Sample records for sublime unconverted oxygen

  1. The role of oxygen in CdS/CdTe solar cells deposited by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Levi, D.H.; Matson, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    The presence of oxygen during close-spaced sublimation (CSS) of CdTe has been previously reported to be essential for high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cells because it increases the acceptor density in the absorber. The authors find that the presence of oxygen during CSS increases the nucleation site density of CdTe, thus decreasing pinhole density and grain size. Photoluminescence showed that oxygen decreases material quality in the bulk of the CdTe film, but positively impacts the critical CdS/CdTe interface. Through device characterization the authors were unable to verify an increase in acceptor density with increased oxygen. These results, along with the achievement of high-efficiency cells (13% AM1.5) without the use of oxygen, led the authors to conclude that the use of oxygen during CSS deposition of CdTe can be useful but is not essential.

  2. NIF unconverted light and its influence on DANTE measurements. (United States)

    Girard, Frederic; Suter, Larry; Landen, Otto; Munro, Dave; Regan, Sean; Kline, John


    NIF laser facility produces 1053 nm light and a fundamental requirement for NIF is to give up to 1.8 MJ of 351 nm light for target physics experiments. The 351 nm light is provided by frequency tripling the 1053 nm light in nonlinear crystals in the final optics assembly, just before the laser light enters the target chamber. Since this tripling process is not 100% efficient, unconverted light from the conversion process also enters the chamber. This unconverted light does not directly hit the target but it can strike target support structures at average intensities of few TW/cm2 where it can generate unwanted, background soft x-rays that are measured by the soft x-ray diagnostic DANTE installed on the NIF target chamber. This diagnostic quantifies the x-radiation intensity inside the hohlraum by measuring the x-ray flux coming from the target's laser entrance hole. Due to its centimeter wide field of view, it integrates x-ray emission from both the flux exiting a hohlraum laser entrance hole and from the target support structure irradiated by residual 1omega and 2omega unconverted light. This work gives quantitative evaluations of the unconverted light for the first time and the effects on DANTE measurements for the future NIF tuning experiment called "Shock timing." Emission spectra are significantly modified leading to an overestimation of radiative temperature during the foot of the laser pulse since background x-rays are predominant in first two DANTE channel measurements. Mitigations of these effects by coating silicon paddle with plastic, using a smaller collimator to reduce DANTE field of view or eliminating DANTE channels in the analysis have been investigated.

  3. The Sublime and Education (United States)

    Carson, Jamin


    The sublime is a theory of aesthetics that reached its highest popularity in British literature during the Romantic period (c. 1785-1832). This article (1) explicates philosophers' different meanings of the sublime; (2) show how the sublime is relevant to education; and (3) show how the sublime "works" in literature by analyzing William Blake's…

  4. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric


    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  5. Sublimation, culture, and creativity. (United States)

    Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov


    Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms.

  6. A sublimation heat engine. (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; McHale, Glen; Sefiane, Khellil


    Heat engines are based on the physical realization of a thermodynamic cycle, most famously the liquid-vapour Rankine cycle used for steam engines. Here we present a sublimation heat engine, which can convert temperature differences into mechanical work via the Leidenfrost effect. Through controlled experiments, quantified by a hydrodynamic model, we show that levitating dry-ice blocks rotate on hot turbine-like surfaces at a rate controlled by the turbine geometry, temperature difference and solid material properties. The rotational motion of the dry-ice loads is converted into electric power by coupling to a magnetic coil system. We extend our concept to liquid loads, generalizing the realization of the new engine to both sublimation and the instantaneous vapourization of liquids. Our results support the feasibility of low-friction in situ energy harvesting from both liquids and ices. Our concept is potentially relevant in challenging situations such as deep drilling, outer space exploration or micro-mechanical manipulation.


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    Martha de Almeida


    Full Text Available A obra Uma investigação filosófica sobre a origem de nossas idéias do sublime e dobelo, do sensualista inglês Edmund Burke (1757, data as origens do sublime na Modernidade. Nosublime ocorre é um prazer ligado à dor, um "horror delicioso" que sentimos quando acreditamosque estamos em perigo sem que isso esteja ocorrendo realmente. Em O mundo como Vontade erepresentação Schopenhauer assume as influências que sofreu de Kant no que diz respeito à suainterpretação sobre o belo e o sublime, porém difere dele quanto à natureza dessa impressão. ParaSchopenhauer a experiência estética pressupõe a dissolução da subjetividade num movimento decontemplação das idéias livre do querer imposto pela vontade individual. As idéias deSchopenhauer influenciaram a estética do Nietzsche de O nascimento da tragédia.

  8. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Winkel, Brian


    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

  9. Los cuerpos sublimes

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    Juan Pablo Zangara


    Full Text Available La narración de crímenes en la prensa de masas y las pantallas parece constituir una versión contemporánea del magnetismo según Edgar Allan Poe. La estetización mediática (ya no la información de una serie reciente de feminicidios permite reconocer una cierta lógica de lo sublime como clave de la producción de noticias-mercancías. En su variante clásica, la ficción policial funciona como una matriz ideológica decisiva de la enunciación periodística.

  10. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty, and the ran......To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  11. Eisenhower and the American Sublime (United States)

    O'Gorman, Ned


    This essay presents Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential rhetoric as an iteration of an American synecdochal sublime. Eisenhower's rhetoric sought to re-aim civic sight beyond corporeal objects to the nation's transcendental essence. This rhetoric is intimately connected to prevailing political anxieties and exigencies, especially the problem of…

  12. Finite agents, sublime feelings: response to Hanauer


    Deligiorgi, Katerina


    Tom Hanauer's thoughtful discussion of my article “The Pleasures of Contra-purposiveness: Kant, the Sublime, and Being Human” (2014) puts pressure on two important issues concerning the affective phenomenology of the sublime. My aim in that article was to present an analysis of the sublime that does not suffer from the problems identified by Jane Forsey in “Is a Theory of the Sublime Possible?” (2007). I argued that Kant's notion of reflective judgment can help with this task, because it allo...

  13. Enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Herrera, Melchor; Campos, Myriam; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Rojas, Aarón, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes were measured by thermogravimetry. • Results of enthalpies of sublimation are comparable with data reported in literature. • Not previously reported enthalpy of sublimation of C{sub 78} is supplied in this work. • Enthalpies of sublimation show a strong dependence with the number of carbon atoms in the cluster. • Enthalpies of sublimation are congruent with dispersion forces ruling cohesion of solid fullerene. - Abstract: The enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes, as measured in the interval of 810–1170 K by thermogravimetry and applying the Langmuir equation, are reported. The detailed experimental procedure and its application to fullerenes C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}, C{sub 76}, C{sub 78} and C{sub 84} are supplied. The accuracy and uncertainty associated with the experimental results of the enthalpy of sublimation of these fullerenes show that the reliability of the measurements is comparable to that of other indirect high-temperature methods. The results also indicate that the enthalpy of sublimation increases proportionally to the number of carbon atoms in the cluster but there is also a strong correlation between the enthalpy of sublimation and the polarizability of each fullerene.

  14. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the Aesthetically Sublime (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Bart


    Much has been written on the relationship between Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Much remains to be said, however, concerning their respective theories of the sublime. In this article, the author first argues against the traditional, dialectical view of Schopenhauer's theory of the sublime that stresses the crucial role the sublime…

  15. Sacred Space and Sublime Sacramental Piety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger


    Analyses and Discussions of Mozart's Sacramental Litanies K. 125 and K. 243 in relation to the notions of the Sacred and the Sublime.......Analyses and Discussions of Mozart's Sacramental Litanies K. 125 and K. 243 in relation to the notions of the Sacred and the Sublime....

  16. Schopenhauer e os paradoxos do sublime

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    François Arnaud


    Full Text Available principal distinção entre a concepção schopenhaueriana e kantiana do sublime reside, segundo este artigo, no fato que o observador, no último caso, deve ser submetido a um perigo apenas possível, enquanto no primeiro caso ele deve ser realmente amedrontado. O principal impulso do sentimento do sublime é de fato, em Schopenhauer, a intervenção da vontade, que deve ser portanto realmente ameaçada. Daí resultam alguns paradoxos e originalidades da teoria do sublime de Schopenhauer, principalmente de um ponto de vista ético, cujos vestígios eu tento seguir.

  17. System and method for suppressing sublimation using opacified aerogel (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeff S. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Calliat, Thierry (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Jones, Steven M. (Inventor); Palk, Jong-Ah (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a castable, aerogel-based, ultra-low thermal conductivity opacified insulation to suppress sublimation. More specifically, the present invention relates to an aerogel opacified with various opacifying or reflecting constituents to suppress sublimation and provide thermal insulation in thermoelectric modules. The opacifying constituent can be graded within the aerogel for increased sublimation suppression, and the density of the aerogel can similarly be graded to achieve optimal thermal insulation and sublimation suppression.

  18. Alan Paton's Sublime: Race, Landscape and the Transcendence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article develops a postcolonial reading of the sublime by suggesting that aesthetic theories of the sublime were, in their classical philosophical formulations by Edmund Burke and Immanuel Kant, founded on problematic assumptions of racial difference. In the colonial sphere, it is argued, the sublime could discursively ...

  19. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

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    Arnold Berleant


    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  20. Sublime dinâmico e pintura: Turner e Pollock

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    Jair Barboza


    Full Text Available texto tem por objetivo mostrar como a concepção filosófica do sublime em Kant e Schopenhauer pode nos ajudar a ver algumas obras pictóricas de Turner e Pollock. Nesse sentido temos um sublime figurativo (Turner e um sublime não figurativo (Pollock na pintura.

  1. Science Sublime: The Philosophy of the Sublime, Dewey's Aesthetics, and Science Education (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Shane


    Feelings of awe, wonder, and appreciation have been largely ignored in the working lives of scientists and, in turn, science education has not accurately portrayed science to students. In an effort to bring the affective qualities of science into the classroom, this work draws on the writings of the sublime by Burke, Kant, Emerson, and Wordsworth…

  2. Por uma metafísica do sublime

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    Martha de Almeida


    Full Text Available The sublime has been analyzed since ancient times with a striking compared with tragedy, whether as a literary genre, whether through Poetics, Aristotle's catharsis we translate the feeling the sublime. In modernity, new names were coming to work with this theory: Hume himself, in his essay The Tragedy, was impressed by the ability of this art form has to produce such strong effects on the viewer. But who else has strengthened analysis of the sublime in modernity, providing the basis for their own Kant was Edmund Burke, with his piece A philosophical investigation on the ideas of the sublime and the beautiful. The third criticism of Kant devoted a special moment to the analysis of the sublime, which had served as basis also for Schopenhauer, however, from her built his own aesthetic that would be of paramount importance Nieztsche for the young, mainly due to the consideration of music as sublime art. Nietzsche, then built his tragic wisdom, with based on the experience of the sublime tragedy.The question this paper wants to treat it exactly: It is possible think of a metaphysics of the sublime, based on Nietzsche?

  3. The Religious-Sublime in Music, Literature and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes-Aldunate, Claudio


    their mechanisms with other modalities of sublimeness. The sublime will be regarded as the representation (in the sens of staging) of a perception. I will demonstrate how this subjective perception - in this case 'of the divinity' - is (re)constructed by the subject in a piece of Spanish Gothic literature...

  4. Conditions for Sublimating Water Ice to Supply Ceres' Exosphere (United States)

    Landis, M. E.; Byrne, S.; Schörghofer, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Hayne, P. O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Sykes, M. V.; Combe, J.-P.; Ermakov, A. I.; Prettyman, T.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    We explore the conditions for sublimating water ice on Ceres to explain the observed water vapor output from telescopic observations. We find that while a buried ice table cannot produce enough vapor via sublimation to explain the exosphere, exposed surface ice (given it is exposed at the right time during the Ceres day and year, and at the right location) can.

  5. Reassessing Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature in the Kantian Sublime (United States)

    Brady, Emily


    The sublime has been a relatively neglected topic in recent work in philosophical aesthetics, with existing discussions confined mainly to problems in Kant's theory. Given the revival of interest in his aesthetic theory and the influence of the Kantian sublime compared to other eighteenth-century accounts, this focus is not surprising. Kant's…

  6. Sublime science: Teaching for scientific sublime experiences in middle school classrooms (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Shane

    Due to a historical separation of cognition and emotion, the affective aspects of learning are often seen as trivial in comparison to the more 'essential' cognitive qualities - particularly in the domain of science. As a result of this disconnect, feelings of awe, wonder, and astonishment as well as appreciation have been largely ignored in the working lives of scientists. In turn, I believe that science education has not accurately portrayed the world of science to our students. In an effort to bring the affective qualities of science into the science classroom, I have drawn on past research in the field of aesthetic science teaching and learning as well as works by, Burke, Kant, and Dewey to explore a new construct I have called the "scientific sublime". Scientific sublime experiences represent a sophisticated treatment of the cognitive as well as affective qualities of science learning. The scientific sublime represents feelings of awe, wonder, and appreciation that come from a deep understanding. It is only through this understanding of a phenomenon that we can appreciate its true complexity and intricacies, and these understandings when mixed with the emotions of awe and reverence, are sublime. Scientific sublime experiences are an attempt at the re-integration of cognition and feeling. The goal of this research was twofold: to create and teach a curriculum that fosters scientific sublime experiences in middle school science classes, and to better understand how these experiences are manifested in students. In order to create an approach to teaching for scientific sublime experiences, it was first necessary for me to identify key characteristics of such an experience and a then to create a pedagogical approach, both of which are described in detail in the dissertation. This research was conducted as two studies in two different middle schools. My pedagogical approach was used to create and teach two five-week 7 th grade science units---one on weather

  7. Sublimation of antimycotic agents as proved by various analytical methods. (United States)

    Jäckel, A; Schmelzer, C E H; Wartewig, S; Neubert, R H H


    Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that the pure substances amorolfine base, amorolfine hydrochloride, two selected morpholine derivatives and terbinafine hydrochloride are clearly able to sublimate. As amorolfine hydrochloride is also capable to sublimate from galencial forms laquer and cream in this experimental setup, a clinical relevance of sublimation phenomenon at least for topical treatment of onychomycosis has to be considered. This phenomenon could be one reason for advantageous clinical and mycological cure rates of amorolfine nail laquer to comparable topical products reported in the literature.

  8. Carbon-Sublimation Production of Fullerenes. (United States)

    Tinker, Frank Albert


    Carbon-sublimation production of fullerenes enjoys wide use in both experimental and industrial application worldwide. Although it has been nearly five years since the inception of the technique, little is known about the roles various parameters play in the production process. This work attempts to shed light, both experimentally and theoretically, on the basic processes at work in this type of fullerene production. Experimental results herein show that a functional relationship exists among the C_{60 }, C_{70}, C_{76}, C_ {78}, and C_{84} fullerenes produced in carbon arcs. This result is interpreted to mean that an equilibrium description of the production process may be valid. Theoretical calculations are then offered in support of such a view. The theory goes on to show details of an equilibrium description that reproduce essential features of fullerene mass-spectra. It is shown that equilibrium abundances of n-atom -sized clusters are highly dependent on the stoichiometric equation chosen to describe the system. However, common traits of the investigated equilibrium descriptions lead to useful conclusions.

  9. Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Platz, T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Christensen, U.; Kneissl, T.; Li, J.-Y.; Mengel, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Schaefer, T.; Russell, C. T.; Applin, D. M.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Keller, H. U.; O'Brien, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.; Ripken, J.; Schenk, P. M.; Schmidt, B. E.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; Thangjam, G. S.; Vincent, J.-B.


    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5, 6, 7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the ‘snow line’, which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

  10. Sublimity and beauty: A view from nursing aesthetics. (United States)

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen


    Several authors have focused on the aesthetics of nursing care from diverse perspectives; however, there are few studies about the sublime and the beautiful in nursing. To identify beautiful and sublime moments in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care. A theoretical reflection has been contemplated about sublime and beautiful values in the context of the aesthetics of nursing care from the cultural history perspective. For that purpose, a revision of this issue has been completed. The terms 'beautiful' and 'sublime' have been analysed to identify the characteristics of both in the context of nursing care. We have followed all ethical requirements regarding the sources, conducting research and authorship. There is no conflict of interest in this paper. With aesthetic knowledge, the nurse expresses the artistic nature of nursing care by appreciating the act of caring for individuals. The sublime is a complex phenomenon, since apparently contrary feelings are interwoven. Nursing care is an art with an anthropological object-subject on which the 'artist' applies their prior knowledge and skills. Feelings and emotions that develop during the clinical nursing practice - especially at times sublime and beautiful, aesthetic - constitute experiences which are professionally significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. O Sublime explicado às crianças

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    Virginia Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Como o próprio título indica, este ensaio pretende dialogar com a recepção do sublime kantiano pela filosofia francesa contemporânea, sobretudo com Jean-François Lyotard. Dessa forma, ao invés de ressaltar as consequências inevitável ou sistematicamente morais do sublime kantiano, como fez, de um modo geral, o comentário mais tradicional da filosofia crítica de Kant, este ensaio tenta interpretar o sublime como sendo essencialmente uma experiência da arte, seguindo assim de perto aquela tradição francesa. Mas, ao mesmo tempo, tomando alguma distância, este texto quer fazer uma objeção ao fundamento exclusivamente burkiano da concepção de sublime de Lyotard. Em suma, quero defender que é possível privilegiar o tempo (aspecto central do sublime de Edmund Burke, segundo Lyotard também na experiência do sublime kantiano.

  12. Origin and effective reduction of inversion domains in aluminum nitride grown by a sublimation method (United States)

    Shigetoh, Keisuke; Horibuchi, Kayo; Nakamura, Daisuke


    Owing to the large differences in the chemical properties between Al and N polarities in aluminum nitride (AlN), the choice of the polar direction for crystal growth strongly affects not only the quality but also the shape (facet formation) of the grown crystal. In particular, N-polar (0 0 0 -1) has been considered to be a more preferable direction than Al-polar (0 0 0 1) for sublimation growth because compared to Al-polar (0 0 0 1), N-polar (0 0 0 -1) exhibits better stability at high growth rate (high supersaturation) conditions and enables easier lateral enlargement of the crystal. However, some critical growth conditions induce polarity inversion and hinder stable N-polar growth. Furthermore, the origin of the polarity inversion in AlN growth by the sublimation method is still unclear. To ensure stable N-polar growth without polarity inversion, the formation mechanism of the inversion domain during AlN sublimation growth must be elucidated. Therefore, herein, we demonstrate homoepitaxial growth on an N-polar seed and carefully investigate the obtained crystal that shows polarity inversion. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that polarity is completely converted to the Al polarity via the formation of a 30 nm thick mixed polar layer (MPL) just above the seed. Moreover, three-dimensional atom probe tomography shows the segregation of the oxygen impurities in the MPL with a high concentration of about 3 atom%. Finally, by avoiding the incorporation of oxygen impurity into the crystal at the initial stage of the growth, we demonstrate an effective reduction (seven orders of magnitude) of the inversion domain boundary formation.

  13. O paradoxo sublime ou a alforria da arte

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    Virgínia Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Neste texto, pretendo analisar a tese principal do ensaio “A verdade sublime” de Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, a qual poderia ser formulada do seguinte modo: a verdade sublime é o Ereignis, esse é o fundamento a partir do qual se desenvolveu uma dificílima operação que consistiu em modificar a tradição do sublime sempre apresentado negativamente naquilo que Lacoue-Labarthe chamou de "compreensão afirmativa do sublime ou da grande arte". O autor estabelece uma astuciosa aliança entre o que há de mais radical no pensamento de Heidegger e o sublime, tratado de maneira bastante polêmica, como a principal teoria da arte de Kant. Dessa articulação fundamental, pode-se concluir que ele não está apenas à procura de uma “Estética” (sequer de uma “Teoria da Arte” sublime, mas, em busca de algo que é muito mais ambicioso, a saber: de um pensamento do sublime. Portanto, na minha opinião, o ensaio lacouelabarthiano constitui, por um lado, uma referência indispensável não só a quem quer que pretenda estudar a tradição do sublime, mas, por outro, compreender o pensamento heideggeriano sobre a arte e sua tentativa de encontrar uma determinação mais essencial e, sobretudo, ousaria dizer, mais política da arte.

  14. Por uma metafí­sica do sublime


    Almeida, Martha de


     O sublime vem sendo analisado desde a antiguidade com uma marcante relaçáo com a tragédia, seja como gênero literário, seja por meio da Poética, de Aristóteles que nos traduz pela catarse o sentimento do sublime. Na modernidade, novos nomes foram chegando para colaborar com esta teoria: o próprio Hume, em seu ensaio Da tragédia, mostrou-se impressionado com a capacidade que esta forma de arte tem de produzir efeitos táo intensos no espectador. Porém, quem mais fortaleceu a análise do sublime...

  15. Sublimation rates of explosive materials : method development and initial results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, James M.; Patton, Robert Thomas


    Vapor detection of explosives continues to be a technological basis for security applications. This study began experimental work to measure the chemical emanation rates of pure explosive materials as a basis for determining emanation rates of security threats containing explosives. Sublimation rates for TNT were determined with thermo gravimetric analysis using two different techniques. Data were compared with other literature values to provide sublimation rates from 25 to 70 C. The enthalpy of sublimation for the combined data was found to be 115 kJ/mol, which corresponds well with previously reported data from vapor pressure determinations. A simple Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model was used to estimate downrange concentrations based on continuous, steady-state conditions at 20, 45 and 62 C for a nominal exposed block of TNT under low wind conditions. Recommendations are made for extension of the experimental vapor emanation rate determinations and development of turbulent flow computational fluid dynamics based atmospheric dispersion estimates of standoff vapor concentrations.

  16. Micro-computed tomography observation of sublimation interface and image analysis on sublimation process during freeze-drying. (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Tao, Le-Ren; Hua, Tse-Chao


    The freeze-drying process is complicated with complex heat and mass transfer during sublimation. The sublimation interface of freeze-drying has become more attractive and meaningful recently. In this study, apple slices undergoing sublimation were scanned by a Micro-CT scanner. The cross-sectional images were reconstructed with those scanning images respectively. The technique of grey value analysis was used to recognize the procedure. The results showed that, from direct scanning images and 2-D reconstructed images, a 3-D moving mode of sublimation interface which contracted to the centre of the sample could be seen, sublimation process proceeded from edge to center gradually. The grey value of ice crystals was determined to be 154 through gauss calculation. By comparing frozen sample with freeze-dried one, the ice crystals regions in the beginning became the porous regions after drying, grey values increased correspondingly. Samples shrunk slightly after drying for 3 to 7 hours, which could be distinguished by the change in grey values.

  17. The experimental investigations of peculiarities of metalorganic compounds sublimation

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    Bochkareva Elena


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of convective heat and mass transfer by sublimation of a single particle of metallorganic compounds mixture in an argon flow. The gas temperature is 180-290 ºС, the flow velocity is up to 2 m/s. The influence of the Zr(dpm4 and Y(dpm3 proportions on the characteristics of the transport processes was considered. An increase in the fraction of the more fusible component reduces the temperature of the particle during the sublimation process.

  18. Of images and ills. Uses and malaises of sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Didi-Huberman


    Full Text Available This text is published as postface to the new edition of Invention de l'hystérie. Charcot et l’iconographie photographique de l’hystérie (Macula, Paris, 2012, pp. 364-405 with the title Des images et des maux. It’s also the full version of the lecture organized by the Association Psychanalytique de France (September 24, 2011, entitled L’Usage de la sublimation. Starting from some considerations on his first book, the Author examines limits and potentials of the notion of sublimation in reference with art and artistic creation, and suggests a different way to approach it.

  19. Feasibility study of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schach, M.O.; Oyarzun, B.A.; Schramm, H.; Schneider, R.; Repke, J.U.


    Processes for carbon capture and storage have the drawback of high energy demand. In this work the application of CO2 capture by anti-sublimation is analyzed. The process was simulated using Aspen Plus. Process description is accomplished by phase equilibria models which are able to reproduce the

  20. Vapor transport and sublimation on Mullins Glacier, Antarctica (United States)

    Lamp, J. L.; Marchant, D. R.


    We utilize an environmental chamber capable of recreating the extreme polar conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica to investigate the sublimation rate of the Mullins Valley debris-covered glacier (hereafter Mullins Glacier), reportedly one of the oldest debris-covered alpine glaciers in the world. We measure ice loss via sublimation beneath sediment thicknesses ranging from 0 to 69 mm; from this, we determine an effective diffusivity for Fickian vapor transport through Mullins till of (5.2 ± 0.3) ×10-6 m2s-1 at -10 °C. We use this value, coupled with micrometeorological data from Mullins Valley (atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and soil temperature) to model the sublimation rate of buried glacier ice near the terminus of Mullins Glacier, where the overlying till thickness approaches 70 cm. We find that the ice-lowering rate during the modeled year (2011) was 0.066 mm under 70 cm of till, a value which is in line with previous estimates for exceedingly slow rates of ice sublimation. These results provide further evidence supporting the probable antiquity of Mullins Glacier ice and overall landscape stability in upland regions of the MDV.

  1. Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present attributes of snow occurrence and dissipation rates (melt and sublimation) for the Lesotho Highlands, based on remotely-sensed MODIS images from 2003–2016. Multi-temporal imagery is used, with SNOMAP and NDSI algorithms applied to MODIS Rapid Response images. The spatial extent of snow loss was ...

  2. Sublimation-Induced Shape Evolution of Silver Cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong


    The heat is on: Surface sublimation and shape transformation of silver cubes, enclosed by {100} surfaces and about 100nm in size, are examined by in situ transmission electron microscopy (see picture). High-index surfaces, such as {110}, of face-centered cubic metals are more stable when the temperature is close to the melting point.

  3. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant (United States)

    Rathbun, R. J.


    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  4. Sublimation of amino acids with enantiomeric excess amplification (United States)

    Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Bellec, Aurelien

    The notion of chirality was first reported in 1848 by Pasteur, when he mechanically separated the two enantiomers of tartrate salts.[1] Amino acids are considered as the most important building blocks of life with sugars. On the Earth, the living systems are only composed of L- amino acids and D-sugars. Nowadays, the origin of homochirality on Earth is still unknown, and there are many theories trying to explain this phenomenon. Recently Cooks [2] and Feringa [3] reported that the sublimation of small amounts of L and D amino acid mixtures containing an excess of one of them leads to a huge enantiomeric excess (ee) enhancement of the sublimate. We reinvestigated these experiments to determine the rules leading to this enhancement. Starting from mixtures of L- and DL leucine we observed increasing and decreasing of the ee in function of the starting ratios. By the use of 13C derivatives, the origin of the sublimed enantiomers has been precised. Various parameters (L and D, or L and DL mixtures, dissolution in water before sublimation, . . . ) were studied. We also took into consideration the recently proposed hypothesis of the role played by the eutectic ee in the sublimation. [4] The application of these results to find an explanation of the enantiomeric excess in meteorites or in the Primitive Earth scenarios will be discussed. 1 Pasteur, L. Ann. Phys., 1848, 24, 442. 2 R. H. Perry, C. Wu, M. Nefliu, R. G. Cooks, Chem. Commun., 2007, 1071-1073. 3 S. P. Fletcher, R. B. C. Jagt, B. L. Feringa, Chem. Commun., 2007, 2578-2580. 4 D. G. Blackmond, M. Klussmannb Chem. Commun., 2007, 3990-3996.

  5. Effects of varying obliquity on Martian sublimation thermokarst landforms (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.


