by the presence of a centerbody, resulted in reductions in the jet induced lift loss by as much as 45 percent relative to values for jets with no centerbody. These reductions in lift loss were observed at the larger values of crossflow velocity.

  8. Effects of jet decay rate on jet induced loads on a flat plate (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Warcup, R. W.


    Experimental modelling of the interaction between a jet and an aircraft wing or fuselage in VTOL aircraft was undertaken using a cold jet exiting perpendicular to a flat plate in a uniform cross-flow. Effects of jet decay rate and jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio, R, on the induced load distribution were investigated. Jet decay rate was increased by using cylindrical centerbodies submerged in the jet nozzle, which caused nonuniform initial jet velocity profiles. Quicker jet decay rate, corresponding to the presence of a centerbody, resulted in as much as 50% reduction in the induced pressure loads on the plate. This has implications in interpretation of results from earlier VTOL model studies of jet induced loads, where the jets have often had relatively slow decay rates due to uniform initial velocity profiles

  9. Submerged AUV Charging Station (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas


    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  10. Streamline topology of axisymmetric flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field $v......$ is expanded in a Taylor series at a point on the axis, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. After a normal form transformation we easily obtain the most common bifurcations of the flow patterns. The use of non-linear normal forms provide a gross simplification, which...... and interact follow the topological classification and that the complete set of patterns found is contained in a codimension-4 unfolding of the most simple singular configuration....

  11. Experimental study of flapping jets in a soap film (United States)

    Lee, Julia; Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas


    Plateau and Rayleigh's observation and explanation on jet instability have inspired us over the years and there has been a significant advance in understanding the jet dynamics. Here, we present a quasi-two-dimensional experimental study of flapping jets in a soap film. Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions are injected in a flowing soap film. Thinning, break-ups, and beads-on-a-string of the jets, and axisymmetric vortices shredded from the flapping jets are visualized. We employ PIV of the flow motion around the jets to gain an understanding of the roles of instabilities in the flow.

  12. Turbulence Model Comparisons for Shear Layers and Axisymmetric Jets. (United States)


    disagreement with the %%idth of the mixing laver betwseen the models where the width is too great on the high velocity side on one and too narrow on...ceniterli ne selocir res that are- too high until thececnterihne sloeit\\ hias dropped to 3)percent of its original 7t0 0 -0 00 o -0 CC 0 E.~o 00 00 oV o ide ranice of s eoleties, and dclisitis Rkeasonabls sxell- mecans an aeeuraev\\ s i thinl 3( pereenit for a 11Zma iiniim eriir. I lhes.lo\\ mntrt

  13. Lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible axisymmetric flows. (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Tölke, Jonas; Geller, Sebastian; Krafczyk, Manfred


    A lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible axisymmetric flow is proposed in this paper. Unlike previous axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann models, which were based on "primitive-variables" Navier-Stokes equations, the target macroscopic equations of the present model are vorticity-stream-function formulations. Due to the intrinsic features of vorticity-stream-function formulations, the present model is more efficient, more stable, and much simpler than the existing models. The advantages of the present model are validated by numerical experiments.

  14. Study of the supersonic laminar/turbulent micro-jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mi Seon; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    Due to a very small characteristic length, Reynolds number of supersonic micro-jets is, in general, comparatively low and strongly depends on the pressure ratio of the jet. For low Reynolds numbers, the supersonic micro-jets are laminar. With an increase in Reynolds number, the jet becomes turbulent. In the present study, the supersonic laminar and turbulent micro-jets are computed using the axisymmetric, two-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations. The micro-jets are obtained by a supersonic nozzle with a design Mach number of 2.6. The computed results are compared with the previous experimental and theoretical ones as well. The supersonic micro-jets are also theoretically analyzed using Tollmien and Goertler's solutions for the axisymmetric incompressible jets. Both the computed and analyzed results show that the supersonic laminar micro-jet strongly depends on Reynolds number, compared with turbulent jet. The supersonic length of the laminar jet is much larger than that of the turbulent jet.

  15. Drought and submergence tolerance in plants (United States)

    Du, Hewei; Zhou, Yufan; Oksenberg, Nir; Ronald, Pamela


    The invention provides methods of genetically modified plants to increase tolerance to drought and/or submergence. The invention additionally provides plants having increased drought and/or submergence tolerance engineered using such methods.

  16. Twin Jet (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick


    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  17. Synchrotron Radiation Maps from Relativistic MHD Jet Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Millas


    Full Text Available Relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN often display a non-uniform structure and are, under certain conditions, susceptible to a number of instabilities. An interesting example is the development of non-axisymmetric, Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities in the case of differentially rotating two-component jets, with the toroidal component of the magnetic field playing a key role in the development or suppression of these instabilities. We have shown that higher magnetization leads to stability against these non-axisymmetric instabilities. Using ray-casting on data from relativistic MHD simulations of two-component jets, we now investigate the effect of these instabilities on the synchrotron emission pattern from the jets. We recover many well known trends from actual observations, e.g., regarding the polarization fraction and the distribution of the position angle of the electric field, in addition to a different emitting region, depending on the stability of the jet.

  18. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander


    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  19. Numerical simulation of axisymmetric valve operation for different outer cone angle (United States)

    Smyk, Emil

    One of the method of flow separation control is application of axisymmetric valve. It is composed of nozzle with core. Normally the main flow is attached to inner cone and flow by preferential collector to primary flow pipe. If through control nozzle starts flow jet (control jet) the main flow is switched to annular secondary collector. In both situation the main flow is deflected to inner or outer cone (placed at the outlet of the valve's nozzle) by Coanda effect. The paper deals with the numerical simulation of this axisymetric annular nozzle with integrated synthetic jet actuator. The aim of the work is influence examination of outer cone angle on deflection on main stream.

  20. Stability of stationary-axisymmetric black holes in vacuum general relativity to axisymmetric electromagnetic perturbations (United States)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert M.


    We consider arbitrary stationary and axisymmetric black holes in general relativity in (d +1) dimensions (with d ≥slant 3 ) that satisfy the vacuum Einstein equation and have a non-degenerate horizon. We prove that the canonical energy of axisymmetric electromagnetic perturbations is positive definite. This establishes that all vacuum black holes are stable to axisymmetric electromagnetic perturbations. Our results also hold for asymptotically de Sitter black holes that satisfy the vacuum Einstein equation with a positive cosmological constant. Our results also apply to extremal black holes provided that the initial perturbation vanishes in a neighborhood of the horizon.

  1. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo


    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  2. Non-Axisymmetric Effects on Long Liquid Bridges


    Perales Perales, José Manuel


    The stability of long liquid bridges under non-axisymmetric disturbances like a microgravitational force acting perpendicular to the liquid bridge axis or a non-coaxiality of the disks is analyzed through an asymptotic method based on bifurcation techniques. Results obtained indicate that such non-axisymmetric effects are of higher order than those produced by axisymmetric perturbations.

  3. Axisymmetric instabilities between coaxial rotating disks (United States)

    Pécheux, Jean; Foucault, E.


    This paper concerns the stability of the von Kármán swirling flow between coaxial disks. A linear stability analysis shows that for moderate Reynolds numbers (Re≤50) and for any rotation ratio sin[-1,1[ there is a radial location r_{pc} from which the self-similar von Kármán solutions become unstable to axisymmetric disturbances. When the disks are moderately counter-rotating (sin[-0.56,0[), two different disturbances (types I and II) appear at the same critical radius. A spatio-temporal analysis shows that, at a very short distance from this critical radius, the first disturbance (type I) becomes absolutely unstable whereas the second (type II) remains convectively unstable. Outside this range of aspect ratios, all the disturbances examined are found to be absolutely unstable. The flow between two coaxial rotating disks enclosed in a stationary sidewall is then numerically investigated. For sufficently large aspect ratios, the cavity flow is found to be globally unstable for axisymmetric disturbances similar to that calculated with the self-similar solutions. The flow in cavities with aspect ratios smaller than R {≈} 10.3 (and Re {≤} 50) is not destabilized by these axisymmetric disturbances. An experimental investigation conducted for a cavity with aspect ratio R {=} 15 confirms the numerical results. Axisymmetric disturbances similar to those calculated for the same cavity are detected and three-dimensional modes can also be observed near the sidewall.

  4. Vortex breakdown in gaseous swirling jets (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio L.; Carpio, Jaime; Williams, Forman A.


    Numerical integrations of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations are employed to describe the structure of low-Mach-number gaseous swirling jets with jet-to-ambient density ratios ρj /ρa of order unity. The integrations consider moderately large values of the Reynolds number on the order of a few hundred and values of the swirl ratio S of order unity. Slender jets are found to exist for values of S below a critical value of order unity, at which vortex breakdown occurs. As in the case of constant density jets (Billant, Chomaz, and Huerre, JFM 1998), two different types of axisymmetric vortex breakdown are identified, namely, a bubble state and a cone configuration. The critical values of S characterizing the existence of the different solutions are determined as a function of ρj /ρa . Additional computations based on the quasicylindrical approximation are employed to describe slender subcritical jets. The results indicate that the breakdown of the quasicylindrical approximation provides an accurate prediction for the transition from the slender solution to the bubble state, whereas a prediction for the transition to the cone state can be obtained by consideration of the structure of the flow at small distances from the jet exit. This work was supported by the US AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-16-1-0443.

  5. Experimental investigation of jet-induced loads on a flat plate in hover out-of-ground effect (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Warcup, R. W.


    Effects of varying jet decay rate on jet-induced loads on a flat plate located in the plane of the jet exit perpendicular to the jet axis were investigated using a small-scale laboratory facility. Jet decay rate has been varied through use of two cylindrical centerbodies having either a flat or hemispherical tip, which were submerged various distances below the flat plate jet exit plane. Increased jet decay rate, caused by the presence of a center-body or plug in the jet nozzle, led to an increased jet-induced lift loss on the flat plate. Jet-induced lift losses reached 1 percent of the jet thrust for the quickest jet decay rates for plate areas equal to 100 times the effective jet exit area. The observed lift loss versus jet decay rate trend agreed well with results of previous investigations.

  6. Determining the Discharge Rate from a Submerged Oil Leaks using ROV Video and CFD study (United States)

    Saha, Pankaj; Shaffer, Frank; Shahnam, Mehrdad; Savas, Omer; Devites, Dave; Steffeck, Timothy


    The current paper reports a technique to measure the discharge rate by analyzing the video from a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The technique uses instantaneous images from ROV video to measure the velocity of visible features (turbulent eddies) along the boundary of an oil leak jet and subsequently classical theory of turbulent jets is imposed to determine the discharge rate. The Flow Rate Technical Group (FRTG) Plume Team developed this technique that manually tracked the visible features and produced the first accurate government estimates of the oil discharge rate from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH). For practical application this approach needs automated control. Experiments were conducted at UC Berkeley and OHMSETT that recorded high speed, high resolution video of submerged dye-colored water or oil jets and subsequently, measured the velocity data employing LDA and PIV software. Numerical simulation have been carried out using experimental submerged turbulent oil jets flow conditions employing LES turbulence closure and VOF interface capturing technique in OpenFOAM solver. The CFD results captured jet spreading angle and jet structures in close agreement with the experimental observations. The work was funded by NETL and DOI Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE).

  7. Scattering of waves by axisymmetrical edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  8. Jet-intracluster medium interaction in Hydra A - I. Estimates of jet velocity from inner knots (United States)

    Nawaz, M. A.; Wagner, A. Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; McNamara, B. R.


    We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. we confirm the jet power estimates ˜1045 erg s-1 derived by Wise et al. from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an overpressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the black hole. The combined constraints of jet power, the observed jet radius profile along the jet and the estimated jet pressure and jet velocity imply a value of the jet density parameter χ ≈ 13 for the northern jet. We show that for a jet β = 0.8 and θ = 42°, an intrinsic asymmetry in the emissivity of the northern and southern jet is required for a consistent brightness ratio ≈7 estimated from the 6-cm Very Large Array image of Hydra A.

  9. Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Galkowski, A.; Potempski, S.; Pietak, R.


    The problem of the importance of poloidal flows for the behaviour of plasmas in axisymmetric systems has caused a lot of discussion and controversy during the last 15 years. There is no doubt that the mere existence of poloidal flow transforms the elliptic Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation into a system of mixed type partial differential equation and an algebraic multivalued Bernoulli equation. This fact leads to the appearance of Bernoulli branches in the solutions. Then, one can come across three branches of elliptic solutions as well as two branches of hyperbolic solutions with the possible appearance of phenomena connected with ``transsonic`` effects. Problems connected with such a mathematical situation have been extensively discussed in the report with the same title, dated May 1988, which we shall call later Part I of our studies on this subject. The present report, considered as Part III, is devoted to the presentation of results of efforts aimed at constructing programmes which allow us to solve the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation (EGSS) (with stationary flows) in a more realistic situation relevant to the JET operating conditions. The main problem is to specify for a wider class of profiles the boundary conditions at the magnetic axis for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations ODE, resulting from EGSS equation after application of Fourier transformation techniques and of inverse method approach. The present report elaborates a much more general case and describes the computational framework enabling us to derive those boundary conditions. (author).

  10. Turbulent jet noise in the absence of coherent structures (United States)

    Fu, Zhidong; Agarwal, Anurag; Cavalieri, André V. G.; Jordan, Peter; Brès, Guillaume A.


    Sound radiation from a subsonic turbulent jet is examined after a hypothetical removal of the near-field coherent structures in the axisymmetric component of the velocity fluctuations. With the help of a well-validated database of large-eddy simulation, the near-field coherent structures are extracted using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and their spatial structures are examined using a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The acoustic far field is calculated using Lighthill's acoustic analogy. It is shown that the coherent part extracted by DWT accounts for most of the fluctuation energy in the axisymmetric component of axial velocity, whereas the incoherent part, assumed to have a Gaussian probability distribution, has little energy. After the coherent part is removed, the axisymmetric component of the sound is found to be significantly reduced, around 7 dB in the overall sound pressure level at 30 deg with respect to the jet axis. The reduction is mostly at low Strouhal numbers (Sthydrodynamic fluctuations and far-field low-angle jet noise, although the axisymmetric mode constitutes only a small proportion of total fluctuation energy. It is also suggested that not only the large-scale wavy structures in low POD modes but also the smaller scale structures in higher POD modes need to be included for jet noise modeling, because they are both shown to be efficient at sound radiation.

  11. Incident shock strength evolution in overexpanded jet flow out of rocket nozzle (United States)

    Silnikov, Mikhail V.; Chernyshov, Mikhail V.


    The evolution of the incident shock in the plane overexpanded jet flow or in the axisymmetric one is analyzed theoretically and compared at the whole range of governing flow parameters. Analytical results can be applied to avoid jet flow instability and self-oscillation effects at rocket launch, to improve launch safety and to suppress shock-wave induced noise harmful to environment and personnel. The mathematical model of ;differential conditions of dynamic compatibility; was applied to the curved shock in non-uniform plane or axisymmetrical flow. It allowed us to study such features of the curved incident shock and flow downstream it as shock geometrical curvature, jet boundary curvature, local increase or decrease of the shock strength, flow vorticity rate (local pressure gradient) in the vicinity of the nozzle lip, static pressure gradient in the compressed layer downstream the shock, and many others. All these quantities sufficiently depend on the flow parameters (flow Mach number, jet overexpansion rate, nozzle throat angle, and ration of gas specific heats). These dependencies are sometimes unusual, especially at small Mach numbers. It was also surprising that there is no great difference among all these flowfield features in the plane jet and in the axisymmetrical jet flow out of a nozzle with large throat angle, but all these parameters behave in a quite different way in an axisymmetrical jet at small and moderate nozzle throat angles.

  12. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Cooled Axisymmetric Scramjets Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing...

  13. Investigation of submerged waterjet cavitation through surface property and flow information in ambient water (United States)

    Kang, Can; Liu, Haixia; Zhang, Tao; Li, Qing


    To illuminate primary factors influencing the morphology of the surface impinged by submerged waterjet, experiments were performed at high jet pressures from 200 to 320 MPa. The cavitation phenomenon involved in the submerged waterjet was emphasized. Copper specimens were used as the targets enduring the impingement of high-pressure waterjets. The microhardness of the specimen was measured. Surface morphology was observed using an optical profiling microscope. Pressure fluctuations near the jet stream were acquired with miniature pressure transducers. The results show that microhardness increases with jet pressure and impingement time, and the hardening effect is restricted within a thin layer underneath the target surface. A synthetic effect is testified with the plastic deformation and cavities on the specimen surfaces. Characteristics of different cavitation erosion stages are illustrated by surface morphology. At the same jet pressure, the smallest standoff distance is not corresponding to the highest mass removal rate. Instead, there is an optimal standoff distance. With the increase of jet pressure, overall mass removal rate rises as well. Low-frequency components are predominant in the pressure spectra and the dual-peak pattern is typical. As the streamwise distance from the nozzle is enlarged, pressure amplitudes associated with cavitation bubble collapse are improved.

  14. Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Part I (United States)

    Kosarev, V. F.; Klinkov, S. V.; Zaikovskii, V. N.; Kundasev, S. G.


    The gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet was studied under conditions close to cold spraying. The jet visualization was performed for exhaustion into submerged space with atmospheric pressure and jet impingement to a target. For the cases of swirled and unswirled supersonic radial jets, the pressure profiles measured by a Pitot tube were taken for different distances from the nozzle outlet and for different widths of supersonic part δ ex = 0.5-2 mm and for prechamber pressure in the range p 0 = 1-2.5 MPa.

  15. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although past investigations establish the effect of various parameters on scour around vertical submerged structures for live and clear water condition, yet further studies are required to analyze the scour around group of submerged structures for various bed sediments, understand the flow physics around the group and ...

  16. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry. (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M


    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  17. Reversed straining in axisymmetric compression test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras; Lindegren, Maria


    A large group of the cold forging processes is carried out in a thick – walled container with the deformation force transmitted through a punch moving axially in the container. The work piece, being entrapped between punch and container will expand and exert a radial pressure resulting in an expa...... to simulate these conditions a reversed axisymmetrical material tester is designed and constructed. Three different materials were tested, aluminum alloy AA6082, technically pure copper (99.5%) and cold forging steel Ma8, at different temperatures found during cold forging....

  18. Dynamics of nearly unstable axisymmetric liquid bridges (United States)

    Perales, José M.; Vega, José M.


    The dynamics of a noncylindrical, axisymmetric, marginally unstable liquid bridge between two equal disks is analyzed in the inviscid limit. The resulting model allows for the weakly nonlinear description of both the (first stage of) breakage for unstable configurations and the (slow) dynamics for stable configurations. The analysis is made for both slender and short liquid brides. In the former range, the dynamics breaks reflection symmetry on the midplane between the supporting disks and can be described by a standard Duffing equation, while for short bridges reflection symmetry is preserved and the equation is still Duffing-like but exhibiting a quadratic nonlinearity. The asymptotic results compare well with existing experiments.

  19. Fuzzy jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stansbury, Conrad [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  20. Velocity Statistics and Spectra in Three-Stream Jets (United States)

    Ecker, Tobias; Lowe, K. Todd; Ng, Wing F.; Henderson, Brenda; Leib, Stewart


    Velocimetry measurements were obtained in three-stream jets at the NASA Glenn Research Center Nozzle Acoustics Test Rig using the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry technique. These measurements afford exceptional frequency response, to 125 kHz bandwidth, in order to study the detailed dynamics of turbulence in developing shear flows. Mean stream-wise velocity is compared to measurements acquired using particle image velocimetry for validation. Detailed results for convective velocity distributions throughout an axisymmetric plume and the thick side of a plume with an offset third-stream duct are provided. The convective velocity results exhibit that, as expected, the eddy speeds are reduced on the thick side of the plume compared to the axisymmetric case. The results indicate that the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry method holds promise for obtaining results valuable to the implementation and refinement of jet noise prediction methods being developed for three-stream jets.

  1. Linear lateral vibration of axisymmetric liquid briges (United States)

    Ferrera, C.; Montanero, J. M.; Cabezas, M. G.

    A liquid bridge is a mass of liquid sustained by the action of the surface tension force between two parallel supporting disks Apart from their basic scientific interest a liquid bridge can be considered as the simplest idealization of the configuration appearing in the floating zone technique used for crystal growth and purification of high melting point materials footnote Messeguer et al emph Crystal Growth Res bf 5 27 1999 This has conferred considerable interest on the study of liquid bridges not only in fluid mechanics but also in the field of material engineering The axisymmetric dynamics of an isothermal liquid bridge has been frequently analysed over the past years The studies have considered different phenomena such as free oscillations footnote Montanero emph E J Mech B Fluids bf 22 169 2003 footnote Acero and Montanero emph Phys Fluids bf 17 078105 2005 forced vibrations footnote Perales and Messeguer emph Phys Fluids A bf 4 1110 1992 g-jitter effects footnote Messeguer and Perales emph Phys Fluids A bf 3 2332 1991 extensional deformation footnote Zhang et al emph J Fluid Mech bf 329 207 1996 and breakup process footnote Espino et al emph Phys Fluids bf 14 3710 2002 among others Works considering the nonaxisymmetric dynamical behaviour of a liquid bridge has been far less common footnote Sanz and Diez emph J Fluid Mech bf 205 503 1989 In the present study the linear vibration of an axisymmetric liquid

  2. Interfacial jetting phenomena induced by focused surface vibrations. (United States)

    Tan, Ming K; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y


    We exploit large accelerations associated with surface acoustic waves to drive an extraordinary fluid jetting phenomena. Laterally focusing the acoustic energy to a small region beneath a drop placed on the surface causes rapid interfacial destabilization. Above a critical Weber number We, an elongated jet forms for drops with dimensions greater than the fluid sound wavelength. Further increases in We lead to single droplet pinch-off and subsequent axisymmetric breakup to form multiple droplets. A simple equation based on a momentum balance is derived to predict the jet velocity.

  3. Magnetic energy dissipation in force-free jets (United States)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Konigl, Arieh


    It is shown that a magnetic pressure-dominated, supersonic jet which expands or contracts in response to variations in the confining external pressure can dissipate magnetic energy through field-line reconnection as it relaxes to a minimum-energy configuration. In order for a continuous dissipation to occur, the effective reconnection time must be a fraction of the expansion time. The dissipation rate for the axisymmetric minimum-energy field configuration is analytically derived. The results indicate that the field relaxation process could be a viable mechanism for powering the synchrotron emission in extragalactic jets if the reconnection time is substantially shorter than the nominal resistive tearing time in the jet.

  4. The shape of an axisymmetric bubble in uniform motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the use of an analytical representation for the bubble shape, a surface singularity method to compute potential flows ... this motion, it can be neglected when studying the steady terminal state. In fact, as shown by Levich .... The axisymmetric case, which is of relevance to us, is based on the field due to an axisymmetric ring ...

  5. Near surface stress analysis strategies for axisymmetric fretting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we develop design tools for Near Surface Analysis (NSA) for understanding axisymmetric fretting. Axisymmetric Fretting Analysis (AFA) becomes formidable owing to localised tractions that call for Fourier transform techniques. We develop two different NSA strategies based on two-dimensional plane strain ...

  6. Near surface stress analysis strategies for axisymmetric fretting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of normal, shear and thermal loading. ... Stress analysis of such joints need axisymmetric formulation. The axisymmetric analysis of cylinders subjected to localised loading on the lateral surface has been of interest for about past 75 ... In order to compare the near surface stresses from cylinder, strip and half-plane models,.

  7. Iodine Removal Efficiency in Non-Submerged and Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Majid; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Zhongning; Gu, Haifeng; Wang, Junlong; Mehboob; Khurram [Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China)


    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I{sub 2}) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3 in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2 from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions. In the non-submerged venturi scrubber, only the droplets take part in iodine removal efficiency. However, in a submerged venturi scrubber condition, the iodine gas is absorbed from gas to droplets inside the venturi scrubber and from bubbles to surrounding liquid at the outlet of a venturi scrubber. Experimentally, it is observed that the iodine removal efficiency is greater in the submerged venturi scrubber as compare to a non-submerged venturi scrubber condition. The highest iodine removal efficiency of 0.99±0.001 has been achieved in a submerged self-priming venturi scrubber condition. A mathematical correlation is used to predict the theoretical iodine removal efficiency in submerged and non-submerged conditions, and it is compared against the experimental results. The Wilkinson et al. correlation is used to predict the bubble diameter theoretically whereas the Nukiyama and Tanasawa correlation is used for droplet diameter. The mass transfer coefficient for the gas phase is calculated from the Steinberger and Treybal correlation. The calculated results for a submerged venturi scrubber agree well with experimental results but underpredicts in the case of the non-submerged venturi scrubber.

  9. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    KAUST Repository

    Scribano, Gianfranco


    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic forcing on self-sustained jet oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kenjeres, S.; Righolt, B.W.; Kleijn, C.R.


    The influence of electromagnetic forcing on self-sustained oscillations of a jet issuing from a submerged nozzle into a thin vertical cavity (width W much larger than thickness T) has been studied using particle image velocimetry. A permanent Lorentz force is produced by applying an electrical

  11. Untwisting Jets Related to Magnetic Flux Cancellation (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Erdélyi, Robert; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Rui


    The rotational motion of solar jets is believed to be a signature of the untwisting process resulting from magnetic reconnection, which takes place between twisted closed magnetic loops (i.e., magnetic flux ropes) and open magnetic field lines. The identification of the pre-existing flux rope, and the relationship between the twist contained in the rope and the number of turns the jet experiences, are then vital in understanding the jet-triggering mechanism. In this paper, we will perform a detailed analysis of imaging, spectral, and magnetic field observations of four homologous jets, among which the fourth one releases a twist angle of 2.6π. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation of the photospheric vector magnetic field before the jet eruption presents a magnetic configuration with a null point between twisted and open fields—a configuration highly in favor of the eruption of solar jets. The fact that the jet rotates in the opposite sense of handness to the twist contained in the pre-eruption photospheric magnetic field confirms the unwinding of the twist by the jet’s rotational motion. The temporal relationship between jets’ occurrence and the total negative flux at their source region, together with the enhanced magnetic submergence term of the photospheric Poynting flux, shows that these jets are highly associated with local magnetic flux cancellation.

  12. Topological fluid mechanics of Axisymmetric Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten


    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field v...... is expanded in a Taylor series at a point on the axis, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. After a normal form transformation we easily obtain the most common bifurcations of the flow patterns. The use of non-linear normal forms provide a gross simplification, which...... and interact follow the topological classification and that the complete set of patterns found is contained in a codimension-4 unfolding of the most simple singular configuration....

  13. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA): An Outline. (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm


    Drop shape techniques for the measurement of interfacial tension are powerful, versatile and flexible. The shape of the drop/bubble depends on the balance between surface tension and external forces, e.g. gravity. This balance is reflected mathematically in the Laplace equation of capillarity. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) is a commonly used drop shape technique. A streamlined version of the development of ADSA over the past several decades is presented to illustrate its validity and range of utility. Several configurations of interest will be considered and presented systematically. Shape and surface tension will be linked to a shape parameter based on proper concepts of differential geometry. The resulting shape parameter will be shown to allow determination of the range of applicability of such a drop shape method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lagrangian mixing in an axisymmetric hurricane model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rutherford


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extension of established Lagrangian mixing measures to make them applicable to data extracted from a 2-D axisymmetric hurricane simulation. Because of the non-steady and unbounded characteristics of the simulation, the previous measures are extended to a moving frame approach to create time-dependent mixing rates that are dependent upon the initial time of particle integration, and are computed for nonlocal regions. The global measures of mixing derived from finite-time Lyapunov exponents, relative dispersion, and a measured mixing rate are applied to distinct regions representing different characteristic feautures within the model. It is shown that these time-dependent mixing rates exhibit correlations with maximal tangential winds during a quasi-steady state, establishing a connection between mixing and hurricane intensity.

  15. Axisymmetric contour dynamics for buoyant vortex rings (United States)

    Chang, Ching; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan


    Vortex rings are important in many fluid flows in engineering and environmental applications. A family of steady propagating vortex rings including thin-core rings and Hill's spherical vortex was obtained by Norbury (1973). However, the dynamics of vortex rings in the presence of buoyancy has not been investigated yet in detail. When the core of a ring is thin, we may formulate reduced equations using momentum balance for vortex filaments, but that is not the case for ``fat'' rings. In our study, we use contour dynamics to study the time evolution of axisymmetric vortex rings when the density of the fluid inside the ring differs from that of the ambient. Axisymmetry leads to an almost-conserved material variable when the Boussinesq approximation is made. A set of integro-differential equations is solved numerically for these buoyant vortex rings. The same physical settings are also used to run a DNS code and compare to the results from contour dynamics.

  16. Closed Axisymmetric Shells as Flat Jacks (United States)

    Yudin, S. A.; Sigaeva, T. V.

    Buildings during exploitation can be subjected to the external loadings leading to various kinds of heterogeneous strains or tilts. There is engineering technologies of uplift and flattening of multistory buildings by means of steel shells of the closed volume which are named as flat jacks (FJs) [1]. FJ represents two circular close plates which at the outer contour are joined to torus shell. The oil could be introduced into volume by hydraulic station creating a high pressure. As a result the plates diverge and through inserts from thick plywood create powerful force. The construction and working conditions of flat lifting jacks generates a set of problems of the mathematical modeling which are interesting to study. One of the directions is the geometry optimization. In the paper, we analyze variants of the axisymmetric shells modeling FJs. Stress states of shells with different shapes are compared at the initial loading stage.

  17. Structure of the Continuous Liquid Jet Core during Coaxial Air-Blast Atomisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Charalampous


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structure of the continuous liquid jet of a coaxial air-blast atomiser over a range of Weber numbers 60-1040, Reynolds numbers of liquid jet 5400-21700 and air to liquid momentum ratios of the two streams of 1.7–335. A novel optical technique, based on internal illumination of the liquid jet through the jet nozzle by a laser pulse, which excites a fluorescing dye introduced in the atomizing liquid, was used to obtain instantaneous measurements of the breakup length and the three dimensional location of the liquid core of the continuous liquid jet. The latter was achieved by simultaneously imaging the liquid jet from two directions normal to each other. Such measurements are usually prevented by droplets surrounding the liquid jet at the dense spray near the nozzle exit. The measurements showed that the break-up length of the liquid jet scaled well with the air to liquid momentum ratio. The standard deviation of the temporal fluctuations of the break-up length was around 10% of the mean breakup length for each considered flow condition. The instantaneous jet surface does not develop axi-symmetric wave structures but the time-averaged liquid jet is axi-symmetric around the nozzle axis, while the maximum deflection of the liquid jet occurs close to the breaking point.

  18. Probing the Internal Structure of Magnetized, Relativistic Jets with Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-María Martí


    Full Text Available From an observational point of view, unveiling the physical processes behind the nature of the jets emanating from radio-loud AGN demands the resolution of the structure across the jet with the highest angular resolutions. Relying on a magneto-fluid dynamical description, numerical simulations can help to characterize the internal structure of jets (transversal structure, magnetic field structure, internal shocks, etc.. In the first part of the paper, we shall discuss equilibrium models of magnetized, relativistic, infinite, axisymmetric jets with rotation propagating through a homogeneous, static, unmagnetized ambient medium. Then, these transversal equilibrium profiles will be used to build steady models of overpressured, superfast-magnetosonic, relativistic jets, with the aim of characterizing their internal structure in connection with their dominant type of energy (internal energy: hot jets; rest-mass energy: kinetically-dominated jets; magnetic energy: Poynting-flux-dominated jets.

  19. Simulation of underexpanded supersonic jet flows with chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Debin


    Full Text Available To achieve a detailed understanding of underexpanded supersonic jet structures influenced by afterburning and other flow conditions, the underexpanded turbulent supersonic jet with and without combustions are investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. A program based on a total variation diminishing (TVD methodology capable of predicting complex shocks is created to solve the axisymmetric expanded Navier–Stokes equations containing transport equations of species. The finite-rate ratio model is employed to handle species sources in chemical reactions. CFD solutions indicate that the structure of underexpanded jet is typically influenced by the pressure ratio and afterburning. The shock reflection distance and maximum value of Mach number in the first shock cell increase with pressure ratio. Chemical reactions for the rocket exhaust mostly exist in the mixing layer of supersonic jet flows. This tends to reduce the intensity of shocks existing in the jet, responding to the variation of thermal parameters.

  20. Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body (United States)

    Sahu, Jubaraj; Heavey, Karen R.


    This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady micro-jet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach=0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0 4°. Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions.

  1. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  2. Azimuthal magnetorotational instabilities to non-axisymmetric perturbations (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Zou, Rong


    Short-wavelength stability analysis is made of axisymmetric rotating flows of a perfectly conducting fluid subjected to external azimuthal magnetic field, to non-axisymmetric as well as axisymmetric perturbations. The instability caused by the azimuthal magnetic field is referred to as the azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI). We determine the range of unstable angular-velocity distribution and the overall maximum growth rate for the AMRI. Non-axisymmetric perturbations, when coupled to azimuthal magnetic field, widen the instability range of angular-velocity profiles of rotating flows. For strong external field, the maximum growth rate increases, beyond the Oort A-value, without bound in proportion to the strength of the external field. The effect of the electric resistivity is also considered in the limit of very low magnetic Prandtl number. Y.F. was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant No. 24540407).

  3. Precession-driven flows in non-axisymmetric ellipsoids

    CERN Document Server

    Noir, Jerome


    We study the flow forced by precession in rigid non-axisymmetric ellipsoidal containers. To do so, we revisit the inviscid and viscous analytical models that have been previously developed for the spheroidal geometry by, respectively, Poincar\\'e (Bull. Astronomique, vol. XXVIII, 1910, pp. 1-36) and Busse (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 33, 1968, pp. 739-751), and we report the first numerical simulations of flows in such a geometry. In strong contrast with axisymmetric spheroids, where the forced flow is systematically stationary in the precessing frame, we show that the forced flow is unsteady and periodic. Comparisons of the numerical simulations with the proposed theoretical model show excellent agreement for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric containers. Finally, since the studied configuration corresponds to a tidally locked celestial body such as the Earth's Moon, we use our model to investigate the challenging but planetary-relevant limit of very small Ekman numbers and the particular case of our Moon.

  4. Structural and mixing characteristics in actively controlled transverse jets (United States)

    Shoji, Takeshi; Besnard, Andrea; Harris, Elijah; M'closkey, Robert; Karagozian, Ann; Cortelezzi, Luca


    These experiments explore the effect of external excitation on gaseous transverse jet (TJ) structural and mixing characteristics, emphasizing axisymmetric jet forcing. Sinusoidal as well as single and multiple square wave pulses, the latter with variable amplitudes, are explored for a range of jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios J, spanning regimes of absolutely unstable upstream shear layers (J 10). The studies utilize acetone PLIF imaging of the jet, as done for unforced jets. Axisymmetric forcing, irrespective of the waveform, can enhance cross-sectional symmetry of the TJ for convectively unstable conditions, but generally disrupts the usually symmetric counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) observed for the absolutely unstable TJ. Conditions producing deeply penetrating, periodic vortical structures, such as square wave forcing at critical stroke ratios, increase jet spread, but do not always optimize molecular mixing. Creating multiple vortex structures of different strengths via multiple square pulses leads to enhanced interactions and accelerated vortex breakdown, potentially increasing mixing. Supported by NSF (CBET-1437014) & AFOSR (FA9550-15-1-0261).

  5. Charged particle dynamics in axisymmetric nonconservative beams (United States)

    Radchenko, Valery I.; Nikonov, Oleg I.


    Many of ion-beam technologies lead to the requirement of cross-section minimization of a particle beam in the object region acted upon, or to the problem of minimization of charged particle beam emittance (the growth rate of emittance) for a specified segment of the beam formation. In this paper we study the above problem for axisymmetric beams representing a nonconservative system of charged particles. It is shown that under certain assumptions the beam in question can be described by appropriate equations that possess an explicit solution. The latter allows one to study the influence of particle density distribution at the starting point on the future beam evolution. The results are based on approaches developed in J.D. Lawson, The Physics of Charged-Particle Beams, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1977; V.I. Radchenko, G.D. Ved'manov, JETP 80 (1) (1995) 1-9 (Zh.Eksp. i Teor. Fiz. 107 (1995) 3-19); O.I. Nikonov, Proceedings of International Workshop "Beam Dynamics and Optimization", St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 1994, pp. 121-129.