    Scalloped depressions in the Martian mid-latitudes are likely formed by sublimation of ice-rich ground. The stability of subsurface ice changes with the planetary obliquity, generally becoming less stable at lower axial tilt. As a result, the relative rates of sublimation and creep change over time. A landscape evolution model shows that these variations produce internal structure in scalloped depressions, commonly in the form of arcuate ridges, which emerge as depressions resume growth after pausing or slowing. In other scenarios, the formation of internal structure is minimal. Significant uncertainties in past climate and model parameters permit a range of scenarios. Ridges observed in some Martian scalloped depressions could date from obliquity lows or periods of low ice stability occurring <5 Ma, suggesting that the pits are young features and may be actively evolving.

  6. Sublimator Driven Coldplate Engineering Development Unit Test Results (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.


    The Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a traditional thermal control scheme. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially increasing reliability and reducing complexity while saving both mass and power. Because the SDC requires a consumable feedwater, it can only be used for short mission durations. Additionally, the SDC is ideal for a vehicle with small transport distances and low heat rejection requirements. An SDC Engineering Development Unit was designed and fabricated. Performance tests were performed in a vacuum chamber to quantify and assess the performance of the SDC. The test data was then used to develop correlated thermal math models. Nonetheless, an Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate (ISDC) concept is being developed. The ISDC couples a coolant loop with the previously described SDC hardware. This combination allows the SDC to be used as a traditional coldplate during long mission phases and provides for dissimilar system redundancy

  7. Sublimation Kinetic Studies of the Zr(tmhd4 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Arul Jeevan


    Full Text Available The thermal behaviour of tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionatozirconium(IV, [Zr(tmhd4] was investigated by nonisothermal and isothermal thermogravimetric methods in a high pure nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the heating rate in dynamic measurements (6, 8, 10, and 12°C/min on activation energy was also studied. The nonisothermal sublimation activation energy values determined following the procedures of Arrhenius, Coats and Redfern, Kissinger, and Flynn-Wall yielded 76±5, 92±2, 81±8, and 72±7 kJ/mol, respectively, and the isothermal sublimation activation energy was found to be 87±4 kJ/mol over the temperature range of 411–462 K. Different reaction mechanisms were used to compare with this value. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that the actual reaction mechanism was an Rn deceleration type.

  8. Surface engineering of SiC via sublimation etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokubavicius, Valdas, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Yazdi, Gholam R.; Ivanov, Ivan G. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei [Max Lab, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Iakimov, Tihomir; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)


    Highlights: • Comparison of 6H-, 4H- and 3C-SiC sublimation etching. • Effects of Si-C and Si-C-Ta chemical systems on etching mechanisms. • Effect of etching ambient on surface reconstruction. • Application of etched 4H-SiC surface for the growth of graphene nanoribbons is illustrated. - Abstract: We present a technique for etching of SiC which is based on sublimation and can be used to modify the morphology and reconstruction of silicon carbide surface for subsequent epitaxial growth of various materials, for example graphene. The sublimation etching of 6H-, 4H- and 3C-SiC was explored in vacuum (10{sup −5} mbar) and Ar (700 mbar) ambient using two different etching arrangements which can be considered as Si-C and Si-C-Ta chemical systems exhibiting different vapor phase stoichiometry at a given temperature. The surfaces of different polytypes etched under similar conditions are compared and the etching mechanism is discussed with an emphasis on the role of tantalum as a carbon getter. To demonstrate applicability of such etching process graphene nanoribbons were grown on a 4H-SiC surface that was pre-patterned using the thermal etching technique presented in this study.

  9. El Silencio de la Sirena: lo Sublime en Alejandra Pizarnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lerman


    Full Text Available Algunas poéticas de las décadas del cincuenta y del sesenta parecerían constituirse en torno a un vacío, un silencio que a veces inspira la palabra poética y otras veces la aborta. Esa ambigüedad, característica de la poética de Alejandra Pizarnik, podemos entenderla como una “reedición” de la estética de lo sublime. Lo sublime es un concepto estético-filosófico que plantearon filósofos como Inmanuel Kant y Edmund Burke para pensar el arte romántico y, en el siglo XX, otros autores como Jean-François Lyotard, lo retomaron para analizar el arte de vanguardia. Así, lo sublime nos permite repensar la poética de Pizarnik en sus coincidencias y oposiciones a otras de la tradición moderna (como la de Charles Baudelaire o de las vanguardias latinoamericanas (como Oliverio Girondo y Vicente Huidobro.

  10. El Silencio de la Sirena: lo Sublime en Alejandra Pizarnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lerman


    Full Text Available Algunas poéticas de las décadas del cincuenta y del sesenta parecerían constituirse en torno a un vacío, un silencio que a veces inspira la palabra poética y otras veces la aborta. Esa ambigüedad, característica de la poética de Alejandra Pizarnik, podemos entenderla como una “reedición” de la estética de lo sublime. Lo sublime es un concepto estético-filosófico que plantearon filósofos como Inmanuel Kant y Edmund Burke para pensar el arte romántico y, en el siglo XX, otros autores como Jean-François Lyotard, lo retomaron para analizar el arte de vanguardia. Así, lo sublime nos permite repensar la poética de Pizarnik en sus coincidencias y oposiciones a otras de la tradición moderna (como la de Charles Baudelaire o de las vanguardias latinoamericanas (como Oliverio Girondo y Vicente Huidobro.

  11. The significance of vertical moisture diffusion on drifting snow sublimation near snow surface (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Shi, Guanglei


    Sublimation of blowing snow is an important parameter not only for the study of polar ice sheets and glaciers, but also for maintaining the ecology of arid and semi-arid lands. However, sublimation of near-surface blowing snow has often been ignored in previous studies. To study sublimation of near-surface blowing snow, we established a sublimation of blowing snow model containing both a vertical moisture diffusion equation and a heat balance equation. The results showed that although sublimation of near-surface blowing snow was strongly reduced by a negative feedback effect, due to vertical moisture diffusion, the relative humidity near the surface does not reach 100 %. Therefore, the sublimation of near-surface blowing snow does not stop. In addition, the sublimation rate near the surface is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that at 10 m above the surface and the mass of snow sublimation near the surface accounts for more than half of the total snow sublimation when the friction wind velocity is less than about 0.55 m s-1. Therefore, the sublimation of near-surface blowing snow should not be neglected.

  12. Figure del desiderio: l'amore fra distruzione e sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Franzone


    Full Text Available Attraverso due racconti di Cortázar, l'analisi di due figure del desiderio ci permette esplorare due estremi seguendo una verticalità. La distruzione, doppio tenebroso della nostra anima, ci rivela un erotismo legato alla morte e al desiderio morboso di possedere l'Altro; il suo contraltare è un'ascesa vertiginosa accompagnata da un godimento estetico, dall'amore sublime prossimo all'esperienza mistica che si concluderà con una discesa progressiva e nel rispetto di questo Altro. La creazione letteraria si presenta come uno sfogo alle nostre angosce, che sono anche una sorta d'espressione dell'erotismo.

  13. On the importance of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. MacDonald


    Full Text Available A modelling study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, snowpack sublimation and snowmelt were simulated for two winters over an alpine ridge transect located in the Canada Rocky Mountains. The resulting snowcover regimes were compared to those from manual snow surveys. Simulations were performed using physically based blowing snow (PBSM and snowpack ablation (SNOBAL models. A hydrological response unit (HRU-based spatial discretization was used rather than a more computationally expensive fully-distributed one. The HRUs were set up to follow an aerodynamic sequence, whereby eroded snow was transported from windswept, upwind HRUs to drift accumulating, downwind HRUs. That snow redistribution by wind can be adequately simulated in computationally efficient HRUs over this ridge has important implications for representing snow transport in large-scale hydrology models and land surface schemes. Alpine snow sublimation losses, in particular blowing snow sublimation losses, were significant. Snow mass losses to sublimation as a percentage of cumulative snowfall were estimated to be 20–32% with the blowing snow sublimation loss amounting to 17–19% of cumulative snowfall. This estimate is considered to be a conservative estimate of the blowing snow sublimation loss in the Canadian Rocky Mountains because the study transect is located in the low alpine zone where the topography is more moderate than the high alpine zone and windflow separation was not observed. An examination of the suitability of PBSM's sublimation estimates in this environment and of the importance of estimating blowing snow sublimation on the simulated snow accumulation regime was conducted by omitting sublimation calculations. Snow accumulation in HRUs was overestimated by 30% when neglecting blowing snow sublimation calculations.

  14. The pleasures of contra-purposiveness: Kant, the sublime, and being human


    Deligiorgi, Katerina


    When Paul Guyer surveyed the literature on the sublime about twenty years ago, he noted the flourishing of psychoanalytic and deconstructionist interpretations of the sublime by literary theorists and offered his own interpretative essay on Kant’s sublime as a contribution to a sparsely populated field. Today the situation is reversed. In the field of philosophical aesthetics, understood to include analytic aesthetics as well as theoretical approaches to literary and visual culture, serious d...

  15. Preparation of 2:1 urea-succinic acid cocrystals by sublimation (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Yu, Qiushuo; Li, Xiaorui; Ma, Xiaoxun


    The aim of this study is to introduce a sublimation method for preparing cocrystals. The 2:1 urea-succinic acid cocrystals were generated by a simple sublimation apparatus, analyzed by Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DCS). The role of supersaturations in vapor crystallization was also discussed in detail. This work showed sublimation was a promising method for cocrystallization.

  16. D/H fractionation during the sublimation of water ice (United States)

    Lécuyer, Christophe; Royer, Aurélien; Fourel, François; Seris, Magali; Simon, Laurent; Robert, François


    Experiments of sublimation of pure water ice have been performed in the temperature range -105 °C to -30 °C and atmospheric partial pressures ranging from 10-6 to 10-1 mb. Sampling of both vapour and residual ice fractions has been performed with the use of a vacuum line designed for the extraction and purification of gases before the measurement of their D/H ratios. Sublimation was responsible for sizable isotopic fractionation factors in the range 0.969-1.123 for temperatures lying between -105 °C and -30 °C. The fractionation factor exhibits a cross-over at temperatures around -50 °C with the water vapour fraction being D-depleted relative to the residual ice fraction at T deuterium enrichment or depletion between ice and water vapour cannot explain the differences in the D/H ratios amongst Jupiter comets and long-period comets families nor those that have been documented between Earth's and cometary water.

  17. Conditions for Sublimating Water Ice to Supply Ceres' Exosphere (United States)

    Landis, M. E.; Byrne, S.; Schörghofer, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Hayne, P. O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Sykes, M. V.; Combe, J.-P.; Ermakov, A. I.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    Observations of a water vapor exosphere around Ceres suggest that the dwarf planet may be episodically outgassing at a rate of 6 kg s-1 from unknown sources. With data from the Dawn mission as constraints, we use a coupled thermal and vapor diffusion model to explore three different configurations of water ice (global buried pore-filling ice, global buried excess ice, and local exposed surface ice) that could be present on Ceres. We conclude that a buried ice table cannot alone explain the vapor production rates previously measured, but newly exposed surface ice, given the right conditions, can exceed that vapor production rate. Sublimation lag deposits form that bury and darken this surface ice over a large range of timescales (from <1 year to approximately hundreds of kyr) that depend on latitude and ice regolith content. Sublimating water vapor can loft regolith particles from the surface of exposed ice, possibly prolonging the visible lifespan of those areas. We find that this process is only effective for regolith grains smaller than approximately ones of microns.

  18. On the use of semiempirical models of (solid + supercritical fluid) systems to determine solid sublimation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabernero, Antonio; Martin del Valle, Eva M., E-mail:; Galan, Miguel A.


    Research highlights: We propose a method to determine sublimation properties of solids. Low deviations were produced calculating sublimation enthalpies and pressures. It is a required step to determine the vaporization enthalpy of the solid. It is possible to determine solid properties using semiempirical models solid-SCF. - Abstract: Experimental solubility data of solid-supercritical fluids have significantly increased in the last few years, and semiempirical models are emerging as one of the best choices to fit this type of data. This work establishes a methodology to calculate sublimation pressures using this type of equations. It requires the use of Bartle's equation to model equilibria data solid-supercritical fluids with the aim of determining the vaporization enthalpy of the compound. Using this method, low deviations were obtained by calculating sublimation pressures and sublimation enthalpies. The values of the sublimation pressures were subsequently used to successfully model different multiphasic equilibria, as solid-supercritical fluids and solid-solvent-supercritical fluids with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (without considering the sublimation pressure as an adjustable parameter). On the other hand, the sublimation pressures were also used to calculate solid sublimation properties and acetaminophen solvation properties in some solvents. Also, solubility data solid-supercritical fluids from 62 pharmaceuticals were fitted with different semiempirical equations (Chrastil, Kumar-Johnston and Bartle models) in order to present the values of solvation enthalpies in sc-CO{sub 2} and vaporization enthalpies for these compounds. All of these results highlight that semiempirical models can be used for any other purpose as well as modeling (solid + supercritical fluids) equilibria.

  19. Debate on sublime in the end of 18th century: Burke, Kant, Schiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana


    Full Text Available In the article the authors are examining three positions within the 18th Century aesthetic discussion on the sublime - Edmund Burke's, Immanuel Kant's and Friedrich Schiller's. They are also trying to reconstruct the political backgrounds of each of this theoretical positions: old regime conservatism (Burke, republican liberalism (Schiller and romantic longing for the 'third way' (Kant. The most sophisticated and mature theory of sublime is found in Schiller's aesthetic works, especially in those following his disappointment in French Revolution, in which the relationship between sublime and paradoxes of historical violence is most thoroughly reflected.

  20. Mimeses do sublime: a recepção de Kant pelo Romantismo e pelo Expressionismo Mimesis of sublime: the Romantism and Expressionism reception of Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rossinetti Rufinoni


    Full Text Available Partindo das analises do criticismo kantiano, este texto investiga as concepções romântica e moderna de sublime e de imaginação. Se, por um lado, a concepção romântica inaugura o mundo moderno, por outro, a expressionista mostra os limites dessa mesma modernidade. Para ambas, entretanto, a Crítica do Juízo de Kant é o âmbito privilegiado no qual podemos precisar as distinções.Starting from the analysis of the Kantian criticism, this text investigates the romantic and the modern conceptions of sublime and imagination. On the one hand, the romantic conceptions of sublime inaugurate the modern world. On the other hand, the expressionist conceptions show the confines of this world. The Critique of Judgment is the very locus where such distinctions can be drawn with precision.

  1. Rousseau's Ethics of Truth: a sublime science of simple souls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Neildleman


    Full Text Available ROUSSEAU’S ETHICS OF TRUTH - A SUBLIME SCIENCE OF SIMPLE SOULS Resumo: este artigo é um resumo do livro com o mesmo título, publicado pelas edições da Routledge, nos Estados Unidos. Tanto no livro quanto neste artigo, o autor pretende discutir a coerência dos textos de Rousseau, na qual é possível prospectar uma "ética da verdade" cujo objetivo seja alcançar um vínculo de comunhão com as pessoas e com as coisas. O autor tenta ainda discutir as implicações da ética da verdade de Rousseau sobre o nosso sentido de si mesmo e o sentido de existência no mundo. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Ética. Verdade. Filosofia. Abstract: This paper is a summary of the book published by Routledge in the United States. The author aims to discuss the coherence of Rousseau’s texts thought which it is possible to prospect an “ethics of truth”, so to achieve a communion bond with people and things. The author tries also to discuss the implications of Rousseau’s ethics of truth on our sense of self and the implications in the real existence in the world. Keywords: Rousseau. Ethics. Truth. Philosophy.

  2. Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate for use in Active Thermal Control System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The original Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) design sought to provide significant mass savings over a traditional pumped fluid loop by combining the functions of a...

  3. Investigation of the extruded products based on lupins, lentils and sublimated meat hydrophilic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov


    Full Text Available Using the calorimetric method have been studied the swelling kinetics of developed vegetable-meat mixture on the basis of lentils, lupine and sublimated meat to create extruded functionality products.

  4. In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of sublimation in silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Asoro, Michael A; Kovar, Desiderio; Ferreira, Paulo J


    In situ heating experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to monitor the thermal stability of silver nanoparticles. The sublimation kinetics from isothermal experiments on individual nanoparticles was used to assess the actual temperatures of the nanoparticles by considering the localized heating from the electron beam. For isolated nanoparticles, beam heating under normal TEM operating conditions was found to increase the temperature by tens of degrees. For nominally isothermal experiments, the observed sublimation temperatures generally decreased with decreasing particle size, in agreement with the predictions from the Kelvin equation. However, sublimation of smaller nanoparticles was often observed to occur in discrete steps, which led to faceting of the nanoparticles. This discrete behavior differs from that predicted by conventional theory as well as from experimental observations in larger nanoparticles where sublimation was continuous. A hypothesis that explains the mechanism for this size-dependent behavior is proposed.

  5. Blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica from 11 years of CALIPSO observations (United States)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Kayetha, Vinay; Yang, Yuekui; Pauly, Rebecca


    Blowing snow processes commonly occur over the earth's ice sheets when the 10 m wind speed exceeds a threshold value. These processes play a key role in the sublimation and redistribution of snow thereby influencing the surface mass balance. Prior field studies and modeling results have shown the importance of blowing snow sublimation and transport on the surface mass budget and hydrological cycle of high-latitude regions. For the first time, we present continent-wide estimates of blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica for the period 2006-2016 based on direct observation of blowing snow events. We use an improved version of the blowing snow detection algorithm developed for previous work that uses atmospheric backscatter measurements obtained from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellite. The blowing snow events identified by CALIPSO and meteorological fields from MERRA-2 are used to compute the blowing snow sublimation and transport rates. Our results show that maximum sublimation occurs along and slightly inland of the coastline. This is contrary to the observed maximum blowing snow frequency which occurs over the interior. The associated temperature and moisture reanalysis fields likely contribute to the spatial distribution of the maximum sublimation values. However, the spatial pattern of the sublimation rate over Antarctica is consistent with modeling studies and precipitation estimates. Overall, our results show that the 2006-2016 Antarctica average integrated blowing snow sublimation is about 393 ± 196 Gt yr-1, which is considerably larger than previous model-derived estimates. We find maximum blowing snow transport amount of 5 Mt km-1 yr-1 over parts of East Antarctica and estimate that the average snow transport from continent to ocean is about 3.7 Gt yr-1. These continent-wide estimates are the first of their kind

  6. Oxidation and sublimation of porous graphite during fiber laser irradiation (United States)

    Phillips, Grady T.; Bauer, William A.; Gonzales, Ashley E.; Herr, Nicholas C.; Perram, Glen P.


    Porous graphite plates, cylinders and cones with densities of 1.55-1.82 g/cm3 were irradiated by a 10 kW fiber laser at 0.075 -3.525 kW/cm2 for 120 s to study mass removal and crater formation. Surface temperatures reached steady state values as high as 3767 K. The total decrease in sample mass ranged from 0.06 to 6.29 g, with crater volumes of 0.52 - 838 mm3, and penetration times for 12.7 mm thick plates as short as 38 s. Minor contaminants in the graphite samples produced calcium and iron oxide to be re-deposited on the graphite surface. Significantly increased porosity of the sample is observed even outside of the laser-irradiated region. Total mass removed increases with deposited laser energy at a rate of 4.83 g/MJ for medium extruded graphite with an apparent threshold of 0.15 MJ. Visible emission spectroscopy reveals C2 Swan and CN red, CN violet bands and Li, Na, and K 2P3/2,1/2 - 2S1/2 doublets. The reacting boundary layer is observed using a mid-wave imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) at 2 cm-1 spectral resolution, 0.5 mm/pixel spatial resolution, and 0.75 Hz data cube rate. A two-layer radiative transfer model was used to determine plume temperature, CO, and CO2 concentrations from spectral signatures. The new understanding of graphite combustion and sublimation during laser irradiation is vital to the more complex behavior of carbon composites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Barykin


    Full Text Available Summary. The main directions of use of freeze-dryed products and ingredients are revealed. The analysis of sales markets of freeze-dryed products is provided. It is shown that introduction of innovative production technologies will allow to develop dynamically not only to the large companies, but also small firms that will create prerequisites for growth of the Russian market of freeze-dryed products. Tendencies of development of the freeze-drying equipment are analysed. Relevance of development of energy saving freeze-dryers is proved The integrated approach to creation of competitive domestic technologies and the equipment for sublimation dehydration of thermolabile products consists in use of the effective combined remedies of a power supply, a process intensification, reduction of specific energy consumption and, as a result, decrease in product cost at achievement of high quality indicators. Advantages of thermoelectric modules as alternative direction to existing vapor-compression and absorbing refrigerating appliances are given. Researches of process of freeze-drying dehydration with use of thermoelectric modules are conducted. It is scientifically confirmed, that the thermoelectric module working at Peltier effect, promotes increase in refrigerating capacity due to use of the principle of the thermal pump. Options of use of thermoelectric modules in designs of dryers are offered. Optimum operating modes and number of modules in section are defined. Ways of increase of power efficiency of freeze-dryers with use of thermoelectric modules are specified. The received results will allow to make engineering calculations and design of progressive freeze-drying installations with various ways of a power supply.

  8. Measured and modelled sublimation on the tropical Glaciar Artesonraju, Perú

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    M. Winkler


    Full Text Available Sublimation plays a decisive role in the surface energy and mass balance of tropical glaciers. During the dry season (May–September low specific humidity and high surface roughness favour the direct transition from ice to vapour and drastically reduce the energy available for melting. However, field measurements are scarce and little is known about the performance of sublimation parameterisations in glacier mass balance and runoff models.

    During 15 days in August 2005 sublimation was measured on the tongue of Glaciar Artesonraju (8°58' S, 77°38' W in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú, using simple lysimeters. Indicating a strong dependence on surface roughness, daily totals of sublimation range from 1–3 kg m−2 for smooth to 2–5 kg m−2 for rough conditions. (The 15-day means at that time of wind speed and specific humidity were 4.3 m s−1 and 3.8 g kg−1, respectively.

    Measured sublimation was related to characteristic surface roughness lengths for momentum (zm and for the scalar quantities of temperature and water vapour (zs, using a process-based mass balance model. Input data were provided by automatic weather stations, situated on the glacier tongue at 4750 m a.s.l. and 4810 m a.s.l., respectively. Under smooth conditions the combination zm=2.0 mm and zs=1.0 mm appeared to be most appropriate, for rough conditions zm=20.0 mm and zs=10.0 mm fitted best.

    Extending the sublimation record from April 2004 to December 2005 with the process-based model confirms, that sublimation shows a clear seasonality. 60–90% of the energy available for ablation is consumed by sublimation in the dry season, but only 10–15% in the wet season (October–April. The findings are finally used to evaluate the parameterisation of sublimation in the lower-complexity mass

  9. Isothermal and non-isothermal sublimation kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl{sub 4}) for producing nuclear grade Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hong [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi Sun [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST), Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Dong Joon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo Hyun, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Sublimation of ZrCl{sub 4} is important for the production of nuclear grade metallic Zr in Kroll's process. The sublimation kinetics of ZrCl{sub 4} was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The sublimation rate of ZrCl{sub 4} increased with increasing temperature under isothermal conditions. ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation was confirmed to be a zero-order process under isothermal conditions, whereas it was first-order kinetics under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy of ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation under isothermal conditions was 21.7 kJ mol{sup −1}. The activation energy for non-isothermal sublimation was 101.4 kJ mol{sup −1} and 108.1 kJ mol{sup −1} with the Kissinger method and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method, respectively. These non-isothermal activation energies were very close to the heat of sublimation (103.3 kJ mol{sup −1}). Sublimation occurs by two elementary steps: surface reaction and desorption. Therefore, the overall activation energy of ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation is 104.8 (±3.4) kJ mol{sup −1}. The activation energy of the surface reaction and desorption steps are proposed to be 83.1 kJ mol{sup −1} and 21.7 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Sublimation kinetics of ZrCl{sub 4} was quantitatively analyzed using TGA method. • Isothermal and non-isothermal sublimation kinetics were quantitatively evaluated. • Activation energies of isothermal and non-isothermal kinetics were obtained. • Sublimation mechanism was proposed from kinetic analyses and SEM observations. • This kinetic information will be very useful in production of nuclear grade Zr.

  10. Mechanism and kinetics for ammonium dinitramide (ADN) sublimation: a first-principles study. (United States)

    Zhu, R S; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lin, M C


    The mechanism for sublimation of NH(4)N(NO(2))(2) (ADN) has been investigated quantum-mechanically with generalized gradient approximation plane-wave density functional theory calculations; the solid surface is represented by a slab model and the periodic boundary conditions are applied. The calculated lattice constants for the bulk ADN, which were found to consist of NH(4)(+)[ON(O)NNO(2)](-) units, instead of NH(4)(+)[N(NO(2))(2)](-), agree quite well with experimental values. Results show that three steps are involved in the sublimation/decomposition of ADN. The first step is the relaxation of the surface layer with 1.6 kcal/mol energy per NH(4)ON(O)NNO(2) unit; the second step is the sublimation of the surface layer to form a molecular [NH(3)]-[HON(O)NNO(2)] complex with a 29.4 kcal/mol sublimation energy, consistent with the experimental observation of Korobeinichev et al. (10) The last step is the dissociation of the [H(3)N]-[HON(O)NNO(2)] complex to give NH(3) and HON(O)NNO(2) with the dissociation energy of 13.9 kcal/mol. Direct formation of NO(2) (g) from solid ADN costs a much higher energy, 58.3 kcal/mol. Our calculated total sublimation enthalpy for ADN(s) → NH(3)(g) + HON(O)NNO(2)) (g), 44.9 kcal/mol via three steps, is in good agreement with the value, 42.1 kcal/mol predicted for the one-step sublimation process in this work and the value 44.0 kcal/mol computed by Politzer et al. (11) using experimental thermochemical data. The sublimation rate constant for the rate-controlling step 2 can be represented as k(sub) = 2.18 × 10(12) exp (-30.5 kcal/mol/RT) s(-1), which agrees well with available experimental data within the temperature range studied. The high pressure limit decomposition rate constant for the molecular complex H(3)N···HON(O)NNO(2) can be expressed by k(dec) = 3.18 × 10(13) exp (-15.09 kcal/mol/RT) s(-1). In addition, water molecules were found to increase the sublimation enthalpy of ADN, contrary to that found in the ammonium

  11. Distributed modelling of climate change impacts on snow sublimation in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menzel


    Full Text Available Sublimation of snow is an important factor of the hydrological cycle in Mongolia and is likely to increase according to future climate projections. In this study the hydrological model TRAIN was used to assess spatially distributed current and future sublimation rates based on interpolated daily data of precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. An automated procedure for the interpolation of the input data is provided. Depending on the meteorological parameter and the data availability for the individual days, the most appropriate interpolation method is chosen automatically from inverse distance weighting, Ordinary Least Squares interpolation, Ordinary or Universal Kriging. Depending on elevation simulated annual sublimation in the period 1986–2006 was 23 to 35 mm, i.e. approximately 80% of total snowfall. Moreover, future climate projections for 2071–2100 of ECHAM5 and HadCM3, based on the A1B emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, were analysed with TRAIN. In the case of ECHAM5 simulated sublimation increases by up to 17% (26...41 mm while it remains at the same level for HadCM3 (24...34 mm. The differences are mainly due to a distinct increase in winter precipitation for ECHAM5. Simulated changes of the all-season hydrological conditions, e.g. the sublimation-to-precipitation ratio, were ambiguous due to diverse precipitation patterns derived by the global circulation models.