  6. Behavior of axisymmetric density fluctuations in TCV (United States)

    Merlo, Gabriele; Jenko, Frank; Brunner, Stephan; Coda, Stefano; Huang, Zhouji; Villard, Laurent; Goerler, Tobias; Navarro, Alejandro B.; Told, Daniel


    Axisymmetric density fluctuations, either with a radially coherent or dispersive nature, are routinely observed in the TCV tokamak and experimentally interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). We use local and global GENE simulations to investigate their behavior. With a simplified physical model, neglecting impurities and using heavy electrons, simulations reproduce the observed behavior. Simulations allow to conclude that the modification of the safety factor q alone cannot explain the transition between these two different fluctuation regimes, which thus appear as a consequence of variations of other parameters, including collisionality and finite machine size effects. The behavior of the radially coherent GAM is further investigated with high-realism GENE simulations. With this set-up, local simulations reproduce the experimental transport level at different radii while matching the observed GAM frequency at the location where the mode peaks. Global high-realism runs, aiming at reproducing the radial extent of the fluctuations, will be discussed as well. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under Grant Agreement No 633053.

  7. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam T. Devi


    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: || or local:] | View in 

  8. Emergency Entry with One Control Torque: Non-Axisymmetric Diagonal Inertia Matrix (United States)

    Llama, Eduardo Garcia


    In another work, a method was presented, primarily conceived as an emergency backup system, that addressed the problem of a space capsule that needed to execute a safe atmospheric entry from an arbitrary initial attitude and angular rate in the absence of nominal control capability. The proposed concept permits the arrest of a tumbling motion, orientation to the heat shield forward position and the attainment of a ballistic roll rate of a rigid spacecraft with the use of control in one axis only. To show the feasibility of such concept, the technique of single input single output (SISO) feedback linearization using the Lie derivative method was employed and the problem was solved for different number of jets and for different configurations of the inertia matrix: the axisymmetric inertia matrix (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) = I(sub zz)), a partially complete inertia matrix with I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I(sub zz), I(sub xz) not = 0 and a realistic complete inertia matrix with I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I)sub zz), I(sub ij) not= 0. The closed loop stability of the proposed non-linear control on the total angle of attack, Theta, was analyzed through the zero dynamics of the internal dynamics for the case where the inertia matrix is axisymmetric (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) = I(sub zz)). This note focuses on the problem of the diagonal non-axisymmetric inertia matrix (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I(sub zz)), which is half way between the axisymmetric and the partially complete inertia matrices. In this note, the control law for this type of inertia matrix will be determined and its closed-loop stability will be analyzed using the same methods that were used in the other work. In particular, it will be proven that the control system is stable in closed-loop when the actuators only provide a roll torque.

  9. The Flowfield Characteristics of a Mach 2 Diamond Jet (United States)

    Washington, Donnell; Alvi, Farrukh S.; Krothapalli, Anjanevulu


    The potential for using a novel diamond-shaped nozzle which may allow for superior mixing characteristics of supersonic jets without significant thrust losses is explored. The results of flow visualization and pressure measurements indicate the presence of distinct structures in the shear layers, not normally observed in shear layers of axisymmetric and rectangular jets. As characteristics of these features suggests that they are a manifestation of significant streamwise vorticity in the shear layers. Despite the distinct nature of the flowfield structure of the present shear layer, the global growth rates of this shear layer were found to be very similar to its two-dimensional and axisymmetric counterparts. These and other observations suggest that the presence of streamwise vorticity may not play a significant role in the global development of a compressible shear layer.

  10. Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid. (United States)

    Mitri, Farid G


    Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (θ = π) in the near field and the backscattering form function in the far field for both prolate and oblate spheroids are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of the Bessel beam, and the dimensionless frequency. The plots display periodic oscillations (versus the dimensionless frequency) because of the interference of specularly reflected waves in the backscattering direction with circumferential Franz' waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3-D directivity patterns illustrate the near- and far-field axisymmetric scattering. Investigations in underwater acoustics, particle levitation, scattering, and the detection of submerged elongated objects and other related applications utilizing Bessel waves would benefit from the results of the present study.

  11. Laser Beam Submerged Arc Hybrid Welding (United States)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Olschok, Simon; Jakobs, Stefan; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Rossiter, Eduardo

    The laser beam-submerged arc hybrid welding method originates from the knowledge that, with increasing penetration depth, the laser beam process has a tendency to pore formation in the lower weld regions. The coupling with the energy-efficient submerged-arc process improves degassing and reduces the tendency to pore formation. The high deposition rate of the SA process in combination with the laser beam process offers, providing the appropriate choice of weld preparation, the possibility of welding plates with a thickness larger than 20° mm in a single pass, and also of welding thicker plates with the double-sided single pass technique.

  12. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua


    .... We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements...

  13. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas


    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  14. Impinging Jet Resonant Modes at Mach 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Timothy


    High speed impinging jets have been the focus of several studies owing to their practical application and resonance dominated flow-field. The current study focuses on the identification and visualization of the resonant modes at certain critical impingement heights for a Mach 1.5 normally impinging jet. These modes are associated with high amplitude, discrete peaks in the power spectra and can be identified as having either axisymmetric or azimuthal modes. Their visualization is accomplished through phase-locked Schlieren imaging and fast-response pressure sensitive paint (PC-PSP) applied to the ground plane.

  15. Non-resonant magnetic braking on JET and TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Liang, Y.; Shaing, K.C.


    The non-resonant magnetic braking effect induced by a non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation is investigated on JET and TEXTOR. The collisionality dependence of the torque induced by the n = 1, where n is the toroidal mode number, magnetic perturbation generated by the error field correction coils...... in the 1/ν regime. The strongest NTV torque on JET is also located near the plasma core. The magnitude of the NTV torque strongly depends on the plasma response, which is also discussed in this paper. There is no obvious braking effect with n = 2 magnetic perturbation generated by the dynamic ergodic...

  16. Impingement of Supersonic Jets on Inclined Flat Plate


    望月, 博昭; 宮里, 義昭; 佐藤, 義智; 松尾, 一泰


    Flow fields of supersonic axisymmetric jets impinging on an inclined flat plate are experimentally studied by flow visualization with Schlieren method and pressure measurements on the plate. The experiments are carried out for plate inclinations of 22.5° and 30° and for six nozzles with Mach numbers from 1.0 to 4.07. The distances from the nozzle exit to the impingement point of jet on the plate is fixed at 43 mm. The effects of locations of shock cells on the flow state, the pressure distrib...

  17. Oxygen dynamics in submerged rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Pedersen, Ole


    Complete submergence of plants prevents direct O2 and CO2 exchange with air. Underwater photosynthesis can result in marked diurnal changes in O2 supply to submerged plants. Dynamics in pO2 had not been measured directly for submerged rice (Oryza sativa), but in an earlier study, radial O2 loss...

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: Control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.


    The control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, stellarators, has a different character than the control of tokamaks for two reasons. Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields (1) can provide an arbitrarily large fraction of the poloidal magnetic field and (2) can strongly center the plasma in the chamber making it impossible to lose position control. The focus of stellarator design is on plasmas that are stable without feedback, need little or no change in the external magnetic field as the plasma evolves, and require no external power to maintain the desired magnetic configuration. The physics of non-axisymmetric fields is the same whether in a tokamak or a stellarator and whether introduced intentionally or accidentally. Fundamental physics indicates that plasma shape, which is controlled by the distribution of the external magnetic field that is normal to the plasma surface, is the primary control for fusion plasmas. The importance of non-axisymmetric control is set by the importance of toroidal plasma physics. Informed decisions on the development strategy of tokamaks, as well as magnetic fusion in general, require an understanding of the capabilities and difficulties of plasma control at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping.

  19. Benthic bacterial diversity in submerged sinkhole ecosystems. (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C; Pangborn, Joseph B; Zajack, Heidi A; Kendall, Scott T; Rediske, Richard R; Biddanda, Bopaiah A


    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities.

  20. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    29(1): 1-6. Fraile ER, Bernardinelli SE, Handel M, Jauregui AM (1978). Selección de cepas de Mucor sp productoras de enzimas coagulantes de leche. Rev. Arg. Microbiol. 10(2): 65-69. Ghareib M, Hamdy HS, Khalil AA (2001). Production of intracellular milk clotting enzyme in submerged cultures of Fusarium subglutinans.

  1. Topology optimization for submerged buoyant structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picelli, R.; van Dijk, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; Langelaar, M.; van Keulen, A.


    This paper presents an evolutionary structural topology optimization method for the design of completely submerged buoyant modules with design-dependent fluid pressure loading. This type of structure is used to support offshore rig installation and pipeline transportation at all water depths. The

  2. Production of extracellular aspartic protease in submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal milk-clotting enzymes have gained value as bovine Chymosin substitutes in the cheese industry. In this work, the effects of culture conditions on the production of extracellular milk clotting enzymes from Mucor mucedo DSM 809 in submerged fermentation were studied. The maximum activity was observed after 48 h ...

  3. Effects of trailing jet instability on vortex ring formation (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Frankel, Steven H.; Mongeau, Luc G.


    Numerical simulations of an impulsively started jet were performed in order to investigate the effects of trailing jet instability on axisymmetric vortex ring formation. The predictions were compared to experimental results reported in the literature and to recently published numerical results. The total and vortex ring circulations were found to be in good agreement with both the experimental and the numerical results. The presence of a universal formation time scale was confirmed. The results also highlighted an important interaction between an instability which develops in the trailing jet for large discharge times and the dynamics of the head vortex ring. This interaction accelerates the process by which the vortex ring detaches from the trailing jet and has a significant effect on the vortex ring circulation.

  4. Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)]. E-mail:


    This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0{sup o} to 4{sup o}. Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)

  5. Non-Axisymmetric Line Driven Disc Winds I - Disc Perturbations (United States)

    Dyda, Sergei; Proga, Daniel


    We study mass outflows driven from accretion discs by radiation pressure due to spectral lines. To investigate non-axisymmetric effects, we use the ATHENA++ code and develop a new module to account for radiation pressure driving. In 2D, our new simulations are consistent with previous 2D axisymmetric solutions by Proga et al. who used the ZEUS 2D code. Specifically, we find that the disc winds are time dependent, characterized by a dense stream confined to ˜45° relative to the disc midplane and bounded on the polar side by a less dense, fast stream. In 3D we introduce a vertical, ϕ-dependent, subsonic velocity perturbation in the disc midplane. The perturbation does not change the overall character of the solution but global outflow properties such as the mass, momentum and kinetic energy fluxes are altered by up to 100%. Non-axisymmetric density structures develop and persist mainly at the base of the wind. They are relatively small, and their densities can be a few times higher that the azimuthal average. The structure of the non-axisymmetric and axisymmetric solutions differ also in other ways. Perhaps most importantly from the observational point of view are the differences in the so called clumping factors, that serve as a proxy for emissivity due to two body processes. In particular, the spatially averaged clumping factor over the entire fast stream, while it is of a comparable value in both solutions, it varies about 10 times faster in the non-axisymmetric case.

  6. Analytical calculation of boozer magnetic coordinates for axisymmetric MHD equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alladio, F.; Micozzi, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia


    A new analytical technique for extracting the Boozer magnetic coordinates in axisymmetric MHD equilibria is described. The method is based upon the correspondence between the expansion of the flux function in toroidal multipolar moments and the expansion in toroidal axisymmetric harmonics of the magnetic scalar potential {chi}{sub 0}, which appears in the covariant representation B={nabla}{sub {chi}0}+{beta}{nabla}{sub {psi}}-T of the magnetic field. An example of calculation of Boozer magnetic coordinates is given for an experimental highly shaped high {beta} equilibrium of DIIID.

  7. Orbital spectrum analysis of non-axisymmetric perturbations of the guiding-center particle motion in axisymmetric equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zestanakis, P. A.; Anastassiou, G.; Hizanidis, K. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Kominis, Y. [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Science, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)


    The presence of non-axisymmetric perturbations in an axisymmetric magnetic field equilibrium renders the Guiding Center (GC) particle motion non-integrable and may result in particle, energy, and momentum redistribution, due to resonance mechanisms. We analyse these perturbations in terms of their spectrum, as observed by the particles in the frame of unperturbed GC motion. We calculate semi-analytically the exact locations and strength of resonant spectral components of multiple perturbations. The presented Orbital Spectrum Analysis method is based on an exact Action-Angle transform that fully takes into account Finite Orbit Width effects. The method provides insight into the particle dynamics and enables the prediction of the effect of any perturbation to all different types of particles and orbits in a given, analytically or numerically calculated, axisymmetric equilibrium.

  8. On the role of large-scale, coherent structures (vortex rings) in the sound emission of jets (United States)

    Sakao, F.


    The effect of vortex-axis inclination on the directivity of the sound emission from the inviscid interaction of a coaxial pair of ring vortices in an axisymmetric subsonic jet is investigated by means of model calculations, and the results are presented in a graph. The decrease in sound intensity at about 55 deg from the jet axis predicted by Kambe and Murakami (1979) is confirmed for all vortex-pair inclinations less than + or - 23.3 deg, and with a concentration of sound at jet-axis angles 30 deg or less is shown. Since these phenomena are not observed experimentally, it is concluded that the sound due to axisymmetric pairing of vortex rings is not a significant component of jet noise.

  9. MHD Effects on Pulsed YSO Jets. I. 2.5-D Simulations


    Hansen, Edward C.; Frank, Adam; Hartigan, Patrick


    In this paper we explore the dynamics of radiative axisymmetric MHD jets at high resolution using AMR methods. The goal of the study is to determine both the dynamics and emission properties of such jets. To that end we have implemented microphysics enabling us to produce synthetic maps of H$\\alpha$ and [S II]. The jets are pulsed either sinusoidally or randomly via a time-dependent ejection velocity which leads to a complicated structure of internal shocks and rarefactions as has been seen i...

  10. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  11. Pileup Jet Identification

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    High pileup in LHC collisions can increase incidence of jets by several large factors. To reduce the incidence of jets from pileup and to preserve the rate of good jets, a jet identification based on both vertex information and jet shape information has been developed. The construction of this jet identifier is described and the performances are evaluated using both Z+jets MC simulated samples and Z+jets data collected in the 2012 $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV run. The effectiveness of this jet identifier is discussed in the context of jet vetoes and vector boson fusion production.

  12. Analysis of Axisymmetric Forging Operation Using the Bubnov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the analysis of axisymmetric forging operation using the Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual finite element model to get the stresses and pressure fields set up at various cross-sections of a material during forging operation. The governing equation is a one dimensional differential equation which ...

  13. Non-Axisymmetric Shaping of Tokamaks Preserving Quasi-Axisymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer


    If quasi-axisymmetry is preserved, non-axisymmetric shaping can be used to design tokamaks that do not require current drive, are resilient to disruptions, and have robust plasma stability without feedback. Suggestions for addressing the critical issues of tokamaks can only be validated when presented with sufficient specificity that validating experiments can be designed. The purpose of this paper is provide that specificity for non-axisymmetric shaping. To our knowledge, no other suggestions for the solution of a number of tokamak issues, such as disruptions, have reached this level of specificity. Sequences of three-field-period quasi-axisymmetric plasmas are studied. These sequences address the questions: (1) What can be achieved at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping? (2) What simplifications to the coils can be achieved by going to a larger aspect ratio? (3) What range of shaping can be achieved in a single experimental facility? The sequences of plasmas found in this study provide a set of interesting and potentially important configurations.

  14. Approach to universality in axisymmetric bubble pinch-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gekle, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Roger M.


    The pinch-off of an axisymmetric air bubble surrounded by an inviscid fluid is compared in four physical realizations: (i) cavity collapse in the wake of an impacting disk, (ii) gas bubbles injected through a small orifice, (iii) bubble rupture in a straining flow, and (iv) a bubble with an

  15. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten


    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...

  16. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic half-space could be obtained by integration over the loaded region (area) with the point load solution considered as the Green function [1]. 1.1 Bessel Functions and Axisymmetric Problems. The Bessel's equations are commonly encountered in partial differential equations in bodies ...

  17. Coastline Protection by a Submerged Breakwater (United States)

    Valentine, B. D.; Hayatdavoodi, M.; Ertekin, R. C.


    Coastal communities are in danger of the impact caused by storm surge and waves. Storm surge brings the water level to a higher elevation and farther inland. This rise in water level increases the chance of a higher number and larger set of waves approaching shorelines, and it can potentially devastate the coastal infrastructure. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a submerged, horizontal breakwater located near shore. Unlike other types of breakwaters, such as the ones that extend to the surface, either fixed or floating, a submerged horizontal breakwater does not create any visual distraction or limit most of the recreational and commercial activities in the nearshore areas. The Level I Green-Naghdi (GN) nonlinear water wave equations are utilized here to study the wave transformation over a submerged breakwater that is located in shallow water. The GN theory is based on the theory of directed fluid sheets and assumes an incompressible and inviscid fluid; no assumption on the rotationality of the flow is required. In this approach, the nonlinear boundary conditions and the averaged conservation laws are satisfied exactly. The reflection and transmission coefficients due to nonlinear shallow water waves are determined implementing two approaches which use Goda's (1976) and Grue's (1992) methods. The results are compared with the existing laboratory experiments, and close agreement is observed overall. Preliminary results of the performance of the breakwater on dissipating storm waves during Hurricane Ike (2008), approaching the shore of Galveston, Texas, are presented.

  18. Coiling and Folding of Viscoelastic Jets (United States)

    Majmudar, Trushant; Varagnat, Matthieu; McKinley, Gareth


    The study of fluid jets impacting on a flat surface has industrial applications in many areas, including processing of foods and consumer goods, bottle filling, and polymer melt processing. Previous studies have focused primarily on purely viscous, Newtonian fluids, which exhibit a number of different dynamical regimes including dripping, steady jetting, folding, and steady coiling. Here we add another dimension to the problem by focusing on mobile (low viscosity) viscoelastic fluids, with the study of two wormlike-micellar fluids, a cetylpyridinum-salicylic acid salt (CPyCl/NaSal) solution, and an industrially relevant shampoo base. We investigate the effects of viscosity and elasticity on the dynamics of axi-symmetric jets. The viscoelasticity of the fluids is systematically controlled by varying the concentration of salt counterions. Experimental methods include shear and extensional rheology measurements to characterize the fluids, and high-speed digital video imaging. In addition to the regimes observed in purely viscous systems, we also find a novel regime in which the elastic jet buckles and folds on itself, and alternates between coiling and folding behavior. We suggest phase diagrams and scaling laws for the coiling and folding frequencies through a systematic exploration of the experimental parameter space (height of fall, imposed flow rate, elasticity of the solution).

  19. Numerical study of jet noise radiated by turbulent coherent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastin, F.


    a numerical approach of jet mixing noise prediction is presented, based on the assumption that the radiated sound field is essentially due to large-scale coherent turbulent structures. A semi-deterministic turbulence modelling is used to obtain the flow coherent fluctuations. This model is derived from the k-{epsilon} model and validated on the 2-D compressible shear layer case. Three plane jets at Mach 0.5, 1.33 and 2 are calculated. The semi-deterministic modelling yields a realistic unsteady representation of plane jets but not appropriate for axisymmetric jet computations. Lighthill`s analogy is used to estimate the noise radiated by the flow. Three integral formulations of the theory are compared and the most suitable one is expressed in space-time Fourier space. This formulation is associated to a geometrical interpretation of acoustic computations in (k, {omega}) plane. The only contribution of coherent structures cannot account for the high-frequency radiation of a subsonic jet and thus, the initial assumption is not verified in the subsonic range. The interpretation of Lighthill`s analogy in (k, {omega}) plane allows to conclude that the missing high-frequency components are due to the inner structure of the coherent motion. For supersonic jets, full acoustic spectra are obtained, at least in the forward arc where the dominant radiation is emitted. For the fastest jet (M = 2), no Mach waves are observed, which may be explained by a ratio of the structures convection velocity to the jet exit velocity lower in plane than in circular jets. This point is confirmed by instability theory calculations. Large eddy simulations (LES) were performed for subsonic jets. Data obtained in the plane jet case show that this technique allows only a slight improvement of acoustic results. To obtain a satisfactory high-frequency radiation, very fine grids should be considered, and the 2-D approximation could not be justified anymore. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. Jet in jet in M87 (United States)

    Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich


    New high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometer observations of the prominent jet in the M87 radio galaxy show a persistent triple-ridge structure of the transverse 15-GHz profile with a previously unobserved ultra-narrow central ridge. This radio structure can reflect the intrinsic structure of the jet, so that the jet as a whole consists of two embedded coaxial jets. A relativistic magnetohydrodynamic model is considered in which an inner jet is placed inside a hollow outer jet and the electromagnetic fields, pressures and other physical quantities are found. The entire jet is connected to the central engine that plays the role of a unipolar inductor generating voltage between the jets and providing opposite electric currents, and the charge neutrality and current closure together with the electromagnetic fields between the jets can contribute to the jet stabilization. The constant voltage is responsible for the similar widening laws observed for the inner and outer jets. This jet-in-jet structure can indicate simultaneous operation of two different jet-launching mechanisms, one relating to the central supermassive black hole and the other to the surrounding accretion disc. An inferred magnetic field of 80 G at the base is sufficient to provide the observed jet luminosity.





    The objective of this conducted research is to study the iodine removal efficiency in a self-priming venturi scrubber for submerged and non-submerged operating conditions experimentally and theoretically. The alkaline solution is used as an absorbent, which is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) in water to remove the gaseous iodine (I2) from the gas. Iodine removal efficiency is examined at various gas flow rates and inlet concentrations of iodine...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cécere, Mariana [Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina); Velázquez, Pablo F.; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-543, CP: 04510, D.F., México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella T. [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)


    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed in connection with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or microquasars, to weakly or non-relativistic flows such as those observed in supernova remnants. Recent observations of synchrotron emission in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow us to determine the jet and/or interstellar magnetic field structure, thus giving insights into the jet ejection and collimation mechanisms. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non-polarized (thermal X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as a toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities of ∼1000 km s{sup −1} and ∼10 times lighter than the environment can produce internal knots with significant synchrotron emission and thermal X-rays in the shocked region of the leading bow shock moving in a dense medium. While models with a purely toroidal magnetic field show a very large degree of polarization, models with a helical magnetic field show lower values and a decrease of the degree of polarization, in agreement with observations of protostellar jets.

  3. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.


    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds......) movement, would all contribute to submergence tolerance in H. marinum. The present study demonstrates that dissolved CO(2) levels can determine submergence tolerance of terrestrial plants. So, submergence experiments should be conducted with defined CO(2) concentrations and enrichment might be needed...

  4. Modal Decomposition of Synthetic Jet Flow Based on CFD Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš


    Full Text Available The article analyzes results of numerical simulation of synthetic jet flow using modal decomposition. The analyzes are based on the numerical simulation of axisymmetric unsteady laminar flow obtained using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. Three typical laminar regimes are compared from the point of view of modal decomposition. The first regime is without synthetic jet creation with Reynolds number Re = 76 and Stokes number S = 19.7. The second studied regime is defined by Re = 145 and S = 19.7. The third regime of synthetic jet work is regime with Re = 329 and S = 19.7. Modal decomposition of obtained flow fields is done using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD where energetically most important modes are identified. The structure of POD modes is discussed together with classical approach based on phase averaged velocities.

  5. The energetics of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei with various kinetic powers (United States)

    Musoke, Gibwa Rebecca; Young, Andrew; Molnar, Sandor; Birkinshaw, Mark


    Numerical simulations are an important tool in understanding the physical processes behind relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. In such simulations different combinations of intrinsic jet parameters can be used to obtain the same jet kinetic powers. We present a numerical investigation of the effects of varying the jet power on the dynamic and energetic characteristics of the jets for two kinetic power regimes; in the first regime we change the jet density whilst maintaining a fixed velocity, in the second the jet density is held constant while the velocity is varied. We conduct 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of bipolar jets propagating through an isothermal cluster atmosphere using the FLASH MHD code in pure hydrodynamics mode. The jets are simulated with kinetic powers ranging between 1045 and 1046 erg/s and internal Mach numbers ranging from 5.6 to 21.5.As the jets begin to propagate into the intracluster medium (ICM), the injected jet energy is converted into the thermal, kinetic and gravitational potential energy components of the jet cocoon and ICM. We explore the temporal evolution of the partitioning of the injected jet energy into the cocoon and the ICM and quantify the importance of entrainment process on the energy partitioning. We investigate the fraction of injected energy transferred to the thermal energy component of the jet-ICM system in the context of heating the cluster environments, noting that the jets simulated display peak thermalisation efficiencies of least 65% and a marked dependence on the jet density. We compare the efficiencies of the energy partitioning between the cocoon and ICM for the two kinetic power regimes and discuss the resulting efficiency-power scaling relations of each regime.

  6. Coupled Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Instability, Chaos and Turbulence in an Axisymmetric Jet Flow (United States)


    Reynolds et celleS de Fmax en fonction de F. Comme il apparait clairement dans le premier graphique, la relation entre Re et F est parfaitement lineaire ...naturellement excitee. Bien que le filtrage soit effectud autour de la frdquence propre, ii est suffisament grossier pour refleter * l𔄀volution de...propre est analogue & celle du mode axisymdtrique. Comme le montre la figure 21, le mode axisymetrique (fi Q) croit d’abord * lineairement en

  7. An Investigation of the Sound Generated by an Axisymmetric Jet Interacting with a Diffuser (United States)


    Manager, Research Division Directorate of Technology Approved for publication: FOR THE COMMANDER MARION L. LASTER Director of Technology Deputy for...105. 120. J:’REt~U EN C Y, HZ ~OU~U PO~ER ZN’ChNSITY bEVEb,OB TOTA5 POdER ,DB C1/30CTAVK ~ANU) e.,n 209. 74.95 7o.u2 75.72 74.27 75.O7 2bO. 75.78...86.52 86.26 104.53 31500. 79.40 87.33 89.52 87.93 85.46 83.91 82.79 101.88 40000. 76.44 84.35 87.03 85.60 83.32 81.93 81.21 99.43 TOTAL POdER , DB

  8. An Experimental Investigation Into The Effect Of Plasma On The Flow Features Of An Axisymmetric Jet (United States)


    of a CompAir Mako compressor, 33 capable of producing 3.1 Kg/min at . The relative humidity of the compressed air is lowered by a Zander inline drier ...Typically, the dew point is roughly -40 oC. The air exits the drier and is stored in 4 cylinders with a total volume of 1.78 m3 which can contain 255...The combined two computers allowed for four simultaneous batch jobs to be processed. Each one of the interleaved sequences took 14 hours of processing

  9. Calibration of submerged multi-sluice gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida


    The main objective of this work is to study experimentally and verify empirically the different parameters affecting the discharge through submerged multiple sluice gates (i.e., the expansion ratios, gates operational management, etc.. Using multiple regression analysis of the experimental results, a general equation for discharge coefficient is developed. The results show, that the increase in the expansion ratio and the asymmetric operation of gates, give higher values for the discharge coefficient. The obtained predictions of the discharge coefficient using the developed equations are compared to the experimental data. The present developed equations showed good consistency and high accuracy.

  10. Development of a ROV Deployed Video Analysis Tool for Rapid Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savas, Omer [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Expanded deep sea drilling around the globe makes it necessary to have readily available tools to quickly and accurately measure discharge rates from accidental submerged oil/gas leak jets for the first responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. We have developed and tested a field deployable video analysis software package which is able to provide in the field sufficiently accurate flow rate estimates for initial responders in accidental oil discharges in submarine operations. The essence of our approach is based on tracking coherent features at the interface in the near field of immiscible turbulent jets. The software package, UCB_Plume, is ready to be used by the first responders for field implementation. We have tested the tool on submerged water and oil jets which are made visible using fluorescent dyes. We have been able to estimate the discharge rate within 20% accuracy. A high end WINDOWS laptop computer is suggested as the operating platform and a USB connected high speed, high resolution monochrome camera as the imaging device are sufficient for acquiring flow images under continuous unidirectional illumination and running the software in the field. Results are obtained over a matter of minutes.

  11. Flow in axisymmetric expansion in a catalytic converter


    Gotfredsen, Erik; Meyer, Knud Erik


    The flow in an axisymmetric expansion (circular diffusor) is used in many different engineering applications, such as heat exchangers, catalytic converters and filters. These applications require a relatively uniform flow at the inlet. To minimise the pressure loss, an ideal solution would be to use a quite long expansion, but this is often not possible due to space restrictions. Therefore a short expansion combined with e.g. guide vanes is often used. The present study will use a Selective C...

  12. Numerical simulation of fluid dynamics in a moving axisymmetric container (United States)

    Chakhlov, S. V.


    A numerical method is developed for calculating fluid motion in a moving axisymmetric container; numerical results are presented for spherical, cylindrical, and conical containers. It is shown that in a cylindrical container, the central part of the fluid volume moves for a period of time as a rigid body. The fluid flows onto the container wall in the form of a concave tongue; the thinner the fluid layer on the bottom of the container, the more slowly it is thinned.

  13. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.


    Cod-ends are the rearmost part of trawl fishing gears. They collect the catch, and for many important species it is where fish selection takes place. Generally speaking they are axisymmetric, and their shape is influenced by the catch volume, the mesh shape, and the material characteristics. The ...... of the netting. The software package developed to solve this problem is freely available. Comparisons are carried out with a previous model and experimental data....

  14. Experimental and numerical study of jet impingement heat transfer: application to turbojet engines; Etude experimentale et numerique des transferts thermiques par impact de jets(s): application aux moteurs aeronautiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevet, Ph.


    The optimization of turbojet engines internal cooling systems is nowadays one of the main challenges engineers have to cope with. The current work presents an experimental and numerical study of the jet impingement cooling technique which is used in particular to cool gas turbine blades. This study was initiated and supported by SNECMA Moteurs. It investigates the heat transfer characteristics of different configurations of impinging jets on a flat plate. The heated-thin-foil technique is used jointly with infrared thermography to evaluate accurately the local wall heat transfer coefficient. The influence of the injection Reynolds and Mach numbers, the impingement distance, the confinement, and the nozzle geometry is evaluated on a single axisymmetric impinging jet configuration. 'Three-temperatures convection problems' are considered on this configuration as well when jet velocities are high and when jets are hotter than the environment in which they develop. A second configuration deals with in-line and staggered arrays of confined impinging jets. The geometry is closed to the geometries encountered within turbine blade internal cooling systems and the problem is solved in terms of cooling efficiency and optimization. Finally the ability of MSD, a CFD code developed by ONERA, and FLUENT to model heat transfer generated by jet impingement is evaluated on a single axisymmetric jet configuration. (author)

  15. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt


    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  16. Large scale simulation numerical study of transition to turbulence in jets; Etude numerique par simulation des grandes echelles de la transition a la turbulence dans les jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, Gerald [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    This study highlights the potentialities of the numerical technique of large scale simulation in describing and understanding the turbulent flows in a complex geometry. Particularly, it is focussed on flows of free jet, confined jets and multiple jets of high solidity grid. Spatial simulations of the circular zone close to a free jet, of high Reynolds number were performed. In spite of an evident sensitivity to upstream conditions good agreement between our statistical predictions and different experimental measurements was obtained. The multiple coherent vortical structures implied in the transition to turbulence of the jet were found. At the same time, helical or annular axisymmetric vortices were observed. Also, an original vortical arrangement was evidenced, resulting from the alternating inclination and local pairing of these rings. It could been forced through an ad-hoc excitation which modifies subsequently drastically the jet development. When an axisymmetric excitation is imposed after formation of annular structures, pairs of counter-rotative longitudinal vortices occur and generate lateral jets. Their nature and presence in case of a helical excitation are discussed. An efficient method for controlling their number is developed. Then, one is studied the very low frequency periodic phenomenon of backward-facing transition to turbulence which develops in the confined jet and grid multiple jets (a phenomenon generic in numerous flows). It was found to depend not only on the characteristic of the re-circulation (pre-transition) zones but also on the upstream flow (zone of post-transition stagnation, pressure effect). Large scale transversal motions of the fluid have been found beginning from the grid. An interpretation of this phenomenon is suggested 193 refs., 109 figs.

  17. A 2D Axisymmetric Mixture Multiphase Model for Bottom Stirring in a BOF Converter (United States)

    Kruskopf, Ari


    A process model for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel converter is in development. The model will take into account all the essential physical and chemical phenomena, while achieving real-time calculation of the process. The complete model will include a 2D axisymmetric turbulent multiphase flow model for iron melt and argon gas mixture, a steel scrap melting model, and a chemical reaction model. A novel liquid mass conserving mixture multiphase model for bubbling gas jet is introduced in this paper. In-house implementation of the model is tested and validated in this article independently from the other parts of the full process model. Validation data comprise three different water models with different volume flow rates of air blown through a regular nozzle and a porous plug. The water models cover a wide range of dimensionless number R_{{p}} , which include values that are similar for industrial-scale steel converter. The k- ɛ turbulence model is used with wall functions so that a coarse grid can be utilized. The model calculates a steady-state flow field for gas/liquid mixture using control volume method with staggered SIMPLE algorithm.

  18. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suitable ultrasonic guided wave modes with optimum scanning capabilities have been generated and identified in submerged plate system. Finally, the propagation of selected modes through submerged notched plates is investigated. Sensitivity of leaky waves to the notches has been studied. The methodology would help ...

  19. Automating a submerged pump method for operating oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, I.


    The basic parameters of wells which operate in a mode of submerged operation are presented. The basic systems for measuring and testing the parameters of submerged operation are described. Worldwide experience in solving this particular problem is analyzed. Romanian (SRR) use of systems for automation, remote signaling and remote management is examined.

  20. Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants (United States)

    Frederick T. Short; Sarian Kosten; Pamela A. Morgan; Sparkle L Malone; Gregg E. Moore


    Submerged and emergent wetland plant communities are evaluated for their response to global climate change (GCC), focusing on seagrasses, submerged freshwater plants, tidal marsh plants, freshwater marsh plants and mangroves. Similarities and differences are assessed in plant community responses to temperature increase, CO2increase, greater UV-B exposure, sea...

  1. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Dec 7, 2016 ... 3Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland, Ministry of Education, Yangzte University,. Jingzhou 434025, P.R. .... intolerance to submergence) and M202(Sub1A) by qRT-. PCR. We identified a novel gene responsive to submergence, called RS1. The expression patterns of.

  2. Identification of a novel submergence response gene regulated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results also show that RS1 is highly expressed under submergence, drought, and NaCl stresses, but not under cold or dehydration stress. Hormone ABA treatment induces, whereas GA treatment decreases, RS1 expression. The RS1 and Sub1A genes are co-regulated under submergence. Overexpression of RS1 in ...

  3. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Philipp


    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  4. Temporal instability analysis of inviscid compound jets falling under gravity (United States)

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Uddin, Jamal; Decent, Stephen P.; Afzaal, Muhammad F.


    Compound liquid jets can be used in a variety of industrial applications ranging from capsule production in pharmaceutics to enhance printing methods in ink-jet printing. An appreciation of how instability along compound jets can lead to breakup and droplet formation is thus critical in many fields in science and engineering. In this paper, we perform a theoretical analysis to examine the instability of an axisymmetric inviscid compound liquid jet which falls vertically under the influence of gravity. We use a long-wavelength, slender-jet asymptotic expansion to reduce the governing equations of the problem into a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations, which describe the evolution of the leading-order axial velocity of the jet as well as the radii of both the inner and the outer interfaces. We first determine the steady-state solutions of the one-dimensional model equations and then we perform a linear temporal instability analysis to obtain a dispersion relation, which gives us useful information about the maximum growth rate and the maximum wavenumber of the imposed wave-like disturbance. We use our results to estimate the location and qualitative nature of breakup and then compare our results with numerical simulations.

  5. Liquid developer jetting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Jun-ichi; Sasahara, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Manabu


    The liquid developer jetting device of the present invention comprises an air jetting nozzle for jetting pressurized air to an object to be tested. A liquid developer jetting nozzle is disposed near the air jetting nozzle for jetting a developer upwardly. The liquid developer jetting nozzle is situated in front of the air jetting nozzle for jetting the liquid developer in the direction perpendicular to the pressurized air jetted from the air jetting nozzle. In order to perform an penetration flaw detection test for an abut-welded portion of a drain nozzle disposed to the bottom of a reactor pressure vessel, the liquid developer jetting device is disposed in adjacent with the welded portion. Since the liquid developer jetted while dispersed from the developer jetting nozzle is further dispersed by the pressurized air from the air jetting nozzle, the density of the jetted the developer is made uniform despite of the short distance to the object to be tested. Accordingly, developing processing can be performed even in a restricted space. (I.N.).

  6. Jet reconstruction and jet studies in PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Iordanova, A


    Jets of particles in localized regions of phase space are produced from partonic hard-scatterings of quarks and gluons contained within protons and neutrons. In pp and d+Au collisions the produced jets fragment into many hadrons, which can then be reconstructed in the PHENIX detector. In contrast, jets in heavy-ion collisions (for example Cu+Cu) may propagate through the created hot, dense medium which, in turn, could lower the energy of the jet. This energy loss has several consequences including modification of the expected rate of (final) particle production and jetshapes. By directly studying the jets measured in heavy-ion collisions, we can start to understand the properties of the hot, dense medium. However, the large nonjet backgrounds make such measurements difficult. In this talk, I will discuss the latest PHENIX results involving jets, jet reconstruction and high-pT phenomena in the context of our current understanding of heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Laser-matter Interaction with Submerged Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, R; Rubenchik, A; Norton, M; Donohue, G; Roberts, K


    With the long-term goal in mind of investigating if one could possibly design a 'universal solid-sample comminution technique' for debris and rubble, we have studied pulsed-laser ablation of solid samples that were contained within a surrounding fluid. Using pulses with fluences between 2 J and 0.3 J, wavelengths of 351 and 527 nm, and samples of rock, concrete, and red brick, each submerged in water, we have observed conditions in which {micro}m-scale particles can be preferentially generated in a controlled manner, during the laser ablation process. Others have studied laser peening of metals, where their attention has been to the substrate. Our study uses non-metallic substrates and analyzes the particles that are ablated from the process. The immediate impact of our investigation is that laser-comminution portion of a new systems concept for chemical analysis has been verified as feasible.

  8. Submerged arc welding of heavy plate (United States)

    Wilson, R. A.


    The submerged arc process is particularly suitable for heavy plate welding because of its ability to combine very high deposit rates along with excellent quality. It does these things without the smoke and spatter often accompanying other processes. It is available today in several forms that are pointed to the fabricators of heavy sections with long, short or round about welds. Tandem arc full automatic equipment is particularly suitable for those long heavy welds where speed and deposit rate are of the first order. An attachment called long stick-out which makes use of the IR drop on long electrode extensions can be included on this equipment to increase deposition rates 50% or more.

  9. Modeling tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean (United States)

    Stern, A. A.; Adcroft, A.; Sergienko, O.; Marques, G.


    Large tabular icebergs calved from Antarctic ice shelves have long lifetimes (due to their large size), during which they drift across large distances, altering ambient ocean circulation, bottom-water formation, sea-ice formation, and biological primary productivity in the icebergs' vicinity. However, despite their importance, the current generation of ocean circulation models usually do not represent large tabular icebergs. In this study, we develop a novel framework to model large tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean. In this framework, tabular icebergs are represented by pressure-exerting Lagrangian elements that drift in the ocean. The elements are held together and interact with each other via bonds. A breaking of these bonds allows the model to emulate calving events (i.e., detachment of a tabular iceberg from an ice shelf) and tabular icebergs breaking up into smaller pieces. Idealized simulations of a calving tabular iceberg, its drift, and its breakup demonstrate capabilities of the developed framework.

  10. Crassulacean acid metabolism in submerged aquatic plants (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Sybesme, C.


    CO2-fixation in the dark is known to occur in various organs of many plants. However, only in species possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) does dark CO2-fixation contribute substantially to the carbon economy of the plant. Until very recently CAM was known only from terrestrial species, largely drought adapted succulents. The discovery of CAM in the submerged aquatic fern ally Isoetes howellii (Isoetaceae)(Keeley 1981) adds a new dimension to our understanding of crassulacean acid metabolism. In this paper I will summarize 1) the evidence of CAM in Isoetes howellii, 2) the data on the distribution of CAM in aquatic species, and 3) the work to date on the functional significance of CAM in aquatic species.

  11. Particle diffusion and localized acceleration in inhomogeneous AGN jets - Part I: Steady-state spectra


    Chen, Xuhui; Pohl, Martin; Boettcher, Markus


    We study the acceleration, transport, and emission of particles in relativistic jets. Localized stochastic particle acceleration, spatial diffusion, and synchrotron as well as synchrotron self-Compton emission are considered in a leptonic model. To account for inhomogeneity, we use a 2D axi-symmetric cylindrical geometry for both relativistic electrons and magnetic field. In this first phase of our work, we focus on steady-state spectra that develop from a time-dependent model. We demonstrate...

  12. Workshop on ROVs and deep submergence (United States)

    The deep-submergence community has an opportunity on March 6 to participate in a unique teleconferencing demonstration of a state-of-the-art, remotely operated underwater research vehicle known as the Jason-Medea System. Jason-Medea has been developed over the past decade by scientists, engineers, and technicians at the Deep Submergence Laboratory at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The U.S. Navy, the Office of the Chief of Naval Research, and the National Science Foundation are sponsoring the workshop to explore the roles that modern computational, communications, and robotics technologies can play in deep-sea oceanographic research.Through the cooperation of Electronic Data Systems, Inc., the Jason Foundation, and Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 2-1/2 hours of air time will be available from 3:00 to 5:30 PM EST on March 6. Twenty-seven satellite downlink sites will link one operating research vessel and the land-based operation with workshop participants in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Bermuda. The research ship Laney Chouest will be in the midst of a 3-week educational/research program in the Sea of Cortez, between Baja California and mainland Mexico. This effort is focused on active hydrothermal vents driven by heat flow from the volcanically active East Pacific Rise, which underlies the sediment-covered Guaymas Basin. The project combines into a single-operation, newly-developed robotic systems, state-of-the-art mapping and sampling tools, fiber-optic data transmission from the seafloor, instantaneous satellite communication from ship to shore, and a sophisticated array of computational and telecommunications networks. During the workshop, land-based scientists will observe and participate directly with their seagoing colleagues as they conduct seafloor research.

  13. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo


    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  14. Note on reflection symmetry in stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachon, Leonardo A [Laboratorio de Astronomia y Fisica Teorica (LAFT), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, 4004 (Venezuela); Sanabria-Gomez, Jose D [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander. A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)


    Recently, Kordas (1995 Class. Quantum Grav. 12 2037) and Meinel and Neugebauer (1995 Class. Quantum Grav. 12 2045) studied the conditions for reflection symmetry in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes in vacuum. They found that a solution to the Einstein field equations is reflectionally symmetric if their Ernst potential E ({rho} = 0, z) = e(z) on a portion of the positive z-axis extending to infinity satisfies the condition e{sub +}(z)e*{sub +}(-z) = 1. In this note, we formulate analogous conditions for two complex Ernst potentials in electrovacuum. We also present the special case of rational axis potentials. (comments, replies and notes)

  15. On the attitude propagation of an axisymmetric satellite (United States)

    Pizarro-Rubio, A.; Pelaez, J.


    This paper describes the method developed in the Group of Tether Dynamics of the UPM to gain accuracy in the numerical propagation of the attitude dynamics of a rigid axisymmetric spacecraft. We use a perturbation method which takes as unperturbed problem the Euler-Poinsot case (torque free). The perturbed problem provides the motion forced by non-vanishing external torques. Some numerical comparisons have been carried out to check the kindness of the procedure taking as forced motion some particular case of the Lagrange top, whose analytical solution permits an easy determination of the errors made in the numerical description of the motion.

  16. Maximum-J capability in a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics


    Maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i,e., the radial derivative of J has the same sign as that of pressure, is investigated in a quasi-axisymmetric (QA) stellarator to investigate improved confinement. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. External controllability of Maximum-J condition is also demonstrated, by which impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied. (author)

  17. Axisymmetric Vibration of Piezo-Lemv Composite Hollow Multilayer Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nehru


    Full Text Available Axisymmetric vibration of an infinite piezolaminated multilayer hollow cylinder made of piezoelectric layers of 6 mm class and an isotropic LEMV (Linear Elastic Materials with Voids layers is studied. The frequency equations are obtained for the traction free outer surface with continuity conditions at the interfaces. Numerical results are carried out for the inner, middle, and outer hollow piezoelectric layers bonded by LEMV (It is hypothetical material layers and the dispersion curves are compared with that of a similar 3-layer model and of 3 and 5 layer models with inner, middle, and outer hollow piezoelectric layers bonded by CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

  18. Axisymmetric inviscid swirling flows produced by bellmouth and centerbody (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Yasuhara, M.; Hama, T.


    The effect of large deformation in the flow between the bellmouth and centerbody is considered analytically for application to studies of vortex breakdown in a pipe. Basic equations are defined for axisymmetric inviscid swirling flows at the inflow and outflow sections. Axial and circumferential velocity component profiles are presented, and comparisons are made with trials involving vane angles of 42 deg and Re of 2300. Axial components of the prediction matched well in the inner half of the pipe radius and not well with the outer, while circumferential predictions were good only at the axis. A lack of viscosity was concluded to result in the inaccuracies near the wall.

  19. Accuracy Improvement in Magnetic Field Modeling for an Axisymmetric Electromagnet (United States)

    Ilin, Andrew V.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Gurieva, Yana L.; Il,in, Valery P.


    This paper examines the accuracy and calculation speed for the magnetic field computation in an axisymmetric electromagnet. Different numerical techniques, based on an adaptive nonuniform grid, high order finite difference approximations, and semi-analitical calculation of boundary conditions are considered. These techniques are being applied to the modeling of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket. For high-accuracy calculations, a fourth-order scheme offers dramatic advantages over a second order scheme. For complex physical configurations of interest in plasma propulsion, a second-order scheme with nonuniform mesh gives the best results. Also, the relative advantages of various methods are described when the speed of computation is an important consideration.

  20. A high-precision algorithm for axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gokhman


    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm for highly accurate computation of axisymmetric potential flow. The principal feature of the algorithm is the use of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates are used to write down the equations and to specify quadrilateral elements following the boundary. In particular, boundary conditions for the Stokes' stream-function are satisfied exactly. The velocity field is determined by differentiating the stream-function. We avoid the use of quadratures in the evaluation of Galerkin integrals, and instead use splining of the boundaries of elements to take the double integrals of the shape functions in closed form. This is very accurate and not time consuming.

  1. Hydrodynamic performance of an annular liquid jet: Production of spherical shells (United States)

    Kendall, J. M.


    An annular jet flow of liquid surrounding a flow of gas at its core is extremely unstable. Axisymmetric oscillations arise spontaneously, and grow with such rapidity along the axial dimension that a pinch-off of the liquid and an encapsulation of the core gas occurs within as few as four jet diameters. The shells which result thereby may be described as thick-wall bubbles, for which van der Waals forces are unimportant. A description is given of the fluid dynamic processes by which the shells are formed, and of means for preserving and promoting the geometrical of the product. The forming of metallic shells is mentioned.

  2. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Large-Scale, Supersonic, Heated Jet (United States)

    Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Bivolaru, D.; Tedder, S.; Cutler, A. D.


    Two laser-based measurement techniques have been used to characterize an axisymmetric, combustion-heated supersonic jet issuing into static room air. The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurement technique measured temperature and concentration while the interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) method simultaneously measured two components of velocity. This paper reports a preliminary analysis of CARS-IRS temperature and velocity measurements from selected measurement locations. The temperature measurements show that the temperature along the jet axis remains constant while dropping off radially. The velocity measurements show that the nozzle exit velocity fluctuations are about 3% of the maximum velocity in the flow.

  3. Investigation of Vortex Clouds and Droplet Sizes in Heated Water Spray Patterns Generated by Axisymmetric Full Cone Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Naz


    Full Text Available The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm, these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit.

  4. Jet Veto Measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hesketh, Gavin Grant; The ATLAS collaboration


    Jet veto cross section measurements in ATLAS ATLAS has no new dedicated analyses on BFKLtype analyses. We suggest the following mixture of jet veto / exclusive jet cross sections in V+jet, VV+jet, multijets: - Z+jets 13 TeV and Jet vetoes in Z VBF, W VBF studies - WW+0,1 jets - Other dibosons + jets: Zgamma+jets and WZ+jets, - Studies of rapidity separations etc in 4jet events


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J. A.


    Westinghouse Hanford Company plans to install mixer pumps in double-shell waste tanks to mobilize and suspend settled sludge to allow eventual retrieval for treatment and permanent storage. The mixer pumps produce high momentum, horizontally directed jets that impact and mobilize the sludge and mix it into slurry for removal. There is concern that the force of the jet may damage tank internal components in its path. This test plan describes scaled experiments designed to characterize the velocity profiles of a near floor jet and to quantify the impact farces and drag coefficients of three tank components: radiation dry well, airlift circulator, and steam coil. The experiments will be conducted in water, at approximately 1/6-scale, using one stationary nozzle to simulate the jet. To measure and confirm the velocity profile of the free, submerged jet, the horizontal and vertical velocity profiles will be measured at several distances from the nozzle. The profile will also be measured after the jet impinges upon the tank floor to determine the·extent of the change in the profile caused by impingement. The jet forces upon the test articles will be measured at a maximum of four velocities and a variety of test article orientations. Each orientation will represent a unique position of the test article relative to the jet and the tank floor. In addition, the steam coil will be tested in three rotational orientations because it is not symmetric. The highest jet velocity will be selected so that the Reynolds number of the test article in the model will match that of the prototype when operating at design conditions. The forces measured upon the model components will be used to calculate the force on the prototype components using geometric scaling factors. In addition, the model force measurements will be used to calculate the component's drag coefficient as a function of the component Reynolds number.

  6. On the shock cell structure and noise of supersonic jets (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Jackson, J. A.


    A linear solution modeling the shock cell structure of an axisymmetric supersonic jet operated at off-design conditions is developed by the method of multiple-scales. The model solution takes into account the gradual spatial change of the mean flow in the downstream direction. Turbulence in the mixing layer of the jet has the tendency of smoothing out the sharp velocity and density gradients induced by the shocks. To simulate this effect, eddy viscosity terms are incorporated in the model. It is known that the interaction between the quasi-periodic shock cells and the downstream propagating large turbulence structures in the mixing layer of the jet is responsible for the generation of broadband shock associated noise. Experimentally, the dominant part of this noise has been found to originate from the part of the jet near the end of the potential core. Calculated shock cell spacing at the end of the jet core according to the present model is used to estimate the peak frequencies of the shock associated noise for a range of observation angles. Very favorable agreement with experimental measurements is found.

  7. Turbulence in sound excited jets - Measurements and theory (United States)

    Morris, P. J.; Baltas, C.


    The mechanisms by which the turbulent structure of an axisymmetric jet is modified by the presence of an acoustic excitation are examined. A model is described in which the excitation triggers instability waves at the jet exit. As these waves propagate downstream they extract energy from the mean flow and transfer it to the random turbulence. This results in an increase of the random turbulence levels and a more rapid mixing and spreading for the jet. Models are introduced for the Reynolds stress and the 'wave-induced stress'. It is shown that at high frequencies the presence of the instability wave may reduce the random turbulence levels. Numerical calculations are presented for both the radial and axial variation in the time-averaged properties of the flow as a function of excitation conditions. The calculations are compared with measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure in a round jet with a Reynolds number of 375,000, based on jet diameter and exit velocity.

  8. Aerodynamics characteristic of axisymmetric surface protuberance in supersonic regime

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan


    The present work deals with the problem of an axi-symmetric surface protuberance mounted on a spherical nosed body of revolution. The numerical computations are carried out for laminar supersonic viscous flow for trapezoidal shape axi-symmetric protuberances. A free stream Mach number ranging from 3 to 8 in steps of 1 at a fixed free stream Reynolds number of 1.8x10(4) has been used in the present study. The steady solutions are obtained using a time marching approach. A newly developed Particle Velocity Upwinding (PVU) scheme has been used for the computation. The spatial flow pattern exhibits a strong bow shock in front of the hemispherical nose, which engulfs the entire base body. Near the protuberance, the fluid particle decelerates due to the adverse pressure created by the protuberance and thus the flow separates in front of the protuberance. This point of separation is found to be a function of Mach number and the protuberance shape. A low-pressure expansion region dominates the base region of the obstacle. The reattachment point for the base separation is also a function of Mach number. As the Mach number is increased the reattachment point shifts toward the protuberances base. A weak recompression shock is also seen in the base, which affects the separated zone behind the protuberance. The important design parameters such as skin friction, heat transfer, drag, and surface pressure coefficients are reported extensively.

  9. Application of the Least Squares Method in Axisymmetric Biharmonic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chekurin


    Full Text Available An approach for solving of the axisymmetric biharmonic boundary value problems for semi-infinite cylindrical domain was developed in the paper. On the lateral surface of the domain homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are prescribed. On the remaining part of the domain’s boundary four different biharmonic boundary pieces of data are considered. To solve the formulated biharmonic problems the method of least squares on the boundary combined with the method of homogeneous solutions was used. That enabled reducing the problems to infinite systems of linear algebraic equations which can be solved with the use of reduction method. Convergence of the solution obtained with developed approach was studied numerically on some characteristic examples. The developed approach can be used particularly to solve axisymmetric elasticity problems for cylindrical bodies, the heights of which are equal to or exceed their diameters, when on their lateral surface normal and tangential tractions are prescribed and on the cylinder’s end faces various types of boundary conditions in stresses in displacements or mixed ones are given.

  10. Dynamical non-axisymmetric instabilities in rotating relativistic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, Gian Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma and INFN, Parma (Italy); Baiotti, Luca [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany); Pietri, Roberto De [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Parma and INFN, Parma (Italy); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany)


    We present new results on dynamical instabilities in rapidly rotating relativistic stars. In particular, using numerical simulations in full general relativity, we analyse the effects that the stellar compactness has on the threshold for the onset of the dynamical bar-mode instability, as well as on the appearance of other dynamical instabilities. By using an extrapolation technique developed and tested in our previous study (Baiotti L et al 2007 Phys. Rev. D 75 044023), we explicitly determine the threshold for a wide range of compactnesses using four sequences of models of constant baryonic mass comprising a total of 59 stellar models. Our calculation of the threshold is in good agreement with the Newtonian prediction and improves the previous post-Newtonian estimates. In addition, we find that for stars with sufficiently large mass and compactness, the m = 3 deformation is the fastest growing one. For all of the models considered, the non-axisymmetric instability is suppressed on a dynamical timescale with an m = 1 deformation dominating the final stages of the instability. These results, together with those presented in Baiotti L et al (2007 Phys. Rev. D 75 044023), suggest that an m = 1 deformation represents a general and late-time feature of non-axisymmetric dynamical instabilities both in full general relativity and in Newtonian gravity.

  11. Uncertainty evaluation method for axi-symmetric measurement machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muelaner Jody Emlyn


    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of uncertainty evaluation for axi-symmetric measurement machines. Specialized measuring machines for the inspection of axisymmetric components enable the measurement of properties such as roundness (radial runout, axial runout and coning. These machines typically consist of a rotary table and a number of contact measurement probes located on slideways. Sources of uncertainty include the probe calibration process, probe repeatability, probe alignment, geometric errors in the rotary table, the dimensional stability of the structure holding the probes and form errors in the reference hemisphere which is used to calibrate the system. The generic method is described and an evaluation of an industrial machine is described as a worked example. Expanded uncertainties, at 95% confidence, were then calculated for the measurement of; radial runout (1.2 μm with a plunger probe or 1.7 μm with a lever probe; axial runout (1.2 μm with a plunger probe or 1.5 μm with a lever probe; and coning/swash (0.44 arcseconds with a plunger probe or 0.60 arcseconds with a lever probe.

  12. The computation of resistive MHD instabilities in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, T.R.; Cheng, C.Z.; Jardin, S.C.


    We describe the linear MHD eigenmode code NOVA-R, which calculates the resistive stability of axisymmetric toroidal equilibria. A formulation has been adopted which accurately resolves the continuum spectrum of the ideal MHD operator. The resistive MHD stability equations are transformed into three coupled second order equations, one of which recovers the equation solved by the NOVA code in the ideal limit. The eigenfunctions are represented by a Fourier expansion and cubic B-spline finite elements which are packed about the internal boundary layer. Accurate results are presented for dimensionless resistivities as low as 10{sup {minus}30} in cylindrical geometry. For axisymmetric toroidal plasmas we demonstrate the accuracy of the NOVA-R code by recovering ideal results in the {eta} {yields} 0 limit, and cylindrical resistive interchange results in the a/R {yields} limit. {Delta}{prime} analysis performed using the eigenfunctions computed by the NOVA-R code agree with the asymptotic matching results from the resistive PEST code for zero beta equilibria. 33 refs., 30 figs.

  13. Features of heat transfer at interaction of an impact swirl jet with a dimple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terekhov Viktor I.


    Full Text Available Experimental results on investigation of heat transfer at interaction of an air impact jet with a semi-spherical cavity are presented in this work. This research is continuation of investigations of turbulent jet interaction with complex surfaces and search for the method of heat transfer control. Experiments were carried out with fixed geometry of a semi-spherical cavity (DC = 46 mm and swirl parameter (R = 0; 0.58; 1.0; 2.74. The distance between the axisymmetric nozzle and obstacle was 2÷10 sizes over the nozzle diameter, and the Reynolds number varied within Re0= (1÷6•104. It was found out that with an increase in swirling heat transfer intensity decreases because of fast mixing of the jet with ambient medium. In general, the pattern of swirl jet interaction with a concave surface is complex and multifactor.

  14. Durability performance of submerged concrete structures - phase 2. (United States)


    This project determined that severe corrosion of steel can occur in the submerged : portions of reinforced concrete structures in marine environments. Field studies of decommissioned : pilings from Florida bridges revealed multiple instances of stron...

  15. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  16. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  17. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  18. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  19. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  20. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.


    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  1. Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten


    Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....

  2. Electromagnetic Simulations for an Axisymmetric Gregorian Reflector System for a Space Deployed Inflatable Antenna (United States)


    Electromagnetic Simulations for an Axisymmetric Gregorian Reflector System for a Space-Deployed Inflatable Antenna Alan J. Fenn Lincoln...Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lexington, Massachusetts, USA Jared W. Jordan Lincoln Laboratory Massachusetts Institute...of Technology Lexington, Massachusetts, USA Abstract— An axisymmetric array-fed confocal parabolic Gregorian reflector

  3. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.


    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  4. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK


    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  5. Incipient motion of sediment in presence of submerged flexible vegetation


    Wang, Hao; Tang, Hong-Wu; Zhao, Han-Qing; Xuan-yu ZHAO; Lü, Sheng-qi


    The presence of submerged vegetation on river beds can change the water flow structure and alter the state of sediment motion. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment in the presence of submerged flexible vegetation in open channels was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The vegetation was simulated with flexible rubber cylinders arranged in parallel arrays. The effect of the vegetation density, water depth, and sediment grain size on the incipient motion was investigated. The e...

  6. Heat transfer model for quenching by submerging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarella, D N; Varas, F [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada II, E.T.S. de Ing. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); MartIn, E B, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, E.T.S. de Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)


    In quenching by submerging the workpiece is cooled due to vaporization, convective flow and interaction of both mechanisms. The dynamics of these phenomena is very complex and the corresponding heat fluxes are strongly dependent on local flow variables such as velocity of fluid and vapor fraction. This local dependence may produce very different cooling rates along the piece, responsible for inappropriate metallurgical transformations, variability of material properties and residual stresses. In order to obtain an accurate description of cooling during quenching, a mathematical model of heat transfer is presented here. The model is based on the drift-flux mixture-model for multiphase flows, including an equation of conservation of energy for the liquid phase and specific boundary conditions that account for evaporation and presence of vapor phase on the surface of the piece. The model was implemented on Comsol Multiphysics software. Generation of appropriate initial and boundary conditions, as well as numerical resolution details, is briefly discussed. To test the model, a simple flow condition was analyzed. The effect of vapor fraction on heat transfer is assessed. The presence of the typical vapor blanket and its collapse can be recovered by the model, and its effect on the cooling rates on different parts of the piece is analyzed. Comparisons between numerical results and data from literature are made.

  7. Control of axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a constricted pipe: Nonlinear steady states and weakly nonlinear asymptotic expansions (United States)

    Meliga, Philippe; Gallaire, François


    The present paper investigates numerically and theoretically the axisymmetric vortex breakdown occurring in a constricted pipe of infinite extension, i.e., the transition from a smooth columnar state to a breakdown state exhibiting a recirculation bubble. Velocity distributions are prescribed at the pipe inlet under the form of Batchelor vortices with uniform axial velocity and variable levels of confinement. A numerical continuation technique is developed to follow the branches of nonlinear steady solutions when varying the swirl parameter. In the most general case, vortex breakdown occurs abruptly owing to a subcritical, global instability of the non-parallel, viscous columnar solution, and results in the coexistence of multiple stable solutions over a finite range of swirl. For highly confined vortices, a second scenario prevails, where the flow transitions smoothly from the columnar to the breakdown state without any instability. The effect of a low-flow rate jet positioned at the pipe wall is then characterized in the perspective of control. Its effectiveness is evaluated in light of several practically meaningful criteria, namely, the ability of the control to optimize either the stability domain or the topology of the columnar state and its ability to alleviate hysteresis. For each criterion, an optimal jet position is determined from nonlinear simulations, the results being in good agreement with that issuing from an asymptotic expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations. Finally, we illustrate the importance of physically motivated control strategies by demonstrating how the wall jet technique can be outdone by an appropriate manipulation of the axial velocity profile prescribed at the pipe inlet.

  8. Experimental evaluation of pumpjet propulsor for an axisymmetric body in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Suryanarayana


    Full Text Available Design of a Pump Jet Propulsor (PJP was undertaken for an underwater body with axisymmetric configuration using axial flow compressor design techniques supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis for performance prediction. Experimental evaluation of the PJP was carried out through experiments in a Wind Tunnel Facility (WTF using momentum defect principle for propulsive performance prior to proceeding with extensive experimental evaluation in towing tank and cavitation tunnel. Experiments were particularly conducted with respect to Self Propulsion Point (SPP, residual torque and thrust characteristics over a range of vehicle advance ratio in order to ascertain whether sufficient thrust is developed at the design condition with least possible imbalance torque left out due to residual swirl in the slip stream. Pumpjet and body models were developed for the propulsion tests using Aluminum alloy forged material. Tests were conducted from 0 m/s to 30 m/s at four rotational speeds of the PJP. SPP was determined confirming the thrust development capability of PJP. Estimation of residual torque was carried out at SPP corresponding to speeds of 15, 20 and 25 m/s to examine the effectiveness of the stator. Estimation of thrust and residual torque was also carried out at wind speeds 0 and 6 m/s for PJP RPMs corresponding to self propulsion tests to study the propulsion characteristics during the launch of the vehicle in water where advance ratios are close to Zero. These results are essential to assess the thrust performance at very low advance ratios to accelerate the body and to control the body during initial stages. This technique has turned out to be very useful and economical method for quick assessment of overall performance of the propulsor and generation of exhaustive fluid dynamic data to validate CFD techniques employed.

  9. Mean streamwise velocity measurements in a triple jet of equilateral triangular configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, G.H. (Menoufia Univ. (Egypt). Coll. of Engineering); Sundararajan, T. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rathakrishnan, E. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)


    Multijet flows arise in several applications such as jet engine/rocket combustors, the thrust augmenting ejectors for VTOL/STOL aircraft, and industrial gas burners. In order to achieve proper combustion, thrust development, and reduction in the noise level, it is often desirable to control the inter-mixing between the jets and also the entrainment of the surrounding atmosphere. This, in turn, requires a detailed study of the behavior of high speed jets in multijet configuration. The situation of interest here is an array of three axisymmetric nozzles set in a common end wall with equal spacing in a triangular configuration. The reason why this particular configuration has been chosen is that it promotes bending of the jet axes toward each other, thus leading to greater mixing. In the present study, experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of stagnation pressure ratio and nozzle spacing upon the mean flow characteristic of compressible jets in triangular configuration. The individual flow features of the vertex jet and the base twin jet are analyzed and their contributions to the axis switching as well as the overall triple jet behavior are highlighted.

  10. The effect of density ratio on the near field of a naturally occurring oscillating jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Grant; Kalt, Peter A.M.; Nathan, Graham J.; Kelso, Richard M. [University of Adelaide, School of Mechanical Engineering, Adelaide (Australia)


    The triangular oscillating jet nozzle generates a triangular jet partially confined within an axi-symmetric chamber to produce a large scale flow oscillation that has application in thermal processes. Particle image velocimetry and oscillation frequency measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of the jet fluid to ambient fluid density ratio on the resulting oscillating flow. The investigation was conducted with a jet momentum flux of 0.06 kg m s{sup -2} (Re=7.3-47.2 x 10{sup 3}) and density ratios ranging from 0.2 to 5.0. The initial spread and decay of the emerging jet was found to depend upon the density ratio but in a more complex way than does an unconfined jet. Both the spread and decay are strongly influenced by the instantaneous angle of jet deflection, with greater deflection leading to increased spreading and decay of the jet. Decreasing the density ratio below unity results in a rapid decrease in the deflection angle, while increasing the density ratio above unity results in an increase in the deflection angle, albeit with less sensitivity. The frequency of oscillation was also shown to depend on the density ratio with an increase in the density ratio causing a decrease in the dominant oscillation frequency. (orig.)

  11. The effect of density ratio on the near field of a naturally occurring oscillating jet (United States)

    England, Grant; Kalt, Peter A. M.; Nathan, Graham J.; Kelso, Richard M.


    The triangular oscillating jet nozzle generates a triangular jet partially confined within an axi-symmetric chamber to produce a large scale flow oscillation that has application in thermal processes. Particle image velocimetry and oscillation frequency measurements were conducted to investigate the influence of the jet fluid to ambient fluid density ratio on the resulting oscillating flow. The investigation was conducted with a jet momentum flux of 0.06 kg m s-2 ( Re = 7.3-47.2 × 103) and density ratios ranging from 0.2 to 5.0. The initial spread and decay of the emerging jet was found to depend upon the density ratio but in a more complex way than does an unconfined jet. Both the spread and decay are strongly influenced by the instantaneous angle of jet deflection, with greater deflection leading to increased spreading and decay of the jet. Decreasing the density ratio below unity results in a rapid decrease in the deflection angle, while increasing the density ratio above unity results in an increase in the deflection angle, albeit with less sensitivity. The frequency of oscillation was also shown to depend on the density ratio with an increase in the density ratio causing a decrease in the dominant oscillation frequency.

  12. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tended regions of emission. These jets, which occur across the electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassive black holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seen on the scale of parsecs in the nuclear regions to those which power the giant radio sources extending over several mega- parsecs. These jets ...

  13. Experimental investigation on frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jets (United States)

    Zong, Haohua; Kotsonis, Marios


    The performance of a two-electrode plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is investigated for a wide range of dimensionless actuation frequencies ( f*) using high-speed phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry measurements. The jet-induced velocity fields in the axisymmetric plane are measured during both transient and steady working stages of the PSJA. When f* increases, the jet duration time (Tjet) is reduced, while the peak suction velocity (Us) increases consistently. Three integral parameters including the total expelled gas mass, impulse, and issued mechanical energy also decline considerably with increasing frequency, which is shown to relate to both the reduced cavity density and the decreasing jet duration. Theoretical analysis reveals that the mean cavity density decreases monotonically with the square root of the discharge frequency. The decreasing rate is inversely proportional to a thermal cut-off frequency ( fc, 210 Hz for the current study), which scales with the convective heat transfer coefficient between the actuator cavity walls and the cavity gas, as well as the area of the cavity internal surface. In the time-averaged velocity fields, the jet centreline velocity (U¯ c) exhibits a local maximum in the axial coordinate. The nondimensional maximum centreline velocity reduces with increasing frequency of operation. The jet spreading rate of the plasma synthetic jets (PSJs) decreases from 0.14 to 0.09 with increasing frequency. During the transient working stage of a PSJ, the exit velocity trace elapses 20 successive actuation cycles to stabilize. In contrast to the exit velocity, approximately 130 cycles are needed for the mean cavity density/temperature to reach steady values.

  14. Cellular blebs: pressure-driven, axisymmetric, membrane protrusions

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.


    Blebs are cellular protrusions that are used by cells for multiple purposes including locomotion. A mechanical model for the problem of pressure-driven blebs based on force and moment balances of an axisymmetric shell model is proposed. The formation of a bleb is initiated by weakening the shell over a small region, and the deformation of the cellular membrane from the cortex is obtained during inflation. However, simply weakening the shell leads to an area increase of more than 4 %, which is physically unrealistic. Thus, the model is extended to include a reconfiguration process that allows large blebs to form with small increases in area. It is observed that both geometric and biomechanical constraints are important in this process. In particular, it is shown that although blebs are driven by a pressure difference across the cellular membrane, it is not the limiting factor in determining bleb size. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Modular Coils and Plasma Configurations for Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.P. Ku and A.H. Boozer


    Characteristics of modular coils for quasi-axisymmetric stellarators that are related to the plasma aspect ratio, number of field periods and rotational transform have been examined systematically. It is observed that, for a given plasma aspect ratio, the coil complexity tends to increase with the increased number of field periods. For a given number of field periods, the toroidal excursion of coil winding is reduced as the plasma aspect ratio is increased. It is also clear that the larger the coil-plasma separation is, the more complex the coils become. It is further demonstrated that it is possible to use other types of coils to complement modular coils to improve both the physics and the modular coil characteristics.

  16. Low frequency axisymmetric longitudinal guided waves in eccentric annular cylinders. (United States)

    Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu


    This paper studies the effect of axially uniform eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of the lower order axisymmetric guided wave mode L(0,2) in circular tubes or pipes. The semi-analytical finite element method is mainly used, supported by fully three-dimensional finite element models and validated using experiments. The studies show that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can cause a loss in the L(0,2) mode axisymmetry, leading to its confinement in the thinned side of the pipe cross-section and also a reduction in mode velocities. The physics of this phenomenon is related to the feature-guiding and mode confinement effects noted in recent years in the literature, particularly studies on waveguides with local cross-section variations and curvature.

  17. Properties of High Beta, Quasi-Axisymmetric NCSX Stellarator Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, A.; Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Monticello, D.; Reiman, A.


    Quasi-axisymmetry, external kinks and ballooning stability are studied with respect to the plasma shaping and variation in the pressure and current profiles for NCSX. We show that while the kink stability may require a delicate boundary shaping, most quasi-axisymmetry may be achieved using a few low order modes that eliminate the large mirror fields arising partly from boundary shaping for the kink stability. In addition, we demonstrate that the kink and ballooning instability may be improved in the NCSX configurations by a more peaked pressure profile or a broader current profile. Finally, we show numerically that it is possible to construct a quasi-axisymmetric configuration that is stable to the external kink at all current levels for which the edge rotational transform is less than 0.5.

  18. Coil current and vacuum magnetic flux calculation for axisymmetric equilibria (United States)

    Guazzotto, L.


    In fixed-boundary axisymmetric equilibrium calculations the plasma shape is assigned from input. In several circumstances, the plasma shape may not be known a priori, or one may desire to also compute the magnetic field in the volume surrounding the plasma through the calculation of a free-boundary equilibrium. This requires either the coil currents or the magnetic poloidal flux on a curve in the vacuum region to be assigned as input for the free-boundary equilibrium calculation. The FREE-FIX code presented in this article is a general tool for calculating coil currents being given a fixed-boundary calculation. A new formulation is presented, which considerably reduces the computational cost of the calculation. FREE-FIX performs well for different geometries and experiments.

  19. Axial turbomachine modelling with a 1D axisymmetric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauveron, Nicolas [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38100 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail:; Saez, Manuel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38100 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail:; Ferrand, Pascal [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Leboeuf, Francis [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)]. E-mail:


    This work concerns the design and safety analysis of direct cycle gas cooled reactor. The estimation of compressor and turbine performances in transient operations is of high importance for the designer. The first goal of this study is to provide a description of compressor behaviour in unstable conditions with a better understanding than the models based on performance maps ('traditional' 0D approach). A supplementary objective is to provide a coherent description of the turbine behaviour. The turbomachine modelling approach consists in the solution of 1D axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations on an axial grid inside the turbomachine: mass, axial momentum, circumferential momentum and total-enthalpy balances are written. Blade forces are taken into account by using compressor or turbine blade cascade steady correlations. A particular effort has been developed to generate or test correlations in low mass flow and negative mass flow regimes, based on experimental data. The model is tested on open literature cases of the gas turbine aircraft community. For compressor and turbine, steady situations are fairly described, especially for medium and high mass flow rate. The dynamic behaviour of compressor is also quite well described, even in unstable operation (surge): qualitative tendencies (role of plenum volume and role of throttle) and some quantitative characteristics (frequency) are in a good agreement with experimental data. The application to transient simulations of gas cooled nuclear reactors is concentrated on the hypothetical 10 in. break accident. The results point out the importance of the location of the pipe rupture in a hypothetical break event. In some detailed cases, compressor surge and back flow through the circuit can occur. In order to be used in a design phase, a simplified model of surge has also been developed. This simplified model is applied to the gas fast reactor (GFR) and compared quite favourably with 1D axisymmetric simulation

  20. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review). (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir


    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  1. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W


    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  2. Experimental investigation about the effect of non-axisymmetric wake impact on a low speed axial compressor (United States)

    Liu, Jianyong; Lu, Yajun; Li, Zhiping


    Non-axisymmetric wake impact experiments were carried out after the best exciting frequency for a low speed axial compressor had been found by axisymmetric wake impact experiments. When the number and circumferential distribution of inlet guide vanes (IGV) are logical the wakes of non-axisymmetric IGVs can exert beneficial unsteady exciting effect on their downstream rotor flow fields and improve the compressor’s performance. In the present paper, four non-axisymmetric wake impact plans were found working better than the axisymmetric wake impact plan. Compared with the base plan, the best non-axisymmetric plan increased the compressor’s peak efficiency, and the total pressure rise by 1.1 and 2%, and enhanced the stall margin by 4.4%. The main reason why non-axisymmetric plans worked better than the axisymmetric plan was explained as the change of the unsteady exciting signal arising from IGV wakes. Besides the high-frequency components, the non-axisymmetric plan generated a beneficial low-frequency square-wave exciting signal and other secondary frequency components. Compared with the axisymmetric plan, multi-frequency exciting wakes arising from the non-axisymmetric plans are easier to get coupling relation with complex vortices such as clearance vortices, passage vortices and shedding vortices.