  12. Experimental Study of influence on The Moving of Sublimation Interface by Precooling Rate and Drying Temperature During Freeze-drying (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Tao, Le-Ren


    For complex heat and mass transfer during freeze-drying, the shape and the moving rate of sublimation interface have not been clearly recognized yet. In this paper, Micro-CT scanner was used to follow the moving interface during sublimation. Apple slices cut into 16mm in diameter and 8mm in thickness were used as experimental samples, they were scanned every two hours during sublimation. The scanning images were analyzed and measured, then variation curves of grey value and curves of sublimation rate in two directions were obtained. The moving rates of sublimation interface under various precooling rates and primary drying temperatures were compared. The results show that, heat and mass transfer happens both at the upper and the under surface of the sample. Also it happens at the side surface to some extent. The interface shows as a three-dimensional moving mode, contracts to the geometric centre of the sample and presents an approximately spheral shape. Apple samples frozen at low rate sublimated more quickly than those by high rate. While drying temperature was higher, the sublimation interface moved more quickly. Under slow precooling condition, the sublimation rate rose quickly near the end of sublimation not only in vertical direction, but in horizontal direction.

  13. The role of sublimation and condensation in the formation of ice sheet surface at Mizuho Station, Antarctica (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Kusunoki, Kou


    Three methods were used to determine the sublimation and condensation at Mizuho Station in 1977-1978, that is, direct observations with an evaporimeter filled with ice and repeated measurements of offset stakes and indirect estimation using an empirical formula derived from meteorological parameters. A comparison of three methods shows satisfactory agreement, especially in the weekly average of sublimation in the 1977-1978 summer, while condensation is insignificantly small. Condensation prevailed from the middle of April to the middle of September and sublimation in the remainder of 1977. The annual amounts of condensation and sublimation in 1977 are estimated to be 0.6 g cm-2 and 5.4 g cm-2, respectively. The daily amount of sublimation showed its maximum of 92 mg cm-2 on December 22, 1977, at the summer solstice. The annual amount of sublimation much affected the annual net accumulation of 5.8 g. The sublimation and condensation contributed in the formation of glazed surface consisting of multilayered ice crusts. This glazed surface is representative in the katabatic wind region in Mizuho Plateau, and the structure of the ice crust reflects the mass balance due to sublimation and condensation on both sides of the crust. Sublimation rate varies with the direction of the sloping faces of sastrugi, being the maximum on the north-facing slope, which receives the maximum solar radiation.

  14. Oxygen safety (United States)

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; Hospice - oxygen safety

  15. The Effect of CO2 Ice Cap Sublimation on Mars Atmosphere (United States)

    Batterson, Courtney


    Sublimation of the polar CO2 ice caps on Mars is an ongoing phenomenon that may be contributing to secular climate change on Mars. The transfer of CO2 between the surface and atmosphere via sublimation and deposition may alter atmospheric mass such that net atmospheric mass is increasing despite seasonal variations in CO2 transfer. My study builds on previous studies by Kahre and Haberle that analyze and compare data from the Phoenix and Viking Landers 1 and 2 to determine whether secular climate change is happening on Mars. In this project, I use two years worth of temperature, pressure, and elevation data from the MSL Curiosity rover to create a program that allows for successful comparison of Curiosity pressure data to Viking Lander pressure data so a conclusion can be drawn regarding whether CO2 ice cap sublimation is causing a net increase in atmospheric mass and is thus contributing to secular climate change on Mars.

  16. The sublime in the anthropic landscape by means of modern photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Blanco Arroyo


    Full Text Available This article expounds on a conceptual analysis of the sublime, employing the anthropic landscape as the field of study, and registering both projections within the discipline of photography. Therefore, a narrative is formulated with the photographic production from the last few decades, in order to address both sublime nature and the current day industrial sublime. The conceptual constants from several artistic discourses define the line of argument running through this article to establish a theoretical framework for human existence in today’s post-industrial landscape. The artists selected provide a crucial unifying thread permitting the evolution and transformation of universal concepts of landscape to be examined; providing us with an updated conceptualization of the relationship between humans and their altered environment.

  17. Numerical modeling and analytical modeling of cryogenic carbon capture in a de-sublimating heat exchanger (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Miller, Franklin; Pfotenhauer, John M.


    Both a numerical and analytical model of the heat and mass transfer processes in a CO2, N2 mixture gas de-sublimating cross-flow finned duct heat exchanger system is developed to predict the heat transferred from a mixture gas to liquid nitrogen and the de-sublimating rate of CO2 in the mixture gas. The mixture gas outlet temperature, liquid nitrogen outlet temperature, CO2 mole fraction, temperature distribution and de-sublimating rate of CO2 through the whole heat exchanger was computed using both the numerical and analytic model. The numerical model is built using EES [1] (engineering equation solver). According to the simulation, a cross-flow finned duct heat exchanger can be designed and fabricated to validate the models. The performance of the heat exchanger is evaluated as functions of dimensionless variables, such as the ratio of the mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen to the mass flow rate of inlet flue gas.

  18. Traumatic Sublime: Genealogy of the Term and Relation to Contemporary Art and Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jankov


    Full Text Available Prolonging the concept in art theory related to Andy Warhol’s art, whose (photographic series are characterized by “traumatic”, id est repetitive, operation of technique, Hal Foster introduces the term traumatic sublime to describe Bill Viola’s video works. The term relates not only to themes presented in the videos, but also to the media presenting them. Through his HD installation Ocean Without Shore at the 52nd Venice Biennale, Viola emphasised how important technical specifications of media are for his work, defining the colour saturation on the video with water curtains. This paper gives an overview of the technical evolution of Bill Viola’s works and of the term sublime, from Longinus, over Immanuel Kant, to Hal Foster and Jean-François Lyotard. It concludes that traumatic sublime can be related to several forms of new media art, not exclusively to Bill Viola’s work.

  19. Trans-modern AesthesiS In The Eurasian Borderlands And The Decolonial Anti-sublime


    Madina Tlostanova


    El artículo estudia la aesthesis transmoderna en relación con la agenda de liberar la esfera estética de los mitos de la modernidad occidental. La autora ofrece un resumen crítico de las principales corrientes estéticas occidentales frente al anti-sublime decolonial como modelo alternativo analizado en el artículo. Se presta especial atención al mecanismo de este sublime, fundado en una hermenéutica pluritópica y una “comunidad de sentido” decolonial que une a quienes fueron marcados por la “...

  20. How the sublime became "now": time, modernity and aesthetics in Lyotard's rewriting of Kant


    Cunningham, D.I.


    Writing in the late 1980s, Nancy gives as examples of the "recent fashion for the sublime" not only the theoreticians of Paris, but the artists of Los Angeles, Berlin, Rome, and Tokyo. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the sublime may of course no longer seem quite so "now" as it did back then, whether in North America, Europe, or Japan. Simon Critchley, for one, has suggested that, at least as regards the issue of its conceptual coupling to "postmodernism," the "debate" concernin...

  1. HMT production and sublimation during thermal process of cometary organic analogs. Implications for its detection with the ROSETTA instruments (United States)

    Briani, Giacomo; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Benilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Perrier, Sebastien


    One important component of refractory organic residues synthesized from interstellar/cometary ice analogues is hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4). However, HMT has never been observed in any astrophysical or planetary environment so far. We investigated thermal evolution of HMT above ambient temperature. The synthesis of the organic residue (ice deposition, photolysis and warming) as well as its heating to temperatures higher than 300 K are performed by means of the same experimental apparatus. The later also allows in situ continuous monitoring of both the solid organic residue (by FTIR spectrometry) and of the gas species (by mass spectrometry). Two different ice mixtures, composed of H2O:CH3OH:NH3 = 10:1:1 and H2O:CH3OH:NH3:CO2 = 10:1:1:2, were deposited and simultaneously photolyzed at 29 K. Warming these photolyzed ices up to 300 K allows the production of refractory organic residues. At 300 K the organic residues clearly show the presence of HMT, but also some difference, in particular in their oxygenated components. Different evolutions of the organic residues are observed for temperatures >300 K. We characterized the organic residue thermal evolution for temperatures up to 500 K. We observed that HMT is still produced at temperatures higher than 300 K. Production of solid HMT and sublimation are simultaneous. HMT observed in the solid phase could be only a minor fraction of the total HMT production, the major fraction being sublimated. The kinetics of the HMT thermal evolution strongly depends on the organic residue composition at 300 K and seems to depend on the exact nature of the oxygenated fraction of the organic residue. The maximum temperature at which solid HMT is observed is 450 K. As HMT forms only for temperatures greater than 280 K in laboratory conditions, it implies that the detection of solid HMT in extraterrestrial samples will provide a strong indication of their thermal history. Consequently, the search for HMT in both solid cometary

  2. Surface energy balance, melt and sublimation at Neumayer Station, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; König-Langlo, G.; Picard, G.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.


    A surface energy balance model is forced by 13 years of high-quality hourly observations from the Antarctic coastal station Neumayer. The model accurately reproduces observed surface temperatures. Surface sublimation is significant in summer, when absorbed solar radiation heats the surface.

  3. How to Kill a Journalism School: The Digital Sublime in the Discourse of Discontinuance (United States)

    McDevitt, Michael; Sindorf, Shannon


    The authors argue that journalism's uncertain identity in academia has made it vulnerable to unreflective instrumentalism in the digital era. They show how instrumentalism intertwined with the digital sublime constitutes a rhetorically resonate rationale for closing a journalism school. Evidence comes from documents and testimony associated with…

  4. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid (United States)

    Utgikar, Vivek P.


    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  5. Estimation of Continental-Basin-Scale Sublimation in the Lena River Basin, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Suzuki


    Full Text Available The Lena River basin in Siberia produces one of the largest river inflows into the Arctic Ocean. One of the most important sources of runoff to the river is spring snowmelt and therefore snow ablation processes have great importance for this basin. In this study, we simulated these processes with fine resolution at basin scale using MicroMet/SnowModel and SnowAssim. To assimilate snow water equivalent (SWE data in SnowAssim, we used routine daily snow depth data and Sturm’s method. Following the verification of this method for SWE estimation in the basin, we evaluated the impact of snow data assimilation on basin-scale snow ablation. Through validation against MODIS snow coverage data and in situ snow survey observations, we found that SnowAssim could not improve on the original simulation by MicroMet/SnowModel because of estimation errors within the SWE data. Vegetation and accumulated snowfall control the spatial distribution of sublimation and we established that sublimation has an important effect on snow ablation. We found that the ratio of sublimation to snowfall in forests was around 26% and that interannual variation of sublimation modulated spring river runoff.

  6. Sublimation of natural amino acids and induction of asymmetry by meteoritic amino acids (United States)

    Tarasevych, Arkadii V.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    It is believed that the homochirality of building blocks of life like amino acids (AAs) and sugars is a prerequisite requirement for the origin and evolution of life. Among different mechanisms that might have triggered the initial disparity in the enantiomeric ratio on the primitive Earth, the key roles were assigned to: (i) local chiral symmetry breaking and (ii) the inflow of extraterrestrial matter (eg the carbonaceous meteorites containing non-racemic AAs). Recently it has been revealed that sublimation, a subject almost completely neglected for a long time, gives a pathway to enantioenrichment of natural AAs (1,2 and references herein). Sublimation is however one of the key physical processes that occur on comets. Starting from a mixture with a low content of an enantiopure AA, a partial sublimation gives an important enrichment of the sublimate (1,2). The resulted disparity in the ratio between enantiomers of a partial sublimate is determined by the crystalline nature of the starting mixture: we observed a drastic difference in the behavior of (i) mixtures based on true racemic compounds and (ii) mechanical mixtures of two enantiopure solid phases. On the other hand, combination of crystallization and sublimation can lead to segregation of enantioenriched fractions starting from racemic composition of sublimable aliphatic AAs (Ala, Leu, Pro, Val) in mixtures with non-volatile enantiopure ones (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) (3). The resulted sense of chirality correlates with the handedness of the non-volatile AAs: the observed changes in enantiomeric ratios clearly demonstrate the preferential homochiral interactions and a tendency of natural amino acids to homochiral self-organization. It is noteworthy that just these 5 (Asn, Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr) out of 22 proteinogenic amino acids are able to local symmetry breaking. On the other hand, recent data on the enantiomeric composition of the Tagish Lake, a C2-type carbonaceous meteorite, revealed a large L

  7. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot


    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  8. La libertad entre lo visible y lo invisible: límites y alcances de lo sublime katiano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Amaya Villarreal .


    Full Text Available The following essay is a view of the Kantian refection on the sublime in light of an interpretation that understands the Critique of Judgement as a project that is born from a concern for the relationship that appears within the sensible and suprasensible dimension of the human being. Influenced by the view presented by Lyotard in Lessons on the analytics of the sublime, I explore some of the consequences brought on for the comprehension of Kantian morality and freedom by its contact with the category of the sublime.

  9. "Back-fire to lust": G. Stanley Hall, sex-segregated schooling, and the engine of sublimation. (United States)

    Graebner, William


    G. Stanley Hall was an advocate of sex-segregated schooling long after most Americans had accepted coeducation. His position was based in part on personal experience: observations of his father and mother, a repressed and guilt-ridden boyhood sexuality, and his conviction that his own career success was a product of sublimated sexual desire, of erotic energy converted into mental energy. Hall theorized that coeducation put sublimation at risk, and that sex-segregated schools, by contributing to proper gendered development and by prolonging and sublimating the sexual tensions of adolescence, would produce social progress.

  10. Fast crystalline ice formation at extremely low temperature through water/neon matrix sublimation. (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Shinnosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Kimura, Yuki; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Pirronello, Valerio


    Crystalline ice formation requires water molecules to be sufficiently mobile to find and settle on the thermodynamically most stable site. Upon cooling, however, diffusion and rearrangement become increasingly kinetically difficult. Water ice grown by the condensation of water vapor in laboratory is thus generally assumed to be in a metastable amorphous form below 100 K. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of crystalline ice formation at extremely low temperature using a water/neon matrix (1/1000, 30 000 monolayers) prepared at 6 K, which is subsequently warmed to 11-12 K. In situ infrared spectroscopy revealed the assembly of the dispersed water molecules, forming crystalline ice I during the sublimation of the neon matrix for 40-250 seconds. This finding indicates that the high mobility of the water molecules during matrix sublimation can overcome the kinetic barrier to form crystals even at extremely low temperature.

  11. Isothermal close space sublimation for II-VI semiconductor filling of porous matrices (United States)


    Isothermal close space sublimation, a simple and low-cost physical vapour transport technique, was used to infiltrate ZnTe and CdSe semiconductors in porous silicon. The structure of the embedded materials was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis while Rutherford backscattering spectra allowed determining the composition profiles of the samples. In both cases, a constant composition of the II-VI semiconductors throughout the porous layer down to the substrate was found. Resonance Raman scattering of the ZnTe samples indicates that this semiconductor grows in nanostructured form inside the pores. Results presented in this paper suggest that isothermal close space sublimation is a promising technique for the conformal growth of II-VI semiconductors in porous silicon. PMID:22823959

  12. Water Drops Dancing on Ice: How Sublimation Leads to Drop Rebound (United States)

    Antonini, C.; Bernagozzi, I.; Jung, S.; Poulikakos, D.; Marengo, M.


    Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces but can also be induced through the so-called Leidenfrost effect. Here we demonstrate that drop rebound can also originate from another physical phenomenon, the solid substrate sublimation. Through drop impact experiments on a superhydrophobic surfaces, a hot plate, and solid carbon dioxide (commonly known as dry ice), we compare drop rebound based on three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common (superhydrophobicity, evaporation, and sublimation), but lead to the same rebound phenomenon in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300°C down to even below -79°C. The formation and unprecedented visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop are also reported.

  13. Darwin's sublime: the contest between reason and imagination in On the Origin of Species. (United States)

    Bradley, Benjamin Sylvester


    Recent Darwin scholarship has provided grounds for recognising the Origin as a literary as well as a scientific achievement. While Darwin was an acute observer, a gifted experimentalist and indefatigable theorist, this essay argues that it was also crucial to his impact that the Origin transcended the putative divide between the scientific and the literary. Analysis of Darwin's development as a writer between his journal-keeping on HMS Beagle and his construction of the Origin argues the latter draws on the pattern of the Romantic or Kantian sublime. The Origin repeatedly uses strategies which challenge the natural-theological appeal to the imagination in conceiving nature. Darwin's sublime coaches the Origin's readers into a position from which to envision nature that reduces and contains its otherwise overwhelming complexity. As such, it was Darwin's literary achievement that enabled him to fashion a new 'habit of looking at things in a given way' that is the centrepiece of the scientific revolution bearing his name.

  14. Spectroscopy of lithium atoms sublimated from isolation matrix of solid Ne. (United States)

    Sacramento, R L; Scudeller, L A; Lambo, R; Crivelli, P; Cesar, C L


    We have studied, via laser absorption spectroscopy, the velocity distribution of (7)Li atoms released from a solid neon matrix at cryogenic temperatures. The Li atoms are implanted into the Ne matrix by laser ablation of a solid Li precursor. A heat pulse is then applied to the sapphire substrate sublimating the matrix together with the isolated atoms at around 12 K. We find interesting differences in the velocity distribution of the released Li atoms from the model developed for our previous experiment with Cr [R. Lambo, C. C. Rodegheri, D. M. Silveira, and C. L. Cesar, Phys. Rev. A 76, 061401(R) (2007)]. This may be due to the sublimation regime, which is at much lower flux for the Li experiment than for the Cr experiment, as well as to the different collisional cross sections between those species to the Ne gas. We find a drift velocity compatible with Li being thermally sublimated at 11-13 K, while the velocity dispersion around this drift velocity is low, around 5-7 K. With a slow sublimation of the matrix we can determine the penetration depth of the laser ablated Li atoms into the Ne matrix, an important information that is not usually available in most matrix isolation spectroscopy setups. The present results with Li, together with the previous results with Cr suggest this to be a general technique for obtaining cryogenic atoms, for spectroscopic studies, as well as for trap loading. The release of the isolated atoms is also a useful tool to study and confirm details of the matrix isolated atoms which are masked or poorly understood in the solid. © 2011 American Institute of Physics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morgunova


    Full Text Available El artículo se centra en la argumentación de la estructura de la metáfora humorística del humor sublime garciamarqueño. Se abordan los mecanismos de la generación de la connotación axiológica a la luz de la indagación en el resquebrajamiento de las fronteras entre los distintos valores estéticos.

  16. Vapor pressures and sublimation enthalpies of seven heteroatomic aromatic hydrocarbons measured using the Knudsen effusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, Jillian L., E-mail: [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Suuberg, Eric M., E-mail: Eric_Suuberg@brown.ed [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)


    The vapor pressures of seven heteroatom-containing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging in molecular weight from (168.19 to 208.21) g . mol{sup -1} were measured over the temperature range of (301 to 486) K using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique. The compounds measured include: anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone oxime, phenoxazine, phenoxathiin, and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole. These solid-state sublimation measurements provided values that are compared to vapor pressures of parent aromatic compounds (anthracene and fluorene) and to others with substituent groups in order to examine the effects of alcohol, ketone, pyridine, and pyrrole functionality on this property. The enthalpies and entropies of sublimation for each compound were determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Though there is no consistent trend in terms of the effects of substitutions on changes in the enthalpy or entropy of sublimation, we note that the prevalence of enthalpic or entropic driving forces on vapor pressure depend on molecule-specific factors and not merely molecular weight of the substituents.

  17. Characterization of Sulfur and Nanostructured Sulfur Battery Cathodes in Electron Microscopy Without Sublimation Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Barnaby D. A.; Zachman, Michael J.; Werner, Jörg G.; Sahore, Ritu; Nguyen, Kayla X.; Han, Yimo; Xie, Baoquan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Muller, David A.



    Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.

  18. Matrix sublimation/recrystallization for imaging proteins by mass spectrometry at high spatial resolution. (United States)

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M


    We have employed matrix deposition by sublimation for protein image analysis on tissue sections using a hydration/recrystallization process that produces high-quality MALDI mass spectra and high-spatial-resolution ion images. We systematically investigated different washing protocols, the effect of tissue section thickness, the amount of sublimated matrix per unit area, and different recrystallization conditions. The results show that an organic solvent rinse followed by ethanol/water rinses substantially increased sensitivity for the detection of proteins. Both the thickness of the tissue section and the amount of sinapinic acid sublimated per unit area have optimal ranges for maximal protein signal intensity. Ion images of mouse and rat brain sections at 50, 20, and 10 μm spatial resolution are presented and are correlated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained optical images. For targeted analysis, histology-directed imaging can be performed using this protocol where MS analysis and H&E staining are performed on the same section.

  19. Characterization of Sulfur and Nanostructured Sulfur Battery Cathodes in Electron Microscopy Without Sublimation Artifacts. (United States)

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Zachman, Michael J; Werner, Jörg G; Sahore, Ritu; Nguyen, Kayla X; Han, Yimo; Xie, Baoquan; Ma, Lin; Archer, Lynden A; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Wiesner, Ulrich; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Muller, David A


    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li-S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon-sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon-sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li-S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.

  20. Thermal Stability and Anisotropic Sublimation of Two-Dimensional Colloidal Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Buha, Joka; Castillo, Antonio Esau Del Rio; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Manna, Liberato


    The structural and compositional stabilities of two dimensional 2D Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 nanocrystals, produced by both colloidal synthesis and by liquid phase exfoliation, were studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy TEM during annealing at temperatures between 350 and 500 C. The sublimation process induced by annealing is structurally and chemically anisotropic and takes place through the preferential dismantling of the prismatic 011-0 type planes, and through the preferential sublimation of Te or Se.

  1. Acetamidobenzoic acid isomers: Studying sublimation and fusion processes and their relation with crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manin, Alex N.; Voronin, Alexander P.; Perlovich, German L., E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermodynamic characteristics of sublimation process were investigated for 2-, 3- and 4-acetamidobenzoic acids. • Thermophysic parameters of melting processes were determined and enthalpies of vaporization were calculated for the isomers. • Sublimation thermodynamic parameters were compared with crystal structures of the isomers. - Abstract: Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure for i-acetamidobenzoic acids (i = 2, 3 and 4) were obtained by flow inert gas-carrier transfer method. Thermodynamic parameters of sublimation were calculated for 2-acetamidobenzoic acid (2-AcAm-BA), 3-acetamidobenzoic acid (3-AcAm-BA) and 4-acetamidobenzoic acid (4-AcAm-BA) (2-AcAm-BA: ΔG{sub sub}{sup 298}=54.4 kJ mol{sup −1}; ΔH{sub sub}{sup 298}=116±1 kJ mol{sup −1}; ΔS{sub sub}{sup 298}=205±4 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1}; 3-AcAm-BA: ΔG{sub sub}{sup 298}=73.2 kJ mol{sup −1}; ΔH{sub sub}{sup 298}=137±1 kJ mol{sup −1}; ΔS{sub sub}{sup 298}=215±4 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1}; 4-AcAm-BA: ΔG{sub sub}{sup 298}=72.3 kJ mol{sup −1}; ΔH{sub sub}{sup 298}=138±1 kJ mol{sup −1}; ΔS{sub sub}{sup 298}=221±8 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1}). Thermochemical parameters of fusion process for investigated substances were obtained, and vaporization enthalpies were estimated from fusion and sublimation enthalpies. The thermal data obtained in all experiments were used to find relationships between the thermal properties of these compounds and other benzoic acid derivatives and their structural properties. A correlation between enthalpy of sublimation and melting point was obtained. The influence of size and position of substituents on crystal lattice energy was discussed.

  2. Measuring Enthalpy of Sublimation of Volatiles by Means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano


    Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment. In particular the enthalpy of sublimation of some dicarboxylic acids has been measured. The importance of dicarboxylic acids in planetology and astrobiology is due to the fact that they have been detected in carbonaceous chondritic material (e.g. Murchinson), among the most pristine material present in our Solar System. In this work, a sample of acid was heated in an effusion cell up to its sublimation. For a set of temperatures (from 30 °C to 75 °C), the deposition rate on the PCM surface has been measured. From these measurements, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. ΔH = 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol and Succinic acid, i.e. ΔH = 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ/mol. This technique has so demonstrated to be a good choice to recognise a single compound or a mixture (with an analysis upstream) even if some improvements concerning the thermal stabilization of the system will be implemented in order to enhance the results' accuracy. The experiment has been performed in support of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) project, which is included in the scientific payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission study.

  3. Wasting the Future: The Technological Sublime, Communications Technologies, and E-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebine Label


    Full Text Available Literally speaking, e-waste is the future of communications. E-waste is the fastest growing waste stream in the world, much of it communications technologies from cell phones to laptops, televisions to peripherals. As a result of policies of planned obsolescence working computers, cell phones, and tablets are routinely trashed. One of the most powerful and enduring discourses associated with emerging technologies is the technological sublime, in which technology is seen as intellectually, emotionally, or spiritually transcendent. It comprises a contradictory impulse that elevates technology with an almost religious fervor, while simultaneously overlooking some of the consequences of industrialism, as well as ignoring the necessity of social, economic, and governmental infrastructures necessary to the implementation and development of new technologies. The idea that a new technology will not pollute or harm the environment is a persistent, though often quickly passed over, theme in the technological sublime, echoed in discourses about emerging technologies such as the silicon chip, the internet, and other ICTs. In this paper, I make connections between the discourse of newness, the practice of planned obsolescence, and the mountains of trashed components and devices globally. Considering the global context demonstrates the realities of the penetration of ICTs and their enduring pollution and negative implications for the health of humans and nonhumans, including plants, animals, waterways, soil, air and so on. I use the discourse of the technological sublime to open up and consider the future of communications, to argue that this discourse not only stays with us but also contains within it two important and related components, the promise of ecological harmony and a future orientation. I argue that these lingering elements keep us from considering the real future of communications – e-waste – and that, as communications scholars, we must also

  4. Det sublime og det skjønne som estetisk kvalitet i nyere norsk bildebokkritikk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goga, Nina


    Full Text Available This article analyses a specific number of picture book reviews on prize-winning Norwegian picture books from 1998-2008. The subject for the analysis is to examine what kind of aesthetic thinking that is expressed in the reviewer’s judgement of the book. I found that it was possible to relate the reviews to two well established concepts in classic aesthetic theory, namely the concept of the beauty and the sublime. To illustrate this I have studied more exhaustive a smaller number of reviews on two different books

  5. Symptôme, sublimation, sexuation: les prolongements du symptôme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève More


    Full Text Available à partir du commentaire de Lacan sur Joyce, j'ai développé une thèse lacanienne fondamentale pour penser la transmission entre les générations avec un autre concept que celui de l'identification : le prolongement du symptôme. De plus, l'accent mis sur le sinthome par Lacan, n'empêche pas de situer la sublimation comme l'un des autres prolongements possibles du symptôme initial de Joyce.

  6. “Quedarán siempre las afueras”: hacia un nuevo sublime periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gutiérrez Valencia


    Full Text Available Dentro de la variedad de poéticas en el actual panorama español hay un grupo de autores (Alberto Santamaría, García Casado, Mercedes Díaz Villarías y Fernández Mallo que, aunque diferentes, tienen en común un nuevo romanticismo de ascendencia americana caracterizado por la búsqueda de un nuevo sublime basado en lo periférico de su escenario y su nueva mirada sobre la realidad.

  7. A Bayesian Analysis Shows That a Spruce Beetle Outbreak Reduces Snow Interception and Sublimation in a Subalpine Spruce-Fir Forest (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.