  3. Simulation of the pressure field near a jet by randomly distributed vortex rings (United States)

    Fung, Y. T.; Liu, C. H.; Gunzburger, M. D.


    Fluctuations of the pressure field in the vicinity of a jet are simulated numerically by a flow model consisting of axially symmetric vortex rings with viscous cores submerged in a uniform stream. The time interval between the shedding of successive vortices is taken to be a random variable with a probability distribution chosen to match that from experiments. It is found that up to 5 diameters downstream of the jet exit, statistics of the computed pressure field are in good agreement with experimental results. Statistical comparisons are provided for the overall sound pressure level, the peak amplitude, and the Strouhal number based on the peak frequency of the pressure signals.

  4. Instability of low viscosity elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun


    In this work an analytical description of capillary instability of liquid elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio is presented. Linear stability analysis in the long wave approximation with negligible gravitational effects is employed. Elliptic cylindrical coordinate system is used and perturbation velocity potential substituted in the Laplace equation to yield Mathieu and Modified Mathieu differential equations. The dispersion relation for elliptical orifices of any aspect ratio is derived and validated for axisymmetric disturbances with m = 0, in the limit of aspect ratio, μ = 1 , i.e. the case of a circular jet. As Mathieu functions and Modified Mathieu function solutions converge to Bessel's functions in this limit the Rayleigh-Plateau instability criterion is met. Also, stability of solutions corresponding to asymmetric disturbances for the kink mode, m = 1 and flute modes corresponding to m >= 2 is discussed. Experimental data from earlier works is used to compare observations made for elliptical orifices with μ ≠ 1 . This novel approach aims at generalizing the results pertaining to cylindrical jets with circular cross section leading to better understanding of breakup in liquid jets of various geometries.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of isothermal cruciform jet flow: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Kannan


    Full Text Available The present work is a numerical study of a turbulent isothermal jet issuing from cruciform nozzle into still air at a high Reynolds number of 1.7 × 105. The numerical simulation was carried out by using open source CFD tool OpenFOAM®. Three-dimensional cuboid shaped domain was used to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow field. The simulation was carried out by solving the filtered Navier–Stokes equations along with Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES solutions are compared with experimental data for validation of the jet flow physics. The flow field of turbulent jet from cruciform nozzle are described in terms of inverse mean axial velocity decay and visualizations. The vortical structures are visualized using iso-surface contours of vorticity magnitude. The vortical structures develop from the cruciform nozzle is significantly different from axisymmetric nozzles. The vortical structures show changes in shape as they move downstream from the nozzle. The cruciform jet shows complex vorticity dynamics in the near field region.

  6. Steady high viscosity liquid micro-jet production and fiber spinning using co-flowing gas conformation (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Pérez-Saborid, M.; López-Herrera, J. M.; Gordillo, J. M.


    Here we propose a new physical approach to the high-speed conformation of a Newtonian viscous liquid into a fiber (high speed fiber drawing), which suppresses all well-known axisymmetric and asymmetric instabilities during the fiber drawing. Our approach is based on the application of an appropriate gas pressure profile along the viscous jet or fiber axis, provided by a special subsonic micro-nozzle concentric with the fiber. The micro-nozzle design and optimization is mathematically provided.

  7. Experimental study of flat plate cooling using draft induced by a submerged radial jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Palencia-Diaz


    Full Text Available Una investigación experimental se ha llevado a cabo para evaluar la transferencia de calor en una configuración modificada de un chorro radial sumergido, por medio del cual se puede extraer el fluido directamente debajo de la boquilla, en busca de una mejora en la velocidad de transferencia de calor. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo para las siguientes gamas de parámetros que rigen el fenómeno: boquilla de 16 mm de diámetro, distancia entre boquilla y placa entre 10 mm a 20 mm, número de Reynolds que oscila entre 10.000 y 20.000, y calor de 10,2 – 13,6 kW/m2. La transferencia de calor se estima a través de la distribución de temperatura obtenida por medio de un dispositivo de adquisición de datos y un apropiado post-procesamiento, lo que hace posible determinar el coeficiente de transferencia de calor y el número de Nusselt para las diferentes condiciones en estudio. El uso de la extracción de fluido a través de tiro inducido genera un aumento significativo en la transferencia de calor en el área debajo de la boquilla, obteniendo valores desde 290 hasta 1500 W/m2.°C.

  8. Unsteady behavior of a confined jet in a cavity at moderate Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, G [Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR 7343 CNRS, Aix Marseille Universite, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Climent, E, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, UMR 5502 Universite de Toulouse-CNRS-INPT-UPS, 1 allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    Self-sustained oscillations in the sinuous mode are observed when a jet impinges on a rigid surface. Confined jet instability is experimentally and numerically investigated here at moderate Reynolds numbers. When the Reynolds number is varied, the dynamic response of the jet is unusual in comparison with that of similar configurations (hole-tone, jet edge, etc). Modal transitions are clearly detected when the Reynolds number is varied. However, these transitions result in a reduction of the frequency, which means that the wavelength grows with Reynolds number. Moreover, the instability that sets in at low Reynolds number, as a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, disappears only 25% above the threshold. Then, the flow becomes steady again and symmetric. This atypical behavior is compared with our previous study on a submerged fountain (Bouchet et al 2002 Europhys. Lett. 59 826). (paper)

  9. Gamma rays from clumpy wind-jet interactions in high-mass microquasars (United States)

    de la Cita, V. M.; del Palacio, S.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Romero, G. E.; Khangulyan, D.


    Context. The stellar winds of the massive stars in high-mass microquasars are thought to be inhomogeneous. The interaction of these inhomogeneities, or clumps, with the jets of these objects may be a major factor in gamma-ray production. Aims: Our goal is to characterize a typical scenario of clump-jet interaction, and calculate the contribution of these interactions to the gamma-ray emission from these systems. Methods: We use axisymmetric, relativistic hydrodynamical simulations to model the emitting flow in a typical clump-jet interaction. Using the simulation results we perform a numerical calculation of the high-energy emission from one of these interactions. The radiative calculations are performed for relativistic electrons locally accelerated at the jet shock, and the synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation spectra are computed for different stages of the shocked clump evolution. We also explore different parameter values, such as viewing angle and magnetic field strength. The results derived from one clump-jet interaction are generalized phenomenologically to multiple interactions under different wind models, estimating the clump-jet interaction rates, and the resulting luminosities in the GeV range. Results: If particles are efficiently accelerated in clump-jet interactions, the apparent gamma-ray luminosity through inverse Compton scattering with the stellar photons can be significant even for rather strong magnetic fields and thus efficient synchrotron cooling. Moreover, despite the standing nature or slow motion of the jet shocks for most of the interaction stage, Doppler boosting in the postshock flow is relevant even for mildly relativistic jets. Conclusions: For clump-to-average wind density contrasts greater than or equal to ten, clump-jet interactions could be bright enough to match the observed GeV luminosity in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 when a jet is present in these sources, with required non-thermal-to-total available power fractions greater than

  10. Rice SUB1A constrains remodelling of the transcriptome and metabolome during submergence to facilitate post-submergence recovery. (United States)

    Locke, Anna M; Barding, Gregory A; Sathnur, Sumukh; Larive, Cynthia K; Bailey-Serres, Julia


    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) ethylene-responsive transcription factor gene SUB1A-1 confers tolerance to prolonged, complete submergence by limiting underwater elongation growth. Upon desubmergence, SUB1A-1 genotypes rapidly recover photosynthetic function and recommence development towards flowering. The underpinnings of the transition from stress amelioration to the return to homeostasis are not well known. Here, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were conducted to identify mechanisms by which SUB1A improves physiological function over the 24 hr following a sublethal submergence event. Evaluation of near-isogenic genotypes after submergence and over a day of reaeration demonstrated that SUB1A transiently constrains the remodelling of cellular activities associated with growth. SUB1A influenced the abundance of ca. 1,400 transcripts and had a continued impact on metabolite content, particularly free amino acids, glucose, and sucrose, throughout the recovery period. SUB1A promoted recovery of metabolic homeostasis but had limited influence on mRNAs associated with growth processes and photosynthesis. The involvement of low energy sensing during submergence and recovery was supported by dynamics in trehalose-6-phosphate and mRNAs encoding key enzymes and signalling proteins, which were modulated by SUB1A. This study provides new evidence of convergent signalling pathways critical to the rapidly reversible management of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in submergence resilient rice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Jet dynamics and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perucho M.


    Full Text Available The dynamics and stability of extragalactic jets may be strongly influenced by small (and probable di_erences in pressure between the jet and the ambient and within the jet itself. The former give rise to expansion and recollimation of the jet. This occurs in the form of conical shocks, or Mach disks, if the pressure di_erence is large enough. Pressure asymmetries within the jet may trigger the development of helical patterns via coupling to kink current-driven instability, or to helical Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, depending on the physical conditions in the jet. I summarize here the evidence collected during the last years on the presence of recollimation shocks and waves in jets. In the jet of CTA 102 evidence has been found for (travelingshock-(standingshock interaction in the core-region (0.1 mas from the core, using information from the light-curve of the source combined with VLBI data. The conclusions derived have been confirmed by numerical simulations combined with emission calculations that have allowed to study the spectral evolution of the perturbed jet. Helical structures can also be identified in radio-jets. The ridge-line of emission of the jet of S5 0836+710 has been identified as a physical structure corresponding to a wave developing in the jet flow. I review here the evidence that has allowed to reach this conclusion, along with an associated caveat. Current data do not allow to distinguish between magnetic or hydrodynamical instabilities. I finally discuss the importance of these linear and non-linear waves for jet evolution.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Properties of Supersonic Helium-Air Jets (United States)

    Miller, Steven A. E.; Veltin, Jeremy


    Heated high speed subsonic and supersonic jets operating on- or off-design are a source of noise that is not yet fully understood. Helium-air mixtures can be used in the correct ratio to simulate the total temperature ratio of heated air jets and hence have the potential to provide inexpensive and reliable flow and acoustic measurements. This study presents a combination of flow measurements of helium-air high speed jets and numerical simulations of similar helium-air mixture and heated air jets. Jets issuing from axisymmetric convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles are investigated, and the results show very strong similarity with heated air jet measurements found in the literature. This demonstrates the validity of simulating heated high speed jets with helium-air in the laboratory, together with the excellent agreement obtained in the presented data between the numerical predictions and the experiments. The very close match between the numerical and experimental data also validates the frozen chemistry model used in the numerical simulation.

  13. Stabilization of the vertical instability by non-axisymmetric coils (United States)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Reiman, A. H.; Lao, L. L.; Cooper, W. A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Buttery, R. J.


    In a published Physical Review Letter (Reiman 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 135007), it was shown that axisymmetric (or vertical) stability can be improved by placing a set of parallelogram coils above and below the plasma oriented at an angle to the constant toroidal planes. The physics of this stabilization can be understood as providing an effective additional positive stability index. The original work was based on a simplified model of a straight tokamak and is not straightforwardly applicable to a finite aspect ratio, strongly shaped plasma such as in DIII-D. Numerical calculations were performed in a real DIII-D -like configuration to provide a proof of principal that 3-D fields can, in fact raise the elongation limits as predicted. A four field period trapezioid-shaped coil set was developed in toroidal geometry and 3D equilibria were computed using trapezium coil currents of 10 kA , 100 kA , and 500 kA . The ideal magnetohydrodynamics growth rates were computed as a function of the conformal wall position for the n = 0 symmetry-preserving family. The results show an insignificant relative improvement in the stabilizing wall location for the two lower coil current cases, of the order of 10-3 and less. In contrast, the marginal wall position is increased by 7% as the coil current is increased to 500 kA , confirming the main prediction from the original study in a real geometry case. In DIII-D the shift in marginal wall position of 7% would correspond to being able to move the existing wall outward by 5 to 10 cm. While the predicted effect on the axisymmetric stability is real, it appears to require higher coil currents than could be provided in an upgrade to existing facilities. Additional optimization over the pitch of the coils, the number of field periods and the coil positions, as well as plasma parameters, such as the internal inductivity {{\\ell}\\text{i}} , β , and {{q}95} would mitigate this but seem unlikely to change the conclusion.

  14. Peculiarities of thermal dissociation of oxides during submerged arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Zhdanov


    Full Text Available A method of settlement of the process of thermal dissociation of oxides in reaction zone during the submerged arc welding and welding deposition is presented. Combined non-linear equations for definition of gas-vapour mixture composition were developed. They describe the dissociation of MeO, MeO2 and Me2O3 types of oxides. Calculations of the processes of oxide dissociation were performed for the oxides that are commonly included into welding fluxes. Their results and analysis are presented. The method proposed appeared to be adequate and applicable for analysis of processes during submerged arc operation that run in the gas phase.

  15. Free vibration analysis of axisymmetric shells with various shapes using Sylvester-transfer stiffness coefficient method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Soo; Choi, Hee Jong [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Kondou, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    We developed a computational method for effectively conducting the free vibration analysis of axisymmetric shells with various shapes. This paper describes a computational algorithm for the free vibration analysis of axisymmetric shells using the Sylvester-transfer stiffness coefficient method (S-TSCM). From the free vibration analyses of three axisymmetric shells (joined conical-cylindrical shell, hermetic capsule and built-up shell), we verified the applicability of the S-TSCM. We then confirmed that the computational power of the S-TSCM is much better than both the finite element-transfer matrix method and finite element-transfer stiffness coefficient method, in terms of computational accuracy and time. In particular, when axisymmetric shells are modeled into a large number of conical shell elements, the S-TSCM is superior to both the bisection method using Sturm sequence property and Jacobi method, in terms of computational time and storage.

  16. EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely...

  17. EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely...

  18. Long-term allelopathic control of phytoplankton by the submerged macrophyte Elodea nuttallii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstukken, M.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E.; Muylaert, K.


    Keywords: allelochemicals; chemical ecology; competition; nutrient limitation; shallow lakes Summary 1.It is well known that submerged macrophytes can suppress phytoplankton blooms in lakes and thus promote water quality and biodiversity. One of the possible mechanisms through which submerged

  19. Invasive Crayfish Threaten the Development of Submerged Macrophytes in Lake Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.E.M.; Dorenbosch, M.; Immers, A.K.; Vidal Forteza, C.; Geurts Van Kessel, J.M.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koese, B.; Bakker, E.S.


    Submerged macrophytes enhance water transparency and aquatic biodiversity in shallow water ecosystems. Therefore, the return of submerged macrophytes is the target of many lake restoration projects. However, at present, north-western European aquatic ecosystems are increasingly invaded by omnivorous

  20. Invasive crayfish threaten the development of submerged macrophytes in lake restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, J.E.M.; Dorenbosch, M.; Immers, A.; Vidal Forteza, C.; Geurts, J.J.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koese, B.; Bakker, E.S.


    Submerged macrophytes enhance water transparency and aquatic biodiversity in shallow water ecosystems. Therefore, the return of submerged macrophytes is the target of many lake restoration projects. However, at present, north-western European aquatic ecosystems are increasingly invaded by omnivorous

  1. What ignites optical jets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Jester


    The properties of radio galaxies and quasars with and without optical or X-ray jets are compared. The majority of jets from which high-frequency emission has been detected so far (13 with optical emission, 11 with X-rays, 13 with both) are associated with the most powerful radio sources at any given redshift. It is found that optical/X-ray jet sources are more strongly beamed than the average population of extragalactic radio sources. This suggests that the detection or non-detection of optical emission from jets has so far been dominated by surface brightness selection effects, not by jet physics. It implies that optical jets are much more common than is currently appreciated.

  2. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj


    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipin, V. V. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G. [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We explore the response of a nonlinear non-axisymmetric mean-field solar dynamo model to shallow non-axisymmetric perturbations. After a relaxation period, the amplitude of the non-axisymmetric field depends on the initial condition, helicity conservation, and the depth of perturbation. It is found that a perturbation that is anchored at 0.9 R{sub ⊙} has a profound effect on the dynamo process, producing a transient magnetic cycle of the axisymmetric magnetic field, if it is initiated at the growing phase of the cycle. The non-symmetric, with respect to the equator, perturbation results in a hemispheric asymmetry of the magnetic activity. The evolution of the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fields depends on the turbulent magnetic Reynolds number R{sub m}. In the range of R{sub m} = 10{sup 4}–10{sup 6} the evolution returns to the normal course in the next cycle, in which the non-axisymmetric field is generated due to a nonlinear α-effect and magnetic buoyancy. In the stationary state, the large-scale magnetic field demonstrates a phenomenon of “active longitudes” with cyclic 180° “flip-flop” changes of the large-scale magnetic field orientation. The flip-flop effect is known from observations of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. However, this effect disappears in the model, which includes the meridional circulation pattern determined by helioseismology. The rotation rate of the non-axisymmetric field components varies during the relaxation period and carries important information about the dynamo process.

  4. Laser Doppler Velocimeter measurements in a 3-D impinging twin-jet fountain flow (United States)

    Saripalli, K. R.


    Mean velocity and turbulence measurements were conducted on the three dimensional fountain flow field generated by the impingement of two axisymmetric jets on a ground plane with application to vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. The basic instantaneous velocity data were obtained using a two component laser Doppler velocimeter in a plane connecting the nozzle centerlines at different heights above the ground emphasizing the jet impingement region and the fountain upwash region formed by the collision of the wall jets. The distribution of mean velocity components and turbulence quantities, including the turbulence intensity and the Reynolds shear stress, were derived from the basic velocity data. Detailed studies of the characteristics of the fountain revealed self-similarity in the mean velocity and turbulence profiles across the fountain. The spread and mean velocity decay characteristics of the fountain were established. Turbulence intensities of the order of 50% were observed in the fountain.

  5. Computational Analysis of Gravitational Effects in Low-Density Gas Jets (United States)

    Satti, Rajani P.; Agrawal, Ajay K.


    This study deals with the computational analysis of buoyancy-induced instability in the nearfield of an isothermal helium jet injected into quiescent ambient air environment. Laminar, axisymmetric, unsteady flow conditions were considered for the analysis. The transport equations of helium mass fraction coupled with the conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum were solved using a staggered grid finite volume method. The jet Richardson numbers of 1.5 and 0.018 were considered to encompass both buoyant and inertial jet flow regimes. Buoyancy effects were isolated by initiating computations in Earth gravity and subsequently, reducing gravity to simulate the microgravity conditions. Computed results concur with experimental observations that the periodic flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity subside in microgravity.

  6. The remarkable AGN jets (United States)

    Komissarov, Serguei

    The jets from active galactic nuclei exhibit stability which seems to be far superior compared to that of terrestrial and laboratory jets. They manage to propagate over distances up to a billion of initial jet radii. Yet this may not be an indication of some exotic physics but mainly a reflection of the specific environment these jets propagate through. The key property of this environment is a rapid decline of density and pressure along the jet, which promotes its rapid expansion. Such an expansion can suppress global instabilities, which require communication across the jet, and hence ensure its survival over huge distances. At kpc scales, some AGN jets do show signs of strong instabilities and even turn into plumes. This could be a result of the flattening of the external pressure distribution in their host galaxies or inside the radio lobes. In this regard, we discuss the possible connection between the stability issue and the Fanaroff-Riley classification of extragalactic radio sources. The observations of AGN jets on sub-kpc scale do not seem to support their supposed lack of causal connectivity. When interpreted using simple kinematic models, they reveal a rather perplexing picture with more questions than answers on the jets dynamics.

  7. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)


    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  8. Hydrogen mitigation in submerged arc welding (United States)

    Klimowicz, Steven

    With the role of hydrogen in weld metal well understood in its relation to cold cracking, there has been a push to produce welds with lower and lower diffusible hydrogen contents. The push for lower diffusible hydrogen contents has placed pressure on consumables manufactures to create consumables that can achieve the requirements for lower diffusible hydrogen content. Currently EM12K flux is produced so that it can achieve below 4 ml of diffusible hydrogen for every 100g of weld metal deposited (ml/100g) for submerged arc welding (SAW). The recent trend for industry is to preferentially achieve diffusible hydrogen contents below 3 ml/100g. Making it necessary to find a way to modify the flux to achieve a lower diffusible hydrogen content for the welds it produces. To achieve this goal a two phase plan was developed. The first phase was to characterize the entire welding system for hydrogen. Since the goal of the project is hydrogen mitigation, any amount of hydrogen that could be reduced is helpful and therefore must first be discovered. Sources of hydrogen may be found by analyzing the welding wire and base metal, as well as breaking the flux down into its components and production steps. The wire was analyzed for total hydrogen content as was the base metal. The flux and its components were analyzed using differential thermal analysis-simultaneous thermal analysis (DTA-STA) and later vacuum degassing for moisture content. The analysis of the wire showed that the copper coating on the wire was the largest contributor of hydrogen. There was lubricant present on the wire surface as well, but it did not contribute as much as the copper coating. It was found that a simple low temperature baking of the wire was enough to remove the lubricant and coating moisture. The base metal was found to have a similar total hydrogen content to that of the wire. The breakdown of the flux and production process for moisture content analysis revealed that the production process

  9. The Dipole Segment Model for Axisymmetrical Elongated Asteroids (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Zhang, Yonglong; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiangdong


    Various simplified models have been investigated as a way to understand the complex dynamical environment near irregular asteroids. A dipole segment model is explored in this paper, one that is composed of a massive straight segment and two point masses at the extremities of the segment. Given an explicitly simple form of the potential function that is associated with the dipole segment model, five topological cases are identified with different sets of system parameters. Locations, stabilities, and variation trends of the system equilibrium points are investigated in a parametric way. The exterior potential distribution of nearly axisymmetrical elongated asteroids is approximated by minimizing the acceleration error in a test zone. The acceleration error minimization process determines the parameters of the dipole segment. The near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 is chosen as an example to evaluate the effectiveness of the approximation method for the exterior potential distribution. The advantages of the dipole segment model over the classical dipole and the traditional segment are also discussed. Percent error of acceleration and the degree of approximation are illustrated by using the dipole segment model to approximate four more asteroids. The high efficiency of the simplified model over the polyhedron is clearly demonstrated by comparing the CPU time.

  10. Axisymmetric bifurcations of thick spherical shells under inflation and compression

    KAUST Repository

    deBotton, G.


    Incremental equilibrium equations and corresponding boundary conditions for an isotropic, hyperelastic and incompressible material are summarized and then specialized to a form suitable for the analysis of a spherical shell subject to an internal or an external pressure. A thick-walled spherical shell during inflation is analyzed using four different material models. Specifically, one and two terms in the Ogden energy formulation, the Gent model and an I1 formulation recently proposed by Lopez-Pamies. We investigate the existence of local pressure maxima and minima and the dependence of the corresponding stretches on the material model and on shell thickness. These results are then used to investigate axisymmetric bifurcations of the inflated shell. The analysis is extended to determine the behavior of a thick-walled spherical shell subject to an external pressure. We find that the results of the two terms Ogden formulation, the Gent and the Lopez-Pamies models are very similar, for the one term Ogden material we identify additional critical stretches, which have not been reported in the literature before.© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Roll forming technology for manufacturing axisymmetric automotive components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.; Bieh, T.G.; Yang, H.s.; Brown, K.R.; Kaibyshev, R.O.; Petrov, E.N.


    A unique roll forming technology that permits complex axisymmetric components, such as automobile wheels and turbine disks, to be formed in a single forming operation, has been developed by two Russian Institute, the Institute of Technical Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center and the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems. This process was used to fabricate automobile wheels from a Russian AVT alloy, a 6010 aluminum alloy equivalent. The process included steps of isothermal roll forming of preforms into wheels shapes, all at 430C for the AVT alloy. The microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated at various locations in the finished wheels by optical metallography and tensile testing at elevated temperatures. Tensile properties were obtained by stain-rate change tests and tensile tests to failure at high strain rates. Microstructure and mechanical propertied of the preforms and blanks were also evaluated. The results indicate that dynamically recovered microstructures were developed during the processing, which showed relatively high strain rate sensitivity and rendered sufficiently plasticity at the elevated temperature for wheel fabrication process.

  12. One-dimensional dynamics of nearly unstable axisymmetric liquid bridges (United States)

    Perales, José M.; Vega, José M.


    A general one-dimensional model is considered that describes the dynamics of slender, axisymmetric, noncylindrical liquid bridges between two equal disks. Such model depends on two adjustable parameters and includes as particular cases the standard Lee and Cosserat models. For slender liquid bridges, the model provides sufficiently accurate results and involves much easier and faster calculations than the full three-dimensional model. In particular, viscous effects are easily accounted for. The one-dimensional model is used to derive a simple weakly nonlinear description of the dynamics near the instability limit. Small perturbations of marginal instability conditions are also considered that account for volume perturbations, nonequality of the supporting disks, and axial gravity. The analysis shows that the dynamics breaks the reflection symmetry on the midplane between the supporting disks. The weakly nonlinear evolution of the amplitude of the perturbation is given by a Duffing equation, whose coefficients are calculated in terms of the slenderness as a part of the analysis and exhibit a weak dependence on the adjustable parameters of the one-dimensional model. The amplitude equation is used to make quantitative predictions of both the (first stage of) breakage for unstable configurations and the (slow) dynamics for stable configurations.

  13. Intense Flows in Librationally Driven Non-Axisymmetric Systems (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Le Bars, M.; Cebron, D.; Aurnou, J. M.


    We present laboratory experimental results that demonstrate that librational forcing can drive intense motions of interior, low viscosity fluid layers. Longitudinal libration refers to small periodic changes in a satellite's mean rotation rate as it orbits a primary body. These libration studies are conducted using ellipsoidal acrylic containers filled with water. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods are used to measure the 2D velocity field in the equatorial plane over hundreds and thousands of libration cycles. In doing so we determine the coupled modes of the triadic resonance responsible for the instability that produces both intermittent and persistent turbulent motions in the bulk fluid. Additionally, we measure the amplitude and the growth rate for the instability and compare it with previous studies [1][2]. Excitation of global turbulence by librational forcing provides a mechanism for transferring rotational energy into fluid turbulence and thus may play an important role in the thermal evolution, interior dynamics, and magneto-hydrodynamics of librating bodies. [1] Cébron, D., M. Le Bars, J. Noir, J.M. Aurnou. (2012). Libration driven elliptical instability. Physics of Fluids 24, 061703. [2] Noir J., D. Cébron, M. Le Bars, A. Sauret, J.M. Aurnou (2012). Experimental study of libration-driven flows in non-axisymmetric containers, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 204-205, 1-10.

  14. Uniformly rotating, axisymmetric, and triaxial quark stars in general relativity (United States)

    Zhou, Enping; Tsokaros, Antonios; Rezzolla, Luciano; Xu, Renxin; Uryū, Kōji


    Quasiequilibrium models of uniformly rotating axisymmetric and triaxial quark stars are computed in a general-relativistic gravity scenario. The Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews (IWM) formulation is employed and the Compact Object Calculator (cocal) code is extended to treat rotating stars with finite surface density and new equations of state (EOSs). Besides the MIT bag model for quark matter which is composed of deconfined quarks, we examine a new EOS proposed by Lai and Xu that is based on quark clustering and results in a stiff EOS that can support masses up to 3.3 M⊙ in the case we considered. We perform convergence tests for our new code to evaluate the effect of finite surface density in the accuracy of our solutions and construct sequences of solutions for both small and high compactness. The onset of secular instability due to viscous dissipation is identified and possible implications are discussed. An estimate of the gravitational wave amplitude and luminosity based on quadrupole formulas is presented and comparison with neutron stars is discussed.

  15. Effect of initial vortex core size on the coherent structures in the swirling jet near field (United States)

    Rukes, Lothar; Sieber, Moritz; Paschereit, C. Oliver; Oberleithner, Kilian


    This study investigates the sensitivity to initial conditions of swirling jets undergoing vortex breakdown. Emphasis is placed on the recirculation bubble and on the helical coherent structures that evolve in its periphery. It is proposed that the vortex core size of the incoming swirling jet is the critical parameter that determines the dynamics of these coherent structures. This proposition is assessed with Stereo Particle-Image-Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the breakdown region of two swirling jet configurations with different vortex core sizes at very similar overall swirl intensities. The swirling jets were generated by radial vanes entering a mixing tube, and the vortex core size was adjusted by using different center-body geometries. The time-averaged flow fields in the breakdown region reveal substantial differences in the jet spreading and the size of the recirculation bubble. Proper Ortogonal Decomposition (POD) was applied to the anti-axisymmetric and axisymmetric velocity fluctuations, to reconstruct the dynamics of the helical instability and the breakdown bubble, respectively. We find that the mode shape of the helical instability is not affected by the vortex core size. The frequency is found to coincide with the vortex core rotation rate, which relates inversely to the core size. The shape and dynamics of the non-periodic breakdown bubble are significantly affected by a change in vortex core size. The POD reveals that the energy content of the dominant non-periodic structure is changed markedly with the vortex core size. The bubble dynamics are further investigated by tracking the upstream stagnation point from the PIV snapshots. It is shown that a larger vortex core promotes smooth fluctuations of the recirculation bubble, while a small initial vortex core is linked to bimodal fluctuations of the recirculation bubble. The conclusions drawn from this study are relevant for fundamental swirling jet studies, as well as for the design of swirl

  16. Proposed gas generation assembly would recover deeply submerged objects (United States)

    Sprague, C. W.


    Gas generation system, used for recovery of submerged objects, generates hydrogen gas by the reaction of sodium with sea water. The assembly consists of flooded flotation tanks cabled together, equipped with relief valves to equalize pressure as the array ascends and hydrostatic pressure diminishes, and carrying remotely activated welding units.

  17. Implementation of Submerged Arc Welding Training. Final Report. (United States)

    Bowick, Earl; Todd, John

    A unit on submerged arc welding (SAW) was developed and integrated into the welding program at Seattle Central Community College (Washington) during the period December 1983 through May 1984. During this time, 10 major users of SAW in the area were contacted and mailed questionnaires. Follow up consisted of telephone calls and personal contact as…

  18. Benthic Bacterial Diversity in Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems▿ † (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C.; Pangborn, Joseph B.; Zajack, Heidi A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Rediske, Richard R.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.


    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities. PMID:19880643

  19. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oke Oluwatoyin Victoria


    Mar 18, 2015 ... Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological ...

  20. Reactive oxygen species mediate growth and death in submerged plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka eSteffens


    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic plants are well adapted to survive partial or complete submergence which is commonly accompanied by oxygen deprivation. The gaseous hormone ethylene controls a number of adaptive responses to submergence including adventitious root growth and aerenchyma formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as signaling intermediates in ethylene-controlled submergence adaptation and possibly also independent of ethylene. ROS levels are controlled by synthesis, enzymatic metabolism and nonenzymatic scavenging. While the actors are by and large known, we still have to learn about altered ROS at the subcellular level and how they are brought about, and the signaling cascades that trigger a specific response. This review briefly summarizes our knowledge on the contribution of ROS to submergence adaptation and describes spectrophotometrical, histochemical and live cell imaging detection methods that have been used to study changes in ROS abundance. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy is introduced as a method that allows identification and quantification of specific ROS in cell compartments. The use of advanced technologies such as EPR spectroscopy will be necessary to untangle the intricate and partially interwoven signaling networks of ethylene and ROS.

  1. Effects of prolonged elevated water salinity on submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental change, global warming. * To whom all correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: Received 9 March 2017; accepted in revised form 10 October 2017. INTRODUCTION. Estuarine submerged macrophyte communities can be highly variable at both spatial and temporal scales, ...

  2. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 11, 2010 ... Key words: Cassava peel, Trichoderma viride, enzyme, submerged fermentation, protein, amino acids. INTRODUCTION. Protein-energy malnutrition remains a major public health problem in many developing countries and there is the need to increase daily intake of protein, especially animal protein, using ...

  3. Relationships between the biomass of waterfowl and submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Wilderness Lakes system, comprising three estuarine lakes (Eilandvlei, Langvlei and Rondevlei), supports a diverse waterbird community, which includes 12 duck species and the abundant Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata. Biannual counts of waterfowl (ducks and Red-knobbed Coot) and assessments of submerged ...

  4. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316). OO Ezekiel, OC Aworh, HP Blaschek, TC Ezeji. Abstract. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel is one of the solid wastes produced as a consequence of cassava processing. It is low in protein but contains a large ...

  5. Nitrification in a submerged attached growth bioreactor using Luffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory-scale submerged attached growth bioreactor using Luffa cylindrica as support material for the immobilization of nitrifying bacteria was applied for polishing the effluent of an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater under the tropical conditions of northeast Brazil, in the City of Campina Grande (7o 13' 11” ...

  6. Effects of submerged vegetation on water clarity across climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Jeppesen, E.; Motta Marques, D.M.L.; Nes, van E.H.; Mazzeo, N.; Scheffer, M.


    A positive feedback between submerged vegetation and water clarity forms the backbone of the alternative state theory in shallow lakes. The water clearing effect of aquatic vegetation may be caused by different physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms and has been studied mainly in temperate

  7. Vorticity dynamics of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in an axisymmetric aorta (United States)

    Dasi, L. P.; Ge, L.; Simon, H. A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Yoganathan, A. P.


    We present comprehensive particle image velocimetry measurements and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of physiological, pulsatile flow through a clinical quality bileaflet mechanical heart valve mounted in an idealized axisymmetric aorta geometry with a sudden expansion modeling the aortic sinus region. Instantaneous and ensemble-averaged velocity measurements as well as the associated statistics of leaflet kinematics are reported and analyzed in tandem to elucidate the structure of the velocity and vorticity fields of the ensuing flow-structure interaction. The measurements reveal that during the first half of the acceleration phase, the flow is laminar and repeatable from cycle to cycle. The valve housing shear layer rolls up into the sinus and begins to extract vorticity of opposite sign from the sinus wall. A start-up vortical structure is shed from the leaflets and is advected downstream as the leaflet shear layers become wavy and oscillatory. In the second half of flow acceleration the leaflet shear layers become unstable and break down into two von Karman-like vortex streets. The onset of vortex shedding from the valve leaflets is responsible for the growth of significant cycle-to-cycle vorticity oscillations. At peak flow, the housing and leaflet shear layers undergo secondary instabilities and break down rapidly into a chaotic, turbulent-like state with multiple small-scale vortical structures emerging in the flow. During the deceleration and closing phases all large-scale coherent flow features disappear and a chaotic small-scale vorticity field emerges, which persists even after the valve has closed. Probability density functions of the leaflet position during opening and closing phases show that the leaflet position fluctuates from cycle to cycle with larger fluctuations evident during valve closure. The DNS is carried out by prescribing the leaflet kinematics from the experimental data. The computed instantaneous vorticity fields are in very good

  8. Jet Calibration at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, R; The ATLAS collaboration


    The accurate measurement of jets at high transverse momentum produced in proton proton collision at a centre of mass energy at \\sqrt(s)=7 TeV is important in many physics analysis at LHC. Due to the non-compensating nature of the ATLAS calorimeter, signal losses due to noise thresholds and in dead material the jet energy needs to be calibrated. Presently, the ATLAS experiment derives the jet calibration from Monte Carlo simulation using a simple correction that relates the true and the reconstructed jet energy. The jet energy scale and its uncertainty are derived from in-situ measurements and variation in the Monte Carlo simulation. Other calibration schemes have been also developed, they use hadronic cell calibrations or the topology of the jet constituents to reduce hadronic fluctuations in the jet response, improving in that way the jet resolution. The performances of the various calibration schemes using data and simulation, the evaluation of the modelling of the properties used to derive each calibration...

  9. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  10. Quasar Jet Acceleration (United States)

    Polito, Nicholas; Hough, David


    We observed radio jets in six lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs) from 1995 to 2008 using the NRAO VLBA at 8.4 and 15 GHz. These observations have tracked jet component positions and velocities over that time period. There is a correlation between apparent jet speed and projected core distance in these LDQs at greater than 99 per cent confidence levels (Hough 2008, Extragalactic Jets, eds: Rector and DeYoung, ASP, p. 274). Four of our sources show this effect particularly strongly. We only tracked single jet components over relatively short distances, but the assumption of a unique velocity profile allows us to study component motion on an effective timescale of approximately 20-50 years. Results for 3C207 and 3C263 show a good fit using a constant acceleration model. The cause of such acceleration is still unknown, though ``magnetic acceleration'' by a gradient in magnetic field pressure is one possibility.

  11. Study on the Effect of Jet Velocity on Mixing Performance and Sludge Prevention in Large-Scale Crude-Oil Tanks by the CFD Technique


    Ali Akbar Lotfi Neyestanak; Mohammad Reza Tarybakhsh; Saeed Daneshmand


    In this paper, computational fluid dynamic modelling was developed to study the effect of the floating jet velocity or submerged rotary jet in sludge prevention in a large crude-oil storage tank. The Euler-Euler method was used in a two-dimensional CFD model to describe oil and sludge flow behaviour at the bottom of the storage tank. By modifying some parameters, the k-e model was used to describe the turbulence of the mixing flow. The results show the effect of jet velocity, angle, and time ...

  12. Design of an Axisymmetric Afterbody Test Case for CFD Validation (United States)

    Disotell, Kevin J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.


    As identified in the CFD Vision 2030 Study commissioned by NASA, validation of advanced RANS models and scale-resolving methods for computing turbulent flow fields must be supported by continuous improvements in fundamental, high-fidelity experiments designed specifically for CFD implementation. In accordance with this effort, the underpinnings of a new test platform referred to herein as the NASA Axisymmetric Afterbody are presented. The devised body-of-revolution is a modular platform consisting of a forebody section and afterbody section, allowing for a range of flow behaviors to be studied on interchangeable afterbody geometries. A body-of-revolution offers advantages in shape definition and fabrication, in avoiding direct contact with wind tunnel sidewalls, and in tail-sting integration to facilitate access to higher Reynolds number tunnels. The current work is focused on validation of smooth-body turbulent flow separation, for which a six-parameter body has been developed. A priori RANS computations are reported for a risk-reduction test configuration in order to demonstrate critical variation among turbulence model results for a given afterbody, ranging from barely-attached to mild separated flow. RANS studies of the effects of forebody nose (with/without) and wind tunnel boundary (slip/no-slip) on the selected afterbody are presented. Representative modeling issues that can be explored with this configuration are the effect of higher Reynolds number on separation behavior, flow physics of the progression from attached to increasingly-separated afterbody flows, and the effect of embedded longitudinal vortices on turbulence structure.

  13. Fluid-magnetic helicity in axisymmetric stationary relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Prasad, G.


    The present work is intended to gain a fruitful insight into the understanding of the formations of magneto-vortex configurations and their role in the physical processes of mutual exchange of energies associated with fluid's motion and the magnetic fields in an axisymmetric stationary hydromagnetic system subject to strong gravitational field (e.g., neutron star/magnetar). It is found that the vorticity flux vector field associated with vorticity 2-form is a linear combination of fluid's vorticity vector and of magnetic vorticity vector. The vorticity flux vector obeys Helmholtz's flux conservation. The energy equation associated with the vorticity flux vector field is deduced. It is shown that the mechanical rotation of vorticity flux surfaces contributes to the formation of vorticity flux vector field. The dynamo action for the generation of toroidal components of vorticity flux vector field is described in the presence of meridional circulations. It is shown that the stretching of twisting magnetic lines due to differential rotation leads to the breakdown of gravitational isorotation in the absence of meridional circulations. An explicit expression consists of rotation of vorticity flux surface, energy and angular momentum per baryon for the fluid-magnetic helicity current vector is obtained. The conservation of fluid-magnetic helicity is demonstrated. It is found that the fluid-magnetic helicity displays the energy spectrum arising due to the interaction between the mechanical rotation of vorticity flux surfaces and the fluid's motion obeying Euler's equations. The dissipation of a linear combination of modified fluid helicity and magnetic twist is shown to occur due to coupled effect of frame dragging and meridional circulation. It is found that the growing twist of magnetic lines causes the dissipation of modified fluid helicity in the absence of meridional circulations.

  14. Forcing scheme analysis for the axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann method under incompressible limit. (United States)

    Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Chen, Jie; Yin, Linmao; Chew, Jia Wei


    Because the standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is proposed for Cartesian Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, additional source terms are necessary in the axisymmetric LB method for representing the axisymmetric effects. Therefore, the accuracy and applicability of the axisymmetric LB models depend on the forcing schemes adopted for discretization of the source terms. In this study, three forcing schemes, namely, the trapezium rule based scheme, the direct forcing scheme, and the semi-implicit centered scheme, are analyzed theoretically by investigating their derived macroscopic equations in the diffusive scale. Particularly, the finite difference interpretation of the standard LB method is extended to the LB equations with source terms, and then the accuracy of different forcing schemes is evaluated for the axisymmetric LB method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the discrete lattice effects arising from the direct forcing scheme are part of the truncation error terms and thus would not affect the overall accuracy of the standard LB method with general force term (i.e., only the source terms in the momentum equation are considered), but lead to incorrect macroscopic equations for the axisymmetric LB models. On the other hand, the trapezium rule based scheme and the semi-implicit centered scheme both have the advantage of avoiding the discrete lattice effects and recovering the correct macroscopic equations. Numerical tests applied for validating the theoretical analysis show that both the numerical stability and the accuracy of the axisymmetric LB simulations are affected by the direct forcing scheme, which indicate that forcing schemes free of the discrete lattice effects are necessary for the axisymmetric LB method.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Studies of Cavitation Behavior in Water-Jet Cavitation Peening Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang


    Full Text Available Water-jet cavitation peening (WCP is a new technology for the surface modification of metallic materials. The cavitation behavior in this process involves complex and changeable physics phenomena, such as high speed, high pressure, multiple phases, phase transition, turbulence, and unstable features. Thus, the cavitation behavior and impact-pressure distribution in WCP have always been key problems in this field. Numerous factors affect the occurrence of cavitation. These factors include flow-boundary conditions, absolute pressure, flow velocity, flow viscosity, surface tension, and so on. Among these factors, pressure and vapor fraction are the most significant. Numerical simulations are performed to determine the flow-field characteristics of both inside and outside the cavitating nozzle of a submerged water jet. The factors that influence the cavitation intensity of pressure are simulated. Fujifilm pressure-sensitive paper is used to measure the distribution of impact pressure along the jet direction during the WCP process. The results show that submerged cavitation jets can induce cavitation both inside and outside a conical nozzle and a convergent-divergent nozzle when the inlet pressure is 32 MPa. Moreover, the shock wave pressure induced by the collapse of the bubble group reaches up to 300 MPa.

  16. The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Montes, Gabriela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); De Colle, Fabio [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-543 04510 D. F. (Mexico); Rezzolla, Luciano; Takami, Kentaro [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rosswog, Stephan [Astronomy and Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Perego, Albino [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lee, William H. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264 04510 D. F. (Mexico)


    The most popular model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) involves the coalescence of binary neutron stars. Because the progenitor is actually hidden from view, we must consider under which circumstances such merging systems are capable of producing a successful sGRB. Soon after coalescence, winds are launched from the merger remnant. In this paper, we use realistic wind profiles derived from global merger simulations in order to investigate the interaction of sGRB jets with these winds using numerical simulations. We analyze the conditions for which these axisymmetric winds permit relativistic jets to break out and produce an sGRB. We find that jets with luminosities comparable to those observed in sGRBs are only successful when their half-opening angles are below ≈20°. This jet collimation mechanism leads to a simple physical interpretation of the luminosities and opening angles inferred for sGRBs. If wide, low-luminosity jets are observed, they might be indicative of a different progenitor avenue such as the merger of a neutron star with a black hole. We also use the observed durations of sGRB to place constraints on the lifetime of the wind phase, which is determined by the time it takes the jet to break out. In all cases we find that the derived limits argue against completely stable remnants for binary neutron star mergers that produce sGRBs.

  17. Drop impact into a deep pool: Vortex shedding and jet formation

    KAUST Repository

    Agbaglah, Gilou


    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are transitions in the multiplicity of jets as the experimental parameters are varied. Here, we use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the transition from impacts that produce a single jet to those that produce two jets. Using high-speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet. Using numerical simulations we develop a phase diagram for this transition and show that the capillary number is the most appropriate order parameter for the transition. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  18. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, New York, NY (United States)


    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  19. Long Penetration Mode Counterflowing Jets for Supersonic Slender Configurations - A Numerical Study (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Layn; Zichettello, Benjamin; Bilyeu, David L.


    A novel approach of using counterflowing jets positioned strategically on the aircraft and exploiting its long penetration mode (LPM) of interaction towards sonic-boom mitigation forms the motivation for this study. Given that most previous studies on the counterflowing LPM jet have all been on blunt bodies and at high supersonic or hypersonic flow conditions, exploring the feasibility to obtain a LPM jet issuing from a slender body against low supersonic freestream conditions is the main focus of this study. Computational fluid dynamics computations of axisymmetric models (cone-cylinder and quartic geometry), of relevance to NASA's High Speed project, are carried out using the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. A systematic parametric study is conducted to determine the optimum combination of counterflowing jet size, mass flow rate, and nozzle geometry for obtaining LPM jets. Details from these computations will be used to assess the potential of the LPM counterflowing supersonic jet as a means of active flow control for enabling supersonic flight over land and to establish the knowledge base for possible future implementation of such technologies.

  20. Control of a high Reynolds number Mach 0.9 heated jet using plasma actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney-Fischer, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Samimy, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gas Dynamics and Turbulence Laboratory, Ohio State University (GDTL/OSU), 2300 West Case Road, Columbus, Ohio 43235-7531 (United States)


    The results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a high subsonic, heated, jet forced using localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) show that LAFPAs can consistently produce significant mixing enhancement over a wide range of temperatures. These actuators have been used successfully in high Reynolds number, high-speed unheated jets. The facility consists of an axisymmetric jet with different nozzle blocks of exit diameter of 2.54 cm and variable jet temperature in an anechoic chamber. The focus of this paper is on a high subsonic (M{sub j}=0.9) jet. Twelve experiments with various forcing azimuthal modes (m=0, 1, and {+-}1) and temperatures (T{sub o}/T{sub a}=1.0, 1.4, and 2.0) at a fixed forcing Strouhal number (St{sub DF}=0.3) have been conducted and PIV results compared with the baseline results to characterize the effectiveness of LAFPAs for mixing enhancement. Centerline velocity and turbulent kinetic energy as well as jet width are used for determining the LAFPAs' effectiveness. The characteristics of large-scale structures are analyzed through the use of Galilean streamlines and swirling strength. Across the range of temperatures collected, the effectiveness of LAFPAs improves as temperature increases. Possible reasons for the increase in effectiveness are discussed.

  1. Simulations of Solar Jets (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  2. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth's core (United States)

    Livermore, Phil; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Chris


    Observations of the change in Earth's magnetic field, the secular variation, provide information on the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for its generation. The very latest high-resolution observations from ESA's Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high-latitude localised in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we explain this feature with a localised, non-axisymmetric, westwards jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km/yr, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. The current accelerating phase may be a part of a longer term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastwards and westwards movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  3. The Formation of Turbulent Vortex Rings by Synthetic Jets (United States)

    Lawson, John; Dawson, James


    Vortex rings formed by synthetic jets are found in many engineering and biological flows. For vortex rings formed both periodically and in isolation, a constraint on vortex formation (``pinch-off'') has been observed which is relevant to unsteady propulsion. However, there is no clear consensus on the physical mechanism of this constraint. We present analysis of time resolved, 2D Particle Image Velocimetry measurements of the velocity and material acceleration field in an axisymmetric, turbulent synthetic jet in air at maximum stroke ratios Lm / D = 2 - 15 . Using the acceleration field, pinch-off may be identified in a manner which is frame invariant and consistent with previous studies. An adverse pressure gradient behind the ring and induced by it plays a role in the pinch-off and separation of the ring from the jet. Recognising this, we revise an existing model for pinch-off: this revision fits our data well. Additionally, we show that as the ring forms, hydrodynamic impulse is delivered via two equally important mechanisms: a material flux and a vortex force. For large Lm / D , this vortex force may deliver a substantial impulse to the ring after pinch-off. This has implications for unsteady propulsion, models of vortex ring formation and existing explanations for pinch-off.

  4. Applying the seedling-emergence method under waterlogged conditions to detect the seed bank of aquatic plants in submerged sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedeltje, G; ter Heerdt, GNJ; Bakker, JP

    Seed bank studies focused on submerged aquatic plants are generally performed under submerged conditions, using the seedling-emergence method. However, if a study targets at both submerged species and helophytes, submerged conditions are generally not suitable. We tested the emergence of seedlings

  5. Jet noise suppression by swirling the jet flow. (United States)

    Schwartz, I. R.


    The effect of swirling flow on jet noise suppression was experimentally investigated in a relatively small, low-thrust, fan-jet engine. Measurements of acoustic properties of the near and far fields, jet-flow characteristics, and engine thrust were made with and without stationary swirl vanes installed in the primary exhaust nozzle. Preliminary test results indicate that substantial reductions in jet overall sound pressure levels and overall acoustic power were obtained with minimal thrust losses. Based on preliminary analysis, present results, and previous experiments with swirling hot jets, it is predicted that even greater jet noise reductions can be obtained in higher thrust engines, particularly with afterburning, by swirling jet exhaust.

  6. Simulation of vortex breakdown in swirling jets (United States)

    Moise, Pradeep; Mathew, Joseph


    Numerical simulations of laminar incompressible swirling jets have been carried out to study different types of vortex breakdown, including the commonly reported axisymmetric bubble and the lesser known conical breakdown. Existence of the latter type of breakdown was first discovered in experiments of Billant et al. (1998) who proposed that the bubble and conical breakdown exhibit bistability behaviour. This is confirmed by the present study, where it is shown that the conical breakdown coexists with bubble breakdown over a wide range of swirl strengths. A novel approach employing PDE-constrained optimization techniques (adjoint-based method) is formulated to elucidate the relation between bistable states. This is implemented by means of minimizing strengths of introduced initial velocity perturbations which trigger required transition from one state to another. Features of conical breakdown and their dependence on flow parameters are examined. Solutions of both breakdown types are tested with predictions of the conjugate state theory of Benjamin (1962) by investigating upstream propagation of introduced disturbances in subcritical regions of flow and the theory of Brown and Lopez (1990), by examining development of negative azimuthal vorticity in the flow.

  7. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  8. Axisymmetric spheroidal modes of neutron stars magnetized with poloidal magnetic fields (United States)

    Lee, Umin


    We calculate axisymmetric spheroidal modes of neutron stars magnetized with an axisymmetric poloidal magnetic field. We use polytropes of the indices n ∼ 1 as background equilibrium models of neutron stars where we ignore the deformation due to the magnetic fields. For a poloidal magnetic field, axisymmetric normal modes of non-rotating stars are decoupled into spheroidal modes and toroidal modes, and we can treat spheroidal modes separately from toroidal modes. For the surface field strength BS ranging from 1014 to 1016 G, we calculate axisymmetric spheroidal magnetic modes whose oscillation frequency is proportional to BS. The typical oscillation frequency of the magnetic modes is ˜ 0.01× √{GM/R^3} for BS ∼ 1015 G, where M and R are, respectively, the mass and radius of the star and G is the gravitational constant. For M = 1.4 M⊙ and R = 10 6cm, this frequency is ∼20 Hz, which may explain low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations found for SGR 1806-204 and SGR 1900+14. We also find modes of frequency ≳ √{GM/R^3} corresponding to the radial fundamental and first harmonic modes. No unstable magnetic modes are found for axisymmetric spheroidal oscillations of magnetized stars.

  9. Two component relativistic acceleration and polarized radiation of the parsec-scale AGN jet (United States)

    Porth, Oliver


    We perform axisymmetric simulations of two-component jet acceleration using the special relativistic MHD code PLUTO (Mignone et al., 2007). The inner, thermally driven component constitutes a dilute relativistic plasma originating in a high enthalpy central corona. The second component is a Poynting-dominated wind driven by a global current system. Once a near-stationary state is reached, we solve the polarized Synchrotron radiation transport incorporating self-absorption and (internal) Faraday rotation. With this approach we obtain high-resolution radio maps and spectra that can help in the interpretation of observational data from nearby active galactic nuclei by predicting spine-sheath polarization structures and Faraday rotation gradients.

  10. Magnetized jets driven by the Sun: The structure of the heliosphere revisited—Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opher, M., E-mail: [Astronomy Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Zieger, B. [Center for Space Physics, Boston University, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Toth, G. [Department of Climate and Space, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)


    As the solar system moves through the interstellar medium, the solar wind is deflected forming the heliosphere. The standard picture of the heliosphere is a comet-shape like structure with the tail extending for 1000s of astronomical units. This standard picture stems from a view where magnetic forces are negligible and the solar magnetic field is convected passively down the tail. Recently, we showed that the magnetic tension of the solar magnetic field plays a crucial role on organizing the solar wind in the heliosheath into two jet-like structures. The two jets are separated by the interstellar medium that flows between them. The heliosphere then has a “croissant”-like shape where the distance to the heliopause downtail is almost the same as towards the nose. This new view of the heliosphere is in agreement with the energetic neutral atoms maps taken by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer and INCA/CASSINI. We developed as well an analytic model of the heliosheath in the axisymmetric limit that shows how the magnetic tension force is the driver for the north and south jets. We confirmed that the formation of these jets with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The main reason why previous global MHD simulations did not see these jets is due to spurious magnetic dissipation that was present at the heliospheric current sheet. We instead kept the same polarity for the interplanetary (solar) magnetic field in both the northern and southern hemispheres, eliminating spurious magnetic dissipation effects at the heliospheric current sheet. In this paper, we extend these previous results to include additional cases where we used: (a) weaker solar magnetic field; (b) solar magnetic field that reverses polarity at the solar equator in the axisymmetric limit; and (c) slower motion through the interstellar system. We discuss as well future challenges regarding the structure of the heliosphere.

  11. On the three-dimensional precessing jet flow past a sudden expansion (United States)

    Cafiero, Gioacchino; Ceglia, Giuseppe; Discetti, Stefano; Ianiro, Andrea; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro


    A circular jet flow past an abrupt expansion under some conditions switches intermittently between two states: quasi-axisymmetric expansion and gyroscopic-like precessing motion. In this work, an experimental investigation into the self-excited precessing flow generated by a 5:1 expansion of a round jet in a coaxial cylindrical chamber is carried out by means of tomographic particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed on a jet issued from a short pipe at a Reynolds number equal to 150,000. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to extract information on the organization of the large coherent structures of the precessing motion. The application of this technique highlights the dominance of three modes: the most energetic two are associated with the jet precession; the third one is representative of the axial motion. An estimate of the precession probability based on the modal energy obtained from the application of POD is proposed. The precession frequency is extracted using a low-order reconstruction (LOR) of a subset of the POD modes. The reconstructed flow field topology obtained by the LOR highlights an underlying mechanism of swirl generation in proximity of the inlet nozzle; the phenomenon is closely related to the interaction between the entrainment in the far field and the recirculation regions in the near field. The application of a stability criterion shows that the self-induced swirl flow results to be unstable. The instability is responsible for the generation of helical-shaped vortices in the near field, even though the dominant feature for the unconfined jet issued from the same nozzle is the axisymmetric ring-vortices generation.

  12. Methods for geothermal reservoir detection emphasizing submerged environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Wilde, P.


    This report has been prepared for the California State Lands Commission to aid them in evaluating exploration programs for geothermal reservoirs, particularly in submerged land environments. Three charts show: (1) a logical progression of specific geologic, geochemical, and geophysical exploration techniques for detecting geothermal reservoirs in various geologic environments with emphasis on submerged lands, (2) various exploration techniques which can be used to develop specific information in geothermal areas, and (3) if various techniques will apply to geothermal exploration according to a detailed geologic classification. A narrative in semi-outline form supplements these charts, providing for each technique; a brief description, advantages, disadvantages, special geologic considerations, and specific references. The specific geologic situation will control the exploration criterion to be used for reservoir detection. General guidelines are established which may be of use in evaluating such a program, but the optimum approach will vary with each situation.

  13. Antitumor activity of submerged biomass of Hericium erinaceus


    Avtonomova, A.; Bakanov, A.; Vinokurov, V.; Bukhman, V.; Krasnopolskaya, L.


    Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media has been studied. The yield of biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of watersoluble polysaccharides depended primarily on the nitrogen source. Using optimal medium composition, the biomass yield of 22-23 g/l in 7 days was achieved. The antitumor activity was studied in vivo with using 2 tumor strains. The inhibition ratio of tumor in these experience reached 86%. An exposure of mice with tumor...

  14. Submerged beachrock preservation in the context of wave ravinement (United States)

    Pretorius, Lauren; Green, Andrew N.; Andrew Cooper, J.


    This study examines a Holocene-aged submerged shoreline, Limestone Reef, located in the shallow subtidal zone of South Africa's east coast. It comprises an elongate, coast-oblique, slab-like outcrop of beachrock situated above the contemporary fair-weather wave base. It is currently undergoing mechanical disintegration. Its unique and rare preservation in a high-energy setting affords an opportunity to examine the mechanical processes occurring during wave ravinement associated with rising sea level. The submerged shoreline and the adjacent shoreface were examined using high-resolution seismic reflection, side-scan sonar and shallow-water multibeam echosounding techniques. Limestone Reef rests on top of unconsolidated Holocene deposits. The structure's surface is characterised by reef-perpendicular gullies with rubble derived from the slab fringing its seaward edge. Limestone Reef slopes gently seawards and has a steep landward-facing edge where gullies are most prominently developed. Teardrop-shaped rippled scour depressions, marked by high backscatter, are located seawards of the submerged shoreline. These elongate in a seaward direction and are filled with bioclastic gravels and residual rubble from Limestone Reef. The gullies in the upstanding structure are indicative of wave plucking and abrasion of the shoreline. The material exposed by the rippled scour depressions is identical to that comprising the postglacial ravinement surface identified in the offshore stratigraphy. These deposits are considered to represent the contemporary, actively forming wave ravinement surface. The results suggest that wave ravinement of submerged shorelines is a discontinuous process dominated by the seaward entrainment of material from its landward edge controlled by high-energy drawback during storm surges. The ravinement process appears to operate at the seasonal scale and averages out over the long-term millennial scale for the continuous surface.

  15. Submerged Pagodas of Mahabalipuram - Study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Rao, K.M.

    - gested that this place could have served as an ancient port (Dayalan, 1992). Mahabalipuram was well known to earlier mariners as 'Seven Pagodas' since the 1 7h century AD. it is generally believed that out of 7 temples originally con- structed, all... based on the local traditions and available literature. The local tradition and the people of Mahabalipuram believe that five temples similar to the Shore Temple have been submerged in the sea. On the basis of local traditions Ancient Tamil...

  16. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors


    Robles Martínez, Ángel; Durán Pinzón, Freddy; Ruano García, María Victoria; Ribes Bertomeu, José; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo; SECO TORRECILLAS, AURORA; Ferrer, J.


    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON® , Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the follo...

  17. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.


    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  18. Competition between axisymmetric and three-dimensional patterns between exactly counter-rotating disks (United States)

    Nore, C.; Martin Witkowski, L.; Foucault, E.; Pécheux, J.; Daube, O.; Le Quéré, P.


    The bifurcations and the nonlinear dynamics of the von Kármán swirling flow between exactly counter-rotating disks in a stationary cylinder are numerically and experimentally investigated. The dynamics are governed by two parameters, the radius-to-height ratio A =R/H and the Reynolds number, Re, based on disk rotation speed and cylinder height. The stability analysis performed for 2⩽A⩽20 shows that nonaxisymmetric and axisymmetric modes can be stationary or time dependent in this range. Three-dimensional modes are dominant for A ⩽13.25 while axisymmetric modes are critical for A >13.25. The patterns of the dominant perturbations are analyzed. In the particular case of A =15, nonlinear computations are performed at Reynolds numbers slightly above threshold and are compared to experimental results, showing the competition between axisymmetric and three-dimensional modes.

  19. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  20. Jet Measurements In CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Sanmay


    A measurement of inclusive jet and dijet production cross sections is presented. Data from large hadron collider (LHC) proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 7 TeV, corresponding to $4.67 fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, have been collected with the compact muon solenoid (CMS) detector. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-$k_T$ clustering algorithm with size parameter $R=0.7$, extending to rapidity $|y|=2.5$, transverse momentum $p_{T}=$ 2 TeV, and dijet invariant mass $M_{JJ}=$ 5 TeV. The measured cross sections are corrected for detector effects and compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order (NLO), corrected for non perturbative (NP) factors, using various sets of parton distribution functions. Determination Of Jet Energy Correction from $\\sqrt{s}=$ 7 TeV CMS data is presented. The individual components are determined. The jet energy scale uncertainty factors are also shown.

  1. Flow in axisymmetric expansion in a catalytic converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Erik; Meyer, Knud Erik

    is to investigate flow phenomena in sudden pipe expansions similar to design used for catalytic converters with different upstream conditions and flow conditioning devices like guide vanes. This is done to provide a set of data that can be used to validate the use of CFD to such flows. For the present study, a down...... for a specific local flow rate and a non-uniform inflow to the catalyst will severely reduce the efficiency of the process. Since each ship will have a unique design the flow system, it is desirable to be able to design the system using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, CFD fails to predict flow...... Velocimetry (PIV) is a unique method that resolve the entire cross flow. This type of flow is expected to have a fluctuating ‘jet’-like structure from the smaller inlet pipe into the larger converter. The fluctuations of the jet are difficult, if not impossible, to capture with standard time averaged models...

  2. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Lan


    Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM), we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder) into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary) and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed), we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  3. Research efforts for detection and recovery of submerged oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K. [United States Coast Guard, Groton, CT (United States). Research and Development Center


    Submerged oil can sink and destroy shellfish and other marine populations in addition to causing closure of water intakes at industrial facilities and power plants. However, current methods to find and recover oil from spills involving submerged oil are inadequate. The underwater environment presents major challenges such as poor visibility, difficulty in tracking oil spill movement, colder temperatures, inadequate containment methods and problems with the equipment's interaction with water. This paper reported on a multi-year project launched by the Research and Development Center of the United States Coast Guard to develop a complete approach for spills of submerged oil. The project involved detection technologies and recovery methods for oil on the bottom of any body of water. Proof of concept (POC) and prototype tests of potential detection technologies were evaluated during tests at the Ohmsett facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. The technologies included sonar, laser fluorometry, real-time mass spectrometry and in-situ fluorometry. This paper described the development of a complete specification for an integrated recovery system along with a plan for future development. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong


    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  5. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu


    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  6. Experimental study of surface pressures induced on a flat plate and a body of revolution by various dual jet configurations. [wind tunnel tudies of a jet in a cross flow for V/STOL applications (United States)

    Schetz, J. A.; Jakubowski, A. K.


    The effect of the angle of a jet to a crossflow, the performance of dual jet configurations, and a jet injected from a body of revolution as opposed to a flat plate were investigated during experiments conducted in the 7x10 tunnel at NASA Ames at Velocities from 14.5 m/sec to 35.8 m/sec (47.6 to 117.4 ft/sec.). Pressure distributions are presented for single and dual jets over a range of velocity ratios from 2 to 10, spacings from 2 to 6 diameters and injection angles of 90, 75, 60, and 105 degrees. For the body of revolution tests, the ratio of the jet to body diameters was set as large (1/2) in order to be more representative of V/STOL aircraft applications. Flat plate tests involved dual jets both aligned and in side by side configurations. The effects of the various parameters and the differences between the axisymmetric and planar body geometrics on the nature, size, shape, and strength of the interaction regions on the body surfaces are shown. Some flowfield measurements are also presented, and it is shown that a simple analysis is capable of predicting the trajectories of the jets.

  7. Protostellar Jets in Context

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganos, Kanaris; Stute, Matthias


    This volume contains the proceedings of the Conference Protostellar Jets in Context held by the JETSET Marie Curie Research Training Network in July 2008. This meeting not only served to showcase some of the network's achievements but was also a platform to hear from, discuss and debate the recent findings of world-class astrophysicists in the field of protostellar jet research. Jets from young stars are of course not an isolated astrophysical phenomenon. It is known that objects as diverse as young brown dwarfs, planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars, micro-quasars, AGN, and gamma-ray bursters produce jets. Thus in a series of talks, protostellar jets were put in context by comparing them with their often much larger brethren and also by considering the ubiquitous accretion disks that seem to be necessary for their formation. With this spectrum of contributions on observations and the theory of astrophysical jets and accretion disks, this book serves as a comprehensive reference work for researchers and students...

  8. Flow of Polymer Melts in Plane- and Axi-Symmetric Converging Dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Carsten Linding; Kjær, Erik Michael; Haudrum, Jan


    The extensional flow has considerable influence on the pressure loss in converging flows, which are present in both extrusion and injection moulding. Both plane- and axi-symmetric converging flows have been studied with LDPE, HDPE and PS. The transient extensional viscosities are determined in all...... cases. The extensional viscous description used is the one proposed by Cogswell $LB@3$RB@. The extensional viscosities in the two different flow fields are compared. The plane-symmetric extensional viscosity is found to be larger than the axi-symmetric for the HDPE melt. The two viscosities...

  9. Flow of Polymer Melts in Plane- and Axi-symmetric Converging Dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Carsten Linding; Kjær, Erik Michael; Haudrum, Jan


    The extensional flow has considerable influence on the pressure loss in converging flows, which are present in both extrusion and injection moulding. Both plane- and axi-symmetric converging flows have been studied with LDPE, HDPE and PS. The transient extensional viscosities are determined in all...... cases. The extensional viscous description used is the one proposed by Cogswell (3). The extensional viscosities in the two now different flow fields ate compared. The plane-symmetric extensional viscosity is found to be larger than the axi-symmetric for the HDPE melt. The two viscosities are comparable...

  10. Compact formulas for bounce/transit averaging in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthoit, F.-X. [SNU Division of Graduate Education for Sustainabilization of Foundation Energy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Brizard, A. J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Hahm, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)


    Compact formulas for bounce and transit orbit averaging of the fluctuation-amplitude eikonal factor in axisymmetric tokamak geometry, which is frequently encountered in bounce-gyrokinetic description of microturbulence, are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions and elliptic integrals. These formulas are readily applicable to the calculation of the neoclassical susceptibility in the framework of modern bounce-gyrokinetic theory. In the long-wavelength limit for axisymmetric electrostatic perturbations, we recover the expression for the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flow [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] accurately.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Santiago, J.; Ustamujic, S.; Castro, A. I. Gómez de [S. D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Bonito, R.; Orlando, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Orellana, M. [Sede Andina de la Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (Argentina); Miceli, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Albacete-Colombo, J. F. [Sede Atlántica de la Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, Don Bosco y Leloir s/n, 8500 Viedma RN (Argentina); Castro, E. de [Dpto. de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Facultad de Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We investigate the plausibility of detecting X-ray emission from a stellar jet that impacts a dense molecular cloud, a scenario that may be typical for classical T Tauri stars with jets in dense star-forming complexes. We first model the impact of a jet against a dense cloud using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations, exploring different configurations of the ambient environment. Then, we compare our results with XMM-Newton observations of the Herbig–Haro object HH 248, where extended X-ray emission aligned with the optical knots is detected at the edge of the nearby IC 434 cloud. Our simulations show that a jet can produce plasma with temperatures up to 10{sup 7} K, consistent with production of X-ray emission, after impacting a dense cloud. We find that jets denser than the ambient medium but less dense than the cloud produce detectable X-ray emission only at impact with the cloud. From an exploration of the model parameter space, we constrain the physical conditions (jet density and velocity and cloud density) that reproduce the intrinsic luminosity and emission measure of the X-ray source possibly associated with HH 248 well. Thus, we suggest that the extended X-ray source close to HH 248 corresponds to a jet impacting a dense cloud.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Jin-Jun [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Kuiper, Rolf, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)


    The prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is characterized by rapid variabilities, which may be a direct reflection of the unsteady central engine. We perform a series of axisymmetric 2.5-dimensional simulations to study the propagation of relativistic, hydrodynamic, intermittent jets through the envelope of a GRB progenitor star. A realistic rapidly rotating star is incorporated as the background of jet propagation, and the star is allowed to collapse due to the gravity of the central black hole. By modeling the intermittent jets with constant-luminosity pulses with equal on and off durations, we investigate how the half period, T , affects the jet dynamics. For relatively small T values (e.g., 0.2 s), the jet breakout time t {sub bo} depends on the opening angle of the jet, with narrower jets more penetrating and reaching the surface at shorter times. For T  ≤ 1 s, the reverse shock (RS) crosses each pulse before the jet penetrates through the stellar envelope. As a result, after the breakout of the first group of pulses at t {sub bo}, several subsequent pulses vanish before penetrating the star, causing a quiescent gap. For larger half periods ( T = 2.0 and 4.0 s), all the pulses can successfully penetrate through the envelope, since each pulse can propagate through the star before the RS crosses the shell. Our results may interpret the existence of a weak precursor in some long GRBs, given that the GRB central engine injects intermittent pulses with a half period T  ≤ 1 s. The observational data seem to be consistent with such a possibility.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann modeling and simulation of liquid jet breakup (United States)

    Saito, Shimpei; Abe, Yutaka; Koyama, Kazuya


    A three-dimensional color-fluid lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flows is developed in the framework of a three-dimensional 27-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. The collision operator comprises the D3Q27 versions of three suboperators: a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator, a generalized Liu-Valocchi-Kang perturbation operator, and a Latva-Kokko-Rothman recoloring operator. A D3Q27 version of an enhanced equilibrium distribution function is also incorporated into this model to improve the Galilean invariance. Three types of numerical tests, namely, a static droplet, an oscillating droplet, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, show a good agreement with analytical solutions and numerical simulations. Following these numerical tests, this model is applied to liquid-jet-breakup simulations. The simulation conditions are matched to the conditions of the previous experiments. In this case, numerical stability is maintained throughout the simulation, although the kinematic viscosity for the continuous phase is set as low as 1.8 ×10-4 , in which case the corresponding Reynolds number is 3.4 ×103 ; the developed lattice Boltzmann model based on the D3Q27 lattice enables us to perform the simulation with parameters directly matched to the experiments. The jet's liquid column transitions from an asymmetrical to an axisymmetrical shape, and entrainment occurs from the side of the jet. The measured time history of the jet's leading-edge position shows a good agreement with the experiments. Finally, the reproducibility of the regime map for liquid-liquid systems is assessed. The present lattice Boltzmann simulations well reproduce the characteristics of predicted regimes, including varicose breakup, sinuous breakup, and atomization.

  14. Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures


    Lung, Ming-Yeou; Chang, Yu-Cheng


    Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as ...

  15. Enhanced effects of biotic interactions on predicting multispecies spatial distribution of submerged macrophytes after eutrophication


    Song, Kun; Cui, Yichong; Zhang, Xijin; Pan, Yingji; Xu, Junli; Xu, Kaiqin; Da, Liangjun


    Abstract Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009,...

  16. Experiments on annular liquid jet instability and on the formation of liquid shells (United States)

    Kendall, J. M.


    An annular jet flow of liquid surrounding a flow of gas at its core is extremely unstable. Experiments are described in which such a flow is generated by an annular nozzle operated at fairly specific conditions. It is shown that periodic, axisymmetric oscillations arise spontaneously within the cylindrical sheet emerging from the nozzle and grow with such rapidity along the axial dimension that a sealing-off and encapsulation of the core gas occurs within a few jet diameters. This is closely followed by a pinchoff of the liquid between adjacent bubbles. The liquid shells set free thereby assume spherically symmetric form under capillary forces, and each contains a precisely uniform measure of gas and of liquid on account of the extremely high frequency-stability of the process. Description is given of the fluid dynamic processes by which the shells are formed, and mention is made of exploiting the instability for the production of rigid shells for technological applications.