    Sublimation is a key component in the water cycle of cold, snow dominated ecosystems. In many high elevation spruce-fir forests of western North America, recent spruce beetle outbreaks have caused widespread tree mortality, opened the canopy, and potentially altered the processes that control sublimation. This study evaluates three hypotheses: in these ecosystems the dominant source for sublimation originates from canopy intercepted snow, the loss of canopy following a beetle disturbance leads to significantly less sublimation, and major sublimation events are driven by the flow of sensible heat into the canopy. Bayesian analysis is used to evaluate a two source energy and canopy mass model that explains seventeen years (2000-2016) of winter eddy-covariance flux data at the GLEES AmeriFlux sites where a spruce beetle outbreak caused 75-85% basal area mortality. The model estimated that the resistance to snow sublimation from the canopy was an order of magnitude less than from the snowpack and that the maximum snow loading in the canopy was reduced to 25-56% of its pre-outbreak capacity. Comparing model results obtained using the observed decrease in leaf area index versus a "no beetle" condition, there has been a significant decrease in ecosystem sublimation since 2011. In the past few years, a 5-11% increase in snowpack sublimation has been offset by 28-32% less sublimation from canopy intercepted snow, with the net being 17-25% less total sublimation. This is equivalent to 3-6% of the total precipitation. Informing the model with information other than the above-canopy fluxes indicates that a near snowpack eddy covariance system decreases the canopy contribution to sublimation, including observed sensible heat fluxes requires a correction to resolve the surface energy imbalance, and stable isotopes of water vapor extend sublimation events. Because tree growth and ecological succession are slow in spruce-fir forests, these results could persist for decades.

  8. Trans-modern AesthesiS In The Eurasian Borderlands And The Decolonial Anti-sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina Tlostanova


    Full Text Available El artículo estudia la aesthesis transmoderna en relación con la agenda de liberar la esfera estética de los mitos de la modernidad occidental. La autora ofrece un resumen crítico de las principales corrientes estéticas occidentales frente al anti-sublime decolonial como modelo alternativo analizado en el artículo. Se presta especial atención al mecanismo de este sublime, fundado en una hermenéutica pluritópica y una “comunidad de sentido” decolonial que une a quienes fueron marcados por la “herida colonial”. El artículo se enfoca en la reformulación decolonial de problemáticas estéticas usuales, como la correlación de belleza y aesthesis, la relación de conocimiento y arte, de la esfera moral y la estética, etc. Finalmente, una larga sección se dedica a la aesthesis decolonial de la zona fronteriza euroasiática, los territorios en el Este (Asia Central y Sur (Cáucaso del continente euroasiático, que antes eran colonias rusas/soviéticas, y producen hoy instancias complejas de arte decolonial en las obras de Saule Suleymenova, Zorito Dorzhiev y otros.

  9. Sublimator Driven Coldplate Engineering Development Unit Test Results and Development of Second Generation SDC (United States)

    Stephan, Ryan A.; Sheth, Rubik B.


    The Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a traditional thermal control scheme. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially increasing reliability and reducing complexity while saving both mass and power. Furthermore, the Integrated Sublimator Driven Coldplate (ISDC) concept couples a coolant loop with the previously described SDC hardware. This combination allows the SDC to be used as a traditional coldplate during long mission phases. The previously developed SDC technology cannot be used for long mission phases due to the fact that it requires a consumable feedwater for heat rejection. Adding a coolant loop also provides for dissimilar redundancy on the Altair Lander ascent module thermal control system, which is the target application for this technology. Tests were performed on an Engineering Development Unit at NASA s Johnson Space Center to quantify and assess the performance of the SDC. Correlated thermal math models were developed to help explain the test data. The paper also outlines the preliminary results of an ISDC concept being developed.

  10. Verdad sublime y madre asesina en Christine V., versión de Marguerite Duras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana González Holguín


    Full Text Available Todo relato es ficción, versión y, así mismo, verdad, bajo una u otra concepción de la misma, es decir, desde una perspectiva que se enfoca según la intención y la subjetividad de uno o más actores, de uno o más narradores. El texto de Marguerite Duras intitulado Sublime forcément sublime Christine V. involucra, por su contenido y su contexto, varias versiones que contrastan y se interrogan entre sí. La escritora se posiciona de tal manera que, a través de recursos propios del oficio literario, desentraña una verdad que puede no ajustarse a la realidad o al saber, pero que nos enfrenta a los límites de lo pulsional y lo ominoso.

  11. Physical properties of sublimated zinc telluride thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nazar Abbas, E-mail:; Mahmood, Waqar


    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were fabricated by using closed space sublimation (CSS) technique on glass substrate under vacuum. Pre-fabricated ZnTe thin films were doped with silver (Ag) by ion exchange method. X-ray diffraction showed the preferred orientation (111) of ZnTe thin film with polycrystalline behavior. Scanning electron microscope images were taken to estimate the grain boundaries; energy dispersive X-ray results confirmed the Ag composition in doped-ZnTe samples. Electrical measurements were performed to determine the resistivity, mobility and carrier concentrations of un-doped thin films and Ag-doped samples. The electrical resistivity was of the order of 10{sup 6} Ω-cm before doping. Ag-doped ZnTe samples exhibits low resistivity of the order of 10{sup 3} Ω-cm along with a change in the carrier concentrations and mobility as well at room temperature. The angle resolved optical transmission data, taken by spectrophotometer, was used to find the optical properties before and after Ag doping. Energy band gap showed decreasing trend with increasing Ag doping time. - Highlights: • Zinc telluride thin films were grown by closed space sublimation technique. • Ag was doped, by ion exchange process. • Physical properties were investigated before and after doping.

  12. Viscous drops bounce faster: prompt tumbling-rebound from a sublimating slope (United States)

    Antonini, Carlo; Jung, Stefan; Wetzel, Andreas; Heer, Emmanuel; Schoch, Philippe; Mazloomi, M. Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya; Marengo, Marco; Poulikakos, Dimos


    We discovered a new drop rebound regime, characteristic of highly viscous liquids impacting onto tilted sublimating surfaces. By focusing on non-axisymmetric impact conditions at increasing viscosity, we demonstrate that low viscous drops show a ``slide, spread, recoil and rebound'' behavior, whereas viscous drops exhibit a ``prompt tumbling-rebound'' behavior. As such, viscous glycerol drops surprisingly rebound faster than three orders of magnitude less viscous water drops. This is made possible by a small conversion of translational to rotational kinetic energy, at non-axisymmetric impact conditions, as also confirmed by additional Lattice Boltzmann simulations: a rapid transition of the internal angular velocity prior to rebound to a constant value, as in a tumbling solid body, promotes a rapid rebound of more viscous drops, which are capable to rebound without recoiling. By studying drop impact dynamics, we explore the drop behavior in contactless and frictionless conditions, and identify the Ohnesorge number as the primary parameter to predict the transition between different impact regimes on tilted sublimating slopes, with tumbling observed for Ohnesorge numbers higher than unity.

  13. How drops bounce and dance on ice: the role of sublimating surfaces (United States)

    Antonini, Carlo; Bernagozzi, Ilaria; Jung, Stefan; Poulikakos, Dimos; Marengo, Marco; Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies Team; Themal Physics Laboratory Team


    Drop rebound is a spectacular event that appears after impact on superhydrophobic surfaces, due to low drop-solid substrate adhesion, and on hot substrates in Leidenfrost conditions, thanks to a vapor layer forming at the liquid-substrate interface, caused by drop evaporation. However, at temperatures below water freezing temperature, i.e. 0C, even superhydrophobicity can get lost. In the present work, we demonstrate that drop rebound can also be originated by another physical phenomenon, i.e. the solid substrate sublimation, at temperatures as low as -79C. To prove this mechanism, drop impact experiments were conducted on solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice. Drop dynamics and rebound were analyzed, together with the cases of drop impacting on a superhydrophobic surface and on a hot plate, to show how three different physical mechanisms, which apparently share nothing in common, i.e. superhydrophobicity, evaporation and sublimation, can all lead to drop rebound, in an extremely wide temperature range, from 300C down to even below -79C. Additional glycol drop impact tests proved the independence of the observed phenomena from the chosen liquid. Finally, the formation and visualization of an air vortex ring around an impacting drop is also reported. The authors acknowledge funding from Regione Lombardia and European Community (Marie Curie Fellowship).

  14. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Basu


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3 2 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT, and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9 was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm 2 , wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes.

  15. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... of oxygen rather than a continuous flow. Before purchasing or renting a portable oxygen concentrator, ask your ... and with activity when using your oxygen delivery system. ✔ ✔ Do not smoke, especially around any oxygen devices. ✔ ✔ Avoid being around ... information is a public service of the American Thoracic ...

  16. Testing and Model Correlation of Sublimator Driven Coldplate Coupons and EDU (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.


    The Sublimator Driven Coldplate (SDC) is a unique piece of thermal control hardware that has several advantages over a more traditional thermal control system. The principal advantage is the possible elimination of a pumped fluid loop, potentially saving mass, power, and complexity. Because this concept relies on evaporative heat rejection techniques, it is primarily useful for short mission durations. Additionally, the concept requires a conductive path between the heat-generating component and the heat rejection device. Therefore, it is mostly a relevant solution for a vehicle with a relatively low heat rejection requirement and/or short transport distances. Tests were performed on coupons and an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) at NASA s Johnson Space Center to better understand the basic operational principles and to validate the analytical methods being used for the SDC development. This paper outlines the results of the SDC tests, the subsequent thermal model correlation, and a description of the SDC Engineering Development Unit test results.

  17. Optimized heat exchange in a CO2 de-sublimation process (United States)

    Baxter, Larry; Terrien, Paul; Tessier, Pascal; Hoeger, Christopher


    The present invention is a process for removing carbon dioxide from a compressed gas stream including cooling the compressed gas in a first heat exchanger, introducing the cooled gas into a de-sublimating heat exchanger, thereby producing a first solid carbon dioxide stream and a first carbon dioxide poor gas stream, expanding the carbon dioxide poor gas stream, thereby producing a second solid carbon dioxide stream and a second carbon dioxide poor gas stream, combining the first solid carbon dioxide stream and the second solid carbon dioxide stream, thereby producing a combined solid carbon dioxide stream, and indirectly exchanging heat between the combined solid carbon dioxide stream and the compressed gas in the first heat exchanger.

  18. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.


    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  19. Paths of the Sublime: Alain de Botton’s The Art of Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Mendes


    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the central place of literary, academic, and religious tourism in Cultural Studies and in Alain de Botton’s The Art of Travel (2002, the paper seeks: 1 to identify some remarkable travels of famous writers – the British Wordsworth; the French Karl-Joris Huysmans, Gustave Flaubert, and Charles Baudelaire; 2 to show that in the analysis of such authors’ itineraries (from Europe to the East, there is a search for cultural roots, a mapping of spaces and people, and a deconstruction of labels often related to the Other; 3 to point out that the tourist is also a storyteller, a protagonist, and a creator of fictional worlds; 4 to bring together literary tourism and artistic tourism, through the identification of allusions to other cultural events (painting, music, and architecture; 5 to characterize tourism as a literary and aesthetic experience of the Sublime.

  20. Effect of Zn doping on the sublimation rate of pentaerythritol tetranitrate using atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Mridha, Subrata; Weeks, Brandon L


    A series of Zn ion-doped pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) nanoislands in the form of thin films were prepared on Si substrates using spin coating. The effect of Zn concentrations on the sublimation energy was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pure and Zn-doped nanoislands are imaged by AFM in contact mode at room temperature after annealing isothermally for a given time. The volume of the islands starts to decrease after annealing at 45 degrees C for pure PETN, whereas Zn-doped nanoislands start to decrease in height and volume after annealing at 55-58 degrees C. The minimum activation energy is found to be 29.7 Kcal/mol for 1,000 ppm Zn concentration. These studies are important for the long-term stabilization of PETN.

  1. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid


    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  2. Formation of the molecular crystal structure during the vacuum sublimation of paracetamol (United States)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.


    The results from structural and thermal studies on the formation of molecular crystals during the vacuum sublimation of paracetamol from its vapor phase are given. It is established that the vapor-crystal phase transition proceeds in a complicated way as the superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order phase transition with a change in density, and a second-order phase transition with a change in ordering. It is shown that the latter is a smeared phase transition that proceeds with the formation of a pretransitional phase that is irreversibly dissipated during phase transformation, leading to the formation of crystals of the rhombic syngony. Data from differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis are presented along with microphotographs.

  3. Taking a Hike and Hucking the Stout: The Troublesome Legacy of the Sublime in Outdoor Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Drennig


    Full Text Available As Henry Thoreau noted in the 1850s, the simple act of walking can be loaded with political and spiritual meaning. Today, taking a hike as an act of engaging in outdoor recreation is equally non-trivial, and therefore subject of the following analysis. As this paper argues, outdoors recreation is still influenced by the legacy of the Sublime and its construction of wilderness. This troublesome legacy means that the cultural self-representation of outdoor sports – and the practice itself – lays claim to the environment in ways that are socially and sometimes even ethni-cally exclusive. This essay uses William Cronon’s critique of the cultural constructedness of wilderness as a point of departure to see how Western notions of sublime nature have an impact on spatial practice. The elevation of specific parts of the environ-ment into the category of wilderness prescribes certain uses and meanings as na-ture is made into an antidote against the ills of industrial civilization, and a place where the alienated individual can return to a more authentic self. This view then has become a troublesome legacy, informing the cultural self-representation of those uses of “wilderness” that are known as outdoor recreation. In its cultural production, outdoors recreation constructs “healthy” and “athlet-ic” bodies exercising in natural settings and finding refuge from the everyday al-ienation of postmodern society. Yet these bodies are conspicuously white, and the obligatory equipment and fashion expensive. Outdoor recreation is a privileged assertion of leisure, often denoting an urban, affluent, and white, background of the practitioner. These practitioners then lay exclusive claim on the landscapes they use. As trivial as taking a hike or any other form of outdoors recreation may thus seem, they put a cultural legacy into practice that is anything but trivial.

  4. Mass spectrometric study of molecular and ionic sublimation of lanthanum triiodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaev, A.M., E-mail: [Research Institute of Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Ivanovo 153000 (Russian Federation); Kudin, L.S.; Motalov, V.B.; Ivanov, D.A.; Butman, M.F. [Research Institute of Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Ivanovo 153000 (Russian Federation); Krämer, K.W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum triiodide was investigated by the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. • (LaI{sub 3}){sub n} molecules (n = 1–3) and [I(LaI{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup −} ions (n = 0–4) were registered in the saturated vapor. • The sublimation enthalpy was found by the second and third law of thermodynamics. • The enthalpies of ion-molecular reactions with cluster ions were calculated. • The electron work function of the crystalline LaI{sub 3} was obtained. - Abstract: The molecular and ionic composition of saturated vapor over lanthanum triiodide was studied by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. The (LaI{sub 3}){sub n} molecules (n = 1–3) and the [I(LaI{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup −} ions (n = 0–4) were observed. The partial pressures of the molecules were determined and the enthalpies of sublimation, Δ{sub s}H° (298.15 K) in kJ mol{sup −1}, in the form of monomers (304 ± 7), dimers (428 ± 25), and trimers (455 ± 50) were obtained by the second and third laws of thermodynamics. The enthalpy of formation, Δ{sub f}H° (298.15 K) in kJ mol{sup −1}, of the LaI{sub 3} (−376 ± 10), La{sub 2}I{sub 6} (−932 ± 25), La{sub 3}I{sub 9} (−1585 ± 50) molecules and the LaI{sub 4}{sup −} (−841 ± 24), La{sub 2}I{sub 7}{sup −} (−1486 ± 32) ions were determined. The electron work function, φ{sub e} = 3.5 ± 0.3 eV, for the LaI{sub 3} crystal was calculated from the thermochemical cycle.

  5. Fe embedded in ice: The impacts of sublimation and energetic particle bombardment (United States)

    Frankland, Victoria L.; Plane, John M. C.


    Icy particles containing a variety of Fe compounds are present in the upper atmospheres of planets such as the Earth and Saturn. In order to explore the role of ice sublimation and energetic ion bombardment in releasing Fe species into the gas phase, Fe-dosed ice films were prepared under UHV conditions in the laboratory. Temperature-programmed desorption studies of Fe/H2O films revealed that no Fe atoms or Fe-containing species co-desorbed along with the H2O molecules. This implies that when noctilucent ice cloud particles sublimate in the terrestrial mesosphere, the metallic species embedded in them will coalesce to form residual particles. Sputtering of the Fe-ice films by energetic Ar+ ions was shown to be an efficient mechanism for releasing Fe into the gas phase, with a yield of 0.08 (Ar+ energy=600 eV). Extrapolating with a semi-empirical sputtering model to the conditions of a proton aurora indicates that sputtering by energetic protons (>100 keV) should also be efficient. However, the proton flux in even an intense aurora will be too low for the resulting injection of Fe species into the gas phase to compete with that from meteoric ablation. In contrast, sputtering of the icy particles in the main rings of Saturn by energetic O+ ions may be the source of recently observed Fe+ in the Saturnian magnetosphere. Electron sputtering (9.5 keV) produced no detectable Fe atoms or Fe-containing species. Finally, it was observed that Fe(OH)2 was produced when Fe was dosed onto an ice film at 140 K (but not at 95 K). Electronic structure theory shows that the reaction which forms this hydroxide from adsorbed Fe has a large barrier of about 0.7 eV, from which we conclude that the reaction requires both translationally hot Fe atoms and mobile H2O molecules on the ice surface.

  6. Formulation design and optimization of fast dissolving clonazepam tablets by sublimation method. (United States)

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Kusumdevi, V; Swamy, P V


    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w) was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 11 s); the formulation containing 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium and 40% w/w camphor was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly nine-fold faster drug release (t(50%) 1.8 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).

  7. The fate of meteoric metals in ice particles: Effects of sublimation and energetic particle bombardment (United States)

    Mangan, T. P.; Frankland, V. L.; Murray, B. J.; Plane, J. M. C.


    The uptake and potential reactivity of metal atoms on water ice can be an important process in planetary atmospheres and on icy bodies in the interplanetary and interstellar medium. For instance, metal atom uptake affects the gas-phase chemistry of the Earth's mesosphere, and has been proposed to influence the agglomeration of matter into planets in protoplanetary disks. In this study the fate of Mg and K atoms incorporated into water-ice films, prepared under ultra-high vacuum conditions at temperatures of 110-140 K, was investigated. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments reveal that Mg- and K-containing species do not co-desorb when the ice sublimates, demonstrating that uptake on ice particles causes irreversible removal of the metals from the gas phase. This implies that uptake on ice particles in terrestrial polar mesospheric clouds accelerates the formation of large meteoric smoke particles (≥1 nm radius above 80 km) following sublimation of the ice. Energetic sputtering of metal-dosed ice layers by 500 eV Ar+ and Kr+ ions shows that whereas K reacts on (or within) the ice surface to form KOH, adsorbed Mg atoms are chemically inert. These experimental results are consistent with electronic structure calculations of the metals bound to an ice surface, where theoretical adsorption energies on ice are calculated to be -68 kJ mol-1 for K, -91 kJ mol-1 for Mg, and -306 kJ mol-1 for Fe. K can also insert into a surface H2O to produce KOH and a dangling H atom, in a reaction that is slightly exothermic.

  8. The Sublime Corpse in Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's Women's Journal "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello" (1860) (United States)

    LaGreca, Nancy


    This article examines Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's choice to include articles depicting the advanced decay of cadavers, which are simultaneously horrible and awesome, in her women's periodical "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello". Background on Avellaneda's biography, women's print culture, and theories of the sublime provide a frame for the…

  9. Representing the sublime in the VIMAP and empirical aesthetics: Reviving Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. Comment on "Move me, astonish me... delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates" by Matthew Pelowski et al. (United States)

    Hur, Y.-J.; McManus, I. C.


    This commentary considers the role of the sublime in the Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception (VIMAP; Pelowski, Markey, Forster, Gerger, & Leder [17]), and suggest that it is not precisely conceptualised in the model. In part that reflects different views and usages of the sublime in the literature, and here it is recommended that Burke's [2] view of the sublime is used as a primary framework for empirical research on the sublime.

  10. Growth of ZnSe(1-x)Tex epilayers by isothermal closed space sublimation (United States)

    Larramendi, Erick M.; Gutiérrez Z-B, Karla; Arens, Christof; Woggon, Ulrike; Schikora, Detlef; Lischka, Klaus


    ZnSe(1-x)Tex (x ˜0.06) epilayers were grown on GaAs(001) substrates at 350 °C by isothermal closed space sublimation (ICSS) technique. The epitaxial growth was performed in low-pressure helium atmosphere (˜0.1 mbar) by sequential exposures of the substrate to vapors of a solid solution of selenium-tellurium and elemental zinc. The use of a mixed source is proposed in order to regulate the partial vapor pressure of the constituents by composition. Strain and composition of the ZnSe(1-x)Tex epilayers were extracted from high resolution x-ray reciprocal space mapping. Structural investigations show a reasonably good crystalline quality of the epilayers. Good reproducibility of composition and control of thickness were obtained although atomic layer epitaxy regimen was not achieved. A growth rate of 1.3 monolayers/cycle was ascribed to multilayer adsorption and the existence of an efficient transport of SeTe in graphite under thermodynamic conditions of ICSS. Both Raman and photoluminescence characterizations suggest the existence of random alloy epilayers with larger composition disorder in the mesoscopic scale than those obtained by molecular beam epitaxy.

  11. The impacts of moisture transport on drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Huang


    Full Text Available Drifting snow sublimation (DSS is an important physical process related to moisture and heat transfer that happens in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is of glaciological and hydrological importance. It is also essential in order to understand the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets and the global climate system. Previous studies mainly focused on the DSS of suspended snow and ignored that in the saltation layer. Here, a drifting snow model combined with balance equations for heat and moisture is established to simulate the physical DSS process in the saltation layer. The simulated results show that DSS can strongly increase humidity and cooling effects, which in turn can significantly reduce DSS in the saltation layer. However, effective moisture transport can dramatically weaken the feedback effects. Due to moisture advection, DSS rate in the saltation layer can be several orders of magnitude greater than that of the suspended particles. Thus, DSS in the saltation layer has an important influence on the distribution and mass–energy balance of snow cover.

  12. Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drosophila Brain Using Matrix Sublimation versus Modification with Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Phan, Nhu T N; Mohammadi, Amir Saeid; Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Ewing, Andrew G


    Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is used to image brain lipids in the fruit fly, Drosophila, a common invertebrate model organism in biological and neurological studies. Three different sample preparation methods, including sublimation with two common organic matrixes for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) using gold nanoparticles, are examined for sample profiling and imaging the fly brain. Recrystallization with trifluoroacetic acid following matrix deposition in MALDI is shown to increase the incorporation of biomolecules with one matrix, resulting in more efficient ionization, but not for the other matrix. The key finding here is that the mass fragments observed for the fly brain slices with different surface modifications are significantly different. Thus, these approaches can be combined to provide complementary analysis of chemical composition, particularly for the small metabolites, diacylglycerides, phosphatidylcholines, and triacylglycerides, in the fly brain. Furthermore, imaging appears to be beneficial using modification with gold nanoparticles in place of matrix in this application showing its potential for cellular and subcellular imaging. The imaging protocol developed here with both MALDI and SALDI provides the best and most diverse lipid chemical images of the fly brain to date with LDI.

  13. Ag doped ZnTe films prepared by closed space sublimation and an ion exchange process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aqili, Akram K.S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Saleh, Ahmad J. [Department of Physics, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Ali, Zulfiqar [Optics Laboratories, Islamabad (Pakistan); Al-Omari, S. [Department of Physics, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnTe thin films are prepared by low-cost simple technique (CSS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver doping is achieved by an ion exchange process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small peaks appear in the XRD diffraction pattern related to Ag{sub 2}Te. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of the films refractive index and shift of optical band was observed. - Abstract: ZnTe thin films were deposited by closed space sublimation (CSS) technique on amorphous glass substrate. The deposited films were immersed in AgNO{sub 3} solution for different time periods, then heated in vacuum. The resistivity of the film, immersed for 30 min, was reduced by less than six orders of magnitudes. The films structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to detect the surface morphology of the films. The films thickness, the optical properties, such as refractive index, absorption coefficient and the optical band gap were determined from transmittance spectra in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm. The dark electrical conductivities of the films were studied as function of temperature to determine the conductivity activation energy.

  14. Modelling of the sublimation of icy grains in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (United States)

    Gicquel, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Shi, X.; Sierks, H.; Rose, M.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.


    The ESA (European Space Agency) Rosetta spacecraft was launched on 2 March 2004, to reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. Since March 2014, images of the nucleus and the coma (gas and dust) of the comet have been acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) camera system [1] using both, the wide angle camera (WAC) and the narrow angle camera (NAC). The orbiter will be maintained in the vicinity of the comet until perihelion (Rh=1.3 AU) or even until Rh=1.8 AU post-perihelion (December 2015). Nineteen months of uninterrupted, close-up observations of the gas and dust coma will be obtained and will help to characterize the evolution of comet gas and dust activity during its approach to the Sun. Indeed, for the first time, we will follow the development of a comet's coma from a close distance. Also the study of the dust-gas interaction in the coma will highlight the sublimation of icy grains. Even if the sublimation of icy grains is known, it is not yet integrated in a complete dust-gas model. We are using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to study the gas flow close to the nucleus. The code called PI-DSMC (www.pidsmc. com) can simulate millions of molecules for multiple species.When the gas flow is simulated, we inject the dust particle with a zero velocity and we take into account the 3 forces acting on the grains in a cometary environment (drag force, gravity and radiative pressure). We used the DLL (Dynamic Link Library) model to integrate the sublimation of icy grains in the gas flowand allow studying the effect of the additional gas on the dust particle trajectories. For a quantitative analysis of the sublimation of icy, outflowing grains we will consider an ensemble of grains of various radii with different compositions [2] The evolution of the grains, once they are ejected into the coma, depends on their initial size, their composition and the heliocentric distance (because the temperature of

  15. Synthesis of Monolithic Fe2O3-Al2O3 Composite Aerogels via Organic Solvent Sublimation Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ren


    Full Text Available Monolithic Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite aerogels have been prepared successfully via organic solvent sublimation drying method. The results show that a new phase forms when the right amount of ferric oxide is added to the alumina aerogel. From the TEM pictures we can see a shuttle-type structure with the length of about 15 nm forms, which leads to the high surface areas of composited aerogel.

  16. Modified sublimation to isolate phenanthrene-degrading bacteria of the genera Sphingomonas and Burkholderia from Xiamen oil port. (United States)

    Huang, X; Tian, Y; Luo, Y R; Liu, H J; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, T L


    Sublimation was developed by Alley and Brown (2000) in order to isolate bacterial strains that were capable of degrading water insoluble compounds. In this study, sublimation was modified by the use of nutritional agar plates, instead of mineral salt agar, to isolate phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from a mixed culture that had been enriched under the selective pressure of high phenanthrene content. Five strains were obtained with different morphology and degradation ability. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence, two of them were classified as species of the genus Sphingomonas; the others as species of the genus Burkholderia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was introduced to detect dynamic changes in the bacterial community during enrichment batch culture, and to determine any correlation between the five isolates and the phenanthrene-degrading consortium. The DGGE profile indicated that these five isolates corresponded to four dominant bands of the consortium. Compared to traditional means of isolation, we concluded that modified sublimation is effective and more convenient.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topan Setiawan


    Full Text Available This study aimed to feel the subtle vibrations of a “project” of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, the human dimension and its culture. However AEC becomes part of the life history of the nations of Southeast Asia, particularly in the visible measures, such as economic growth, the economic stability of the region or the increasing of intra-regional trade volume. It means, that we feel it in the materialist dimension, or “vibrations” a “rough”. Besides, this study attempted to feel the euphoria of the other aspects. This paper will track a bit more deeply about Indonesian and its culture. Also there will be an effort to seek traces (perhaps disguised in regional sublimation materialism “project” by AEC. Strive to be this insight led to the discovery that regional sublimation Reviews their materialism, for the next attempt to pave the way consciousness. Also, how sublimation material, it is not exactly cornered people and cultures. Another invention is the reification of culture, which it is the manifestation, in the form of Materialization on social relations, by considering it as a thing freely. Similarly, it is forgetting the historical trail of goods/services. Search back on local wisdom, seems to be one way that can be taken.

  18. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo


    Empirical melt (EM) models are often preferred to surface energy balance (SEB) models to calculate melt amounts of snow and ice in hydrological modelling of high-elevation catchments. The most common reasons to support this decision are that, in comparison to SEB models, EM models require lower levels of meteorological data, complexity and computational costs. However, EM models assume that melt can be characterized by means of a few index variables only, and their results strongly depend on the transferability in space and time of the calibrated empirical parameters. In addition, they are intrinsically limited in accounting for specific process components, the complexity of which cannot be easily reconciled with the empirical nature of the model. As an example of an EM model, in this study we use the Enhanced Temperature Index (ETI) model, which calculates melt amounts using air temperature and the shortwave radiation balance as index variables. We evaluate the performance of the ETI model on dry high-elevation sites where sublimation amounts - that are not explicitly accounted for the EM model - represent a relevant percentage of total ablation (1.1 to 8.7%). We analyse a data set of four Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), which were collected during the ablation season 2013-14, at elevations between 3466 and 4775 m asl, on the glaciers El Tapado, San Francisco, Bello and El Yeso, which are located in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. We complement our analysis using data from past studies in Juncal Norte Glacier (Chile) and Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Switzerland), during the ablation seasons 2008-09 and 2006, respectively. We use the results of a SEB model, applied to each study site, along the entire season, to calibrate the ETI model. The ETI model was not designed to calculate sublimation amounts, however, results show that their ability is low also to simulate melt amounts at sites where sublimation represents larger percentages of total ablation. In fact, we

  19. Sonochemical Preparation and Subsequent Fixation of Oxygen-Free Graphene Sheets at N,N-Dimethyloctylamine-Aqua Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Trusova


    Full Text Available In this study, the syntheses of oxygen-free graphene sheets and the method of its fixation at an oil-aqua interface were presented. The graphene sheets were prepared by exfoliation of synthetic graphite powder in an aqua-organic medium under ultrasound irradiation. N,N-Dimethyloctylamine- (DMOA- aqua emulsion was used as the liquid medium, and pH was equal to 3. The obtained graphene nanosuspension was fractionated by sedimentation and decanted according to the weight. The graphene nanoparticle fractions, differing in configuration and number of layers, have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. It was found that using a DMOA-aqua mixture as the liquid medium in ultrasonic treatment of synthetic graphite leads to the formation of oxygen-free 1-2-layer graphene sheets attached to the DMOA-aqua interface. The proposed method differs from known ones by using a small amount of more environmentally friendly organic substances. It allows to obtain large quantities of oxygen-free graphene, and finally unconverted graphite can be directed for reuse. The proposed method allows to obtain both 2D graphene sheets with micron linear dimensions and 3D packages with a high content of defects. Both these species are in demand in areas related to the development of new materials with unique electrophysical properties.

  20. AdS/QCD, Light-Front Holography, and Sublimated Gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.


    The gauge/gravity duality leads to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian - 'Light-Front Holography', which provides a Lorentz-invariant first-approximation to QCD, and successfully describes the spectroscopy of light-quark meson and baryons, their elastic and transition form factors, and other hadronic properties. The bound-state Schroedinger and Dirac equations of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model predict linear Regge trajectories which have the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. Light-front holography connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta} in 3+1 space at fixed light-front time. A key feature is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons - the relativistic analogs of the Schroedinger wavefunctions of atomic physics which allow one to compute form factors, transversity distributions, spin properties of the valence quarks, jet hadronization, and other hadronic observables. One thus obtains a one-parameter color-confining model for hadron physics at the amplitude level. AdS/QCD also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function with an infrared fixed point which agrees with the effective coupling a{sub g1} (Q{sup 2}) extracted from measurements of the Bjorken sum rule below Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. This is consistent with a flux-tube interpretation of QCD where soft gluons with virtualities Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2} are sublimated into a color-confining potential for quarks. We discuss a number of phenomenological hadronic properties which support this picture.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hainaut, Olivier [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Novaković, Bojan [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bolin, Bryce [Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, B.P. 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Denneau, Larry; Haghighipour, Nader; Kleyna, Jan; Meech, Karen J.; Schunova, Eva; Wainscoat, Richard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fitzsimmons, Alan [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kokotanekova, Rosita; Snodgrass, Colin [Planetary and Space Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lacerda, Pedro [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Micheli, Marco [ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre, Frascati, RM (Italy); Moskovitz, Nick; Wasserman, Lawrence [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Waszczak, Adam, E-mail: [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present an observational and dynamical study of newly discovered main-belt comet 313P/Gibbs. We find that the object is clearly active both in observations obtained in 2014 and in precovery observations obtained in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, strongly suggesting that its activity is sublimation-driven. This conclusion is supported by a photometric analysis showing an increase in the total brightness of the comet over the 2014 observing period, and dust modeling results showing that the dust emission persists over at least three months during both active periods, where we find start dates for emission no later than 2003 July 24 ± 10 for the 2003 active period and 2014 July 28 ± 10 for the 2014 active period. From serendipitous observations by the Subaru Telescope in 2004 when the object was apparently inactive, we estimate that the nucleus has an absolute R-band magnitude of H{sub R} = 17.1 ± 0.3, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of r{sub e} ∼ 1.00 ± 0.15 km. The object’s faintness at that time means we cannot rule out the presence of activity, and so this computed radius should be considered an upper limit. We find that 313P’s orbit is intrinsically chaotic, having a Lyapunov time of T{sub l} = 12,000 yr and being located near two three-body mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and Saturn, 11J-1S-5A and 10J+12S-7A, yet appears stable over >50 Myr in an apparent example of stable chaos. We furthermore find that 313P is the second main-belt comet, after P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS), to belong to the ∼155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family.

  2. Mass removal by oxidation and sublimation of porous graphite during fiber laser irradiation (United States)

    Phillips, Grady T.; Bauer, William A.; Fox, Charles D.; Gonzales, Ashley E.; Herr, Nicholas C.; Gosse, Ryan C.; Perram, Glen P.


    The various effects of laser heating of carbon materials are key to assessing laser weapon effectiveness. Porous graphite plates, cylinders, and cones with densities of 1.55 to 1.82 g/cm3 were irradiated by a 10-kW fiber laser at 0.075 to 3.525 kW/cm2 for 120 s to study mass removal and crater formation. Surface temperatures reached steady state values as high as 3767 K. The total decrease in sample mass ranged from 0.06 to 6.29 g, with crater volumes of 0.52 to 838 mm3, and penetration times for 12.7-mm-thick plates as short as 38 s. Minor contaminants in the graphite samples produced calcium and iron oxide to be redeposited on the graphite surface. Dramatic graphite crystalline structures are also produced at higher laser irradiances. Significantly increased porosity of the sample is observed even outside the laser-irradiated region. Total mass removed increases with deposited laser energy at a rate of 4.83 g/MJ for medium extruded graphite with an apparent threshold of 0.15 MJ. At ˜3.5 kW/cm2, the fractions of the mass removed from the cylindrical samples in the crater, surrounding trench, and outer region of decreased porosity are 38%, 47%, and 15%, respectively. Graphite is particularly resistant to damage by high power lasers. The new understanding of graphite combustion and sublimation during laser irradiation is vital to the more complex behavior of carbon composites.

  3. Propafenone HCl fast dissolving tablets containing subliming agent prepared by direct compression method. (United States)

    Abd El Rasoul, Saleh; Shazly, Gamal A


    Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs) containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crospovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmellose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40 °C for 3 months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.

  4. Propafenone HCl fast dissolving tablets containing subliming agent prepared by direct compression method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abd El Rasoul


    Full Text Available Propafenone HCl (PPH, an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH, an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Direct compression method was used for the preparation of 15 formulations OFDTs containing PPH using directly compressible excipients, subliming agent and superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were undergone physical characterization, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. All pre- and post-compression tests met the pharmacopoeia specifications. In vitro dissolution of the prepared PPH OFDTs exhibited high dissolution rate than compared to the marketed tablets. It was found that the tablets prepared by using the higher concentration of crospovidone were found to dissolute the drug at a faster rate when compared to other concentrations. A formula containing croscarmellose sodium showed the higher present of PPH dissolved as compared to the other formulations. It was concluded that PPH OFDTs were formulated successfully with acceptable physical and chemical properties with rapid disintegration in the oral cavity, rapid onset of action, and enhanced patient compliance. It was found that F10 showed good stability upon storage at 25 and 40 °C for 3 months. Formulation of PPH OFDTs can result in a significant improvement in the PPH bioavailability since the first pass metabolism will be avoided.

  5. Dissolved oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the waters of Botany Bay and Georges and Cooks Rivers vary mainly as a result of tidal water movements, algal and macrophytic growth and decay, and effects of storms...

  6. The effect of oxalic acid applied by sublimation on honey bee colony fitness: a comparison with amitraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Papežíková


    Full Text Available Oxalic acid is one of the organic acids used for controlling Varroa destructor, a mite parasitizing the honey bee (Apis mellifera. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of oxalic acid applied by sublimation on honey bee colony fitness, and to compare it with the effect of amitraz, a routinely used synthetic acaricide. Bee colonies of equal strength were randomly divided into two groups. In December 2014, one group was treated with amitraz in the form of aerosol, and the second group was treated with oxalic acid applied by sublimation. The colonies were monitored over winter. Dead bees found at the bottom of the hive were counted regularly and examined microscopically for infection with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia. At the end of March 2015, living foragers from each hive were sampled and individually examined for Nosema sp. infection. Colony strength was evaluated at the beginning of April. No adverse effect of oxalic acid on colony strength was observed despite the fact that the total number of dead bees was non-significantly higher in the oxalic acid-treated group. Examination of dead bees for Nosema infection did not reveal significant differences in spore numbers between the experimental groups. There was a substantial difference in living individuals, however, with a significantly higher amount of spores per bee found in the amitraz-treated colonies compared to the oxalic acid-treated colonies. Compared to amitraz, oxalic acid applied by sublimation showed no adverse effects on bee colony fitness or on successful overwintering.

  7. Age and stability of sublimation till over buried glacier ice, inferred from 21Ne measurements, Ong Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Bibby, T.; Putkonen, J.; Morgan, D. J.; Balco, G.


    Ong Valley, in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, contains three distinct glacial drifts deposited by past advances of the Argosy glacier into the valley. Massive ice occurs below two of the till deposits. Potentially, such buried ice under shallow regolith cover could provide access to past climate and biological records more easily than deep ice coring. We measured cosmic-ray produced 21Ne in these tills as a means of constraining the age and stability of the three drifts, as well as the ice below them. We collected samples in vertical profiles from two hand-dug sections through each drift. The pits from two drifts overlying buried ice extended to the buried ice surface. The hypothesis that these are sublimation tills implies that 21Ne concentrations are a function of i) any inheritance from prior exposure; ii) the age since emplacement of the ice and till; iii) the sublimation rate of the ice; and iv) the surface erosion rate of the till. 21Ne concentrations in the youngest drift are ca. 10 M atoms/g and invariant with depth, indicating that they are predominantly due to inheritance, and provide only a weak maximum age constraint of ca. 0.1 Mya. The two older drifts have surface 21Ne concentrations of 200-250 M atoms/ g and depth concentration profiles consistent with a sublimation till origin. Given that 21Ne concentrations in the deepest samples in each of the two older drifts provide an upper limit on the inherited 21Ne concentration, these imply minimum ages of 1 Mya for the middle drift and 1.6 Mya for the oldest. This implies a 1 Mya minimum age for the ice underlying the middle drift.

  8. A centre-triggered magnesium fuelled cathodic arc thruster uses sublimation to deliver a record high specific impulse (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick R. C.; Bilek, Marcela; McKenzie, David R.


    The cathodic arc is a high current, low voltage discharge that operates in vacuum and provides a stream of highly ionised plasma from a solid conducting cathode. The high ion velocities, together with the high ionisation fraction and the quasineutrality of the exhaust stream, make the cathodic arc an attractive plasma source for spacecraft propulsion applications. The specific impulse of the cathodic arc thruster is substantially increased when the emission of neutral species is reduced. Here, we demonstrate a reduction of neutral emission by exploiting sublimation in cathode spots and enhanced ionisation of the plasma in short, high-current pulses. This, combined with the enhanced directionality due to the efficient erosion profiles created by centre-triggering, substantially increases the specific impulse. We present experimentally measured specific impulses and jet power efficiencies for titanium and magnesium fuels. Our Mg fuelled source provides the highest reported specific impulse for a gridless ion thruster and is competitive with all flight rated ion thrusters. We present a model based on cathode sublimation and melting at the cathodic arc spot explaining the outstanding performance of the Mg fuelled source. A further significant advantage of an Mg-fuelled thruster is the abundance of Mg in asteroidal material and in space junk, providing an opportunity for utilising these resources in space.

  9. La sublimación artística y su objeto // Artistic sublimation and its object

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    David González


    Full Text Available El presente artículo versa sobre la conceptualización de la sublimación artística en la obra freudiana y la enseñanza lacaniana, para dilucidar semejanzas y diferencias, re-actualizando el concepto en el plano de la discusión teórica. De esta manera se realiza un recorrido exploratorio del concepto en ambos autores. Desde una perspectiva psicoanalítica se redefinen los conceptos de objeto y la Cosa contenidos en la definición lacaniana de la sublimación. // This article deals with the conceptualization of artistic sublimation in Freud's work and Lacan's teaching in order to elucidate similarities and differences, and so it updates the concept in terms of the theoretical discussion. In that way, an exploratory route of the concept is carried out in both authors. From a psychoanalytic perspective, the concepts of object and Thing -contained in the Lacanian definition of sublimation- are redefined

  10. Scanning proximal microscopy study of the thin layers of silicon carbide-aluminum nitride solid solution manufactured by fast sublimation epitaxy

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    Tománek P.


    Full Text Available The objective of the study is a growth of SiC/(SiC1−x(AlNx structures by fast sublimation epitaxy of the polycrystalline source of (SiC1−x(AlNx and their characterisation by proximal scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. For that purpose optimal conditions of sublimation process have been defined. Manufactured structures could be used as substrates for wide-band-gap semiconductor devices on the basis of nitrides, including gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and their alloys, as well as for the production of transistors with high mobility of electrons and also for creation of blue and ultraviolet light emitters (light-emitted diodes and laser diodes. The result of analysis shows that increasing of the growth temperature up to 2300 K allows carry out sublimation epitaxy of thin layers of aluminum nitride and its solid solution.

  11. A Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber Study of Sea Salt Particles Acting as Cloud Seeds: Deliquescence, Ice Nucleation and Sublimation (United States)

    Kong, X.; Wolf, M. J.; Garimella, S.; Roesch, M.; Cziczo, D. J.


    Sea Salt Aerosols (SSA) are abundant in the atmosphere, and important to the Earth's chemistry and energy budget. However, the roles of sea salts in the context of cloud formation are still poorly understood, which is partially due to the complexity of the water-salt phase diagram. At ambient temperatures, even well below 0°C, SSA deliquesces at sub-water saturated conditions. Since the ratio of the partial pressure over ice versus super-cooled water continuously declines with decreasing temperatures, it is interesting to consider if SSA continues to deliquesce under a super-saturated condition of ice, or if particles act as depositional ice nuclei when a critical supersaturation is reached. Some recent studies suggest hydrated NaCl and simulated sea salt might deliquesce between -35°C to -44°C, and below that deposition freezing becomes possible. Deliquesced droplets can subsequently freeze via the immersion or homogenous freezing mode, depending on if the deliquescence processes is complete. After the droplets or ice particles are formed, it is also interesting to consider how the different processes influence physical properties after evaporation or sublimation. This data is important for climate modeling that includes bromine burst observed in Antarctica, which is hypothesized to be relevant to the sublimation of blowing snow particles. In this study we use a SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN; DMT, Inc., Boulder, CO) to perform experiments over a wide range of temperature and RH conditions to quantify deliquescence, droplet formation and ice nucleation. The formation of droplets and ice particles is detected by an advanced Optical Particle Counter (OPC) and the liquid/solid phases are distinguished by a machine learning method based on laser scattering and polarization data. Using an atomizer, four different sea salt samples are generated: pure NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, synthetic seawater, and natural seawater. Downstream of the SPIN chamber, a Pumped

  12. Sputnik Planitia, Pluto Convection Cell Surface Velocities of ~10 Centimeters per Year Based on Sublimation Pit Distribution (United States)

    Buhler, Peter Benjamin; Ingersoll, Andrew P.


    Sputnik Planitia, Pluto contains cellular landforms with areas on the order of a few 102-103 km2 that are likely the surface manifestation of convective overturn in a vast basin of nitrogen ice. The cells have sublimation pits on them, with smaller pits near their centers and larger pits near their edges. We map over 12,000 pits on seven cells and find that the pit radii increase by between 2.1 ± 0.4 and 5.9 ± 0.8 × 10-3 m per meter away from the cell center, depending on the cell. Due to finite data resolution, this is a lower bound on the size increase. Conservatively accounting for resolution effects yields upper bounds on the size vs. distance distribution of 4.2 ± 0.2 to 23.4 ± 1.5 × 10-3 m m-1. In order to convert the pit size vs. distance distribution into a pit age vs. distance distribution, we use an analytic model to calculate that pit radii grow via sublimation at a rate of 3.6 [+2.1,-0.6] × 10-4 m yr-1. Combined with the mapped distribution of pit radii, this yields surface velocities between 1.5 [+1.0,-0.2] and 6.2 [+3.4,-1.4] cm yr-1 for the slowest cell and surface velocities between 8.1 [+5.5,-1.0] and 17.9 [+8.9,-5.1] cm yr-1 for the fastest cell; the lower bound estimate for each cell accounts for resolution effects, while the upper bound estimate does not. These convection rates imply that the surface ages at the edge of cells reach approximately 4.2 to 8.9 × 105 yr, depending on the cell. The rates we find are comparable to rates of ~6 cm yr-1 that were previously obtained from modeling of the convective overturn in Sputnik Planitia [McKinnon, W.B. et al., 2016, Nature, 534(7605), 82-85]. Finally, we find that the minimum viscosity at the surface of the convection cells is of order 1016 to 1017 Pa s; we find that pits would relax away before sublimating to their observed radii of several hundred meters if the viscosity were lower than this value.

  13. La estética de lo sublime en la sección El Jorullo de la Rusticatio Mexicana

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    Dorde Cuvardic García


    Full Text Available El ensayo presenta un análisis de la II sección de la obra Rusticatio Mexicana (1782, del escritor guatemalteco Rafael Landívar (1731-1793, desde la estética de la sublimidad. La narración que hace el autor de la erupción del volcán El jorullo sigue los procedimientos típicos del clasicismo, pero a la vez contribuye con la representación de la singularidad de América, desde la filosofía sensista, y según categorizaciones susceptibles de ser analizadas mediante las teorías estéticas de la sublimidad (Addison, Burke, Kant, que destacan la experiencia humana de lo sublime, que se observa en la naturaleza espectacular, en contraste con la experiencia de la belleza, apreciable en la obra de arte.

  14. Volatilization, transport and sublimation of metallic and non-metallic elements in high temperature gases at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Rose, William I.; Reed, M.H.; Lichte, F.E.; Finnegan, David L.


    Condensates, silica tube sublimates and incrustations were sampled from 500-800??C fumaroles and lava samples were collected at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia in Jan.-Feb., 1984. With respect to the magma, Merapi gases are enriched by factors greater than 105 in Se, Re, Bi and Cd; 104-105 in Au, Br, In, Pb and W; 103-104 in Mo, Cl, Cs, S, Sn and Ag; 102-103 in As, Zn, F and Rb; and 1-102 in Cu, K, Na, Sb, Ni, Ga, V, Fe, Mn and Li. The fumaroles are transporting more than 106 grams/day ( g d) of S, Cl and F; 104-106 g/d of Al, Br, Zn, Fe, K and Mg; 103-104 g d of Pb, As, Mo, Mn, V, W and Sr; and less than 103 g d of Ni, Cu, Cr, Ga, Sb, Bi, Cd, Li, Co and U. With decreasing temperature (800-500??C) there were five sublimate zones found in silica tubes: 1) cristobalite and magnetite (first deposition of Si, Fe and Al); 2) K-Ca sulfate, acmite, halite, sylvite and pyrite (maximum deposition of Cl, Na, K, Si, S, Fe, Mo, Br, Al, Rb, Cs, Mn, W, P, Ca, Re, Ag, Au and Co); 3) aphthitalite (K-Na sulfate), sphalerite, galena and Cs-K. sulfate (maximum deposition of Zn, Bi, Cd, Se and In; higher deposition of Pb and Sn); 4) Pb-K chloride and Na-K-Fe sulfate (maximum deposition of Pb, Sn and Cu); and 5) Zn, Cu and K-Pb sulfates (maximum deposition of Pb, Sn, Ti, As and Sb). The incrustations surrounding the fumaroles are also chemically zoned. Bi, Cd, Pb, W, Mo, Zn, Cu, K, Na, V, Fe and Mn are concentrated most in or very close to the vent as expected with cooling, atmospheric contamination and dispersion. The highly volatile elements Br, Cl, As and Sb are transported primarily away from high temperature vents. Ba, Si, P, Al, Ca and Cr are derived from wall rock reactions. Incomplete degassing of shallow magma at 915??C is the origin of most of the elements in the Merapi volcanic gas, although it is partly contaminated by particles or wall rock reactions. The metals are transported predominantly as chloride species. As the gas cools in the fumarolic environment, it becomes saturated


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    A. A. Shevtsov


    Full Text Available The technics and a technique of experiment on studying kinetic laws of periodic process vacuum and freeze-drying of a fermental preparation inulinase is stated and the algorithm of a choice of optimum loading sublimator on the minimum size of specific power inputs is offered.

  16. Periodic bedforms generated by sublimation on terrestrial and martian ice sheets under the influence of the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (United States)

    Bordiec, Maï; Carpy, Sabrina; Perret, Laurent; Bourgeois, Olivier; Massé, Marion


    The redistribution of surface ice induced the wind flow may lead to the development and migration of periodic bedforms, or "ice ripples", at the surface of ice sheets. In certain cold and dry environments, this redistribution need not involve solid particle transport but may be dominated by sublimation and condensation, inducing mass transfers between the ice surface and the overlying steady boundary layer turbulent flow. These mass transfers diffuse the water vapour sublimated from the ice into the atmosphere and become responsible for the amplification and propagation of ripples in a direction perpendicular to their crests. Such ice ripples, 24 cm in wavelength, have been described in the so-called Blue Ice Areas of Antarctica. In order to understand the mechanisms that generate and develop these periodic bedforms on terrestrial glaciers and to evaluate the plausibility that similar bedforms may develop on Mars, we performed a linear stability analysis applied to a turbulent boundary layer flow perturbed by a wavy ice surface. The model is developed as follow. We first solve the flow dynamics using numerical methods analogous to those used in sand wave models assuming that the airflow is similar in both problems. We then add the transport/diffusion equation of water vapour following the same scheme. We use the Reynolds-averaged description of the equation with a Prandtl-like closure. We insert a damping term in the exponential formula of the Van Driest mixing length, depending on the pressure gradient felt by the flow and related to the thickness of the viscous sublayer at the ice-atmosphere interface. This formulation is an efficient way to properly represent the transitional regime under which the ripples grow. Once the mass flux of water vapour is solved, the phase shift between the ripples crests and the maximum of the flux can be deduced for different environments. The temporal evolution of the ice surface can be expressed from these quantities to infer the

  17. Oxygen measurements to improve singlet oxygen dosimetry (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves interactions between the three main components of light fluence, photosensitizer concentration, and oxygenation. Currently, singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) has focused on the first two of these components. The macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen has previously involved a fixed initial ground state oxygen concentration. A phosphorescence-based oxygen probe was used to measure ground state oxygen concentration throughout treatments for mice bearing radioactively induced fibroscarcoma tumors. Photofrin-, BPD-, and HPPH-mediated PDT was performed on mice. Model-calculated oxygen and measured oxygen was compared to evaluate the macroscopic model as well as the photochemical parameters involved. Oxygen measurements at various depths were compared to calculated values. Furthermore, we explored the use of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure tumor blood flow changes in response to PDT to improve the model calculation of reacted singlet oxygen. Mice were monitored after treatment to see the effect of oxygenation on long-term recurrence-free survival as well as the efficacy of using reacted singlet oxygen as a predictive measure of outcome. Measurement of oxygenation during treatment helps to improve SOED as well as confirm the photochemical parameters involved in the macroscopic model. Use of DCS in predicting oxygenation changes was also investigated.

  18. Sublimation pit distribution indicates convection cell surface velocities of ∼10 cm per year in Sputnik Planitia, Pluto (United States)

    Buhler, Peter B.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.


    The ∼106 km2 Sputnik Planitia, Pluto is the upper surface of a vast basin of nitrogen ice. Cellular landforms in Sputnik Planitia with areas in the range of a few × 102-103 km2 are likely the surface manifestation of convective overturn in the nitrogen ice. The cells have sublimation pits on them, with smaller pits near their centers and larger pits near their edges. We map pits on seven cells and find that the pit radii increase by between 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10-3 and 5.9 ± 0.8 × 10-3 m m-1 away from the cell center, depending on the cell. This is a lower bound on the size increase because of the finite resolution of the data. Accounting for resolution yields upper bounds on the size vs. distance distribution of between 4.2 ± 0.2 × 10-3 and 23.4 ± 1.5 × 10-3 m m-1. We then use an analytic model to calculate that pit radii grow via sublimation at a rate of 3.6-0.6+2.1 ×10-4 m yr-1, which allows us to convert the pit size vs. distance distribution into a pit age vs. distance distribution. This yields surface velocities between 1.5-0.2+1.0 and 6.2-1.4+3.4 cm yr-1 for the slowest cell and surface velocities between 8.1-1.0+5.5 and 17.9-5.1+8.9 cm yr-1 for the fastest cell. These convection rates imply that the surface ages at the edge of cells reach ∼4.2-8.9 × 105 yr. The rates are comparable to rates of ∼6 cm yr-1 that were previously obtained from modeling of the convective overturn in Sputnik Planitia (McKinnon et al., 2016). Finally, we investigate the surface rheology of the convection cells and estimate that the minimum ice viscosity necessary to support the geometry of the observed pits is of order 1016-1017 Pa s, based on the argument that pits would relax away before growing to their observed radii of several hundred meters if the viscosity were lower than this value.

  19. On the isothermal closed space sublimation growth of CdSe using a mixed source for selenium (United States)

    Larramendi, Erick M.; Karla Gutiérrez, Z.-B.; de Melo, Osvaldo; Woggon, Ulrike; Schikora, Detlef; Lischka, Klaus


    The use of a selenium-tellurium (SeTe) mixed source in the isothermal close space sublimation growth of CdSe epilayers is considered. The epitaxial growth was performed in flowing helium by sequential exposures of the substrate to vapors of the mixed SeTe source and elemental cadmium at temperatures within 350-410 °C. In spite of the mixed source (proposed to decrease the partial pressure of Se), tellurium incorporation was small and CdSe xTe (1- x) ( x˜0.98) epilayers were obtained. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping shows the existence of hexagonal inclusions mainly on the (1 1 1) facets of the cubic phase. Material deposition on areas of the graphite crucible exposed to the sources, contamination of the Cd source and large growth rates suggest the existence of a selenium transport process via graphite. This transport might be the result of the combination of selenium deposition on graphite with a subsequent activated desorption of selenium under cadmium exposure. It affects Cd source purity and growth kinetic bringing on a modification of the usual atomic layer deposition regimen; however, a reproducible growth rate of the epilayers was obtained.