  17. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezel, C; Hallo, L [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France); Souquet, A; Guillemot, F, E-mail: mezel@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Bordeaux 2 - UMR 577, 146 Rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  18. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling. (United States)

    Mézel, C; Souquet, A; Hallo, L; Guillemot, F


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  19. GigaUnit Transplant System: A New Mechanical Tool for Transplanting Submerged Aquatic Vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J


    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) performs many important ecosystem functions, including wave attenuation and sediment stabilization, water quality improvement, primary production, food web support for secondary consumers...

  20. B-jets and z + b-jets at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeans, Daniel; /Rome U.


    The authors present CDF cross-section measurements for the inclusive production of b jets and the production of b jets in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. Both measurements are in reasonable agreement with NLO QCD predictions.

  1. A numerical study of two-phase Stokes flow in an axisymmetric flow-focusing device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Jakob; Stone, H.A.; Bruus, Henrik


    )], and predict a scaling yet to be observed: the bubble volume scales with the outlet channel radius to the power of 4 and the surface tension. Our axisymmetric simulations further show that the collapse of the gas thread before bubble snap-off is different from the recent experimental results. We suggest...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) is a technique developed in colloid and surface science to simultaneously determine the contact angle and liquid surface tension from the profile of a droplet resting on a solid surface. In this paper is described how ADSA-P can be employed to

  3. The general motion of three mutually-interacting, axisymmetric spherical rigid bodies (United States)

    El-Shaboury, S. M.; Dessoky, A. E. A.


    In this paper, the translational-rotational motions of an axisymmetric rigid body and two spherical rigid bodies under the influence of their mutual gravitational attraction are considered. The equations of motion in the canonical elements of Delaunay-Andoyer are obtained. The elements of motion in the zero and first approximations can be determined.

  4. A lattice Boltzmann method for axisymmetric multicomponent flows with high viscosity ratio (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei; Ba, Yan; Xi, Guang; Zhang, Yonghao


    A color-gradient lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed to simulate axisymmetric multicomponent flows. This method uses a collision operator that is a combination of three separate parts, namely single-component collision operator, perturbation operator, and recoloring operator. A source term is added into the single-component collision operator such that in each single-component region the axisymmetric continuity and momentum equations can be exactly recovered. The interfacial tension effect is realized by the perturbation operator, in which an interfacial force of axisymmetric form is derived using the concept of continuum surface force. A recoloring operator proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is extended to the axisymmetric case for phase segregation and maintenance of the interface. To enhance the method's numerical stability for handling binary fluids with high viscosity ratio, a multiple-relaxation-time model is used for the collision operator. Several numerical examples, including static droplet test, oscillation of a viscous droplet, and breakup of a liquid thread, are presented to test the capability and accuracy of the proposed color-gradient LBM. It is found that the present method is able to accurately capture the phase interface and produce low spurious velocities. Also, the LBM results are all in good agreement with the analytical solutions and/or available experimental data for a very broad range of viscosity ratios.

  5. Experimental study of the structure of laminar axisymmetric H2/air diffusion flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toro, Vishal Vijay


    This thesis presents an experimental study of the structure of laminar axisymmetric coflow hydrogen diffusion flames. The motivation behind studying these flames is the current drive towards sustainable energy and strict pollution norms. In this regard, hydrogen as a fuel is one such candidate,

  6. Combined experimental and computational study of laminar, axisymmetric hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toro, V.V.; Mokhov, A.V.; Levinsky, H.B.; Smooke, MD


    We investigate the structure of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, laminar hydrogen-air flames in which a cylindrical fuel stream is surrounded by coflowing air, using laser-diagnostic and computational methods. Spontaneous Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) are used to

  7. Multiple Jets at the LHC with High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Smillie, Jennifer M.


    We present a flexible Monte Carlo implementation of the perturbative framework of High Energy Jets, describing multi-jet events at hadron colliders. The description includes a resummation which ensures leading logarithmic accuracy for large invariant mass between jets, and is matched to tree...... of the perturbative corrections on several dijet and trijet observables which are relevant in the search for new physics....

  8. Restoring Ecological Function to a Submerged Salt Marsh (United States)

    Stagg, C.L.; Mendelssohn, I.A.


    Impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise and severe drought, have altered the hydrology of coastal salt marshes resulting in submergence and subsequent degradation of ecosystem function. A potential method of rehabilitating these systems is the addition of sediment-slurries to increase marsh surface elevation, thus ameliorating effects of excessive inundation. Although this technique is growing in popularity, the restoration of ecological function after sediment addition has received little attention. To determine if sediment subsidized salt marshes are functionally equivalent to natural marshes, we examined above- and belowground primary production in replicated restored marshes receiving four levels of sediment addition (29-42 cm North American Vertical Datum of 1988 [NAVD 88]) and in degraded and natural ambient marshes (4-22 cm NAVD 88). Moderate intensities of sediment-slurry addition, resulting in elevations at the mid to high intertidal zone (29-36 cm NAVD 88), restored ecological function to degraded salt marshes. Sediment additions significantly decreased flood duration and frequency and increased bulk density, resulting in greater soil drainage and redox potential and significantly lower phytotoxic sulfide concentrations. However, ecological function in the restored salt marsh showed a sediment addition threshold that was characterized by a decline in primary productivity in areas of excessive sediment addition and high elevation (>36 cm NAVD 88). Hence, the addition of intermediate levels of sediment to submerging salt marshes increased marsh surface elevation, ameliorated impacts of prolonged inundation, and increased primary productivity. However, too much sediment resulted in diminished ecological function that was equivalent to the submerged or degraded system. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  9. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  10. Surface pressure drag for hydrostatic two-layer flow over axisymmetric mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutbecher, M.


    The effect of partial reflections on surface pressure drag is investigated for hydrostatic gravity waves in two-layer flow with piecewise constant buoyancy frequency. The variation of normalized surface pressure drag with interface height is analyzed for axisymmetric mountains. The results are compared with the familiar solution for infinitely long ridges. The drag for the two-layer flow is normalized with the drag of one-layer flow, which has the buoyancy frequency of the lower layer. An analytical expression for the normalized drag of axisymmetric mountains is derived from linear theory of steady flow. Additionally, two-layer flow over finite-height axisymmetric mountains is simulated numerically for flow with higher stability in the upper layer. The temporal evolution of the surface pressure drag is examined in a series of experiments with different interface and mountain heights. The focus is on the linear regime and the nonlinear regime of nonbreaking gravity waves. The dispersion of gravity waves in flow over isolated mountains prevents that the entire wave spectrum is in resonance at the same interface height, which is the case in hydrostatic flow over infinitely long ridges. In consequence, the oscillation of the normalized drag with interface height is smaller for axisymmetric mountains than for infinitely long ridges. However, even for a reflection coefficient as low as 1/3 the drag of an axisymmetric mountain can be amplified by 50% and reduced by 40%. The nonlinear drag becomes steady in the numerical experiments in which no wave breaking occurs. The steady state nonlinear drag agrees quite well with the prediction of linear theory if the linear drag is computed for a slightly lowered interface. (orig.)

  11. Reconstruction of velocity profiles in axisymmetric and asymmetric flows using an electromagnetic flow meter (United States)

    Kollár, László E.; Lucas, Gary P.; Meng, Yiqing


    An analytical method that was developed formerly for the reconstruction of velocity profiles in asymmetric flows is improved to be applicable for both axisymmetric and asymmetric flows. The method is implemented in Matlab, and predicts the velocity profile from measured electrical potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). Potential distributions are measured in uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields, and the velocity is assumed as a sum of axisymmetric and polynomial components. The procedure requires three steps. First, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is applied to the potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field. Since the direction of polynomial components of order greater than two in the plane of the pipe cross section is not unique multiple solutions exist, therefore all possible polynomial velocity profiles are determined. Then, the DFT is applied to the potential distribution obtained in a specific non-uniform magnetic field, and used to calculate the exponent in a power-law representation of the axisymmetric component. Finally, the potential distribution in the non-uniform magnetic field is calculated for all of the possible velocity profile solutions using weight values, and the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The method is validated by reconstructing two quartic velocity profiles, one of which includes an axisymmetric component. The potential distributions are obtained from simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics where a model of the EMFM is constructed. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The main benefits of the method described in this paper are that it provides a velocity distribution in the circular cross section of a pipe as an analytical function of the spatial coordinates which is suitable for both

  12. Non-axisymmetric Anisotropy of the Inertial Range in the Turbulent Solar Wind (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Muller, W.


    Anisotropy is a key topic for theoretical, numerical and observational studies of plasma turbulence in the solar wind. However, fluctuations in the solar wind are found to be ordered wrt both the background field and flow directions, for example Belcher and Davis found that the fluctuations on average have 5 : 4 : 1 power anisotropy in an orthogonal coordinate system whose axis are [eBxeR, eBx(eBxeR), eB], where eB is a unit vector in the direction of the average magnetic field and eR is a unit vector in the direction radially away from the sun. The fact that the fluctuations are not axisymmetric wrt the background field is paradoxical in the context of idealized models for MHD turbulence. Here, we show that this observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy may arise as a data sampling effect rather than as a result of the physical properties of the turbulence. We will quantify the observed non-axisymmetry via the Power spectral Density ratio of eBxeR : eBx(eBxeR) for in-situ measurements in fast wind. The observed non-axisymmetric ratio will then be compared with Direct Numerical Simulations that are sampled with a "fly through", emulating in-situ single spacecraft observations using Taylor's hypothesis with a constant velocity. We will see this "fly through" model is sufficient to reproduce the observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy in the inertial range of the solar wind. Thus, the observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy may simply arise as a sampling effect related to the one-dimensional spectrum and Taylor's hypothesis. A simple analytical model for a field composed of a linear superposition of transverse waves confirms this result. Prospects for constructing statistical measures, such as structure functions, in space using super-ensembles of multi-spacecraft observations will be discussed.

  13. [Genetic algorithm for fermentation kinetics of submerged fermentation by Morchella]. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Piao, Meizi; Sun, Yonghai


    Fermentation kinetics is important for optimizing control and up-scaling fermentation process. We studied submerged fermentation kinetics of Morchella. Applying the genetic Algorithm in the Matlab software platform, we compared suitability of the Monod and Logistic models, both are commonly used in process of fungal growth, to describe Morchella growth kinetics. Meanwhile, we evaluated parameters involved in the models for Morchella growth, EPS production and substrate consumption. The results indicated that Logistic model fit better with the experimental data. The average error of this model was 5.8%. This kinetics model can be useful for optimizing and up-scaling fungal fermentation process.

  14. Liquid Film Diffusion on Reaction Rate in Submerged Biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Hollesen, Line; Harremoës, Poul


    Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate in a submerged biofilter with denitrification and in order to compare with a theoretical study of the mass transfer coefficient. The experiments were carried out with varied flow, identified...... by the empty bed velocity of inflow and recirculation, respectively 1.3, 2.8, 5.6 and 10.9 m/h. The filter material consisted of 3 mm biostyren spheres. The results indicate that the influence of liquid film diffusion on reaction rate can be ignored....

  15. Slag Metal Reactions during Submerged Arc Welding of Alloy Steels (United States)

    Mitra, U.; Eagar, T. W.


    The transfer of Cr, Si, Mn, P, S, C, Ni, and Mo between the slag and the weld pool has been studied for submerged arc welds made with calcium silicate and manganese silicate fluxes. The results show a strong interaction between Cr and Si transfer but no interaction with Mn. The manganese silicate flux produces lower residual sulfur while the calcium silicate fluxes are more effective for removal of phosphorus. The effective oxygen reaction temperature lies between 1700 and 2000 °C for all elements studied. Evidence of Cr and Mn loss by metal vaporization is also presented.

  16. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)


    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  17. Jet Physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, C; The ATLAS collaboration


    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet physics measurements. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime, and show sensitivity to the parton densities in the proton and to the value of the strong coupling, alpha_s.

  18. Analysis of the pressure fields in a swirling annular jet flow (United States)

    Percin, M.; Vanierschot, M.; Oudheusden, B. W. van


    In this paper, we investigate the flow structures and pressure fields of a free annular swirling jet flow undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is analyzed by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry measurements, which enable the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-resolved pressure fields using the governing flow equations. Both time-averaged and instantaneous flow structures are discussed, including a characterization of the first- and second-order statistical moments. A Reynolds decomposition of the flow field shows that the time-averaged flow is axisymmetric with regions of high anisotropic Reynolds stresses. Two recirculation zones exist that are surrounded by regions of very intense mixing. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, a non-axisymmetric structure of the instantaneous flow is revealed, comprising a central vortex core which breaks up into a precessing vortex core. The winding sense of this helical structure is opposite to the swirl direction and it is wrapped around the vortex breakdown bubble. It precesses around the central axis of the flow at a frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27. The precessing vortex core is associated with a low-pressure region along the central axis of the jet and the maximum pressure fluctuations occur upstream of the vortex breakdown location, where the azimuthal velocity component also reaches peak values as a result of the inward motion of the fluid and the conservation of angular momentum. The POD analysis of the pressure fields suggests that the precessing helical vortex formation is the dominant coherent structure in the instantaneous flow.

  19. Mounding of a non-Newtonian jet impinging on a solid substrate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Grillet, Anne Mary; Roberts, Scott A.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH); Rao, Rekha Ranjana


    When a fluid jet impinges on a solid substrate, a variety of behaviors may occur around the impact region. One example is mounding, where the fluid enters the impact region faster than it can flow away, forming a mound of fluid above the main surface. For some operating conditions, this mound can destabilize and buckle, entraining air in the mound. Other behaviors include submerging flow, where the jet impinges into an otherwise steady pool of liquid, entraining a thin air layer as it enters the pool. This impact region is one of very high shear rates and as such, complex fluids behave very differently than do Newtonian fluids. In this work, we attempt to characterize this range of behavior for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using dimensionless parameters. We model the fluid as a modified Bingham-Carreau-Yasuda fluid, which exhibits the full range of pseudoplastic flow properties throughout the impact region. Additionally, we study viscoelastic effects through the use of the Giesekus model. Both 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations are performed using a variety of finite element method techniques for tracking the jet interface, including Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE), diffuse level sets, and a conformal decomposition finite element method (CDFEM). The presence of shear-thinning characteristics drastically reduces unstable mounding behavior, yet can lead to air entrainment through the submerging flow regime. We construct an operating map to understand for what flow parameters mounding and submerging flows will occur, and how the fluid rheology affects these behaviors. This study has many implications in high-speed industrial bottle filling applications.

  20. Qualitative dynamics of wave packets in turbulent jets (United States)

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Lusseyran, François; Pastur, Luc; Jordan, Peter


    We analyze the temporal dynamics associated with axisymmetric coherent structures in a turbulent jet. It has long been established that turbulent jets comprise large-scale coherent structures, now more commonly referred to as "wave packets" [Jordan and Colonius, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 45, 173 (2013), 10.1146/annurev-fluid-011212-140756]. These structures exhibit a marked spatiotemporal organization, despite turbulence, and we aim to characterize their temporal dynamics by means of nonlinear statistical tools. The analysis is based on data presented Breakey et al., in Proceedings of the 19th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, AIAA Paper 2013-2083 (AIAA, Reston, VA, 2013), where time series of the wave-packet signatures are extracted at different streamwise locations. The experiment runs at Ma=0.6 and Re=5.7 ×105 . A thorough analysis is performed. Statistical tools are used to estimate the embedding and correlation dimensions that characterize the dynamical system. Input-output transfer functions are designed as control-oriented models; and for this special case, consistent with other recent studies, we find that linear models can reproduce much of the convective input-ouput behavior. Finally, we show how surrogate models can partially reproduce the nonlinear dynamics.

  1. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  2. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...

  3. Breakup of diminutive Rayleigh jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, W.; Gekle, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Versluis, Michel; Brenner, Michael P.; Lohse, Detlef


    Discharging a liquid from a nozzle at sufficient large velocity leads to a continuous jet that due to capillary forces breaks up into droplets. Here we investigate the formation of microdroplets from the breakup of micron-sized jets with ultra high-speed imaging. The diminutive size of the jet

  4. Multi-jet production and jet correlations at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor


    Hadronic jet production at the LHC is an excellent testing ground for QCD. Essential components of QCD, necessary for the description of the experimental data on hadronic jets, are hard parton radiation and multiple parton interactions. The importance of these components increases for final states including multiple jets. We will show results on observables sensitive to the hard parton radiation, like the azimuthal (de)correlation between jets with small and large rapidity separation. Dijet events with a rapidity gap between them will also be presented and their fraction measured as a function of jet transverse momentum and collision energy.

  5. The physics of jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W.


    Recent data on the fragmentation of quarks and gluons is discussed in the context of phenomenological models of parton fragmentation. Emphasis is placed on the experimental evidence for parton showers as compared to a fixed order QCD treatment, on new data on inclusive hadron production and on detailed studies of baryon production in jets.

  6. Kuwornu-Adjaottor, JET

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kuwornu-Adjaottor, JET. Vol 33, No 1 (2013) - Articles God and the Suffering of His People Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  7. Fastener investigation in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, P., E-mail:; Thompson, V.; Riccardo, V.


    Highlights: • Experimental work to identify the cause of a bolt seizure inside the JET vessel. • Taguchi method used to reduce tests to 16 while covering 5 parameters. • Experimental work was unable to reproduce bolt seizure. • Thread contamination had little effect on the bolt performance. - Abstract: JET is an experimental fusion reactor consisting of magnetically confined, high temperature plasma inside a large ultra-high vacuum chamber. The inside of the chamber is protected from the hot plasma with tiles made from beryllium, tungsten, carbon composites and other materials bolted to the vessel wall. The study was carried out in response to a JET fastener seizing inside the vacuum vessel. The following study looks at characterising the magnitude of the individual factors affecting the fastener break away torque. This was carried out using a statistical approach, the Taguchi method: isolating the net effect of individual factors present in a series of tests [1](Grove and Davis, 1992). Given the severe environment within the JET vessel due to the combination of heat, ultra-high vacuum and the high contact pressure in bolt threads, the contributions of localised diffusion bonding is assessed in conjunction with various combinations of bolt and insert material.

  8. Jet printing flexible displays


    Street, R. A.; Wong, W S; Ready, S. E.; Chabinyc, M.L; Arias, A.C.; Limb, S.; Salleo, A; Lujan, R.


    Jet printing is an interesting patterning technique for electronic devices because it requires no physical mask, has digital control of ejection, and provides good layer-to-layer registration. It also has the potential to reduce display manufacturing costs and enable roll-to-roll processing. The technique is illustrated with examples of prototype printed displays using amorphous silicon and polymer semiconductors.

  9. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.


    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  10. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)


    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  11. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein


    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Period Doubling in Bubbling from a Submerged Nozzle (United States)

    Dennis, Jordan; Grace, Laura; Lehman, Susan

    The timing of bubbles rising from a nozzle submerged in a viscous solution was measured to examine the period-doubling route to chaos in this system. A narrow nozzle was submerged in a mixture of water and glycerin, and nitrogen was supplied to the nozzle at a varying flow rate. The bubbles were detected using a laser and photodiode system; when the bubbles rise through the laser beam, they scatter the light so that the signal at the photodiode decreases. The period between bubbles as well as the duration of each bubble (a function of bubble size and bubble velocity) was determined, and examined as the nitrogen flow rate increased, for solutions with five different concentrations of glycerin. Bubbles were also recorded visually using a high-speed camera. Within the flow rates tested, we observed a bifurcation of the period to period-2 behavior for all solutions tested, and a further bifurcation to period-4 for all solutions except pure glycerin. The solution viscosity affected both the onset of the bifurcation and the precise bubble behavior during the bifurcation. Unusually, a short period/long period pair of bubbles recurring at a regular interval was sometimes observed in the low flow regime which is typically period-1, an observation which requires further investigation. Research supported by NSF DMR 1560093.

  13. Magnetic imaging of a submerged Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Raban, A.; Pozza, M. R.


    The harbour built by King Herod's engineers at Caesarea represented a major advance in Roman harbour construction that incorporated the use of large (390 m^3), form-filled hydraulic concrete blocks to build an extensive foundation for the harbour moles and breakwater barriers. Marine geophysical surveys were recently conducted across the submerged harbour in an attempt to map the configuration of the buried concrete foundation. A total of 107 line km of high-resolution marine magnetic surveys (nominal 15 m line separations) and bathymetry data were acquired over a 1 km^2 area of the submerged harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer, integrated DGPS and single-beam (200 KHz) echosounder. The feasibility of magnetic detection of the concrete was established before the survey by magnetic susceptibility testing of concrete core samples. All concrete samples contained appreciable amounts of fe-oxide-rich volcanic ash ('pozzolana') and showed uniformly high susceptibility values (k > 10^-^4 cgs) when compared to harbour bottom sediments and building stones (k construction of the harbour moles and quays.


    Vermaire, Jesse C; Prairie, Yves T; Gregory-Eaves, Irene


    Submerged macrophytes are a central component of lake ecosystems; however, little is known regarding their long-term response to environmental change. We have examined the potential of diatoms as indicators of past macrophyte biomass. We first sampled periphyton to determine whether habitat was a predictor of diatom assemblage. We then sampled 41 lakes in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate whether whole-lake submerged macrophyte biomass (BiomEpiV) influenced surface sediment diatom assemblages. A multivariate regression tree (MRT) was used to construct a semiquantitative model to reconstruct past macrophyte biomass. We determined that periphytic diatom assemblages on macrophytes were significantly different from those on wood and rocks (ANOSIM R = 0.63, P macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV ≥525 μg · L(-1) ; total phosphorus [TP] macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV eutrophic lakes (TP ≥35 μg · L(-1) ; six lakes). A semiquantitative model correctly predicted the MRT group of the lake 71% of the time (P macrophytes have a significant influence on diatom community structure and that sedimentary diatom assemblages can be used to infer past macrophyte abundance. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  15. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.V.; McLean, E.H.; Boonman, A.; Visser, E.J.W.; Schranz, M.E.; van Tienderen, P.H.


    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well

  16. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress


    Xing W.; Shi Q.; Liu H.; Liu G.


    Growth rate hypothesis (GRH) and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios ...

  17. Evidence of shoreline shift on the northern Saurashtra coast: Study based on the submerged temple complex at Pindara

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . It is difficult to assign a particular reason for the submergence of the temple in discussion, however minor sea level rise and seismic activity might have played a vital role in submergence of the temple complex....

  18. Submerged beach ridge lineation and associated sedentary fauna in the innershelf of Gopalpur Coast, Orissa, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Premkumar, M.K.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.

    . (e - mail: RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 81, NO. 7, 10 OCTOBER 2001 829 mic profiling to locate the submerged roc k outcrops. Though the submerged topographic features were r e por - ted by some...

  19. EAARL-B Submerged Topography–Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Il'ina


    Full Text Available Subject of study. The paper presents research results of the applicability of the most common turbulence models to the calculation of turbulent supersonic jets containing shock waves. The aim of the study is to develop an efficient method for calculating non-isobaric turbulent supersonic gas jets containing shock waves. In the axisymmetric case such jets are characterized by irregular reflection of shock waves from the axis of symmetry, that is followed by the formation of normal shock waves (Mach disks, which are compatible with the peaks of pressure and temperature on the jet axis. The flow behind the Mach disk is subsonic. The appearance of subsonic flow region and the abrupt change of flow parameters on the direct shock wave leads to some methodological difficulties in the application of the standard two-parameter differential models of turbulence. It is known that various turbulence models lead to significantly different parameters distribution along the axis of the jet. In particular, the degree of blurring for shock wave structure of the jet for some turbulence models is significantly different from the observed one by experiment. Main results. Comparison of widely represented in modern commercial computing packages turbulence models was completed: k-ωturbulence model, Realizable k-ε model, RNG k-ε model, SAS-model, Standard SST k-ω model, transition SST- model. Testing has shown that Realizable k-ε and transition SST turbulence models provide the best results in the calculation of supersonic flows, typical for advanced jet engines. The first model provides reliable data about the distribution of pressure along the jet axis, bottom pressure, the pressure distribution on the walls of the nozzle and ejector at low differential pressure at the nozzle exit and the environment, which are typical for the normal operation of air-jet engines. Good accuracy can be obtained at a fairly coarse grid without the use of any special techniques and

  1. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.


    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohd


    Full Text Available Concrete structures that exposed to marine environments are subjected to multiple deterioration mechanisms. An overview of the existing technology for submerged concrete, pressure resistant, concrete structures which related such as cracks, debonds, and delamination are discussed. Basic knowledge related to drowning durability such as submerged concrete structures in the maritime environment are the durability of a concrete and the ability to resist to weathering, chemical attack, abrasion or other deterioration processes. The measuring techniques and instrumentation for geometrical monitoring of submerged structural displacements have traditionally been categorized into two groups according to the two main groups, namely as geodetic surveying and geotechnical structural measurements of local displacements. This paper aims to study the durability of submerged concrete displacement and harmful effects of submerged concrete structures.

  3. [Effects of light on submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water: research progress]. (United States)

    Li-Sha, Zou; Ze-Yu, Nie; Xiao-Yan, Yao; Ji-Yan, Shi


    The restoration of submerged macrophytes is the key to remediate eutrophic water and maintain the health of aquatic ecosystem, while light is the main limiting factor. This paper summarized the factors affecting the light extinction in water and the mechanisms of light intensity affecting the physiology of submerged macrophytes, with the focuses on the metabolic mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, the responses of antioxidant enzyme system, and the feedbacks of pigment composition and concentration in the common submerged macrophytes under low light stress. Several engineering techniques applied in the ecological restoration of submerged macrophytes were presented, and the framework of the restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water was proposed. Some problems in current research and several suggestions on future research were addressed, which could help the related research and engineering practices.

  4. Ultra-high-speed digital in-line holography system applied to particle-laden supersonic underexpanded jet flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Buchmann, Nicolas A.; Soria, Julio


    -fluid interactions in these high-speed flows special high performance techniques are required. The present work is an investigation into the applicability of magnified digital in-line holography with ultra-high-speed recording for the study of three-dimensional supersonic particle-laden flows. An optical setup...... for magnified digital in-line holography is created, using an ultra-high-speed camera capable of frame rates of up to 1.0MHz. To test the new technique an axisymmetric supersonic underexpanded particle-laden jet is investigated. The results show that the new technique allows for the acquisition of time resolved...

  5. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole


    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerg...

  6. Description of the ATLAS jet veto measurement and jet gap jet events at hadronic colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Royon, C


    We present a new QCD description of the ATLAS jet veto measurement, using the Banfi- Marchesini-Smye equation to constrain the inter-jet QCD radiation. This equation resums emis- sions of soft gluons at large angles and leads to a very good description of data. We also investigate jet gap jet events in hadron-hadron collisions, in which two jets are produced and separated by a large rapidity gap. Using a renormalisation-group improved NLL kernel implemented in the HERWIG Monte Carlo program, we show that the BFKL predictions are in good agreement with the Tevatron data, and present predictions that could be tested at the LHC.

  7. Non-axisymmetric vibrations of a transversely isotropic piezoelectric cylinder with different types of electric boundary conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY


    Full Text Available . The dispersion curves are plotted for propagating waves for non-axisymmetric vibrations of the cylinder. It is shown that the dispersion curves are sensitive to the form of electric boundary conditions...

  8. Potential of the Galaxy from the Besançon galaxy model including non-axisymmetric components: Preliminary results (United States)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Bienaymé, O.; Reylé, C.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.


    In this contributed poster we present a preliminary attempt to compute a non-axisymmetric potential together with previous axisymmetric potential of the Besançon galaxy model. The contribution by non-axisymmetric components are modeled by the superposition of inhomogeneous ellipsoids to approximate the triaxial bar and superposition of homogeneous oblate spheroids for a stellar halo, possibly triaxial. Finally, we have computed the potential and force field for these non-axisymmetric components in order to constraint the total mass of the Milky Way. We present preliminary results for the rotation curve and the contribution of the bar to it. This approach will allow future studies of dynamical constraints from comparisons of kinematical simulations with upcoming surveys such as RAVE, BRAVA, APOGEE, and GAIA in the near future. More details, are presented in

  9. Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Spectral Evolution of GRB Jets (United States)

    Cuesta-Martínez, C.


    attention is paid to the interaction between the jets and a SN shock wave launched briefly before the jets start to propagate. We have followed the dynamical evolution in one spatial dimension (1D) of the SN ejecta alone. Employing 2D axisymmetric relativistic hydrodynamic simulations we have explored the dynamical evolution of jets running into the medium left behind by the SN shock. For completeness, we have studied also the case in which no SN has formed. Based on analytic considerations and verified with an extensive set of simulations, we have estimated a threshold intrinsic jet luminosity, L_j^{thr}. For the stellar model under consideration here it is L_j^{thr} ≳ 1E49 erg s^{-1}. The observed equivalent isotropic γ-ray luminosity, L_{iso,γ} - 4 ɛ_γ L_j / θ_{BO}^2, crucially depends on the jet opening angle after breakout, θ_{BO}, and on the efficiency in converting the intrinsic jet luminosity into γ-radiation, ɛ_γ. Highly energetic jets can produce low-luminosity events if either their opening angle after the breakout is large, which is found in our models, or if the conversion efficiency of kinetic and internal energy into radiation is low enough. Beyond these theoretical analysis, we show how the presence of a SN shock wave modifies the jet propagation. One of the main goals of this chapter was studying the emission with SPEV at the breakout of the jet or the SN ejecta. However this part suffered from technical problems, in particular excessive numerical diffusion caused by a lack of numerical resolution. Due to computing time restrictions, we could not properly obtain long-time light curves and spectra and could only compute the thermal emission. Therefore, our conclusions have to be considered preliminary. We have obtained rather low luminosities inconsistent with previous calculations in the literature. We find that the SN flash of our models is ≳ 1000 times dimmer than that of one of the prototype examples of GRB/SNe (GRB 060218/SN 2006aj) or X

  10. Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Spectral Evolution of GRB Jets (United States)

    Cuesta-Martínez, C.


    attention is paid to the interaction between the jets and a SN shock wave launched briefly before the jets start to propagate. We have followed the dynamical evolution in one spatial dimension (1D) of the SN ejecta alone. Employing 2D axisymmetric relativistic hydrodynamic simulations we have explored the dynamical evolution of jets running into the medium left behind by the SN shock. For completeness, we have studied also the case in which no SN has formed. Based on analytic considerations and verified with an extensive set of simulations, we have estimated a threshold intrinsic jet luminosity, L_j^{thr}. For the stellar model under consideration here it is L_j^{thr} ≳ 1E49 erg s^{-1}. The observed equivalent isotropic γ-ray luminosity, L_{iso,γ} - 4 ɛ_γ L_j / θ_{BO}^2, crucially depends on the jet opening angle after breakout, θ_{BO}, and on the efficiency in converting the intrinsic jet luminosity into &gamnma;-radiation, ɛ_γ. Highly energetic jets can produce low-luminosity events if either their opening angle after the breakout is large, which is found in our models, or if the conversion efficiency of kinetic and internal energy into radiation is low enough. Beyond these theoretical analysis, we show how the presence of a SN shock wave modifies the jet propagation. One of the main goals of this chapter was studying the emission with SPEV at the breakout of the jet or the SN ejecta. However this part suffered from technical problems, in particular excessive numerical diffusion caused by a lack of numerical resolution. Due to computing time restrictions, we could not properly obtain long-time light curves and spectra and could only compute the thermal emission. Therefore, our conclusions have to be considered preliminary. We have obtained rather low luminosities inconsistent with previous calculations in the literature. We find that the SN flash of our models is ≳ 1000 times dimmer than that of one of the prototype examples of GRB/SNe (GRB 060218/SN 2006aj

  11. Numerical studies of the effects of jet-induced mixing on liquid-vapor interface condensation (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Shun


    Numerical solutions of jet-induced mixing in a partially full cryogenic tank are presented. An axisymmetric laminar jet is discharged from the central part of the tank bottom toward the liquid-vapor interface. Liquid is withdrawn at the same volume flow rate from the outer part of the tank. The jet is at a temperature lower than the interface, which is maintained at a certain saturation temperature. The interface is assumed to be flat and shear-free and the condensation-induced velocity is assumed to be negligibly small compared with radial interface velocity. Finite-difference method is used to solve the nondimensional form of steady state continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Calculations are conducted for jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 150 to 600 and Prandtl numbers ranging from 0.85 to 2.65. The effects of above stated parameters on the condensation Nusselt and Stanton numbers which characterize the steady-state interface condensation process are investigated. Detailed analysis to gain a better understanding of the fundamentals of fluid mixing and interface condensation is performed.

  12. Study of the parabolic and elliptic approaches validities for a turbulent co-flowing jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Houda


    Full Text Available An axisymmetric turbulent jet discharged in a co-flowing stream was studied with the aid of parabolic and elliptic approaches. The simulations were performed with two in-house codes. Detailed comparisons of data show good agreement with the corresponding experiments; and different behaviors of jet dilution were found in initial region at different ranges of velocities ratios. It has been found that the two approaches give practically the same results for the velocities ratios Ru ≤ 1.5. Further from this value, the elliptic approach highlights the appearance of the fall velocity zone and that’s due to the presence of a trough low pressure. This fall velocity has not been detected by the parabolic approach and that’s due to the jet entrainment by the ambient flow. The intensity of this entrainment is directly related to the difference between the primary (jet and the secondary flow (co-flow. In fact, by increasing the velocities ratios Ru, the sucked flux by the outer stream becomes more important; the fall velocity intensifies and changes into a recirculation zone for Ru ≥ 5.

  13. Analysis of a turbulent buoyant confined jet modeled using realizable k-ε model

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    Through this paper, analyses of components of the unheated/heated turbulent confined jet are introduced and some models to describe them are developed. Turbulence realizable k-ε model is used to model the turbulence of this problem. Numerical simulations of 2D axisymmetric vertical hot water confined jet into a cylindrical tank have been done. Solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while velocity, pressure, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. For seeking verification, an experiment was conducted for measuring of the temperature of the same system, and comparison between the measured and simulated temperature shows a good agreement. Using the simulated results, some models are developed to describe axial velocity, centerline velocity, radial velocity, dynamic pressure, mass flux, momentum flux and buoyancy flux for both unheated (non-buoyant) and heated (buoyant) jet. Finally, the dynamics of the heated jet in terms of the plume function which is a universal quantity and the source parameter are studied and therefore the maximum velocity can be predicted theoretically. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Cross-Plane Near-Field Turbulence Structure of Swirling Jets (United States)

    Demillard, Eric; Naughton, Jonathan


    Swirling jets are used in several industrial applications and are interesting from a fundamental view of turbulence. It has been shown that, as swirl increases past a threshold value, the single-point statistics in the jet significantly change suggesting changes in turbulence structure. To test this assumption, Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) is applied to measure instantaneous velocity in cross-planes (the radial-azimuthal planes). Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is then applied to these measurements to identify large scale turbulence structure. The POD results allow for comparisons in structure to be made between non-swirling jets and swirling jets. POD results were previously obtained using measurements in the axial-radial plane of the near field, and a significant reordering in modal dominance was observed. In the present study, the measurements in the radial-azimuthal plane are axisymmetric, and the POD analysis takes advantage of the homogeneity in the azimuthal direction. Results obtained at several different axial locations are considered in order to understand how the turbulence structures develop and evolve in the near field.

  15. Further development of Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis-captive bubble for pulmonary surfactant related studies. (United States)

    Zuo, Y Y; Ding, M; Li, D; Neumann, A W


    The methodology combining Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) with a captive bubble (ADSA-CB) facilitates pulmonary surfactant related studies. The accuracy of ADSA-CB is crucially dependent on the quality of the bubble profile extracted from the raw image. In a previous paper, an image analysis scheme featuring a Canny edge detector and a Axisymmetric Liquid Fluid Interfaces-Smoothing (ALFI-S) algorithm was developed to process captive bubble images under a variety of conditions, including images with extensive noise and/or lack of contrast. A new version of ADSA-CB based on that image analysis scheme is developed and applied to pulmonary surfactant and pulmonary surfactant-polymer systems. The new version is found to be highly noise-resistant and well self-adjusting.

  16. An axisymmetric and fully 3D poroelastic model for the evolution of hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Wirth, Benedikt; Sobey, Ian


    We formulate in general terms the equations for axisymmetric and fully 3D models of a hydrocephalic brain. The model is developed using small strain poroelasticity that includes non-linear permeability. The axisymmetric model is solved for four ventricle shapes, an ellipsoid, a 'peanut' shape, a 'cross' shape and a 'bone' shape. The distribution of fluid pressure, velocity and content in the deformed parenchyma for a blocked aqueduct provides new qualitative insight into hydrocepahlus. Some observations are offered for two forms of cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormality, normal pressure hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The model is extended to include a gravitational term in the governing equations and the effect of hydrostatic pressure variation is considered. Results of a fully 3D simulations are described for two horn-like lateral ventricles and one case with two lateral ventricles and a third ventricle.