  20. Short-term spatial and temporal forecast of dry snow avalanches of sublimation recrystallization and mixed origin

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    Yu. B. Andreev


    Full Text Available A possibility of space-temporary short-term forecast-diagnosis of dry sublimative recrystallization and mixed (recrystallization plus fresh snow avalanches is under consideration. The special discriminate analog–macrophysical models of the short-term background forecast is verified on correlation degree with probabilistic zoning of avalanche site № 22 in Khibiny. Аs a result we have correlation coefficients of order –(0.6÷0.7. The statistical significance of correlation coefficients (an order of 0.02–0.07 are checked and a conclusion on likelihood of assumed hypothesis is made. So by the current and predicted meteorological data such kind of forecast for such genetic avalanche types release in concrete sites becomes possible. The short-term forecast function transformation of the examined in the article avalanche types into long-term ones by averaging perennial realized forecast function values on slipping optimal 5-years intervals shows avalanche activity trend with probable 8–10 and 32-years harmonics during selected observation period. But in comparison with purely dry and wet fresh snow avalanches forecast analysed before the examined here above types are less precisely predicted. So it is needed an improvement of correspondent forecast functions on the base of theory contribution and future observations by increasing their series

  1. Toward high-performance vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting diodes: novel sublimable cationic iridium(III) complexes with yellow and orange electroluminescence. (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Ma, Dongxin; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Ruihuan; Qiu, Yong


    Great advances in the development of efficient luminescent materials are the driving force behind organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Sublimable ionic transition metal complexes (iTMCs) have emerged as a large family of new emissive dopants applied for vacuum-deposited OLEDs, while the achievement of excellent performance remains arduous. A series of novel sublimable cationic iridium(III) complexes is designed and synthesized, containing an imidazole-type ancillary ligand and tetraphenylborate-type negative counter-ions with large steric hindrance and well-dispersed charges. The photophysical properties, electrochemical behaviors and thermal stability are fully investigated and discussed, then demonstrated by theoretical calculations. Yellow- and orange-emitting OLEDs thereof are fabricated by vacuum evaporation deposition, realizing high external quantum efficiency up to 11 %, maximum brightness over 27.3×103 cd/m2 and low turn-on voltages below 2.4 V, among the best results of analogous phosphorescent OLEDs based on iTMCs. This work indicates the promising applications of sublimable iTMCs in state-of-the-art vacuum-deposited optoelectronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ülev ei Kivisildniku luules. Üks lugemisviis. The Sublime „No” in Kivisildnik’s Poetry: A Way of Reading

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    Leo Luks


    Full Text Available This article aims toward a phenomenological interpretation of the unmediated experience of reading Sven Kivisildnik’s poetry. As the basic theoretical thesis of the article, I assert that there is always an inherent negativity in the feeling of the sublime, since this feeling is caused by unrepresentable experience. Likewise, I claim that this negativity is not merely a lack in aesthetic representation, but that it has deep ontological meaning in itself. I make connections between the inherent negativity in the feeling of the sublime and the concept of failure of linguistic utterance worked out by Jaan Undusk, Jaak Tomberg and Jüri Lipping. I come to the conclusion that the „no” in the feeling of sublimity is given to us in unmediated form. The practical (or applied intention of this article is to show that the dominant sociocentric interpretation of Kivisildnik’s poetry is one-sided and limiting. From the theoretical positions I have worked out, I outline the fundamental motifs of Kivisildnik’s poetry, and by means of examples drawn from the text, demonstrate how the „no” of the sublime is found there. I come to the conclusion that the dominant direction in Kivisildnik’s poetry is destruction. The article consists of an introduction, five sections, and a summary. In the first section („Approaches”, I briefly introduce the phenomenological approach. My position is that the work is always created during the act of reading, as the outcome of the union of text and reader. However, I leave the reader as subject open to definition, leaving it to drift as it were, since I am sceptical about the possibility of defining the subject. I do not claim that the sublime is the only possible conceptual framework for understanding poetry; rather, I consider the sublime as one proper theoretical metaphor for conceptualizing personal experience of reading. In the second section of the article („Defining poetry”, I make use of Rein Raud

  3. Isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) sustained-release pellets prepared by double layer coating for reducing 5-ISMN migration and sublimation. (United States)

    Li, Guofei; Han, Dandan; Guan, Tingting; Zhao, Xingna; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing


    The major aim of this study was to prepare isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) sustained-release pellets and evaluate their stability. The pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization, and then the core pellets were coated with ethylcellulose (EC 10cp) and Eudragit(®)NE30D. Here, EC was used as the subcoating agent while Eudragit(®)NE30D acted as the outer-coating agent. 5-ISMN sustained-release pellets as a novel drug delivery system contained the immediate-release portion in the outer-coating layer. Unexpectedly, 5-ISMN was found to migrate from the interior of the pellets to the surface forming needle crystals and exhibited the phenomenon of sublimation, which resulted in a tremendous increase in the release rate. Our research showed that the migration and sublimation of the active ingredient was related to the temperature and humidity. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) can affect the precipitation of 5-ISMN by forming a charge transfer complex between the drug and PVP, while hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC E5) had no effect, and confirmed the correctness of this view through photographs and IR spectra. In the investigation of the stability, the results showed that there was no sublimation and migration while the pellets stored at 25°C/60%RH (ambient conditions) and 40°C/75% RH (stress conditions) during a 6-month period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Jovellanos en sus escritos íntimos: el paisaje y la emoción estética de lo sublime

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    Rueda, Ana


    Full Text Available The Diario (Diary foregrounds Jovellanos’s interest in recording Spain and its geography in a historical, statistical, economic and political sense. Like his celebrated report on political economy, the Informe sobre la ley agraria (Report on Agricultural Law, the Diario creates a moral and civil conscience that is profoundly oriented toward the social reform of Spain. Even so, the circumstance of his exile causes his gaze to acquire in this intimate work a quality unlike that of the Report. Jovellanos describes the disturbing beauty of wild landscapes and experiences in his Diary the emotional commotion that Burke (Philosophical Enquiry, 1757 and Kant (Critique of Judgment, 1790 recorded as the sublime. The pages of his Diary on which the word “sublime” and its accompanying emotions appear reveal an anxiety that threatens to undermine Jovellanos’s commitment to societal progress and the power of reason; that is, the suppositions of rational subjectivity that underlay his work as politician and writer. The concept of the sublime introduces narrative spaces of great emotion that reveal an important turn toward an epiphanic subjectivity that in successive decades would come to the fore in Romanticism. However, Jovellanos tempers his enthusiasm. On the threshold of the sublime he takes a step back. His self-alienation appears to prohibit the reader entry into zones of his private person and to frustrate the expectation of the reader of such intimate literature that he will come to know the man. And yet, it is precisely in these moments of hesitation where the reader is allowed access to the diarist´s inner struggle and to his negotiations between his private self and his social persona.El Diario recoge el interés de Jovellanos por consignar España y su geografía en un sentido histórico, estadístico, económico y político. Como hizo constar en su célebre informe de economía política aplicado al estado de la agricultura en la Espa

  5. Artificial oxygen transport protein (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie


    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  6. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E


    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  7. The Dust Sublimation Radius as an Outer Envelope to the Bulk of the Narrow Fe Kalpha Line Emission in Type 1 AGNs (United States)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian F.; Kishimoto, Makoto


    The Fe Kα emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kα core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGNs. The observed Fe Kα emission radii (RFe) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (Rdust) are measured either from optical/near-infrared (NIR) reverberation time lags or from resolved NIR interferometric data. This direct comparison shows, on an object-by-object basis, that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kα emission. RFe matches Rdust well in the AGNs, with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, RFe is similar to, or smaller than, the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the torus geometries for our sample. Extended tori in which the solid angle of fluorescing gas peaks at well beyond the dust sublimation radius can be ruled out. We also test for luminosity scalings of RFe, finding that the Eddington ratio is not a prime driver in determining the line location in our sample. We also discuss in detail potential caveats of data analysis and instrumental limitations, simplistic line modeling, uncertain black hole masses, and sample selection, showing that none of these is likely to bias our core result. The calorimeter on board Astro-H will soon vastly increase the parameter space over which line measurements can be made, overcoming many of these limitations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kishimoto, Makoto [Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)


    The Fe Kα emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kα core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGNs. The observed Fe Kα emission radii (R{sub Fe}) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (R{sub dust}) are measured either from optical/near-infrared (NIR) reverberation time lags or from resolved NIR interferometric data. This direct comparison shows, on an object-by-object basis, that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kα emission. R{sub Fe} matches R{sub dust} well in the AGNs, with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, R{sub Fe} is similar to, or smaller than, the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the torus geometries for our sample. Extended tori in which the solid angle of fluorescing gas peaks at well beyond the dust sublimation radius can be ruled out. We also test for luminosity scalings of R{sub Fe}, finding that the Eddington ratio is not a prime driver in determining the line location in our sample. We also discuss in detail potential caveats of data analysis and instrumental limitations, simplistic line modeling, uncertain black hole masses, and sample selection, showing that none of these is likely to bias our core result. The calorimeter on board Astro-H will soon vastly increase the parameter space over which line measurements can be made, overcoming many of these limitations.

  9. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data (United States)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.


    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface

  10. Counter-Sublime Aesthetics: Prose as a Fracture of Identity in the Travels of Leandro Fernández de Moratín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the works by Leandro Fernández de Moratín between 1792 and 1797 in order to show the modernity of his writing in the context of eighteenth-century European literature. During his travels the author describes sublime landscapes, but at the same time is ironic about his time and his country. Specifically, this paper analyzes the prose of Apuntaciones sueltas de Inglaterra and Viaje de Italia, as well as the modernity of a text such as Auto de fe de Logroño.

  11. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  12. Using oxygen at home (United States)

    ... a gas stove) or any other heating source. Travel and Oxygen Most sure oxygen will be available ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  13. Miniature oxygen resuscitator (United States)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.


    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  14. Pedestal Craters in Utopia Planitia and Malea Planum: Evidence for a Past Ice-Rich Substrate from Marginal Sublimation Pits. (United States)

    Kadish, S. J.; Head, J. W.; Barlow, N. G.; Marchant, D. R.


    Introduction: Pedestal craters (Pd) are a subclass of impact craters unique to Mars [1] characterized by a crater perched near the center of a pedestal (mesa or plateau) that is surrounded by a quasi-circular, outward-facing scarp. The marginal scarp is usually several crater diameters from the crater rim (Figs. 2,4,5), and tens to over 100 meters above the surrounding plains (Fig. 2). Pd have been interpreted to form by armoring of the proximal substrate during the impact event. Hypotheses for the armoring mechanism include an ejecta covering [e.g., 3], increased ejecta mobilization caused by volatile substrates [4], distal glassy/melt-rich veneers [5], and/or an atmospheric blast/thermal effect [6]. Subsequently, a marginal scarp forms by preferential erosion of the substrate surrounding the armored region, most commonly thought to involve eolian removal of fine-grained, non-armored material [e.g., 3]. An understanding of the distribution of Pd, which form predominantly poleward of ~40°N and S latitude [7-9] (Fig. 1), and the role of redistribution of ice and dust during periods of climate change [e.g., 10-11], suggests that the substrate might have been volatile-rich [8-9, 12-14]. As such, some researchers [e.g., 8-9] have proposed a model for Pd formation that involves impact during periods of higher obliquity, when mid- to high-latitude substrates were characterized by thick deposits of snow and ice [e.g., 15]. Subsequent sublimation of the volatile units, except below the armored regions, yielded the perched Pd. Thus, this model predicts that thick deposits of snow/ice should underlie Pd. This is in contrast to the eolian model [3], which calls primarily for deflation of sand and dust. Here, we show the results of our study [8,16] that has documented and characterized 2461 Pd on Mars equatorward of ~65° N and S latitude (Fig. 1) in order to test these hypotheses for the origin of pedestal craters. In particular, we report on the detection of 50 Pd in Utopia

  15. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.


    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  16. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was welding in the presence of an unidentified oxygen leak, which caused an explosion and the subsequent failure of the main oxygen valve. This happened while I was on duty in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and four patients breathing spontaneously on 40% oxygen face masks.

  17. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen (United States)

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  18. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy]. (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S


    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  19. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  20. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan


    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  1. Oxygen boundary crossing probabilities. (United States)

    Busch, N A; Silver, I A


    The probability that an oxygen particle will reach a time dependent boundary is required in oxygen transport studies involving solution methods based on probability considerations. A Volterra integral equation is presented, the solution of which gives directly the boundary crossing probability density function. The boundary crossing probability is the probability that the oxygen particle will reach a boundary within a specified time interval. When the motion of the oxygen particle may be described as strongly Markovian, then the Volterra integral equation can be rewritten as a generalized Abel equation, the solution of which has been widely studied.

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... ulcers Heart disease Heatstroke Hepatitis Migraine Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury Sports injury Stroke Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. ...

  3. Elastomer Compatible With Oxygen (United States)

    Martin, Jon W.


    Artificial rubber resists ignition on impact and seals at low temperatures. Filled fluoroelastomer called "Katiflex" developed for use in seals of vessels holding cold liquid and gaseous oxygen. New material more compatible with liquid oxygen than polytetrafluoroethylene. Provides dynamic seal at -196 degrees C with only 4 times seal stress required at room temperature. In contrast, conventional rubber seals burn or explode on impact in high-pressure oxygen, and turn hard or even brittle at liquid-oxygen temperatures, do not seal reliably, also see (MFS-28124).

  4. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  5. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene


    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CO2 removal than it is at correcting hypoxaemia. Low-flow VV-ECMO may also be used primarily for ECCO2R. The potential for improvement in oxygenation with VV-ECMO is less than that with VA-ECMO and is due to an increase in the central venous oxygen saturation, such that the shunted blood elevates overall arterial ...

  7. Plants and Oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey-Serres, J.N.


    In this oratie I will first consider the fundamental nature of oxygen and its role within the plant cell and then will summarize studies on the cellular low-oxygen response that are interwoven with international efforts to provide farmers with rice that endures prolonged periods of complete

  8. Studies of CdS/CdTe interface: Comparison of CdS films deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun-feng, E-mail: [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Fu, Gan-hua; Krishnakumar, V.; Schimper, Hermann-Josef [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Liao, Cheng [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Besland, M.P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)


    The CdS layers were deposited by two different methods, close space sublimation (CSS) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The CdS/CdTe interface properties were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TEM images showed a large CSS-CdS grain size in the range of 70-80 nm. The interface between CSS-CdS and CdTe were clear and sharp, indicating an abrupt hetero-junction. On the other hand, CBD-CdS layer had much smaller grain size in the 5-10 nm range. The interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe was not as clear as CSS-CdS. With the stepwise coverage of CdTe layer, the XPS core levels of Cd 3d and S 2p in CSS-CdS had a sudden shift to lower binding energies, while those core levels shifted gradually in CBD-CdS. In addition, XPS depth profile analyses indicated a strong diffusion in the interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe. The solar cells prepared using CSS-CdS yielded better device performance than the CBD-CdS layer. The relationships between the solar cell performances and properties of CdS/CdTe interfaces were discussed. - Highlights: • Studies of CdS deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition • An observation of CdS/CdTe interface by transmission electron microscope • A careful investigation of CdS/CdTe interface by X ray photoelectron spectra • An easier diffusion at the chemical bath deposition CdS and CdTe interface.

  9. Using deposition rate to increase the thermal and kinetic stability of vapor-deposited hole transport layer glasses via a simple sublimation apparatus (United States)

    Kearns, Kenneth L.; Krzyskowski, Paige; Devereaux, Zachary


    Deposition rate is known to affect the relative stability of vapor-deposited glasses; slower rates give more stable materials due to enhanced mobility at the free surface of the film. Here we show that the deposition rate can affect both the thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of N ,N' -bis(3-methylphenyl)-N ,N' -diphenylbenzidine (TPD) and N ,N' -di-[(1-naphthyl)-N ,N' -diphenyl]-1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPD) glasses used as hole transport layers for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). A simple, low-vacuum glass sublimation apparatus and a high vacuum deposition chamber were used to deposit the glass. 50 μm thick films were deposited in the sublimation apparatus and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry while 75 nm thick films were prepared in the high vacuum chamber and studied by hot-stage spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The thermodynamic stability from both preparation chambers was consistent and showed that the fictive temperature (Tfictive) was more than 30 K lower than the conventional glass transition temperature (Tg) at the slowest deposition rates. The kinetic stability, measured as the onset temperature (Tonset) where the glass begins to transform into the supercooled liquid, was 16-17 K greater than Tg at the slowest rates. Tonset was systematically lower for the thin films characterized by SE and was attributed to the thickness dependent transformation of the glass into the supercooled liquid. These results show the first calorimetric characterization of the stability of glasses for OLED applications made by vapor deposition and the first direct comparison of deposition apparatuses as a function of the deposition rate. The ease of fabrication will create an opportunity for others to study the effect of deposition conditions on glass stability.

  10. Engineering On-Surface Spin Crossover: Spin-State Switching in a Self-Assembled Film of Vacuum-Sublimable Functional Molecule. (United States)

    Kumar, Kuppusamy Senthil; Studniarek, Michał; Heinrich, Benoît; Arabski, Jacek; Schmerber, Guy; Bowen, Martin; Boukari, Samy; Beaurepaire, Eric; Dreiser, Jan; Ruben, Mario


    The realization of spin-crossover (SCO)-based applications requires study of the spin-state switching characteristics of SCO complex molecules within nanostructured environments, especially on surfaces. Except for a very few cases, the SCO of a surface-bound thin molecular film is either quenched or heavily altered due to: (i) molecule-surface interactions and (ii) differing intermolecular interactions in films relative to the bulk. By fabricating SCO complexes on a weakly interacting surface, the interfacial quenching problem is tackled. However, engineering intermolecular interactions in thin SCO active films is rather difficult. Here, a molecular self-assembly strategy is proposed to fabricate thin spin-switchable surface-bound films with programmable intermolecular interactions. Molecular engineering of the parent complex system [Fe(H2 B(pz)2 )2 (bpy)] (pz = pyrazole, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with a dodecyl (C12 ) alkyl chain yields a classical amphiphile-like functional and vacuum-sublimable charge-neutral FeII complex, [Fe(H2 B(pz)2 )2 (C12 -bpy)] (C12 -bpy = dodecyl[2,2'-bipyridine]-5-carboxylate). Both the bulk powder and 10 nm thin films sublimed onto either quartz glass or SiOx surfaces of the complex show comparable spin-state switching characteristics mediated by similar lamellar bilayer like self-assembly/molecular interactions. This unprecedented observation augurs well for the development of SCO-based applications, especially in molecular spintronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of solvation of drug molecules: a thermodynamic approach by crystal lattice energy, sublimation, and solubility exemplified by paracetamol, acetanilide, and phenacetin. (United States)

    Perlovich, German L; Volkova, Tatyana V; Bauer-Brandl, Annette


    Temperature dependencies of saturated vapor pressure for the monoclinic modification of paracetamol (acetaminophen), acetanilide, and phenacetin (acetophenetidin) were measured and thermodynamic functions of sublimation calculated (paracetamol: DeltaGsub298=60.0 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=117.9+/-0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=190+/-2 J/mol.K; acetanilide: DeltaGsub298=40.5 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=99.8+/-0.8 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=197+/-2 J/mol.K; phenacetin: DeltaGsub298=52.3 kJ/mol; DeltaHsub298=121.8+/-0.7 kJ/mol; DeltaSsub298=226+/-2 J/mol.K). Analysis of packing energies based on geometry optimization of molecules in the crystal lattices using diffraction data and the program Dmol3 was carried out. Parameters analyzed were: (a) energetic contribution of van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding to the total packing energy; (b) contributions of fragments of the molecules to the packing energy. The fraction of hydrogen bond energy in the packing energy increases as: phenacetin (17.5%)paracetamol (34.0%). Enthalpies of evaporation were estimated from enthalpies of sublimation and fusion. Activity coefficients of the drugs in n-octanol were calculated from cryoscopic data and by estimation of dilution enthalpy obtained from solubility and calorimetric experiments (for infinite dissolution). Solubility temperature dependencies in n-octanol and n-hexane were measured. The thermodynamic functions of solubility and solvation processes were deduced. Specific and nonspecific solvation terms were distinguished using the transfer from the "inert" n-hexane to the other solvents. The transfer of the molecules from water to n-octanol is enthalpy driven for paracetamol; for acetanilide and phenacetin, entropy driven. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  12. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung


    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  13. Oxygen dynamics in photosynthetic membranes. (United States)

    Savikhin, Sergei; Kihara, Shigeharu


    Production of oxygen by oxygenic photosynthetic organisms is expected to raise oxygen concentration within their photosynthetic membranes above normal aerobic values. These raised levels of oxygen may affect function of many proteins within photosynthetic cells. However, experiments on proteins in vitro are usually performed in aerobic (or anaerobic) conditions since the oxygen content of a membrane is not known. Using theory of diffusion and measured oxygen production rates we estimated the excess levels of oxygen in functioning photosynthetic cells. We show that for an individual photosynthetic cell suspended in water oxygen level is essentially the same as that for a non-photosynthetic sell. These data suggest that oxygen protection mechanisms may have evolved after the development of oxygenic photosynthesis in primitive bacteria and was driven by the overall rise of oxygen concentration in the atmosphere. Substantially higher levels of oxygen are estimated to occur in closely packed colonies of photosynthetic bacteria and in green leafs.

  14. When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger Buick


    ...2.4 Ga ago, but when the photosynthetic oxygen production began is debatable. However, geological and geochemical evidence from older sedimentary rocks indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before this oxygenation event...

  15. Oxygen and Biological Evolution. (United States)

    Baugh, Mark A.


    Discussed is the evolution of aerobic organisms from anaerobic organisms and the accompanying biochemistry that developed to motivate and enable this evolution. Uses of oxygen by aerobic organisms are described. (CW)

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (United States)

    ECMO; Heart-lung bypass - infants; Bypass - infants; Neonatal hypoxia - ECMO; PPHN - ECMO; Meconium aspiration - ECMO; MAS - ECMO ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back ...

  17. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia


    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  18. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the newly replaced main oxygen valve was slowly opened to allow pipeline pressure to build. ... The gas then passes through high-pressure regulators, which regulate the ... 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Sedation & Pain control, UWC.

  19. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy


    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  20. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient temper...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...... by the development of the tube-in-tube reactor (TiTR) setup, capable of performing fully automated kinetic char-acterization of oxygen dependent enzymes - at oxygen concentrations allowing full satura-tion of the enzyme. The development of the TiTR enables us to characterize a range of en-zyme variants developed...

  1. Home Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... dewar ) that acts like a large thermos. When released, the liquid oxygen immediately converts to a gas ... must be periodically refilled by the home care company but not as frequently as with the older ...

  2. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch


    tension. Lowering the intraocular pressure tends to increase the optic nerve oxygen tension, even though this effect may be masked by the autoregulation when the optic nerve oxygen tension and perfusion pressure is in the normal range. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors increase the optic nerve oxygen tension...... through a mechanism of vasodilatation and lowering of the intraocular pressure. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition reduces the removal of CO2 from the tissue and the CO2 accumulation induces vasodilatation resulting in increased blood flow and improved oxygen supply. This effect is inhibited by the cyclo......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  3. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... Migraine Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury Sports injury Stroke Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Risks Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. ...

  5. Oxygen transfer in liquids. (United States)

    Stejskal, J; Potůcek, F


    In the laboratory-type airlift tower reactor oxygen transfer from air in tap water and/or polyacrylamide solutions (Neuperm WF) was studied. In order to characterize the system, volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer was determined by the gassing-out method. Two arrangements of the airlift tower reactor were compared, namely the reactor with and without motionless mixer. In addition, mean relative gas holdup and gas power output were determined for both arrangements.

  6. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  7. Dissolved oxygen: Chapter 6 (United States)

    Senn, David; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Novick, Emily


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration serves as an important indicator of estuarine habitat condition, because all aquatic macro-organisms require some minimum DO level to survive and prosper. The instantaneous DO concentration, measured at a specific location in the water column, results from a balance between multiple processes that add or remove oxygen (Figure 6.1): primary production produces O2; aerobic respiration in the water column and sediments consumes O2; abiotic or microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions utilize O2 as an oxidant (e.g., oxidation of ammonium, sulfide, and ferrous iron); O2 exchange occurs across the air:water interface in response to under- or oversaturated DO concentrations in the water column; and water currents and turbulent mixing transport DO into and out of zones in the water column. If the oxygen loss rate exceeds the oxygen production or input rate, DO concentration decreases. When DO losses exceed production or input over a prolonged enough period of time, hypoxia ((<2-3 mg/L) or anoxia can develop. Persistent hypoxia or anoxia causes stress or death in aquatic organism populations, or for organisms that can escape a hypoxic or anoxic area, the loss of habitat. In addition, sulfide, which is toxic to aquatic organisms and causes odor problems, escapes from sediments under low oxygen conditions. Low dissolved oxygen is a common aquatic ecosystem response to elevated organic

  8. Continuous home oxygen therapy. (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia


    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. An eddy covariance study of a spruce beetle outbreak on summertime evapotranspiration and ecosystem CO2 exchange and winter sublimation dynamics (United States)

    Frank, John Michael

    failure due to the spruce beetle associated blue-stain fungi. In response, impacted spruce trees regulate their stomatal conductance and ecosystem photosynthesis declines slightly. A few years later these trees die and ecosystem photosynthesis falls by 50%. During winter, a Bayesian analysis shows a fundamental preference for ecosystem sublimation to originate from the canopy, which in combination with the loss of canopy and limited ability to intercept fresh snowfall, has led to substantially less total sublimation because of the outbreak. Because the ecosystem’s response to disturbance can be explained through physiological processes at the organism scale, this work provides an opportunity to test hypotheses about bottom up approaches and offers new insights into hydrological and ecological models. The anemometer error investigation and Bayesian analyses provide new tools to examine ecological phenomena that are uncertain or where no standard of “truth” is available. By demonstrating an ecosystem response that can be explained by the dominate species, implementing a two source energy and canopy mass model to explain ecosystem sublimation, investigating a prevalent error in the majority of eddy covariance systems, and advancing statistical analysis from which all of these processes can be inferred, this work as a whole is applicable to nearly all terrestrial ecosystem studies.

  10. Venous oxygen saturation. (United States)

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank


    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The oxygen trail: measurement. (United States)

    Mythen, M; Clutton-Brock, T


    Tissue hypoxia may be defined as abnormal oxygen utilization such that cells are experiencing anaerobic metabolism. Tissue hypoxia can be defined biochemically by low levels of ATP, high levels of NADH, or decreased oxidized cytochrome aa3. It is possible to measure these biochemical markers in the laboratory setting with, for example, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, this is not as yet a clinical option. There is no 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of clinical hypoxia. We can detect the gross consequences of tissue hypoxia, such as organ dysfunction and metabolic markers of anaerobic metabolism (e.g. lactic acidosis). We have also become familiar with the measurement of both global and regional oxygen dispatch and consumption. However, organ dysfunction and metabolic acidosis consistent with established tissue hypoxia commonly exists in the presence of normal and even supra normal global measures of oxygen dispatch and consumption. Therefore, we should ideally make measurements at the end of the oxygen trail, i.e. cellular oxygen delivery and effective utilization.

  12. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J


    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  13. Comparative study of CdTe sources used for deposition of CdTe thin films by close spaced sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anacleto Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Unlike other thin film deposition techniques, close spaced sublimation (CSS requires a short source-substrate distance. The kind of source used in this technique strongly affects the control of the deposition parameters, especially the deposition rate. When depositing CdTe thin films by CSS, the most common CdTe sources are: single-crystal or polycrystalline wafers, powders, pellets or pieces, a thick CdTe film deposited onto glass or molybdenum substrate (CdTe source-plate and a sintered CdTe powder. In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by CSS technique from different CdTe sources: particles, powder, compact powder, a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol and source-plates (CdTe/Mo and CdTe/glass. The largest deposition rate was achieved when a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol was used as the source. CdTe source-plates led to lower rates, probably due to the poor heat transmission, caused by the introduction of the plate substrate. The results also showed that compacting the powder the deposition rate increases due to the better thermal contact between powder particles.

  14. Structural properties and dielectric function of graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(000-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhafs, C., E-mail:; Darakchieva, V.; Persson, I. L.; Persson, P. O. Å.; Yakimova, R. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping S-58183, SE (Sweden); Tiberj, A.; Paillet, M.; Zahab, A.-A.; Landois, P.; Juillaguet, S. [CNRS Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Schöche, S.; Schubert, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)


    Understanding and controlling growth of graphene on the carbon face (C-face) of SiC presents a significant challenge. In this work, we study the structural, vibrational, and dielectric function properties of graphene grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by high-temperature sublimation in an argon atmosphere. The effect of growth temperature on the graphene number of layers and crystallite size is investigated and discussed in relation to graphene coverage and thickness homogeneity. An amorphous carbon layer at the interface between SiC and the graphene is identified, and its evolution with growth temperature is established. Atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are combined to determine and correlate thickness, stacking order, dielectric function, and interface properties of graphene. The role of surface defects and growth temperature on the graphene growth mechanism and stacking is discussed, and a conclusion about the critical factors to achieve decoupled graphene layers is drawn.

  15. Effect of the breakdown nature on Er-related electroluminescence intensity and excitation efficiency in Si:Er light emitting diodes grown with sublimation MBE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmagin, V.B.; Kuznetsov, V.P.; Remizov, D.Yu.; Krasil' nik, Z.F.; Krasil' nikova, L.V.; Kryzhkov, D.I


    The influence of the p-n junction breakdown mechanism on the Er{sup 3+} electroluminescence (EL) intensity and excitation efficiency (an intra 4f transition {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} of Er{sup 3+} ion at the wavelength of 1.54 {mu}m) has been investigated in Si:Er light emitting diodes (LED) grown with sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) method. It is shown that the avalanche LEDs are characterized by a greater Er{sup 3+} EL intensity and excitation efficiency compared with the tunnel LEDs. At the same time, an excessive advance into the avalanche breakdown parameter region leads to microplasma breakdown of the p-n junction, which causes a non-uniform distribution of the drive current density over p-n junction area and an appreciable decrease of the Er{sup 3+} EL intensity. Si:Er LEDs operating in mixed breakdown conditions seem to be more preferable for reaching maximal Er{sup 3+} EL intensity at room temperature, as they provide an optimum combination of high Er{sup 3+} EL excitation efficiency with the uniformity of the p-n junction breakdown.

  16. Qualification of a sublimation tool applied to the case of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of In₂O₃ from In(tmhd)₃ as a solid precursor. (United States)

    Szkutnik, P D; Angélidès, L; Todorova, V; Jiménez, C


    A solid delivery system consisting of a source canister, a gas management, and temperature controlled enclosure designed and manufactured by Air Liquide Electronics Systems was tested in the context of gas-phase delivery of the In(tmhd)3 solid precursor. The precursor stream was delivered to a thermal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor to quantify deposition yield under various conditions of carrier gas flow and sublimation temperature. The data collected allowed the determination of characteristic parameters such as the maximum precursor flow rate (18.2 mg min(-1) in specified conditions) and the critical mass (defined as the minimum amount of precursor able to attain the maximum flow rate) found to be about 2.4 g, as well as an understanding of the influence of powder distribution inside the canister. Furthermore, this qualification enabled the determination of optimal delivery conditions which allowed for stable and reproducible precursor flow rates over long deposition times (equivalent to more than 47 h of experiment). The resulting In2O3 layers was compared with those elaborated via pulsed liquid injection obtained in the same chemical vapor deposition chamber and under the same deposition conditions.

  17. Qualification of a sublimation tool applied to the case of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of In2O3 from In(tmhd)3 as a solid precursor (United States)

    Szkutnik, P. D.; Angélidès, L.; Todorova, V.; Jiménez, C.


    A solid delivery system consisting of a source canister, a gas management, and temperature controlled enclosure designed and manufactured by Air Liquide Electronics Systems was tested in the context of gas-phase delivery of the In(tmhd)3 solid precursor. The precursor stream was delivered to a thermal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor to quantify deposition yield under various conditions of carrier gas flow and sublimation temperature. The data collected allowed the determination of characteristic parameters such as the maximum precursor flow rate (18.2 mg min-1 in specified conditions) and the critical mass (defined as the minimum amount of precursor able to attain the maximum flow rate) found to be about 2.4 g, as well as an understanding of the influence of powder distribution inside the canister. Furthermore, this qualification enabled the determination of optimal delivery conditions which allowed for stable and reproducible precursor flow rates over long deposition times (equivalent to more than 47 h of experiment). The resulting In2O3 layers was compared with those elaborated via pulsed liquid injection obtained in the same chemical vapor deposition chamber and under the same deposition conditions.

  18. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm


    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  19. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor (United States)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  20. Neurological oxygen toxicity. (United States)

    Farmery, Scott; Sykes, Oliver


    SCUBA diving has several risks associated with it from breathing air under pressure--nitrogen narcosis, barotrauma and decompression sickness (the bends). Trimix SCUBA diving involves regulating mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and helium in an attempt to overcome the risks of narcosis and decompression sickness during deep dives, but introduces other potential hazards such as hypoxia and oxygen toxicity convulsions. This study reports on a seizure during the ascent phase, its potential causes and management and discusses the hazards posed to the diver and his rescuer by an emergency ascent to the surface.

  1. The Appropriate Use of Oxygen


    Lubin, Stan


    The scientific evidence for the efficacy of oxygen therapy in acute hypoxemia is limited. In chronic hypoxemia continuous oxygen therapy appears to decrease mortality. Current indications for oxygen treatment are PaO2 less than 60 in acute hypoxemia and less than 55 in chronic hypoxemia. Physical and physiological hazards of oxygen are reviewed. Three syndromes of pulmonary oxygen toxicity are described: tracheobronchitis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  2. De-oxygenation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kortzinger, A.

    life is adversely affected.  Better scientific understanding and monitoring of de-oxygenation and its impacts are required, involving new automated platforms, capacity building and international collaboration and coordination. Introduction... collaboration but also capacity building in the less-developed countries. The G7 nations should promote such collaboration by pooling resources and assisting network-based coordination. ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

  4. Optical oxygen concentration monitor (United States)

    Kebabian, Paul


    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  5. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T


    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  6. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...

  7. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  8. Estimativa por DSC das entalpias de sublimação da etilenouréia e da propilenouréia: algumas correlações empíricas envolvendo amidas e tioamidas Estimative by DSC data of the sublimation enthalpies for ethyleneurea and propyleneurea: some empirical correlations with amides and tioamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias


    Full Text Available By using DSC data, the enthaplies of sublimation for ethyleneurea and propyleneurea, are calculated as 84 and 89 kJ mol-1 respectively. Using the vaporization enthalpy values for dimethylethyleneurea and dimethylprophyleneurea, as obtained from literature, the empirical relation: Dcrg Hmo (1/ Dcrg Hmo (2 = Dlg Hmo (1/ Dlg Hmo(2 = constant, that relate sublimation or vaporization enthalpies of two different substances and of its methylated derivatives, is obtained. Correlations like that are found to another ureas and thioureas.

  9. Pulverized fuel-oxygen burner (United States)

    Taylor, Curtis; Patterson, Brad; Perdue, Jayson


    A burner assembly combines oxygen and fuel to produce a flame. The burner assembly includes an oxygen supply tube adapted to receive a stream of oxygen and a solid fuel conduit arranged to extend through the oxygen tube to convey a stream of fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel into a flame chamber. Oxygen flowing through the oxygen supply tube passes generally tangentially through a first set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and off-tangentially from a second set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and then mixes with fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel passing through the solid fuel conduit to create an oxygen-fuel mixture in a downstream portion of the solid fuel conduit. This mixture is discharged into a flame chamber and ignited in the flame chamber to produce a flame.

  10. A sublimação jurídica da função social da propriedade The legal sublimation of the social function of property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lazzarotto Simioni


    Full Text Available O sentido sociológico da função social da propriedade oscila sobre um paradoxo que as teorias jurídicas e políticas do pós-guerra escondem através da idéia do Estado de Direito e do Estado Benfeitor. A função social da propriedade ilustra esse estágio de desenvolvimento das relações comunicativas entre a Política e o Direito, onde a primeira não tem alternativa senão transferir seus conflitos para o segundo, transformando os conflitos políticos em conflitos jurídicos. Como será visto neste artigo, o resultado dessa sublimação jurídica dos conflitos políticos é a generalização simbólica das expectativas políticas na forma de expectativas normativas, que nessas condições podem ser tranqüilizadas artificialmente pela programação condicional do Direito.The social function of property oscillates on a paradox that the juridical and political theories of the postwar period hide through the idea of the Rule of Law and the Welfare State. The social function of property illustrates that development of the communicative relations between Politics and Law, in which the first transfers its conflicts to the latter, turning political conflicts into legal ones. As it will be seen in this article, the result of that legal sublimation of the political conflicts is the symbolic generalization of the political expectations in the form of normative expectations, so that in those conditions they can be artificially tranquilized by the conditional programming of the Law.

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  12. Aircraft Oxygen Generation (United States)


    AFB), California, the 1st Fighter Wing at Langley AFB, Virginia, and the Aeronautical Systems Center at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio . The Panel received...Collateral Responsibility Oct October OGADS Oxygen Generating and Distribution System OH Ohio O&M Operations and Maintenance OPR Office of Primary...Items Listing. Marietta , GA: Author. Document provided to the AOG Study Panel of the AF SAB. (Note: Briefing is For Official Use Only and is

  13. Fuel cell oxygen electrode (United States)

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  14. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  15. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster will...

  16. How plants sense low oxygen. (United States)

    Pucciariello, Chiara; Perata, Pierdomenico


    The recent identification of the oxygen-sensing mechanism in plants is a breakthrough in plant physiology. The presence of a conserved N-terminal motif on some ethylene responsive factors (ERFs), targets the protein for post-translational modifications finally leading to degradation under normoxia and thus providing a mechanism for sensing the presence of oxygen. The stabilization of the N-terminus under low oxygen activates these ERFs, which regulate low oxygen core genes that enable plants to tolerate abiotic stress such as flooding. Additional mechanisms that signal low-oxygen probably also exist, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been observed under low oxygen, suggesting that ROS might be part of the network involved in plant acclimation. Here, we review the most recent findings related to oxygen sensing.

  17. On the formation of ozone in oxygen-rich solar system ices via ionizing radiation. (United States)

    Ennis, Courtney P; Bennett, Chris J; Kaiser, Ralf I


    The irradiation of pure molecular oxygen (O(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) ices with 5 keV H(+) and He(+) ions was investigated experimentally to simulate the chemical processing of oxygen rich planetary and interstellar surfaces by exposure to galactic cosmic ray (GCR), solar wind, and magnetospheric particles. Deposited at 12 K under ultra-high vacuum conditions (UHV), the irradiated condensates were monitored on-line and in situ in the solid-state by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), revealing the formation of ozone (O(3)) in irradiated oxygen ice; and ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), and cyclic carbon trioxide (c-CO(3)) in irradiated carbon dioxide. In addition to these irradiation products, evolution of gas-phase molecular hydrogen (H(2)), atomic helium (He) and molecular oxygen (O(2)) were identified in the subliming oxygen and carbon dioxide condensates by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). Temporal abundances of the oxygen and carbon dioxide precursors and the observed molecular products were compiled over the irradiation period to develop reaction schemes unfolding in the ices. These reactions were observed to be dependent on the generation of atomic oxygen (O) by the homolytic dissociation of molecular oxygen induced by electronic, S(e), and nuclear, S(n), interaction with the impinging ions. In addition, the destruction of the ozone and carbon trioxide products back to the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide precursors was promoted over an extended period of ion bombardment. Finally, destruction and formation yields were calculated and compared between irradiation sources (including 5 keV electrons) which showed a surprising correlation between the molecular yields (∼10(-3)-10(-4) molecules eV(-1)) created by H(+) and He(+) impacts. However, energy transfer by isoenergetic, fast electrons typically generated ten times more product molecules per electron volt (∼10(-2)-10(-3) molecules eV(-1)) than exposure to the ions. Implications of these

  18. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  19. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  20. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna; Liu, Hanli


    Objective/Hypothesis: By monitoring global and local vascular oxygenation and tissue oxygen tension in breast tumors under HBO exposure with several different gas interventions, we wish to prove the following two hypotheses: that 1...

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham


    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs

  2. Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (United States)

    Jenks, Christopher Loren; Raman, Lakshmi; Dalton, Heidi J


    Extracorporeal life support is a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass. Experience in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has come largely from the neonatal population. Most centers have transitioned the ECMO pumps from roller pumps to centrifugal technology. Modes of support include venovenous for respiratory support and venoarterial for cardiac support. "Awake" ECMO is the trend with extubation and tracheostomy on the rise. Fluid overload is common and managed with diuretics or hemofiltration. Nutrition is important and provided enterally or via total parenteral nutrition. Overall survival for pediatric cardiac and respiratory ECMO has remained at approximately 50% to 60%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H


    of oxygen treatment. One study is observational and the remaining five are RCTs. Another five studies were on hyperbaric oxygen treatment hereof two case studies. CONCLUSION: Oxygen therapy can be administered at different flow rates. Three studies investigate the effect of low-flow oxygen, 6-7 l....../min, and found a positive response in 56%, 75% and 82%, respectively, of the patients. One study investigates high-flow oxygen, 12 l/min, and found efficacy in 78% of attacks. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been investigated in a few small studies and there is evidence only for an acute......PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy...

  4. [Medicinal gases: oxygen and heliox]. (United States)

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Martinón Sánchez, J M; Martinón Torres, F


    All forms of respiratory support involve one essential element: The gas or gas mixture administered to the patient. Oxygen is an indispensable gas for cellular metabolism and is indicated in cases of hypoxia. Oxygen therapy aims to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood by increasing the oxygen concentration of inspired air. In addition to its therapeutic effects, the adverse effects and drawbacks of oxygen should be known. Several methods and devices for the administration of supplementary oxygen are available. Selection of the method should be individualized according to the patient's age and disease, the required inspiratory fraction and the child's possibilities of adaptation. Helium is an inert gas that has a very low specific weight and density. These properties explain its therapeutic effects, mainly in airway obstructions due to various etiologies. Breathing the helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) reduces respiratory effort and improves gas exchange, without significant adverse effects.

  5. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W


    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  6. Oxygen Gradients in the Microcirculation (United States)

    Pittman, Roland N.


    Early in the last century August Krogh embarked on a series of seminal studies to understand the connection between tissue metabolism and mechanisms by which the cardiovascular system supplied oxygen to meet those needs. Krogh recognized that oxygen was supplied from blood to the tissues by passive diffusion and that the most likely site for oxygen exchange was the capillary network. Studies of tissue oxygen consumption and diffusion coefficient, coupled with anatomical studies of capillarity in various tissues, led him to formulate a model of oxygen diffusion from a single capillary. Fifty years after the publication of this work, new methods were developed which allowed the direct measurement of oxygen in and around microvessels. These direct measurements have confirmed the predictions by Krogh and have led to extensions of his ideas resulting in our current understanding of oxygenation within the microcirculation. Developments during the last 40 years are reviewed, including studies of oxygen gradients in arterioles, capillaries, venules, microvessel wall and surrounding tissue. These measurements were made possible by the development and use of new methods to investigate oxygen in the microcirculation, so mention is made of oxygen microelectrodes, microspectrophotometry of haemoglobin and phosphorescence quenching microscopy. Our understanding of oxygen transport from the perspective of the microcirculation has gone from a consideration of oxygen gradients in capillaries and tissue to the realization that oxygen has the ability to diffuse from any microvessel to another location under the conditions that there exists a large enough PO2 gradient and that the permeability for oxygen along the intervening pathway is sufficient. PMID:21281453

  7. Catalytic oxidative conversion of alkanes to olefines and oxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerns, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany)


    All of the direct reaction schemes described and the corresponding process schemes are still in an exploratory state. Ethylene by oxidative coupling of methane could become competitive if process schemes are developed with significantly less expenditures for separation of the product from unconverted feed. No encouragement for formaldehyde from methane can be presently derived from the existing knowledge. Liquid-phase oxidation of methane to methanol appears to be attractive but no final judgement is possible at present. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylene and propane look promising although further catalyst improvement is required. Acetic acid from ethane and acrylonitrile from propane have a certain potential as an alternative to present technology. The outlook for acrolein and acrylic acid from propane is less favourable; new concepts for catalyst design are necessary. (orig.)

  8. Evolution: Prosaically About the Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shashkov


    Full Text Available Since the origin of mankind, every living person has tried to the best of his abilities to comprehend his presence in the world around. The question, around which, in one way or another, the topic of evolution centers. All this time, apparently not really successful attempts to create a unified world view have not stopped. The complexity of the problem lies in the fact that, while solving, it is necessary to understand a complex of interconnected intricate problems. Among them there are answers to the following questions: which principles define the evolutionary processes; how can appear and on what principles can function such an apparatus as the brain; how can this apparatus self-identify in its own environment, how it interacts with it; how appear and on what principles form its social relations with the ones of its kind? Afterward, there inevitably appears a necessity to thoroughly consider at least two more topics – appearance of metrology and terminology as the tools of self-identification and mutual understanding, their possibilities and limits of application. Solving of these tasks gives a rather definite base for rational correction of all the fundamental created by the mankind in the sphere of theoretical underpinning of all things, gives an opportunity to select reliable schemes to forecast the future of the mankind. In the format of an article it is complicated to consider the whole complex of tasks, one can only briefly mark some of the main provisions and conclusions, formulate as far as possible the basic provision, on the basis of which an attempt to build a rather equivalent reality of the world order is conducted. Below follows a detailed description of the effects of two quite interesting regularities that underlie evolutionary processes. The first regularity is the paradox that any single, accidental, and indefinitely small interaction in a system becomes a precedent and inevitably enhances the likelihood of further interactions resulting in a variety of new emerging components in the system. The second regularity is that the speed of interactions in any limited and isolated zone of the system precipitously increases and multiply outstrips what is happening in the system itself.

  9. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain


    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  10. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard


    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)


    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  12. Composite oxygen transport membrane (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.


    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x) and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2) for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2) for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas


    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  15. Transport phenomena in the close-spaced sublimation deposition process for manufacture of large-area cadmium telluride photovoltaic panels: Modeling and optimization (United States)

    Malhotra, C. P.

    With increasing national and global demand for energy and concerns about the effect of fossil fuels on global climate change, there is an increasing emphasis on the development and use of renewable sources of energy. Solar cells or photovoltaics constitute an important renewable energy technology but the major impediment to their widespread adoption has been their high initial cost. Although thin-film photovoltaic semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide-cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) can potentially be inexpensively manufactured using large area deposition techniques such as close-spaced sublimation (CSS), their low stability has prevented them from becoming an alternative to traditional polycrystalline silicon solar cells. A key factor affecting the stability of CdS/CdTe cells is the uniformity of deposition of the thin films. Currently no models exist that can relate the processing parameters in a CSS setup with the film deposition uniformity. Central to the development of these models is a fundamental understanding of the complex transport phenomena which constitute the deposition process which include coupled conduction and radiation as well as transition regime rarefied gas flow. This thesis is aimed at filling these knowledge gaps and thereby leading to the development of the relevant models. The specific process under consideration is the CSS setup developed by the Materials Engineering Group at the Colorado State University (CSU). Initially, a 3-D radiation-conduction model of a single processing station was developed using the commercial finite-element software ABAQUS and validated against data from steady-state experiments carried out at CSU. A simplified model was then optimized for maximizing the steady-state thermal uniformity within the substrate. It was inferred that contrary to traditional top and bottom infrared lamp heating, a lamp configuration that directs heat from the periphery of the sources towards the center results in the minimum temperature

  16. Theoretical predictions of source rates for exospheric CO 2 on icy satellites of the outer planets due to sublimation of deep subsurface CO 2 ice (United States)

    Wood, Stephen E.


    The abundances of CO2 observed in the exospheres of Callisto and, more recently, Rhea and Dione are difficult to explain. The previously proposed sources for the CO2 either have production rates well below the expected rates of escape/destruction or should produce other species (e.g. CO) that are not observed.We consider a potential source that has not been previously investigated - CO2 vapor originating from crustal CO2 ice and driven upward by the endogenic heat flux - and have developed a model to make quantitative estimates of the corresponding global subsurface vapor flux.Our model is based on previous theoretical work by Clifford (1993) and Mellon et al. (1997) for equatorial ground ice on Mars, who showed that in times or places where subsurface pore ice is undergoing long-term sublimation and diffusive loss, the ice table (the shallowest depth where any pore ice exists) will not continue to recede indefinitely. Beyond a certain, predictable depth, the linear diffusive profile of vapor density between the ice table and the surface will become supersaturated with respect to the local temperature and recondense as pore ice. This is true for any planetary body with a non-negligible interior heat source (e.g. radiogenic, tidal, etc) and is due to the fact that, while the ice temperature increases ~linearly with depth, the corresponding equilibrium vapor density increases exponentially.Once this occurs, a steady-state profile of ice volume fraction, f_ice(z), develops, with net mass loss only occurring from the retreating pore-filling ice layer. The rate of vapor flux to the surface is then determined only by the vapor density and temperature gradient at the ice table depth. We use a 1-D thermal model coupled with an analytic physical model for regolith thermal conductivity (including its depth- and T-dependence), to calculate the zonally-integrated global CO2 vapor flux corresponding to the range of expected heat flow values. Our preliminary results show

  17. Understanding Your Watershed Fact Sheet: Dissolved Oxygen


    Mesner, Nancy; Geiger, John


    Dissolved oxygen describes oxygen molecules which have actually dissolved in water. Sometimes people confuse bubbles in water with dissolved oxygen, but in reality the dissolved form of oxygen cannot be seen.

  18. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation (United States)


    August 2017 Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical...based on the oxygen saturation (SpO2) via the integral pulse oximetry sensor. Twelve pigs were used for the evaluation. The animals were placed on a...pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FIO2 decreased to < 100. The pigs were then placed on the ventilator/concentrator system and allowed to adjust the oxygen

  19. [Oxygen therapy in diving accidents]. (United States)

    Piepho, T; Ehrmann, U; Werner, C; Muth, C M


    Diving accidents represent a departure from the routine practice of emergency physicians. The incidence of non-fatal diving accidents is reported as 1-2 per 10,000 dives. Apart from adequate intravenous hydration, oxygen is the only medication with a proven effect in the treatment of diving accidents. After a typical diving accident, administration of oxygen at an inspired concentration (F(I)O(2) 1.0) as high as possible is recommended. Many divers bring along their own oxygen administration systems to the diving sites and these are often better suited for the treatment of diving accidents than the oxygen systems of many emergency responders. Pressure regulators supplying low constant flow oxygen, nasal prongs and inhalation masks are inappropriate. When using artificial ventilation bags with face masks, an oxygen flow of at least 15 l/min should be used. Demand regulators are simple to use and able to deliver a F(I)O2 of 1.0. Their ease of use has earned them high marks in the emergency management of diving accidents and their similarity to standard diving equipment has also aided relatively widespread acceptance. Circulation breathing systems are more technologically complex oxygen delivery systems which permit CO2 absorption and re-breathing at low oxygen flow. In contrast to the demand modules, the likelihood of mistakes during their usage is higher. In diving accidents, the administration of normobaric oxygen, already begun in the field, is the most important therapy and should not be interrupted. Presented with an inadequate supplemental oxygen supply, the inspired oxygen concentration should not be decreased, rather the duration of the oxygen administration should be reduced. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be the mainstay of further treatment.

  20. Functional Oxygen Sensitivity of Astrocytes. (United States)

    Angelova, Plamena R; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Christie, Isabel; Sheikhbahaei, Shahriar; Turovsky, Egor; Marina, Nephtali; Korsak, Alla; Zwicker, Jennifer; Teschemacher, Anja G; Ackland, Gareth L; Funk, Gregory D; Kasparov, Sergey; Abramov, Andrey Y; Gourine, Alexander V


    In terrestrial mammals, the oxygen storage capacity of the CNS is limited, and neuronal function is rapidly impaired if oxygen supply is interrupted even for a short period of time. However, oxygen tension monitored by the peripheral (arterial) chemoreceptors is not sensitive to regional CNS differences in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) that reflect variable levels of neuronal activity or local tissue hypoxia, pointing to the necessity of a functional brain oxygen sensor. This experimental animal (rats and mice) study shows that astrocytes, the most numerous brain glial cells, are sensitive to physiological changes in PO2 . Astrocytes respond to decreases in PO2 a few millimeters of mercury below normal brain oxygenation with elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). The hypoxia sensor of astrocytes resides in the mitochondria in which oxygen is consumed. Physiological decrease in PO2 inhibits astroglial mitochondrial respiration, leading to mitochondrial depolarization, production of free radicals, lipid peroxidation, activation of phospholipase C, IP3 receptors, and release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores. Hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in astrocytes trigger fusion of vesicular compartments containing ATP. Blockade of astrocytic signaling by overexpression of ATP-degrading enzymes or targeted astrocyte-specific expression of tetanus toxin light chain (to interfere with vesicular release mechanisms) within the brainstem respiratory rhythm-generating circuits reveals the fundamental physiological role of astroglial oxygen sensitivity; in low-oxygen conditions (environmental hypoxia), this mechanism increases breathing activity even in the absence of peripheral chemoreceptor oxygen sensing. These results demonstrate that astrocytes are functionally specialized CNS oxygen sensors tuned for rapid detection of physiological changes in brain oxygenation. Significance statement: Most, if not all, animal cells possess mechanisms that allow them to

  1. High oxygen affinity hemoglobins. (United States)

    Mangin, O


    High oxygen affinity hemoglobins are responsible for rare and heterogeneous autosomic dominant genetic diseases. They cause pure erythrocytosis, sometimes accountable for hyperviscosity and thrombosis, or hemolysis. Differential diagnoses must be first ruled out. The diagnosis is based on the identification of a decreased P50, and their possible characterization by cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Finally, genetic studies of the responsible globin chain gene will confirm the mutation. The prognosis mainly relies on the P50 decrease rate and on the hemoglobin cooperativity impairment. Disease management should be personalized, and it should primarily depend on smoking cessation and physical activity. Phlebotomy and platelet aggregation inhibitors' prescriptions can be discussed. There is no contraindication to flights, high-altitude conditions, or pregnancy. Nevertheless, blood donation must be prohibited. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch


    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  3. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  4. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus


    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...

  5. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels


    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) ele...

  6. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.


    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  7. Chasing Neoproterozoic Atmospheric Oxygen Ghosts (United States)

    Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.; Dahl, T. W.