  17. On Perturbation Solutions for Axisymmetric Bending Boundary Values of a Deep Thin Spherical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Xiao


    Full Text Available On the basis of the general theory of elastic thin shells and the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis, a fundamental equation for a thin shell under the moment theory is established. In this study, the author derives Reissner’s equation with a transverse shear force Q1 and the displacement component w. These basic unknown quantities are derived considering the axisymmetry of the deep, thin spherical shell and manage to constitute a boundary value question of axisymmetric bending of the deep thin spherical shell under boundary conditions. The asymptotic solution is obtained by the composite expansion method. At the end of this paper, to prove the correctness and accuracy of the derivation, an example is given to compare the numerical solution by ANSYS and the perturbation solution. Meanwhile, the effects of material and geometric parameters on the nonlinear response of axisymmetric deep thin spherical shell under uniform external pressure are also analyzed in this paper.

  18. Marginal Stability Boundaries for Infinite-n Ballooning Modes in a Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Hudson; C.C. Hegna


    A method for computing the ideal-MHD stability boundaries in three-dimensional equilibria is employed. Following Hegna and Nakajima [Phys. Plasmas 5 (May 1998) 1336], a two-dimensional family of equilibria are constructed by perturbing the pressure and rotational-transform profiles in the vicinity of a flux surface for a given stellarator equilibrium. The perturbations are constrained to preserve the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition. For each perturbed equilibrium, the infinite-n ballooning stability is calculated. Marginal stability diagrams are thus constructed that are analogous to (s; a) diagrams for axisymmetric configurations. A quasi-axisymmetric stellarator is considered. Calculations of stability boundaries generally show regions of instability can occur for either sign of the average magnetic shear. Additionally, regions of second-stability are present.

  19. A RANS/DES Numerical Procedure for Axisymmetric Flows with and without Strong Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Andrew Jacob [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    A RANS/DES numerical procedure with an extended Lax-Wendroff control-volume scheme and turbulence model is described for the accurate simulation of internal/external axisymmetric flow with and without strong rotation. This new procedure is an extension, from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates, of (1) a second order accurate multi-grid, control-volume integration scheme, and (2) a k-ω turbulence model. This paper outlines both the axisymmetric corrections to the mentioned numerical schemes and the developments of techniques pertaining to numerical dissipation, multi-block connectivity, parallelization, etc. Furthermore, analytical and experimental case studies are presented to demonstrate accuracy and computational efficiency. Notes are also made toward numerical stability of highly rotational flows.

  20. Full-field drift Hamiltonian particle orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry


    Cooper, W.A.; Cooper, G.A.; Graves, J P; Isaev, M. Yu


    A Hamiltonian/Lagrangian theory to describe guiding center orbit drift motion that is canonical in Boozer magnetic coordinates is developed to include full electrostatic and electromagnetic perturbed fields in axisymmetric tokamak geometry. Furthermore, the radial component of the equilibrium magnetic field in the covariant representation is retained and the background equilibrium state extends to anisotropic plasma pressure conditions. A gauge transformation on the perturbed vector potentia...

  1. General method for calculating the self-induced magnetic force of an axisymmetric toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbio, S.; Rubinacci, G. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. Elettrotecnico)


    A method is presented for computing the class of axisymmetric current distributions flowing in a torus whose peripheral surface is a flux surface for the magnetic field produced by the current itself. The method allows the correct calculation of the 'self-induced' magnetic forces arising from the interaction between these currents and their own field. The general expression for the self-induced force is given and an approximate formula is presented in the large aspect-ratio limit.

  2. Solving the Axisymmetric Inverse Heat Conduction Problem by a Wavelet Dual Least Squares Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chu-Li


    Full Text Available We consider an axisymmetric inverse heat conduction problem of determining the surface temperature from a fixed location inside a cylinder. This problem is ill-posed; the solution (if it exists does not depend continuously on the data. A special project method—dual least squares method generated by the family of Shannon wavelet is applied to formulate regularized solution. Meanwhile, an order optimal error estimate between the approximate solution and exact solution is proved.

  3. Hydrodynamic analysis of the displacement conditions of formation fluids using an axisymmetric model (United States)

    Chernoshchuk, I. B.


    The axisymmetric problem of the displacement of formation fluids by a drilling mud filtrate with filter cake formation is considered. An analysis is made of the distribution and variation of the main parameters of the process: filtrate volume, filter cake thickness, oil saturation, and pressure. The positions of the water-saturation and salt-concentration fronts are determined. The results are compared with the geophysical logging data for straight-hole drilling.

  4. Axisymmetric solutions to fractional diffusion-wave equation in a cylinder under Robin boundary condition (United States)

    Povstenko, Y.


    The axisymmetric time-fractional diffusion-wave equation with the Caputo derivative of the order 0 function and the values of its normal derivative at the boundary. The fundamental solutions to the Cauchy, source, and boundary problems are investigated. The Laplace transform with respect to time and finite Hankel transform with respect to the radial coordinate are used. The solutions are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. The numerical results are illustrated graphically.

  5. Axisymmetric modeling of ultrashort-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak


    Full Text Available The hyperbolic two-temperature model is used in order to describe the heat propagation in metal film subjected to an ultrashort-pulse laser heating. An axisymmetric heat soureceewith Gaussian temporeal and spatial distributions has been taken into account. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  6. CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction (United States)

    Davis, David Owen


    Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. These results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.

  7. An investigation of the transonic viscous drag coefficient for axi-symmetric bodies


    Fan, Yue Sang


    Viscous drag in the transonic regime over an axi-symmetric body with a unique aft contour surface is investigated. The forebody is composed of an arbitrary ellipsoid. The unique aft contour surface has been obtained by an exact solution of the small perturbation transonic equation, using guidelines and tools developed at the Naval Postgraduate School. This unique contour allows the delay of shock formation in the aft portion, hence delaying the onset of wave drag which results in a reduction ...

  8. Jet Physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, C; The ATLAS collaboration


    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation periods allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet physics measurements. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime, and show sensitivity to the parton densities in the proton and to the value of the strong coupling, alpha_s.

  9. Relativistic Self-similar Equilibria and Non-axisymmetric Neutral Modes (United States)

    Cai, Mike J.; Shu, F. H.


    We have constructed semi-analytic axisymmetric scale free solutions to Einstein field equations with perfect fluid matter source. These spacetimes are self-similar under the simultaneous transformation r'= ar and t'=a1-nt. We explored the two dimensional solution space parameterized by the rescaling index n and the isothermal sound speed γ 1/2. The isopycnic surfaces are in general toroids. As the equilibrium configuration rotates faster, an ergo region develops in the form of the exterior of a cone centered about the symmetry axis. The sequence of solution terminates when frame dragging becomes infinite and the ergo cone closes onto the axis. In the extreme flattening limit, we have also searched for non-axisymmetric neutral modes in a self-similar disk. Two separate sets of tracks are discovered in the solution space. One corresponds to the bifurcation points to non-axisymmetric equilibria, which is confined in the non-ergo solutions. The other track signals the onset of instability driven by gravitational radiation. These solutions are formally infinite in extent, and thus can not represent realistic astrophysical systems. However, if these properties do not alter qualitatively when the self-similar configurations are truncated, then these solutions may serve as initial data for dynamic collapse in super massive black hole formation.

  10. Comparison of in vitro flows past a mechanical heart valve in anatomical and axisymmetric aorta models (United States)

    Haya, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros


    Flow characteristics past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve were measured under physiological flow conditions in a straight tube with an axisymmetric expansion, similar to vessels used in previous studies, and in an anatomical model of the aorta. We found that anatomical features, including the three-lobed sinus and the aorta's curvature affected significantly the flow characteristics. The turbulent and viscous stresses were presented and discussed as indicators for potential blood damage and thrombosis. Both types of stresses, averaged over the two axial measurement planes, were significantly lower in the anatomical model than in the axisymmetric one. This difference was attributed to the lower height-to-width ratio and more gradual contraction of the anatomical aortic sinus. The curvature of the aorta caused asymmetries in the velocity and stress distributions during forward flow. Secondary flows resulting from the aorta's curvature are thought to have redistributed the fluid stresses transversely, resulting in a more homogeneous stress distribution in the anatomical aortic root than in the axisymmetric root. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of modelling accurately the aortic geometry in experimental and computational studies of prosthetic devices. Moreover, our findings suggest that grafts used for aortic root replacement should approximate as closely as possible the shape of the natural sinuses.

  11. Influence of high-permeability discs in an axisymmetric model of the Cadarache dynamo experiment (United States)

    Giesecke, A.; Nore, C.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Léorat, J.; Herreman, W.; Luddens, F.; Guermond, J.-L.


    Numerical simulations of the kinematic induction equation are performed on a model configuration of the Cadarache von-Kármán-sodium dynamo experiment. The effect of a localized axisymmetric distribution of relative permeability μr that represents soft iron material within the conducting fluid flow is investigated. The critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmc for dynamo action of the first non-axisymmetric mode roughly scales like Rmcμr - Rmc∞∝μ-1/2r, i.e. the threshold decreases as μr increases. This scaling law suggests a skin effect mechanism in the soft iron discs. More important with regard to the Cadarache dynamo experiment, we observe a purely toroidal axisymmetric mode localized in the high-permeability discs which becomes dominant for large μr. In this limit, the toroidal mode is close to the onset of dynamo action with a (negative) growth rate that is rather independent of the magnetic Reynolds number. We qualitatively explain this effect by paramagnetic pumping at the fluid/disc interface and propose a simplified model that quantitatively reproduces numerical results. The crucial role of the high-permeability discs in the mode selection in the Cadarache dynamo experiment cannot be inferred from computations using idealized pseudo-vacuum boundary conditions (H × n = 0).

  12. A swirling jet in the quasar 1308+326 (United States)

    Britzen, S.; Qian, S.-J.; Steffen, W.; Kun, E.; Karouzos, M.; Gergely, L.; Schmidt, J.; Aller, M.; Aller, H.; Krause, M.; Fendt, C.; Böttcher, M.; Witzel, A.; Eckart, A.; Moser, L.


    the components are moving along helical trajectories and the trajectories themselves are also experiencing a precessing motion. A model of a precessing nozzle was applied to the data and a subset of the observed jet feature paths can be modeled successfully within this model. The data till 2012 are consistent with a swing period of 16.9 yr. We discuss several scenarios to explain the observed motion phenomena, including a binary black hole model. It seems unlikely that the accretion disk around the primary black hole, which is disturbed by the tidal forces of the secondary black hole, is able to launch a persistent axisymmetric jet. Conclusions: We conclude that we are observing a rotating helix. In particular, the observed EVPA swings can be explained by a shock moving through a straight jet that is pervaded by a helical magnetic field. We compare our results for 1308+326 with other astrophysical scenarios where similar, wound-up filamentary structures are found. They are all related to accretion-driven processes. A helically moving or wound up object is often explained by filamentary features moving along magnetic field lines of magnetic flux tubes. It seems that a "component" comprises plasma tracing the magnetic field, which guides the motion of the radiating radio-band plasma. Further investigations and modeling are in preparation. The reduced Figs. A.1-A.13 (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  13. Critical Assessment of Temperature Distribution in Submerged Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Negi


    Full Text Available Temperature distribution during any welding process holds the key for understanding and predicting several important welding attributes like heat affected zone, microstructure of the weld, residual stress, and distortion during welding. The accuracy of the analytical approaches for modeling temperature distribution during welding has been constrained by oversimplified assumptions regarding boundary conditions and material properties. In this paper, an attempt has been made to model the temperature distribution during submerged arc welding process using finite element modeling technique implemented in ANSYS v12. In the present analysis, heat source is assumed to be double-ellipsoidal with Gaussian volumetric heat generation. Furthermore, variation of material properties with temperature and both convective and radiant heat loss boundary condition have been considered. The predicted temperature distribution is then validated against the experimental results obtained by thermal imaging of the welded plate, and they are found to be in a good agreement.

  14. Arc characteristics of submerged arc welding with stainless steel wire (United States)

    Li, Ke; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Liu, Cui-rong; Chen, Feng-hua


    The arc characteristics of submerged arc welding (SAW) with stainless steel wire were studied by using Analysator Hannover (AH). The tests were carried out under the same preset arc voltage combined with different welding currents. By comparing the probability density distribution (PDD) curves of arc voltage and welding current, the changes were analyzed, the metal transfer mode in SAW was deduced, and the characteristics of a stable arc were summarized. The analysis results show that, with an increase of welding parameters, the short-circuiting peak in the PDD curves of arc voltage decreases gradually until it disappears, and the dominant metal transfer mode changes from flux-wall guided transfer to projected transfer and then to streaming transfer. Moreover, when the PDD curves of arc voltage are both unimodal and generally symmetrical, the greater the peak probability and the smaller the peak span, the more stable the arc becomes.

  15. Numerical study on tsunami hazard mitigation using a submerged breakwater. (United States)

    Ha, Taemin; Yoo, Jeseon; Han, Sejong; Cho, Yong-Sik


    Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated.

  16. Numerical Study on Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Using a Submerged Breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taemin Ha


    Full Text Available Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated.

  17. Phytoremediation of arsenic in submerged soil by wetland plants. (United States)

    Jomjun, Nateewattana; Siripen, Trichaiyaporn; Maliwan, Saeouy; Jintapat, Nateewattana; Prasak, Thavornyutikarn; Somporn, Choonluchanon; Petch, Pengchai


    Wetland aquatic plants including Canna glauca L., Colocasia esculenta L. Schott, Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were used in the phytoremediation of submerged soil polluted by arsenic (As). Cyperus papyrus L. was noticed as the largest biomass producer which has arsenic accumulation capacity of 130-172 mg As/kg plant. In terms of arsenic removal rate, however, Colocasia esculenta L. was recognized as the largest and fastest arsenic remover in this study. Its arsenic removal rate was 68 mg As/m2/day while those rates of Canna glauca L., Cyperus papyrus L. and Typha angustifolia L. were 61 mg As/m2/day, 56 mg As/m2/day, and 56 mg As/m2/day, respectively. Although the 4 aquatic plants were inferior in arsenic accumulation, their high arsenic removal rates were observed. Phytostabilization should be probable for the application of these plants.

  18. Minimizing downstream scour due to submerged hydraulic jump using corrugated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mohamed Ali


    Full Text Available Local scour downstream of hydraulic structures due to hydraulic jump is considered one of the tedious and complicated problems facing their stability. Throughout this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the effect of using different spaced corrugated aprons on the downstream local scour due to submerged jump. Sixty runs were carried out in a horizontal rectangular flume to determine the optimal corrugation wavelength which minimizing the scour. A case of flat apron included to estimate the influence of corrugated aprons on scour holes dimensions. Two types of non-cohesive soil were used. Experiments were performed for a range of Froude numbers between 1.68 and 9.29. The results showed that using spaced triangular corrugated aprons minimize the scour depth and length of fine sand by average percentage of 63.4% and 30.2%, respectively and for coarse sand by 44.2% and 20.6% in comparing with classical jump.

  19. Microbial production of four biodegradable siderophores under submerged fermentation. (United States)

    Fazary, Ahmed E; Al-Shihri, Ayed S; Alfaifi, Mohammad Y; Saleh, Kamel A; Alshehri, Mohammed A; Elbehairi, Serag Eldin I; Ju, Yi-Hsu


    Four siderophore analogues were isolated and purified from Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. ST13, and Streptomyces pilosus microorganisms under some specific submerged fermentation conditions. In order to evaluate the highest production of this siderophore analogues through the growth, a rapid spectrophotometric screening semi-quantitative method was used, in which interestingly the analogues were isolated in its own form not its iron chelate. After chromatographic separation, the chemical structures of the isolated and purified siderophores were illustrated using detailed spectroscopic techniques. The biodegradation studies were done on that four novel isolated and purified siderophores following OECD protocols. In addition, the bioactivities of these siderophores and their iron complexes were examined and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Smith; Kent D. Peasle


    Accretion formation and the associated clogging of SENs is a major problem for the steel industry leading to decreased strand speed, premature changing of SENs or strand termination and the associated reductions in productivity, consistency, and steel quality. A program to evaluate potentially clog resistance materials was initiated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The main objective of the research effort was to identify combinations of steelmaking and refractory practices that would yield improved accretion resistance for tundish nozzles and submerged entry nozzles. A number of tasks were identified during the initial kick-off meeting and each was completed with two exceptions, the thermal shock validation and the industrial trials. Not completing these two tasks related to not having access to industrial scale production facilities. Though much of the results and information generated in the project is of proprietary nature.

  1. Slag-metal equilibrium during submerged arc welding (United States)

    Chai, C. S.; Eagar, T. W.


    A thermodynamic model of the equilibria existing between the slag and the weld metal during submerged arc welding is presented. As formulated, the model applies only to fused neutral fluxes containing less than 20 pct CaF2, however some results indicate that the model may be useful in more general cases as well. The model is shown to be capable of predicting the gain or loss of both Mn and Si over a wide range of baseplate, electrode and flux compositions. At large deviations from the predicted equilibrium, the experimental results indicate considerable variability in the amount of Mn or Si transferred between the slag and metal phases, while closer to the calculated equilibrium, the extent of metal transfer becomes more predictable. The variability in metal transfer rate at large deviations from equilibrium may be explained by variations between the bulk and the surface concentrations of Mn and Si in both metal and slag phases.

  2. Endodontic Treatment in Submerged Roots: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Pameshwar Hiremath


    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge resorption has long been considered an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction. While the extent and pattern of resorption is variable among individuals, there is a progressive loss of ridge contour as a result of physiologic bone remodeling. Even today, with best modalities of tooth preservation, there is a group of elderly individuals who do not benefit from modern preventive practices and who now present a dilemma in terms of maintaining the masticatory apparatus necessary for nutrition. Even with excellent dental care, such patients experience abrasion of the natural tooth crowns with age, and embedded roots are left within the alveolar bone. According to old concepts of dental care, extraction of these roots would have been recommended, but today’s goal of excellence in endodontics dictates otherwise. We report a case in which vital and non-vital root submergence was carried out to prevent alveolar ridge reduction.

  3. Development of New Submergence Tolerant Rice Variety for Bangladesh Using Marker-Assisted Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Iftekharuddaula


    Full Text Available Submergence tolerant high yielding rice variety was developed using BR11 as a recipient parent applying foreground, phenotypic and background selection approaches. Recombinant selection was found essential to minimize linkage drag by BC2F2 generation. Without recombinant selection, the introgression size in the backcross recombinant lines (BRLs was approximately 15 Mb on the carrier chromosome. The BRLs were found submergence tolerance compared to the check varieties under complete submergence for two weeks at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, and produced higher yield compared to the isogenic Sub1-line under controlled submerged condition. The BRL IR85260-66-654-Gaz2 was released as BRRI dhan52 in 2010, which was the first high yielding submergence tolerant variety in Bangladesh. BRRI dhan52 produced grain yield ranging from 4.2 to 5.2 t/hm2 under different flash flood prone areas of Bangladesh in three consecutive seasons. The study demonstrated the efficiency of recombinant selection and better adaptability of the newly released submergence tolerant high yielding variety in flash flood prone different areas of the country with respect to submergence tolerance and yield potential.

  4. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of submergence and reoxygenation responses in soybean seedlings. (United States)

    Tamang, Bishal G; Magliozzi, Joseph O; Maroof, M A Saghai; Fukao, Takeshi


    Complete inundation at the early seedling stage is a common environmental constraint for soybean production throughout the world. As floodwaters subside, submerged seedlings are subsequently exposed to reoxygenation stress in the natural progression of a flood event. Here, we characterized the fundamental acclimation responses to submergence and reoxygenation in soybean at the seedling establishment stage. Approximately 90% of seedlings succumbed during 3 d of inundation under constant darkness, whereas 10 d of submergence were lethal to over 90% of seedlings under 12 h light/12 h dark cycles, indicating the significance of underwater photosynthesis in seedling survival. Submergence rapidly decreased the abundance of carbohydrate reserves and ATP in aerial tissue of seedlings although chlorophyll breakdown was not observed. The carbohydrate and ATP contents were recovered upon de-submergence, but sudden exposure to oxygen also induced lipid peroxidation, confirming that reoxygenation induced oxidative stress. Whole transcriptome analysis recognized genome-scale reconfiguration of gene expression that regulates various signalling and metabolic pathways under submergence and reoxygenation. Comparative analysis of differentially regulated genes in shoots and roots of soybean and other plants defines conserved, organ-specific and species-specific adjustments which enhance adaptability to submergence and reoxygenation through different metabolic pathways. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Submergence induced changes of molecular species in membrane lipids in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulan Wang


    Full Text Available The composition of membrane lipids is sensitive to environmental stresses. Submergence is a type of stress often encountered by plants. However, how the molecular species of membrane lipids respond to submergence has not yet been characterised. In this study, we used a lipidomic approach to profile the molecular species of membrane lipids in whole plants of Arabidopsis thaliana that were completely submerged for three days. The plants survived one day of submergence, after which, we found that the total membrane lipids were only subtly decreased, showing significant decreases of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and phosphatidylcholine (PC and an increase of phosphatidic acid (PA; however, the basic lipid composition was retained. In contrast, three days of submergence caused plants to die, and the membranes deteriorated via the rapid loss of 96% of lipid content together with a 229% increase in PA. The turnover of molecular species from PG and MGDG to PA indicated that submergence-induced lipid changes occurred through PA-mediated degradation. In addition, molecular species of extraplastidic PG degraded sooner than plastidic ones, lyso-phospholipids exhibited various patterns of change, and the double-bond index (DBI remained unchanged until membrane deterioration. Our results revealed the unique changes of membrane lipids upon submergence and suggested that the major cause of the massive lipid degradation could be anoxia.

  6. The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Akhondi


    Full Text Available The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO, and membrane bioreactors (MBRs. Compared to submerged flat sheet (FS membranes, submerged hollow fiber (HF membranes are more common due to their advantages of higher packing density, the ability to induce movement by mechanisms such as bubbling, and the feasibility of backwashing. In view of the importance of submerged HF processes, this review aims to provide a comprehensive landscape of the current state-of-the-art systems, to serve as a guide for further improvements in submerged HF membranes and their applications. The topics covered include recent developments in submerged hollow fiber membrane systems, the challenges and developments in fouling-control methods, and treatment protocols for membrane permeability recovery. The highlighted research opportunities include optimizing the various means to manipulate the hydrodynamics for fouling mitigation, developing online monitoring devices, and extending the submerged HF concept beyond filtration.

  7. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants. (United States)

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C


    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. TakingAlternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. The adventitious roots ofA. philoxeroidesformed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from ambient water, thereby alleviating the adverse effects of

  8. Pileup subtraction for jet shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Soyez, Gregory; Kim, Jihun; Dutta, Souvik; Cacciari, Matteo


    Jet shapes have the potential to play a role in many LHC analyses, for example in quark-gluon discrimination or jet substructure analyses for hadronic decays of boosted heavy objects. Most shapes, however, are significantly affected by pileup. We introduce a general method to correct for pileup effects in shapes, which acts event-by-event and jet-by-jet, and accounts also for hadron masses. It involves a numerical determination, for each jet, of a given shape's susceptibility to pileup. Together with existing techniques for determining the level of pileup, this then enables an extrapolation to zero pileup. The method can be used for a wide range of jet shapes and we show its successful application in the context of quark/gluon discrimination and top-tagging.

  9. An Investigation of the Measurement of Jet Shape Dependence on Jet Mass using Pythia (United States)

    Rao, Esha; Sevil Salur Team


    Jet mass, as measured by the jet reconstruction algorithm, is expected to be constrained by the virtuality of jets resulting in considerable effects on the jet shapes and fragmentation functions. In this poster, we will be showing the jet shape variable dependence on jet mass in Monte Carlo simulations for RHIC energies. This study can be used to optimize the kinematic selection of jets in data, such as the transverse momenta of jet constituents.

  10. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, J.M.


    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Numerical simulation of an excited round jet under helical disturbances by three-dimensional discrete vortex method; Helical kakuran ni yoru reiki enkei funryu no uzuho simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, S.; Kiya, M.; Mochizuki, O. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The evolution of vortical structure in an impulsively started round jet has been studied numerically by means of a three-dimensional vortex blob method. The viscous diffusion of vorticity is approximated by a core spreading model originally proposed by Leonard (1980). The jet is forced by axisymmetric, helical and multiple disturbances. The multiple disturbances are combinations of two helical disturbances of the same mode rotating in the opposite directions. The multiple disturbances are found to enhance both the generation of small-scale structures and the growth rate of the jet. The small-scale structures have highly organized spatial distributions. The core spreading method is effective in aquiring the core overlapping in regions of high extensional rate of strain. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Interaction of Submerged Breakwater by a Solitary Wave Using WC-SPH Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mansouri


    Full Text Available Interaction of a solitary wave and submerged breakwater is studied in a meshless, Lagrangian approach. For this purpose, a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH code is developed. Furthermore, an extensive set of simulations is conducted. In the first step, the generated solitary wave is validated. Subsequently, the interaction of solitary wave and submerged breakwater is investigated thoroughly. Results of the interaction of solitary wave and a submerged breakwater are also shown to be in good agreement with published experimental studies. Afterwards, the effects of the inclination and length of breakwater as well as distance between two breakwaters are evaluated on damping ratio of breakwater.

  13. Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Vos, Harrie; Colmer, Timothy David


    This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata (Salicornioideae), a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on flood-prone mudflats of salt lakes. Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged...... the roots, at least during the first several hours (the time period measured) after submergence or when light periods followed darkness. The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial...

  14. Drag reduction for the combination of spike and counterflow jet on blunt body at high Mach number flow (United States)

    Eghlima, Z.; Mansour, K.


    Drag reduction at high speed flows around blunt bodies is one of the major challenges in the field of aerodynamics. Using of spikes and counterflow jets each of them separately for reducing of drag force is well known. The present work is description of flow field around a hemispherical nose cylinder with a new combination of spike and counterflow jet at free stream of Mach number of 6.The air gas was injected through the nozzle at the nose of the hemispherical model at sonic speed. In this numerical analysis, axisymmetric Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was solved by k-ω (SST) turbulence model. The results were validated with experimental results for spiked body without jet condition. Then the results presented for different lengths of spike and different pressures of counterflow jets. The results show a significant reduction in the drag coefficient about 86-90% compared to the spherical cylinder model without jet and spike for practical models (L/D=1.5 and 2). Furthermore also our results indicate that the drag reduction is increased even more with increasing of the length of the spike.

  15. Surface pressures induced on a flat plate with in-line and side-by-side dual jet configurations (United States)

    Schetz, J. A.; Jakubowski, A. K.; Aoyagi, K.


    A jet in a crossflow is of interest in numerous practical situations including jet-powered VTOL aircraft. Two aspects of the problem have received little prior study. First is the effect of the angle of the jet to the crossflow. Second is the performance of dual-jet configurations both in-line and side-by-side. The test plan for this work was designed to address these two aspects. The experiments were conducted in the 7 x 10 tunnel at NASA Ames at velocities from 14.5 - 35.8 m/sec (47.6 - 117.4 ft/sec.). Detailed pressure distributions are presented for single and dual jets over a range of velocity ratios from 3 to 8, spacings from 2 to 6 diameters and injection angles of 90, 75, and 105 degrees. The effects of the various parameters and the differences between the axisymmetric and flat plate geometries on the nature, size, shape, and strength of the interaction regions on the body surfaces are shown.

  16. Jet physics at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Seidel


    Recent analyses by the CDF and D0 Collaborations of jet data produced in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are presented. These include new studies of the inclusive jet production cross section, a measurement of the strong coupling constant, the first measurement of subjet multiplicity of quark and gluon jets, examination of ratios of multijet cross sections and their implications for choice of renormalization scale, and a study of charged jet evolution and energy flow in the underlying event. The results are compared to theoretical predictions.

  17. Jet Physics at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, Anwar; Lincoln, Don


    Jets have been used to verify the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), measure the structure of the proton and to search for the physics beyond the Standard Model. In this article, we review the current status of jet physics at the Tevatron, a {radical}s = 1.96 TeV p{bar p} collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We report on recent measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section and the results of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model using jets. Dijet production measurements are also reported.

  18. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration


    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  19. Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Iwanaga


    Full Text Available Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding. Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum and Metasequioia glyptostroboides (LOQS species, and Alnus japonica (LOES species, during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn. Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.

  20. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.


    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  1. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.


    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  2. Energy balance in JET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Matthews


    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss results from the study of the energy balance in JET based on calculated heating energies, radiated energy from bolometry and tile calorimetry. Recent data enables us to be more confident in the numbers used and to exclude certain possibilities but the overall energy imbalance which typically amounts to 25% of total input remains unexplained. This shows that caution is required in interpreting fractional radiated powers which are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of impurity seeded scenarios at reducing divertor heat load.

  3. Restraint of Liquid Jets by Surface Tension in Microgravity Modeled (United States)

    Chato, David J.


    Tension in Microgravity Modeled Microgravity poses many challenges to the designer of spacecraft tanks. Chief among these are the lack of phase separation and the need to supply vapor-free liquid or liquidfree vapor to the spacecraft processes that require fluid. One of the principal problems of phase separation is the creation of liquid jets. A jet can be created by liquid filling, settling of the fluid to one end of the tank, or even closing a valve to stop the liquid flow. Anyone who has seen a fountain knows that jets occur in normal gravity also. However, in normal gravity, the gravity controls and restricts the jet flow. In microgravity, with gravity largely absent, jets must be contained by surface tension forces. Recent NASA experiments in microgravity (Tank Pressure Control Experiment, TPCE, and Vented Tank Pressure Experiment, VTRE) resulted in a wealth of data about jet behavior in microgravity. VTRE was surprising in that, although it contained a complex geometry of baffles and vanes, the limit on liquid inflow was the emergence of a liquid jet from the top of the vane structure. Clearly understanding the restraint of liquid jets by surface tension is key to managing fluids in low gravity. To model this phenomenon, we need a numerical method that can track the fluid motion and the surface tension forces. The fluid motion is modeled with the Navier-Stokes equation formulated for low-speed incompressible flows. The quantities of velocity and pressure are placed on a staggered grid, with velocity being tracked at cell faces and pressure at cell centers. The free surface is tracked via the introduction of a color function that tracks liquid as 1/2 and gas as -1/2. A phase model developed by Jacqmin is used. This model converts the discrete surface tension force into a barrier function that peaks at the free surface and decays rapidly. Previous attempts at this formulation have been criticized for smearing the interface. However, by sharpening the phase

  4. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Atlantic Region NAD83 (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary line (also known as State Seaward Boundary (SSB), or Fed State Boundary) in ESRI shapefile formats for...

  5. The Development of a Composite Consumable Insert for Submerged ARC Welding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... When the submerged arc process was utilized to weld the butt joint in large flat plate structures, the repositioning of the plate for welding of the reverse side was a costly time consuming procedure...

  6. Meta Modelling of Submerged-Arc Welding Design based on Fuzzy Algorithm (United States)

    Song, Chang-Yong; Park, Jonghwan; Goh, Dugab; Park, Woo-Chang; Lee, Chang-Ha; Kim, Mun Yong; Kang, Jinseo


    Fuzzy algorithm based meta-model is proposed for approximating submerged-arc weld design factors such as weld speed and weld output. Orthogonal array design based on the submerged-arc weld numerical analysis is applied to the proposed approach. The nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out to simulate the submerged-arc weld numerical analysis using thermo-mechanical and temperature-dependent material properties for general mild steel. The proposed meta-model based on fuzzy algorithm design is generated with triangle membership functions and fuzzy if-then rules using training data obtained from the Taguchi orthogonal array design data. The aim of proposed approach is to develop a fuzzy meta-model to effectively approximate the optimized submerged-arc weld factors. To validate the meta-model, the results obtained from the fuzzy meta-model are compared to the best cases from the Taguchi orthogonal array.

  7. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter


    In 2003, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office began a comprehensive research effort to restore submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV...

  8. Flow Velocity and Morphology of a Submerged Patch of the Aquatic Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornacchia, L.; Licci, S.; van de Koppel, J.; van der Wal, D.; Wharton, G.; Puijalon, S.; Bouma, T.J.


    The interaction between macrophytes and hydrodynamic conditions is animportant feature in many aquatic ecosystems. Submerged macrophytes can formmonospecific patches that interact with the flow and alter current velocity; withinthe same vegetation patch, plants are exposed to different levels of

  9. Uncalibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (GEOID12A) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  10. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced...

  11. EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Crocker Reef, Florida, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the submerged environs of Crocker Reef, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  12. Calibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (GEOID12A) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Submerged Aquatic Plant Management of Banks Lake, Banks Lake NWR, Lakeland, Georgia (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment is an analysis of five alternatives developed to address themanagement of the submerged aquatic plants of Banks Lake on Banks Lake...

  14. Satellite remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation distribution and status in the Currituck Sound, NC. (United States)


    Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) is an important component in any estuarine ecosystem. As such, it is regulated by federal and state agencies as a jurisdictional resource, where impacts to SAV are compensated through mitigation. Historically, tradi...

  15. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.


    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  16. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; van Tienderen, P.H.


    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  17. Swan foraging shapes spatial distribution of two submerged plants, favouring the preferred prey species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandsten, H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.


    Compared to terrestrial environments, grazing intensity on belowground plant parts may be particularly strong in aquatic environments, which may have great effects on plant-community structure. We observed that the submerged macrophyte, Potamogeton pectinatus, which mainly reproduces with tubers,

  18. EAARL-B Submerged Topography—Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the submerged environs of Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced...

  19. Uncalibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (WGS84) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  20. Calibrated EAARL-B Submerged Topography--Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 2014 (WGS84) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data of a portion of the submerged environs of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD83 (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA)boundary line (also known as the State Seaward Boundary (SSB) and Fed State Boundary) for the BOEM Pacific Region...

  2. Process Modeling and Optimization of a Submerged Arc Furnace for Phosphorus Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, E.; Yang, Y.; Adema, A.T.; Boom, R.; Reuter, M.A.


    This article presents a process model of a phosphorus-producing, submerged arc furnace. The model successfully incorporates accurate, multifield thermodynamic, kinetic, and industrial data with computational flow dynamic calculations and thus further unifies the sciences of kinetics and equilibrium

  3. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of the submerged environs of Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  4. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Alaska Region NAD83 (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary (also known as State Seaward Boundary (SSB), or Fed State Boundary) in ESRI shapefile format for the...

  5. Tolerance of combined submergence and salinity in the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, T D; Vos, H; Pedersen, Ole


    in waters of high salinity. A 'quiescence response', i.e. no shoot growth, would conserve carbohydrates, but tissue sugars still declined with time. A low K(+) : Na(+) ratio, typical for tissues of succulent halophytes, was tolerated even during prolonged submergence, as evidenced by maintenance......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Habitats occupied by many halophytes are not only saline, but are also prone to flooding. Few studies have evaluated submergence tolerance in halophytes. METHODS: Responses to submergence, at a range of salinity levels, were studied for the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia...... pergranulata subsp. pergranulata (syn. Halosarcia pergranulata subsp. pergranulata). Growth and total sugars in succulent stems were assessed as a function of time after submergence. Underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration, total sugars, glycinebetaine, Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+), in succulent stems, were...

  6. Dynamic Response Analysis of Cable of Submerged Floating Tunnel under Hydrodynamic Force and Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Wu


    Full Text Available A simplified analysis model of cable for submerged floating tunnel subjected to parametrically excited vibrations in the ocean environment is proposed in this investigation. The equation of motion of the cable is obtained by a mathematical method utilizing the Euler beam theory and the Galerkin method. The hydrodynamic force induced by earthquake excitations is formulated to simulate real seaquake conditions. The random earthquake excitation in the time domain is formulated by the stochastic phase spectrum method. An analytical model for analyzing the cable for submerged floating tunnel subjected to combined hydrodynamic forces and earthquake excitations is then developed. The sensitivity of key parameters including the hydrodynamic, earthquake, and structural parameters on the dynamic response of the cable is investigated and discussed. The present model enables a preliminary examination of the hydrodynamic and seismic behavior of cable for submerged floating tunnel and can provide valuable recommendations for use in design and operation of anchor systems for submerged floating tunnel.

  7. EAARL-B submerged topography: Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012 (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Nagle, David B.


    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived submerged topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  8. Metal accumulation by submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes at the watershed scale. (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Guihua


    Metal concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, Sr and Ti) in submerged macrophytes and corresponding water and sediments were studied in 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (China). Results showed that these eutrophic lakes have high metal concentrations in both water and sediments because of human activities. Average concentrations of Al and Na in tissues of submerged macrophytes were very high in sampled eutrophic lakes. By comparison, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina accumulated more metals (e.g. Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr and Ti). Strong positive correlations were found between metal concentrations in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of co-accumulation of metals. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Na and Sr in tissues of submerged macrophytes significantly correlated with their corresponding water values, but not sediment values.

  9. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Gulf of Mexico Region NAD27 (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary line (also known as State Seaward Boundary (SSB), or Fed State Boundary)in ESRI shapefile formats for...

  10. Suitability of seagrasses and submerged aquatic vegetation as indicators of eutrophication (United States)

    Rooted submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) encompasses a large diversity of species that range from obligate halophytes such as, seagrasses, to euryhaline species and freshwater obligates. All seagrass and SAV provide key biological functions within the enclosed bays, estuaries, a...

  11. EAARL Submerged Topography - U.S. Virgin Islands 2003 (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.


    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived submerged topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), South Florida-Caribbean Network, Miami, FL; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate bathymetric datasets of a portion of the U.S. Virgin Islands, acquired on April 21, 23, and 30, May 2, and June 14 and 17, 2003. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and

  12. Critical assessment of jet erosion test methodologies for cohesive soil and sediment (United States)

    Karamigolbaghi, Maliheh; Ghaneeizad, Seyed Mohammad; Atkinson, Joseph F.; Bennett, Sean J.; Wells, Robert R.


    The submerged Jet Erosion Test (JET) is a commonly used technique to assess the erodibility of cohesive soil. Employing a linear excess shear stress equation and impinging jet theory, simple numerical methods have been developed to analyze data collected using a JET to determine the critical shear stress and erodibility coefficient of soil. These include the Blaisdell, Iterative, and Scour Depth Methods, and all have been organized into easy to use spreadsheet routines. The analytical framework of the JET and its associated methods, however, are based on many assumptions that may not be satisfied in field and laboratory settings. The main objective of this study is to critically assess this analytical framework and these methodologies. Part of this assessment is to include the effect of flow confinement on the JET. The possible relationship between the derived erodibility coefficient and critical shear stress, a practical tool in soil erosion assessment, is examined, and a review of the deficiencies in the JET methodology also is presented. Using a large database of JET results from the United States and data from literature, it is shown that each method can generate an acceptable curve fit through the scour depth measurements as a function of time. The analysis shows, however, that the Scour Depth and Iterative Methods may result in physically unrealistic values for the erosion parameters. The effect of flow confinement of the impinging jet increases the derived critical shear stress and decreases the erodibility coefficient by a factor of 2.4 relative to unconfined flow assumption. For a given critical shear stress, the length of time over which scour depth data are collected also affects the calculation of erosion parameters. In general, there is a lack of consensus relating the derived soil erodibility coefficient to the derived critical shear stress. Although empirical relationships are statistically significant, the calculated erodibility coefficient for a

  13. Anatomy of floating and submerged leaves of heterophyllous plant of Nymphaea candida L.


    E.N. Klimenko


    The data on anatomy of floating and submerged leaves of heterophyllous aquatic plant Nymphaea candida L. are presented. Anatomy of floating leaves is shown to be different from that of submerged leaves: the absence of stomata, asterosclereids, and differentiated parenchyma, as well as by reduce intercellular volume and leaf width. Common patterns of leaf structure plasticity of aquatic heterophyllous plants in dependence on the environment are discussed.

  14. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. (United States)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David


    A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Plants were raised in large pots with 'sediment' roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4.7 ± 2.4 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence.

  15. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. G. Nirmala


    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  16. Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of LANDSAT TM and MSS Imagery for Detecting Submerged Plant Communities (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.


    The spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT TM and MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation are assessed. The problem is approached from two perspectives; purely stochastic or nonparametric in a radiative sense and theoretical in which radiative transfer equations are used to predict upwelling radiance at satellite altitude. The spectral and radiometric aspects of the theoretical approach are addressed with which a submerged plant canopy is distinguished from a surrounding bottom of sand or mud.

  17. Jet-quenching and correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 6, 2015 ... Abstract. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the experimental aspects of jet-quenching and correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Emphasis is put on correlation measurements, namely jet-like correlations with anisotropic flow subtraction in heavy-ion ...

  18. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.


    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  19. Associated jet production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, Julius; de Roeck, A; Graudenz, Dirk; Wüsthoff, M


    We compare the BFKL prediction for the associated production of forward jets at HERA with fixed-order matrix element calculations taking into account the kinematical cuts imposed by experimental conditions. Comparison with H1 data of the 1993 run favours the BFKL prediction. As a further signal of BFKL dynamics, we propose to look for the azimuthal dependence of the forward jets.

  20. Synthetic Jet Actuator Performance Enhancement (United States)

    Pikcilingis, Lucia; Housley, Kevin; Whalen, Ed; Amitay, Michael; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Collaboration; Boeing Company Collaboration


    Over the last 20 years synthetic jets have been studied as a means for aerodynamic flow control. Specifically, synthetic jets provide momentum transfer with zero-net mass flux, which has been proven to be effective for controlling flow fields. A synthetic jet is created by the periodic formation of vortex rings at its orifice due to the periodic motion of a piezoelectric disk(s). The present study seeks to optimize the performance of a synthetic jet actuator by utilizing different geometrical parameters such as disk thickness, orifice width and length, cavity height and cavity diameter, and different input parameters such as voltage and frequency. Experiments were conducted using a synthetic jet apparatus designed for various geometrical parameters utilizing a dual disk configuration. Velocity and temperature measurements were acquired at the center of the synthetic jet orifice using a temperature compensated hotwire and thermocouple probe. The disk displacement was measured at the center of the disk with a laser displacement sensor. It was shown that the synthetic jet actuators are capable of exceeding peak velocities of 200 m/s with a relatively large orifice. Data suggests that jet velocities greater than 200 m/s are attainable.

  1. Jet-quenching and correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 6, 2015 ... This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the experimental aspects of jet-quenching and correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Emphasis is put on correlation measurements, namely jet-like correlations with anisotropic flow subtraction in heavy-ion collisions ...

  2. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  3. Dynamics of swirling jet flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanic, T.; Foucault, E.; Pecheux, J. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques (L.E.A. CNRS UMR 6609), Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86960, Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)


    Experimental investigations of near-field structure of coaxial flows are presented for four different configurations: coaxial jets without rotation (reference case), outer flow rotating only (OFRO), inner-jet rotating only (IJRO) and corotating jets (CRJ). The investigations are performed in a cylindrical water tunnel, with an independent rotation of two coaxial flows. Laser tomography is used to document the flow field, and photographs are shown for different configurations. Time mean velocity profiles obtained by PIV, with and without swirl, are also presented. The dynamics of the swirling jets in the initial region (i.e. near the exit of the jets) is described. The effects of azimuthal velocity and axial velocity ratio variations on flow dynamics are examined. The appearance and growth of the first instabilities are presented and compared with some theoretical results, as is the influence of the rotation (inner or outer) on the dominating structures. (orig.)

  4. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis of Multi-jet Effects in Swirling Jet Combustors (United States)

    Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim


    Many practical combustion devices use multiple swirling jets to stabilize flames. However, much of the understanding of swirling jet dynamics has been generated from experimental and computational studies of single reacting, swirling jets. A smaller body of literature has begun to explore the effects of multi-jet systems and the role of jet-jet interactions on the macro-system dynamics. This work uses local temporal and spatio-temporal stability analyses to isolate the hydrodynamic interactions of multiple reacting, swirling jets, characterized by jet diameter, D, and spacing, L. The results first identify the familiar helical modes in the single jet. Comparison to the multi-jet configuration reveals these same familiar modes simultaneously oscillating in each of the jets. Jet-jet interaction is mostly limited to a spatial synchronization of each jet's oscillations at the jet spacing values analyzed here (L/D =3.5). The presence of multiple jets vs a single jet has little influence on the temporal and absolute growth rates. The biggest difference between the single and multi-jet configurations is the presence of nearly degenerate pairs of hydrodynamic modes in the multi-jet case, with one mode dominated by oscillations in the inner jet, and the other in the outer jets. The close similarity between the single and multi-jet hydrodynamics lends insight into experiments from our group.

  5. Growth rate, protein:RNA ratio and stoichiometric homeostasis of submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing W.


    Full Text Available Growth rate hypothesis (GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of photoautotrophs have always been questioned. However, little is known about GRH and stoichiometric homeostasis of aquatic plants, especially submerged macrophytes. Therefore, we aim to test the GRH and explore stoichiometric homeostasis of four freshwater submerged macrophytes under eutrophication stress. At the single species level and the multi-species level, N:P ratios of Potamogeton maackianus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Vallisneria natans and Ceratophyllum demersum had no consistent trends with growth rates. However, protein:RNA ratios of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and V. natans all correlated negatively with growth rates, demonstrating GRH can apply to freshwater submerged macrophytes, even though they are threatening by eutrophication stress. Protein:RNA ratios positively correlated with N:P ratios in culture media and tissues in submerged macrophytes except in P. maackianus (30d, suggesting effects of varying N:P ratios in culture media on protein:RNA ratios are basically in concert with tissue N:P ratios under short-time eutrophication stress. Stoichiometric homeostasis coefficients (HN:P indicated submerged macrophytes have weak homeostasis. Stoichiometric homeostasis of V. natans was stronger than those of P. maackianus, M. spicatum and C. demersum. The differences in GRH and homeostasis of the four submerged macrophytes may be due to species traits.

  6. Structural and Acoustic Responses of a Submerged Stiffened Conical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Chen


    Full Text Available This paper studies the vibrational behavior and far-field sound radiation of a submerged stiffened conical shell at low frequencies. The solution for the dynamic response of the conical shell is presented in the form of a power series. A smeared approach is used to model the ring stiffeners. Fluid loading is taken into account by dividing the conical shell into narrow strips which are considered to be local cylindrical shells. The far-field sound pressure is solved by the Element Radiation Superposition Method. Excitations in two directions are considered to simulate the loading on the surface of the conical shell. These excitations are applied along the generator and normal to the surface of the conical shell. The contributions from the individual circumferential modes on the structural responses of the conical shell are studied. The effects of the external fluid loading and stiffeners are discussed. The results from the analytical models are validated by numerical results from a fully coupled finite element/boundary element model.

  7. [Submerged cultivation and chemical composition of Hericium erinaceus mycelium]. (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Bakanov, A V; Shuktueva, M I; Vinokurov, V A; Popova, O V; Usov, A I; Krasnopol'skaia, L M


    Submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus in various media was studied. The yield of the biomass was shown to depend mainly on the carbon source, whereas the content of water soluble polysaccharides depended mainly on the nitrogen source. The optimal medium composition provided the biomass yield of 21-23 g/l in 7 days. The biomass was characterized by the content of total protein, lipids and carbohydrates. In addition, the amino acid composition of the biomass was determined and shown to meet all the requirements of FAO/WHO concerning the amounts of essential amino acids (with exception of tryptophane). Oleinic and linoleic acids were identified as the main components of the fatty acids. Two water soluble polysaccharide fractions differing in solubility in aqueous ethanol were isolated and shown to contain rhamnose, fucose, xylose, glucose and galactose in different proportions. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, PP and E, ergosterol and coenzyme Q were also detected in the biomass of H. erinaceus.

  8. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj


    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend assessing the influence of inorganic carbon and temperature on natural aquatic communities of variable density in addition to studying detached leaves in the scenarios of rising CO2 and temperature. Moreover, a growing number of researchers are interested in tolerance of terrestrial plants during flooding as torrential rains sometimes result in overland floods that inundate terrestrial plants. We propose to undertake studies to elucidate the importance of leaf acclimation of terrestrial plants to facilitate gas exchange and light utilization under water as these acclimations influence underwater photosynthesis as well as internal aeration of plant tissues during submergence. PMID:23734154

  9. Immunomodulatory properties of Grifola frondosa in submerged culture. (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Cheng, Tso-Lin; Cheng, Su-Yun; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Wang, Lisu; Chiou, Shu-Yuan


    Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is a popular mushroom in Asia for its tasty flavor and immune-stimulating property. The aim of the study is to investigate the innate immunity augmentation effects of different extracts of mycelia and culture filtrate from G. frondosa in submerged cultures. The hot water extract of mycelia showed the strongest cytokine induction effect as a function of its concentration in human whole blood culture. The most potent fractions of hot water extract, Fr. I and II, were mainly composed of polysaccharides with molecular masses of 43-140 and 13-38 kDa, respectively. These fractions (0.025 mg/mL) showed marked activity in enhancing phagocytosis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In parallel, the expression of CD11b, an early marker of PMN activation, was also up-regulated dose dependently. This result suggested that complement receptor 3 was primed by these fractions. In addition to activation of phagocytes, these bioactive fractions also increased human peripheral blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity. These results imply that the relatively low molecular mass polysaccharides isolated from mycelia of G. frondosa can enhance innate immunity in vitro and therefore may serve as biological response modifiers.

  10. The use of bottle caps as submerged aerated filter medium. (United States)

    Damasceno de Oliveira, Laurence; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Goel, Ramesh; de Souza Missagia, Beatriz; Alves de Abreu Filho, Benício; Lautenschlager, Sandro Rogério


    In this study, a submerged aerated filter (SAF) using bottle caps as a support medium was evaluated. The system was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system at ETE 2-South wastewater treatment plant, under different volumetric organic load rates (VOLRs). The population of a particular nitrifying microbial community was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. The system showed an average removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) equal to 76% for VOLRs between 2.6 and 13.6 kg COD m(-3) The process of nitrification in conjunction with the removal of organic matter was observed from applying VOLRs lower than 5.5 kg COD m(-3) resulting in 78% conversion of NH4(+)-N. As the applied organic load was reduced, an increase in the nitrifying bacteria population was observed compared with total 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells. Generally, SAF using bottle caps as a biological aerated filter medium treating wastewater from an anaerobic system showed promising removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conversion of NH4(+)-N.

  11. Stainless steel submerged arc weld fusion line toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, A.R.; Held, P.R.; Wilkowski, G.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)


    This effort evaluated the fracture toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines. The incentive was to explain why cracks grow into the fusion line in many pipe tests conducted with cracks initially centered in SAWS. The concern was that the fusion line may have a lower toughness than the SAW. It was found that the fusion line, Ji. was greater than the SAW toughness but much less than the base metal. Of greater importance may be that the crack growth resistance (JD-R) of the fusion line appeared to reach a steady-state value, while the SAW had a continually increasing JD-R curve. This explains why the cracks eventually turn to the fusion line in the pipe experiments. A method of incorporating these results would be to use the weld metal J-R curve up to the fusion-line steady-state J value. These results may be more important to LBB analyses than the ASME flaw evaluation procedures, since there is more crack growth with through-wall cracks in LBB analyses than for surface cracks in pipe flaw evaluations.

  12. Non-Newtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini


    Full Text Available In the present article Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM is used to obtain the solutions of momentum and heat transfer equations of non-Newtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall for turbine cooling applications. Numerical method is used for validity of this analytical method and excellent agreement is observed between the solutions obtained from OHAM and numerical results. Trusting to this validity, effects of some other parameters are discussed. The results show that Nusselt number increases with increase of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and power law index.

  13. A hybrid axisymmetric flow-focusing device for monodisperse picoliter droplets (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Takeuchi, Shoji


    A combination of photolithography and stereolithography was successfully used to fabricate a hybrid axisymmetric flow-focusing device (h-AFFD) that produces monodisperse picoliter droplets. The h-AFFD achieved the same level of hydrodynamic performance as a monolithic AFFD produced by only stereolithography from acrylic resin. Since the h-AFFD had a narrower orifice (50 or 100 µm in diameter), created in an SU-8 sheet by photolithography, than the monolithic AFFD, we were able to produce picoliter droplets. We also succeeded in producing monodisperse droplets encapsulating a single cell without any surface modification.

  14. Finite-difference solution for turbulent swirling compressible flow in axisymmetric ducts with struts (United States)

    Anderson, O. L.


    A finite-difference procedure for computing the turbulent, swirling, compressible flow in axisymmetric ducts is described. Arbitrary distributions of heat and mass transfer at the boundaries can be treated, and the effects of struts, inlet guide vanes, and flow straightening vanes can be calculated. The calculation procedure is programmed in FORTRAN 4 and has operated successfully on the UNIVAC 1108, IBM 360, and CDC 6600 computers. The analysis which forms the basis of the procedure, a detailed description of the computer program, and the input/output formats are presented. The results of sample calculations performed with the computer program are compared with experimental data.

  15. Time dependent difference theory for sound propagation in axisymmetric ducts with plug flow (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.


    The time dependent governing/acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard wall duct with a plug mean flow and spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the transient as well as the 'steady' state solutions of the acoustic field. The time dependent finite difference analysis has two advantages over the steady state finite difference and finite element techniques: (1) the elimination of large matrix storage requirements, and (2) shorter solution times under most conditions.

  16. Bifurcation to 3D helical magnetic equilibrium in an axisymmetric toroidal device. (United States)

    Bergerson, W F; Auriemma, F; Chapman, B E; Ding, W X; Zanca, P; Brower, D L; Innocente, P; Lin, L; Lorenzini, R; Martines, E; Momo, B; Sarff, J S; Terranova, D


    We report the first direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure associated with a 3D helical equilibrium generated spontaneously in the core of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium bifurcation occurs in a reversed-field pinch when the innermost resonant magnetic perturbation grows to a large amplitude, reaching up to 8% of the mean field strength. Magnetic topology evolution is determined by measuring the Faraday effect, revealing that, as the perturbation grows, toroidal symmetry is broken and a helical equilibrium is established. © 2011 American Physical Society

  17. Axisymmetric thermoviscoelastoplastic state of thin laminated shells made of a damageable material (United States)

    Galishin, A. Z.


    A technique for the determination of the axisymmetric thermoviscoelastoplastic state of laminated thin shells made of a damageable material is developed. The technique is based on the kinematic equations of the theory of thin shells that account for transverse shear strains. The thermoviscoplastic equations, which describe the deformation of a shell element along paths of small curvature, are used as the constitutive equations. The equivalent stress that appears in the kinetic equations of damage and creep is determined from a failure criterion that accounts for the stress mode. The thermoviscoplastic deformation of a two-layer shell that models an element of a rocket engine nozzle is considered as an example

  18. Axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of a third-grade fluid over a lubricated surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sajid


    Full Text Available In this article, axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of a third-grade fluid over a disk lubricated with a power law fluid is considered. Due to thin lubrication layer of variable thickness, third-grade fluid experiences a partial slip on the surface. The flow problem is governed through a system of nonlinear partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions. A nonsimilar solution is presented in this article by implementing hybrid homotopy analysis method. This method combines the features of homotopy analysis and shooting methods. The results varying from no-slip to full-slip case are discussed under the influence of pertinent parameters.

  19. Axi-Symmetric Simulation of the Slump Flow Test for Self-Compacting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica


    . For simulation according to a continuum mechanical approach, the rheological properties are required. However, in connection with onsite jobs, it is only possible to characterise the flow properties or workability according to simple empirical test methods, and among the most popular is the slump flow test....... This paper presents a numerical axi-symmetric approach for simulation of the slump flow test. Simulations are compared to experimental test results on the rheological properties and slump flow. Former rheological investigations on SCC indicate a non-Newtonian behaviour according to the Bingham model....

  20. Numerical computation of electromagnetic field for general static and axisymmetric current distribution (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio


    We developed a numerical method to compute the electromagnetic field of arbitrary static and axisymmetric current distribution. The method (i) numerically evaluates a double integral of the electrostatic and magnetostatic potentials of an infinitely thin ring current by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rules, and (ii) derives the electrostatic field and the magnetostatic induction by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potentials by the central difference formula. A comparison with the exact solution for a poloidal current distribution with an anisotropic Gaussian damping confirmed the 14- and 9-digit accuracy of the potential and the field/induction computed by the new method.

  1. Rapid simulation of electromagnetic telemetry using an axisymmetric semianalytical finite element method (United States)

    Chen, Jiefu; Zeng, Shubin; Dong, Qiuzhao; Huang, Yueqin


    An axisymmetric semianalytical finite element method is proposed and employed for rapid simulations of electromagnetic telemetry in layered underground formation. In this method, the layered media is decomposed into several subdomains and the interfaces between subdomains are discretized by conventional finite elements. Then a Riccati equation based high precision integration scheme is applied to exploit the homogeneity along the vertical direction in each layer. This semianalytical finite element scheme is very efficient in modeling electromagnetic telemetry in layered formation. Numerical examples as well as a field case with water based mud as drilling fluid are given to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  2. The structure of jet turbulence producing jet noise. (United States)

    Wooldridge, C. E.; Wooten, D. C.; Amaro, A. J.


    Measurements are presented that characterize the structure of the jet in both the core and the surrounding annular mixing region. Experiments were carried out in a 1.5-inch diameter subsonic jet at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7. The growth of pressure fluctuations within the core from the jet outlet to the end of the jet core was traced through the examination of spectral results. The spectra in the jet core exhibited a peak whose frequency scaled with the jet velocity and the jet diameter which is related to a characteristic dimension of the mixing process. A digital data reduction program was used to calculate the auto- and cross-correlations of axial velocity fluctuations. In the core the cross-correlations were nearly constant in the space-time plane indicating a traveling pressure wave, while in the annular mixing region the cross-correlations exhibited the usual decay in the space-time plane characteristic of convected turbulence.

  3. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets: Prospects from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, N


    The details of jet energy loss, as measured at RHIC with single particles and mu lti-particle correlations, are unresolved, and new experimental measurements are necessary in order to shed light on the mechanism and behavior of energy loss. Utilizing the ATLAS electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, full jet reconstru ction in a heavy ion environment will be performed over a wide range of $p_T$ an d rapidity. With fully reconstructed jets, new and more sensitive probes are ava ilable to test models of energy loss. In this talk, we present a series of obser vables such as the jet $R_{AA}$, the transverse momentum, $j_T$, spectrum of fra gments, the fragmentation function $D(z)$, jet shapes, and di-jet correlations, that aresensitive to perturbative and non-perturbative energy loss. We also disc uss the current level of sensitivity to expected modifications using several dif ferent jet algorithms, the cone, $k_T$, and anti-$k_T$ algorithms.

  4. Measurements in the annular shear layer of high subsonic and under-expanded round jets (United States)

    Feng, Tong; McGuirk, James J.


    An experimental study has been undertaken to document compressibility effects in the annular shear layers of axisymmetric jets. Comparison is made of the measured flow development with the well-documented influence of compressibility in planar mixing layers. High Reynolds number (~106) and high Mach number jets issuing from a convergent nozzle at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) from 1.28 to 3.0 were measured using laser Doppler anemometry instrumentation. Detailed radial profile data are reported, particularly within the potential core region, for mean velocity, turbulence rms, and turbulence shear stress. For supercritical NPRs the presence of the pressure waves in the inviscid shock cell region as the jet expanded back to ambient pressure was found to exert a noticeable effect on shear layer location, causing this to shift radially outwards at high supercritical NPR conditions. After a boundary layer to free shear layer transition zone, the turbulence development displayed a short region of similarity before adjustment to near-field merged jet behaviour. Peak turbulence rms reduction due to compressibility was similar to that observed in planar layers with radial rms suppression much stronger than axial. Comparison of the compressibility-modified annular shear layer growth rate with planar shear layer data on the basis of the convective Mach number ( M C) showed notable differences; in the annular shear layer, compressibility effects began at lower M C and displayed a stronger reduction in growth. For high Mach number aerospace propulsion applications involving round jets, the current measurements represent a new data set for the calibration/validation of compressibility-affected turbulence models.

  5. MHD simulations of jet acceleration from Keplerian accretion disks. The effects of disk resistivity (United States)

    Zanni, C.; Ferrari, A.; Rosner, R.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.


    Context: Accretion disks and astrophysical jets are used to model many active astrophysical objects, such as young stars, relativistic stars, and active galactic nuclei. However, existing proposals for how these structures may transfer angular momentum and energy from disks to jets through viscous or magnetic torques do not yet provide a full understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. Thus, global stationary solutions have not explained the stability of these structures; and global numerical simulations that include both the disk and jet physics have so far been limited to relatively short time scales and narrow (and possibly astrophysically unlikely) ranges of viscosity and resistivity parameters that may be crucial to defining the coupling of the inflow-outflow dynamics. Aims: We present self-consistent, time-dependent simulations of supersonic jets launched from magnetized accretion disks, using high-resolution numerical techniques. In particular we study the effects of the disk's magnetic resistivity, parametrized through an α-prescription, in determining the properties of the inflow-outflow system. Moreover we analyze under which conditions steady state solutions of the type proposed in the self-similar models of Blandford & Payne can be reached and maintained in a self-consistent nonlinear stage. Methods: We used the resistive MHD FLASH code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allowing us to follow the evolution of the structure on a long enough time scale to reach steady state. A detailed analysis of the initial configuration state is given. Results: We obtain the expected solutions within the axisymmetric (2.5 D) limit. Assuming a magnetic field around equipartition with the thermal pressure of the disk, we show how the characteristics of the disk-jet system, such as the ejection efficiency and the energetics, are affected by the anomalous resistivity acting inside the disk.

  6. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth’s core (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Christopher C.


    Observations of the change in Earth’s magnetic field--the secular variation--provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field’s generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency’s Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, non-axisymmetric, westward jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km yr-1, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. We suggest that the current accelerating phase may be part of a longer-term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastward and westward movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional-wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  7. Shear Layer Interactions in the Helical Hydrodynamic Structures of Swirling, Reacting Jets (United States)

    Smith, Travis; Manoharan, Kiran; Emerson, Benjamin; Hemchandra, Santosh; Lieuwen, Tim


    Swirling jets with density stratification are a canonical combustor flow field. This work consisted of coupled experimental and theoretical analysis of the spatial structure of the most amplified modes in an annular jet, with a specific focus on the radial mode shapes of the shear layer disturbances, which we characterize as inner shear layer (ISL) motion relative to outer shear layer (OSL) motion. The stability analysis identifies spatial structures dominated by ISL motion, modes dominated by OSL motion, and modes with mixed ISL and OSL motion. These mixed modes are further classified as sinuous or varicose radial structures, depending on the relative motions of the two shear layers. The presence and spatial dependencies of these spatial modes are demonstrated experimentally with a 5 kHz stereo PIV measurement of a reacting swirling jet. In the experiment, we demonstrate that external excitations of various spatial configurations can be used to elicit hydrodynamic responses of axisymmetric and helical motions in either the ISL, the OSL, or the sinuous or varicose radial modes.

  8. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser (United States)

    Swierkowski, S.P.


    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  9. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1 (United States)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.


    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  10. Extension of the flow-rate-of-strain tensor formulation of plasma rotation theory to non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bae, C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejoen (Korea, Republic of)


    A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ωτ-ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies of vertical annular liquid jets (United States)

    Chigier, Norman; Ramos, J. I.; Kihm, K. D.


    The objectives of this study are to determine the stability, dynamics, and convergence of vertical annular liquid jets as a function of the initial radius, sheet thickness, and velocity. The influence of variation of Froude, Reynolds, and Weber numbers and geometry on convergence and stability are examined. An implicit finite-difference scheme is developed for solution of the steady-state and time-dependent axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. In collaboration with Westinghouse, a cylindrical film chemical reactor will be designed for control of reactions such as reduction of zirconium. Annular liquid curtains have been formed with an initial curtain radius of 50 mm and initial sheet thicknesses of 0.5 and 1.0 mm. Three Froude numbers have been studied: 1.27, 4.27, and 8.87 with variation of the liquid flow rate. Pressure within the curtains has been varied progressively from 0 to 3 Pa. Several flow regimes were found: (1) non-pressurized, (2) pressurized, (3) oscillating, and (4) punctured. Curtain shape and convergence length were determined for each condition by photography. Axial mean velocity in the liquid curtain was measured by Laser Doppler Anemometry along the length of the curtain. The variation of liquid film thickness with axial distance was determined.

  12. Understanding sideline jet noise using input-output analysis (United States)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanovic, Mihailo R.


    We apply input-output analysis to high-speed turbulent jets to obtain the far-field acoustic response at different radiation angles. We consider both axisymmetric and higher azimuthal modes over a range of different frequencies to investigate the resulting noise spectra. At each frequency, singular value decomposition of the resolvent operator distinguishes between the optimal mode and several sub-optimal input-output modes by the magnitude of corresponding singular value. While both types of modes resemble wavepackets, the optimal mode associated with the largest singular value is superdirective in the peak noise radiation angle. Sub-optimal modes, in contrast, appear increasingly omnidirectional, rotating progressively to the sideline direction. Our analysis also recovers a broadening of the far-field acoustic spectra as the radiation angle increases. We show that a significant amount of the entire acoustic field can be captured by a superposition of a small number of coherent input-output modes. The LES data was produced as part of a Cascade Technologies STTR project sponsored by NAVAIR, under the supervision of Dr. John T. Spyropoulos. The LES calculations were performed at the ERDC supercomputer center.

  13. Jet Energy Corrections at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Santocchia, Attilio


    Many physics measurements in CMS will rely on the precise reconstruction of Jets. Correction of the raw jet energy measured by the CMS detector will be a fundamental step for most of the analysis where hadron activity is investigated. Jet correction plans in CMS have been widely studied for different conditions: at stat-up simulation tuned on test-beam data will be used. Then data-driven methods will be available and finally, simulation tuned on collision data will give us the ultimate procedure for calculating jet corrections. Jet transverse energy is corrected first for pile-up and noise offset; correction for the response of the calorimeter as a function of jet pseudorapidity relative to the barrel comes afterwards and correction for the absolute response as a function of transverse momentum in the barrel is the final standard sub-correction applied. Other effects like flavour and parton correction will be optionally applied on the Jet $E_T$ depending on the measurement requests. In this paper w...

  14. Early Human Dispersals and Submerged Landscapes : comment on news feature "Migration: value of submerged early sites" in Nature's May 2012 special issue "Peopling the Planet"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flemming, Nicholas; Bailey, Geoffrey N.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Arias, Pablo; Canals, M.; Chiocci, Francesco Latino; Cohen, K.M.; Erlandson, Jon; Faught, Michael K.; Flatman, Joe; Fischer, Anders; Galili, Ehud; Harff, Jan; Lericolais, Gilles; Lűth, Friedrich


    Your articles on human dispersal in the late Pleistocene epoch (Nature 485, 23; 2012) overlook the significance of now-submerged archaeological sites on the continental shelf during this period (126,000–11,000 years ago). It is wrong to assume that these were completely destroyed by the sea and that

  15. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.


    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  16. Mechanism of non-axisymmetric pipe-wall thinning in pipeline with elbow and orifice under influence of swirling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki, E-mail: [Visualization Research Center, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Kanatani, Nobuaki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Yamagata, Takayuki, E-mail: [Visualization Research Center, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Takano, Tsuyoshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    Highlights: • Pipe-wall thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion is studied. • Pipeline geometry consists of elbow and orifice in swirling flow. • Velocity field and mass transfer rate are measured in pipeline. • Non-axisymmetric pipe-wall thinning occurs behind orifice. - Abstract: In this study, the mechanism of non-axisymmetric pipe-wall thinning that led to a pipeline break in the Mihama nuclear power plant in 2004 is evaluated in a scale-model experiment in a water tunnel having an elbow and orifice under the influence of swirling flow. The velocity fields are measured by stereo particle image velocimetry, and the mass transfer rate is measured by a benzoic acid dissolution method at Reynolds number Re = 3 × 10{sup 4} with and without swirling flow. The non-axisymmetric swirling flow is found to be generated behind the elbow, even when the axisymmetric swirling flow is supplied in the upstream of the elbow. The secondary flow generated in the elbow is not suppressed in the pipeline 10 diameters downstream of elbow in the swirling flow, and in this flow geometry, the non-axisymmetry of the flow is greatly magnified downstream of the orifice. The measured mass transfer rates downstream of the orifice under the influence of swirling flow indicate that the Sherwood number distribution on one side of the pipe is enhanced and that on the other side is reduced owing to the appearance of the non-axisymmetric swirling flow, which results in the occurrence of non-axisymmetric pipe-wall thinning downstream of the orifice.

  17. Turbulence measurements in a swirling confined jet flowfield using a triple hot-wire probe (United States)

    Janjua, S. I.; Mclaughlin, D. K.


    An axisymmetric swirling confined jet flowfield, similar to that encountered in gas turbine combustors was investigated using a triple hot-wire probe. The raw data from the three sensors were digitized using ADC's and stored on a Tektronix 4051 computer. The data were further reduced on the computer to obtain time-series for the three instantaneous velocity components in the flowfield. The time-mean velocities and the turbulence quantities were deduced. Qualification experiments were performed and where possible results compared with independent measurements. The major qualification experiments involved measurements performed in a non-swirling flow compared with conventional X-wire measurements. In the swirling flowfield, advantages of the triple wire technique over the previously used multi-position single hot-wire method are noted. The measurements obtained provide a data base with which the predictions of turbulence models in a recirculating swirling flowfield can be evaluated.

  18. Direct Numerical Simulation of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer inside an Axisymmetric Nozzle (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.


    As a first step toward a study of acoustic disturbance field within a conventional, hypersonic wind tunnel, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer on the inner wall of a straight axisymmetric nozzle are conducted and the results are compared with those for a flat plate. The DNS results for a nozzle radius to boundary-layer thickness ratio of 5:5 show that the turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer are nearly unaffected by the transverse curvature of the nozzle wall. Before the acoustic waves emanating from different parts of the nozzle surface can interfere with each other and undergo reflections from adjacent portions of the nozzle surface, the rms pressure fluctuation beyond the boundary layer edge increases toward the nozzle axis, apparently due to a focusing effect inside the axisymmetric configuration. Spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations at both the wall and the freestream indicates a similar distribution of energy content for both the nozzle and the flat plate, with the peak of the premultiplied frequency spectrum at a frequency of [(omega)(delta)]/U(sub infinity) approximately 6.0 inside the free stream and at [(omega)(delta)]/U(sub infinity) approximately 2.0 along the wall. The present results provide the basis for follow-on simulations involving reverberation effects inside the nozzle.

  19. Transition Within Leeward Plane of Axisymmetric Bodies at Incidence in Supersonic Flow (United States)

    Tokugawa, Naoko; Choudhari, Meelan; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Ueda, Yoshine; Fujii, Keisuke; Atobe, Takashi; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery


    Boundary layer transition along the leeward symmetry plane of axisymmetric bodies at nonzero angle of attack in supersonic flow was investigated experimentally and numerically as part of joint research between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Transition over four axisymmetric bodies (namely, Sears-Haack body, semi-Sears-Haack body, straight cone and flared cone) with different axial pressure gradients was measured in two different facilities with different unit Reynolds numbers. The semi-Sears-Haack body and flared cone were designed at JAXA to broaden the range of axial pressure distributions. For a body shape with an adverse pressure gradient (i.e., flared cone), the experimentally measured transition patterns show an earlier transition location along the leeward symmetry plane in comparison with the neighboring azimuthal locations. For nearly zero pressure gradient (i.e.,straight cone), this feature is only observed at the larger unit Reynolds number. Later transition along the leeward plane was observed for the remaining two body shapes with a favorable pressure gradient. The observed transition patterns are only partially consistent with the numerical predictions based on linear stability analysis. Additional measurements are used in conjunction with the stability computations to explore the phenomenon of leeward line transition and the underlying transition mechanism in further detail.

  20. Rotationally-driven axisymmetric oscillatory convection in a semitransparent Czochralski melt model (United States)

    Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan


    A numerical study was carried out to investigate the effect of surface tension-driven convection on the transition of flow modes in an axisymmetric Czochralski oxide melt model. Computational results were obtained over a reasonably wide range of the crystal dummy rotation rate for the cases with and without Marangoni effect. The transition of the flow from steady-state to an axisymmetric oscillatory one was found to be occurred at a threshold value of the ratio between buoyancy and the rotationally-driven forces, which is considerably smaller in the presence of the Marangoni flow. This was shown that, in the presence of thermocapillary forces, the descending cold plume has a larger impact on the thermal field if compared to the case in which the Marangoni effect was ignored. Depending on the circumstances, each of the two different mechanisms, i.e., the rotating Rayleigh-Benard instability and the baroclinic instability, may play a dominant role in the steady-oscillatory flow transition. Thermocapillary effect on the mechanism of instability giving rise to the transition of the convective flow was studied.