    Increasing atmospheric oxygen has been considered a necessary condition for the evolution of animal life for over half a century. While direct proxies for atmospheric oxygen are difficult to obtain, a number of indirect proxies have been giving us a ghost image of rising atmospheric oxygen at the close of the Precambrian. In this context, redox sensitive elements and isotopes represent the hallmark for a significant reduction in anoxic areas of the world ocean, implicating a significant rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Neoproterozoic. Here, we test to what degree redox sensitive elements in ancient marine sediments are proxies of atmospheric oxygen. We model the redox-chemical evolution of the shelf seas and ocean using a combination of 3D high resolution shelf sea models and a simpler global ocean biogeochemical model including climate weathering feedbacks, a free sea level and parameterized icecaps. We find that ecosystem evolution would have resulted in reorganization of the nutrient and redox balance of the shelf-ocean system causing a significant increase in oxygenated areas that permitted a boosting of trace metal concentrations in the remaining anoxic areas. While this reorganization takes place there is limited net change in the modelled atmospheric oxygen, warning us against interpreting changing trace metal concentrations and isotopes as reflecting a rise in atmospheric oxygen.

  8. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju


    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  9. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  10. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana


    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  11. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy


    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  12. Effects of oxygen partial pressure, deposition temperature, and annealing on the optical response of CdS:O thin films as studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junda, Maxwell M.; Grice, Corey R.; Subedi, Indra; Yan, Yanfa; Podraza, Nikolas J. [Department of Physics & Astronomy and The Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation & Commercialization, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)


    Ex-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are made on radio frequency magnetron sputtered oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) thin films. Films are deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature and at 270 °C with varying oxygen to total gas flow ratios in the sputtering ambient. Ellipsometric spectra from 0.74 to 5.89 eV are collected before and after annealing at 607 °C to simulate the thermal processes during close-space sublimation of overlying cadmium telluride in that solar cell configuration. Complex dielectric function (ε = ε{sub 1} + iε{sub 2}) spectra are extracted for films as a function of oxygen gas flow ratio, deposition temperature, and post-deposition annealing using a parametric model accounting for critical point transitions and an Urbach tail for sub-band gap absorption. The results suggest an inverse relationship between degree of crystallinity and oxygen gas flow ratio, whereas annealing is shown to increase crystallinity in all samples. Direct band gap energies are determined from the parametric modeling of ε and linear extrapolations of the square of the absorption coefficient. As-deposited samples feature a range of band gap energies whereas annealing is shown to result in gap energies ranging only from 2.40 to 2.45 eV, which is close to typical band gaps for pure cadmium sulfide.

  13. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.


    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  14. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared

  15. Low Temperature Growth of In2O3and InN Nanocrystals on Si(111 via Chemical Vapour Deposition Based on the Sublimation of NH4Cl in In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokkou Demetra


    Full Text Available Abstract Indium oxide (In2O3 nanocrystals (NCs have been obtained via atmospheric pressure, chemical vapour deposition (APCVD on Si(111 via the direct oxidation of In with Ar:10% O2at 1000 °C but also at temperatures as low as 500 °C by the sublimation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl which is incorporated into the In under a gas flow of nitrogen (N2. Similarly InN NCs have also been obtained using sublimation of NH4Cl in a gas flow of NH3. During oxidation of In under a flow of O2the transfer of In into the gas stream is inhibited by the formation of In2O3around the In powder which breaks up only at high temperatures, i.e.T > 900 °C, thereby releasing In into the gas stream which can then react with O2leading to a high yield formation of isolated 500 nm In2O3octahedrons but also chains of these nanostructures. No such NCs were obtained by direct oxidation forT G < 900 °C. The incorporation of NH4Cl in the In leads to the sublimation of NH4Cl into NH3and HCl at around 338 °C which in turn produces an efficient dispersion and transfer of the whole In into the gas stream of N2where it reacts with HCl forming primarily InCl. The latter adsorbs onto the Si(111 where it reacts with H2O and O2leading to the formation of In2O3nanopyramids on Si(111. The rest of the InCl is carried downstream, where it solidifies at lower temperatures, and rapidly breaks down into metallic In upon exposure to H2O in the air. Upon carrying out the reaction of In with NH4Cl at 600 °C under NH3as opposed to N2, we obtain InN nanoparticles on Si(111 with an average diameter of 300 nm.

  16. The Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen (United States)

    Thistlethwayte, D.; And Others


    Describes an experiment in environmental chemistry which serves to determine the dissolved oxygen concentration in both fresh and saline water. Applications of the method at the undergraduate and secondary school levels are recommended. (CC)

  17. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two main innovations will be developed in the Phase II effort that are fundamentally associated with our gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane RCS thruster. The first...

  18. Uniquely confining Cu2S nanoparticles in graphitized carbon fibers for enhanced oxygen evolution reaction (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yu


    Up to now, the literature on Cu2S with specific morphology applied to oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the electrocatalytic field has been limited. In this work, unique peapod-like Cu2S/C exhibiting superb electrocatalytic performance toward OER is successfully synthesized, by employing Cu(OH)2 nanorods as the template and nontoxic glucose as the carbon source and then annealing with sublimed sulfur. It can be seen that this work explores a new application area for Cu2S. More precisely, the novel morphology contributes to increasing the electrochemical active surface area effectively and promoting contact between the Cu2S nanoparticles and the electrolyte. During electrochemical measurements, the peapod-like Cu2S/C shows enhanced electrocatalytic activity with a low overpotential of 401 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of 52 mV dec-1. More importantly, our material is able to maintain stability for at least 8 h at constant potential and the current loss is negligible after 2000 cycles. Obviously, these striking properties fully demonstrate that the peapod-like Cu2S/C as an efficient catalyst shows great promise for OER.

  19. A theory of atmospheric oxygen. (United States)

    Laakso, T A; Schrag, D P


    Geological records of atmospheric oxygen suggest that pO 2 was less than 0.001% of present atmospheric levels (PAL) during the Archean, increasing abruptly to a Proterozoic value between 0.1% and 10% PAL, and rising quickly to modern levels in the Phanerozoic. Using a simple model of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, iron, and phosphorous, we demonstrate that there are three stable states for atmospheric oxygen, roughly corresponding to levels observed in the geological record. These stable states arise from a series of specific positive and negative feedbacks, requiring a large geochemical perturbation to the redox state to transition from one to another. In particular, we show that a very low oxygen level in the Archean (i.e., 10 -7 PAL) is consistent with the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis and a robust organic carbon cycle. We show that the Snowball Earth glaciations, which immediately precede both transitions, provide an appropriate transient increase in atmospheric oxygen to drive the atmosphere either from its Archean state to its Proterozoic state, or from its Proterozoic state to its Phanerozoic state. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic explanation for the apparent synchronicity of the Proterozoic Snowball Earth events with both the Great Oxidation Event, and the Neoproterozoic oxidation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution (United States)

    Xiao, S.


    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  2. Beauty and sublime. Comment on "Move me, astonish me…" delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates; by Matthew Pelowski et al. (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid


    The VIMAP model presented in this review [1] is an interesting and detailed model of neural mechanisms of aesthetic perception. In this Comment I address one deficiency of this model: it does not address in details the fundamental notions of the VIMAP, beauty and sublime. In this regard VIMAP is similar to other publications on aesthetics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B


    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  4. Astrochemical Laboratory Experiments as Analogs to Plutonian Chemistry: Using FTIR Spectroscopy to Monitor the Sublimation of Irradiated 1:1:100 CO+H_{2}O+N_{2} and 1:1:100 CH_{4}+H_{2}O+N_{2} Ices (United States)

    Stelmach, Kamil Bartlomiej; Yarnall, Yukiko; Cooper, Paul


    Pluto is a large icy body composed of N_{2}, CH_{4}, and H_{2}O ices. In many ways, Pluto can be seen as one large matrix isolation experiment where N_{2} is the inert matrix that can act to trap and isolate reactive species. The temperature changes on the dwarf planet induce sublimation of N_{2} from the surface. Any previously trapped reactive species could then react with the new ice or neighboring molecules. To see if this process might lead to a significant formation of molecules, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy (4 cm^{-1} resolution) was used to study and monitor the sublimation of ices created from irradiated gas mixtures of 1:1:100 CO+H_{2}O+N_{2} or 1:1:100 CH_{4}+H_{2}O+N_{2}. The gas mixtures were initially prepared and deposited on a cold finger at a temperature of 6 K and a baseline vacuum of about 1 x 10^{-7} Torr. Gas mixtures were irradiated using an electric discharge or a microwave discharge before deposition to create the unstable chemical species. To sublimate the matrix, the temperature was brought up step-wise in 5-10 K intervals to 45 K. Slow sublimation (10 min per step) resulted in the new species being trapped in a water ice. In addition to (FTIR) spectroscopy, chemical species were also identified or monitored using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and a residual gas analyzer (RGA). Carbon suboxide (C_{3}O_{2}), a common component found in meteorites and a potentially important prebiotic molecule, was formed only after the sublimation step. Other products formed included deprotonated versions of products formed in the original matrix ice. C_{3}O_{2}'s potential importance in Pluto's surface chemistry and its overall astrobiological significance will be discussed.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    retina. This pressure is regulated through the balance of oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption in the retina2. Besides, retinal blood flow is strongly dependent on the partial pressure of oxygen. Most of the oxygen delivered by choroidal circulation to the outer retina is consumed by photoreceptor segments because this.

  6. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches. •. In. A.H. Dye. Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional in situ techniques are compared with laboratory measurements of interstitial oxygen changes in intact cores. Oxygen uptake as measured in the laboratory was ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvine D. Prather


    Full Text Available The continuing desire to improve performance, particularly at the national and international levels, has led to the use of ergogenic aids. Ergogenic aids are defined as 'a procedure or agent that provides the athlete with a competitive edge beyond that obtained via normal training methods'. Random drug testing has been implemented in an effort to minimize an athlete's ability to gain an unfair advantage. However, other means of improving performance have been tried. Blood doping has been used to enhance endurance performance by improving oxygen delivery to working muscles. As oxygen is carried in combination with the hemoglobin, it seems logical that increasing the number of red blood cells (RBC's in the body would increase the oxygen carrying capacity to the tissues and result in improved performance. The first experiments of removing and then reinfusing blood showed a significant improvement in performance time

  8. empirical modeling of oxygen modeling of oxygen uptake of flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Skimming Flow On Embankment Stepped. Spillways” The Effect of Additional Micro-roughness. On Energy Dissipation And Oxygen Transfer. In: IAHR European Congress, 2010. [9] Wilhelms, S. C. and Gulliver, J. S., “Self Aerating. Spillway Flow” , Proceedings of the ASCE National. Conference on Hydraulic Engineering, ...

  9. Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates. (United States)

    Hyman, Michael


    Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot Plant Makes Oxygen Difluoride (United States)

    Humphrey, Marshall F.; Lawton, Emil A.


    Pilot plant makes oxygen difluoride highly-energetic, space-storable oxidizer not made commercially. Designed to handle reactants, product, and byproduct, most of which highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic. Oxygen difluoride evolves continuously from reactor containing potassium hydroxide in water at 10 degree C. Collection tanks alternated; one filled while other drained to storage cylinder. Excess OF2 and F2 dissipated in combustion of charcoal in burn barrel. Toxic byproduct, potassium fluoride, reacted with calcium hydroxide to form nontoxic calcium fluoride and to regenerate potassium hydroxide. Equipment processes toxic, difficult-to-make substance efficiently and safely.

  11. Cyanobacterial diazotrophy and Earth's delayed oxygenation


    Olson, Stephanie L.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lyons, Timothy W.


    The redox landscape of Earth’s ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth’s protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth’s redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth’s oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion year delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of the...

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) | Richards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being employed in South African intensive care units for the management of patients with refractory hypoxaemia and for haemodynamic support, particularly following cardiothoracic procedures. ECMO is expensive, however, and there is a danger that this ...

  13. Eukaryotic vs. cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis


    Schmelling, Nicolas


    Slides of my talk about the differences between eukaryotic and cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis.  The talk is a more generell overview about the differences of the two systems. Slides and Figures are my own. For comments, questions and suggestions please contact me via twitter @derschmelling or via mail

  14. Circumgalactic Oxygen Absorption and Feedback (United States)

    Mathews, William G.; Prochaska, J. Xavier


    O vi absorption in quasar spectra caused by intervening circumgalactic atmospheres suggests a downturn in the atmospheric column density in sightlines passing beyond about 100 kpc from central star-forming galaxies. This turnover supports the hypothesis that the oxygen originates in the central galaxies. When converted into oxygen space density using an Abel integral inversion, the O vi columns require ≳ {10}9 M ⊙ of oxygen concentrated near 100 kpc. Circumgalactic gas within this radius cools in less than 1 Gyr and radiates ˜ {10}42.2 erg s-1 overall. The feedback power necessary to maintain such oxygen-rich atmospheres for many Gyr cannot be easily supplied by galactic supernovae. However, massive central black holes in star-forming galaxies may generate sufficient accretion power and intermittent shock waves at r˜ 100 {kpc} to balance circumgalactic radiation losses in late-type {L}\\star galaxies. The relative absence of O vi absorption observed in early-type, passive {L}\\star galaxies may arise from enhanced AGN feedback from their more massive central black holes.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    332. Oxidation of aryl amines is an important reaction in the synthesis of oxygenated derivatives such as hydroxylamine, nitroso, nitro, oxime, azo and azoxy compounds. Azobenzene has been utilized as dyes, analytical reagents, reducing agents, stabilizers, liquid crystals and polymerization inhibitors and exhibits several ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    40 %, and 60 % by weight) as active solid acid catalysts were performed under mild reaction conditions with moderate to good yields and with 100 % selectivity. It is found that the supported. H3PW12O40 was in general 1.4-2.3 times more efficient than the unsupported catalyst in the acetylation and oxygenation reactions.

  17. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.


    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Dissolved Oxygen (United States)

    Introduction to the dissolved oxygen module, when to list dissolved oxygen as a candidate cause, ways to measure dissolved oxygen, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for dissolved oxygen, references for the dissolved oxygen module.

  19. Reactive oxygen species formed in organic lithium-oxygen batteries. (United States)

    Schwager, Patrick; Dongmo, Saustin; Fenske, Daniela; Wittstock, Gunther


    Li-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes are of general interest because of their theoretically high gravimetric energy density. Among the great challenges for this storage technology is the generation of reactive oxygen species such as superoxides and peroxides that may react with the organic solvent molecules and other cell components. The generation of such species has been assumed to occur during the charging reaction. Here we show that superoxide is formed also during the discharge reaction in lithium ion-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes and is released into the solution. This is shown independently by fluorescence microscopy after reaction with the selective reagent 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and by local detection using a microelectrode of a scanning electrochemcial microscope positioned in a defined distance of 10 to 90 μm above the gas diffusion electrode.

  20. Oxygen supply and consumption in soilless culture: evaluation of an oxygen simulation model for cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Wever, G.; Koolen, A.J.; Tariku, E.; Stol, K.J.


    A soil oxygen simulation model (OXSI) was tested and evaluated for evaluating growing media with respect to aeration. In the model, local oxygen concentrations are calculated from coefficients of diffusion and consumption (respiration), assuming equilibrium conditions. Apparent oxygen diffusion

  1. Titanium-Oxygen Reactivity Study (United States)

    Chafey, J. E.; Scheck, W. G.; Witzell, W. E.


    A program has been conducted at Astronautics to investigate the likelihood of occurrence of the catastrophic oxidation of titanium alloy sheet under conditions which simulate certain cases of accidental failure of the metal while it is in contact with liquid or gaseous oxygen. Three methods of fracturing the metal were used; they consisted of mechanical puncture, tensile fracture of welded joints, and perforation by very high velocity particles. The results of the tests which have been conducted provide further evidence of the reactivity of titanium with liquid and gaseous oxygen. The evidence indicates that the rapid fracturing of titanium sheet while it is in contact with oxygen initiates the catastrophic oxidation reaction. Initiation occurred when the speed of the fracture was some few feet per second, as in both the drop-weight puncture tests and the static tensile fracture tests of welded joints, as well as when the speed was several thousand feet per second, as in the simulated micrometeoroid penetration tests. The slow propagation of a crack, however, did not initiate the reaction. It may logically be concluded that the localized frictional heat of rapid fracture and/or spontaneous oxidation (exothermic) of minute particles emanating from the fracture cause initiation of the reaction. Under conditions of slow fracture, however, the small heat generated may be adequately dissipated and the reaction is not initiated. A portion of the study conducted consisted of investigating various means by which the reaction might be retarded or prevented. Providing a "barrier" at the titanium-oxygen interface consisting of either aluminum metal or a coating of a petroleum base corrosion inhibitor appeared to be only partially effective in retarding the reaction. The accidental puncturing or similar rupturing of thin-walled pressurized oxygen tanks on missiles and space vehicle will usually constitute loss of function, and may sometimes cause their catastrophic destruction

  2. Effect of epidural blockade and oxygen therapy on changes in subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, U; Erichsen, C J


    The effect of oxygen therapy (37% by face mask) and epidural local anesthetic blockade (9 ml 0.5% bupivacaine at Th9-11 level) on wound oxygenation was evaluated in eight otherwise healthy patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. The patients were monitored continuously for subcutaneous...... any of the measured values. Oxygen therapy before epidural blockade increased median subcutaneous oxygen tension from 60 to 71 mmHg (P oxygen tension with oxygen therapy was 30 (15-55) min...... without epidural blockade and 15 (10-20) min with blockade (P oxygen tension with or without oxygen therapy after elective uncomplicated major abdominal surgery....

  3. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Jonathan A.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Petigny, Nathalie; Sarantopoulos, Christos


    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a microstructure exhibiting substantially uniform pore size distribution as a result of using PMMA pore forming materials or a bi-modal particle size distribution of the porous support layer materials. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  4. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie


    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  5. Hindered Diphenoquinones: Diradicals of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, Jean; Calvin, Melvin


    Attempts were made to prepare a diphenoquinone having substituents in 2,2'-positions in order to prevent the planarity of the molecule and get a diradical of oxygen. The 2,2'-dimethyl-5,5'-di-t-butyldiphenoquinone was prepared and was shown to be in equilibrium with a small amount of diradical. This compound slowly polymerizes.

  6. Oxygen-binding haem proteins. (United States)

    Wilson, Michael T; Reeder, Brandon J


    Myoglobin and haemoglobin, the respiratory pigments of mammals and some molluscs, annelids and arthropods, belong to an ancient superfamily of haem-associated globin proteins. Members of this family share common structural and spectral features. They also share some general functional characteristics, such as the ability to bind ligands, e.g. O2, CO and NO, at the iron atom and to undergo redox changes. These properties are used in vivo to perform a wide range of biochemical and physiological roles. While it is acknowledged that the major role of haemoglobin is to bind oxygen reversibly and deliver it to the tissues, this is not its only function, while the often-stated role of myoglobin as an oxygen storage protein is possibly a misconception. Furthermore, haemoglobin and myoglobin express enzymic activities that are important to their function, e.g. NO dioxygenase activity or peroxidatic activity that may be partly responsible for pathophysiology following haemorrhage. Evidence for these functions is described, and the discussion extended to include proteins that have recently been discovered and that are expressed at low levels within the cell. These proteins are hexaco-ordinate, unlike haemoglobin and myoglobin, and are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom (e.g. neuroglobins and cytoglobins). They may have specialist roles in oxygen delivery to particular sites within the cell but may also perform roles associated with O2 sensing and signalling and in responses to stress, e.g. protection from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Haemoglobins are also widespread in plants and bacteria and may serve similar protective functions.

  7. [The story of oxygen (2)]. (United States)

    Marini, F; Radin, S; Tenchini, P


    The authors, in this second part of the oxygen story, resolutely cross the borders of the biophysical field, and face the origins and becoming of life, the stages of which are synthesized in "casket" terms, unusual for surgeons: "protobionts", "procariots", "cyanobacteria", "chlorophyll", "caroteonides", "fermentation", "anaerobic glycolysis", "eucariots", "respiratory chain", "mitocondria". This is not an unconventional biological exercise, but the effort to give clinics a more legible ground, a sort of common denominator of the most different pathologies, and, among these ones, at the first place, just those of the specialistic branch, also less frequenter of biology, that is, surgery. This common denominator, the oxygen radicals represent the emerging apex of, like the peak of an iceberg, in fact, can be only investigated through an exasperated "philogenetic" recovering. Such process of "archaeology" seems to be the only suitable to supply us the cipher-key of the ambiguous, shifty character of oxygen, and entrust us with a cultural patrimony being unique as it is spendable in an immediate clinical future.

  8. [Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy, basic concepts]. (United States)

    García-Covarrubias, L; Cuauhtémoc Sánchez-Rodríguez, E


    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is defined as a treatment in which a patient breathes 100% oxygen in a pressurized environment of at least 1.4 absolute atmospheres. The first written reports data from the 15th century, when it was used to treat respiratory diseases. For some time its applications lacked scientific support until the second half of this century when scientific publications were carried out using current methodology. This type of therapy is grounded basically in three gas laws: Henry's Law, Dalton's Law and Boyle's Law. The beneficial effects are: wound healing enhancement; increased neutrophil bactericidal capacity; direct toxic effect against some microorganisms; arteriolar vasoconstriction with subsequent edema reduction and decreased ischemia/reperfusion injury, among others. These are the result of increased environmental pressure and high oxygen tension in body tissues. Currently there are 13 accepted conditions to be treated with HBO and others are still under investigation. Following UHMS-accepted treatment protocols, complications and/or adverse effects are limited.

  9. High-Pressure Oxygen Concentrator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA desires to generate and store gases including oxygen and nitrogen at sub-critical conditions as a part of its lunar and spacecraft atmospheric systems. Oxygen...

  10. Medical Oxygen Concentrator for Microgravity Operation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have all seen people carrying portable oxygen tanks or concentrators to provide critical life support respiratory oxygen. Heavy, bulky, and for O2 concentrators,...

  11. Oxygen-Mass-Flow Calibration Cell (United States)

    Martin, Robert E.


    Proposed calibration standard for mass flow rate of oxygen based on conduction of oxygen ions through solid electrolyte membrane made of zirconia and heated to temperature of 1,000 degrees C. Flow of oxygen ions proportional to applied electric current. Unaffected by variations in temperature and pressure, and requires no measurement of volume. Calibration cell based on concept used to calibrate variety of medical and scientific instruments required to operate with precise rates of flow of oxygen.

  12. Effects of Single and Blended Coating Pigments on the Inkjet Image Quality of Dye Sublimation Transfer Printed Paper: SiO2, CaCO3, Talc, and Sericite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ching Lin


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects on the image quality of CaCO3, SiO2, talc, and sericite on coated inkjet paper. The papers serve as dye sublimation transfer paper for printing on fabrics. The brightness, smoothness, and contact angle of the coated papers were evaluated. The papers were then printed with a textile color image evaluation test form, and the imprinted images were evaluated with respect to six criteria of the solid ink density, tone value increase, print contrast, ink trapping, grayness, and hue error. The overall printed image quality was correlated with the smoothness and brightness of the coated paper but showed no correlation with the contact angle. For single-pigment-coated papers, CaCO3 produced paper with the best color difference performance and could be substituted for silica. On the other hand, SiO2 was found to be suitable for blending with talc, calcium carbonate, and sericite, and its combination with these materials generally produced better image qualities than silica alone. Talc and sericite, when blended with silica as composite coating pigments, produced better printed image qualities than those as single-pigment-coated papers. The overall image quality ranking suggests that the best performance was achieved with CaCO3-, SiO2/talc-, CaCO3/SiO2-, SiO2/sericite-, and SiO2-coated papers.

  13. Um filme falado e a construção calculada do sublime: Implicações da estética kantiana na construção social da segurança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Carvalho de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Com base numa perspetiva crítica dos estudos de segurança e no que tem sido chamado de “viragem estética na teoria política internacional”, este artigo recorre a Um filme falado do realizador português Manoel de Oliveira, a fim de mostrar como a estética do sublime é calculadamente articulada no filme para produzir o ‘efeito‑choque’ e transmitir uma ideologia − a do choque das civilizações – contribuindo, assim, para reforçar o discurso securitizador que está na base da “Guerra contra o Terrorismo”. Com base nessa análise, o artigo conclui que uma abordagem estética da securitização não só oferece um modelo alternativo apropriado ao estudo do impacto da cultura visual na construção social da segurança, mas também contribui para o desenvolvimento da capacidade crítica do público a quem cabe, em última instância, a decisão de aceitar ou contestar um movimento de securitização.

  14. Hysteresis and change of transition temperature in thin films of Fe([Me{sub 2}Pyrz]{sub 3}BH){sub 2}, a new sublimable spin-crossover molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, V.; Gruber, M. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Studniarek, M. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Doh, W. H.; Zafeiratos, S. [Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l’Energie, l’Environnement et la Santé, UMR 7515 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 25 rue Becquerel, 67087 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Joly, L.; Schmerber, G.; Bowen, M.; Weber, W.; Boukari, S.; Da Costa, V.; Arabski, J.; Beaurepaire, E. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Cedex 2 Strasbourg (France); Sirotti, F.; Silly, M. G. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gaspar, A. B.; Real, J. A. [Institut de Ciència Molecular (ICMol), Universitat de València, C/Catedrático José Beltrán Martínez 2, 46980 Paterna (València) (Spain); and others


    Thin films of the spin-crossover (SCO) molecule Fe([Me{sub 2}Pyrz]{sub 3}BH){sub 2} (Fe-pyrz) were sublimed on Si/SiO{sub 2} and quartz substrates, and their properties investigated by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies, optical absorption, atomic force microscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device. Contrary to the previously studied Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}, the films are not smooth but granular. The thin films qualitatively retain the typical SCO properties of the powder sample (SCO, thermal hysteresis, soft X-ray induced excited spin-state trapping, and light induced excited spin-state trapping) but present intriguing variations even in micrometer-thick films: the transition temperature decreases when the thickness is decreased, and the hysteresis is affected. We explain this behavior in the light of recent studies focusing on the role of surface energy in the thermodynamics of the spin transition in nano-structures. In the high-spin state at room temperature, the films have a large optical gap (∼5 eV), decreasing at thickness below 50 nm, possibly due to film morphology.

  15. Heat transfer coefficients obtainment by means of naphthalene sublimation in air; Obtencion de coeficientes de transferencia de calor por medio de la tecnica de sublimacion de naftalina en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galindo, Jose Arturo; Garcia Gutierrez, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    This work describes the experimental technique for the sublimation of naphthalene in air which measures heat transfer coefficients through the use of the analogy between the transference phenomena of heat and mass. The technique used to substitute the experimental measurements of heat transfer, in which it is difficult to control the border thermal conditions, when they are dimmed by the omnipresent problem of heat conduction through the walls of the transference surfaces. Two examples are included of the application technique and its potential is outlined. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica experimental de la sublimacion de naftalina en aire mediante la que se miden coeficientes de transferencia de masa. Los datos asi obtenidos pueden convertirse en coeficientes de transferencia de calor a traves del uso de la analogia entre los fenomenos de transferencia de calor y masa. La tecnica se utiliza para substituir las mediciones experimentales de transferencia de calor, en las que es dificil controlar las condiciones termicas de frontera, cuando las empana el problema omnipresente de la conduccion de calor a traves de las paredes de las superficies de transferencia. Se incluyen dos ejemplos de la aplicacion de la tecnica y se destaca su potencial.

  16. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of low oxygen availability on the respiration rate and their reactions in an oxygen gradient. In contrast with L. ... biotic index of water quality is based is therefore the typical change occurring in the aquatic community due ... Probably the most important single factor regulating the composition of an aquatic fauna. is the oxygen ...

  18. Spatial Variations in Vitreous Oxygen Consumption. (United States)

    Murali, Karthik; Kang, Dongyang; Nazari, Hossein; Scianmarello, Nicholas; Cadenas, Enrique; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kashani, Amir; Humayun, Mark


    We investigated the spatial variation of vitreous oxygen consumption in enucleated porcine eyes. A custom made oxygen source was fabricated that could be localized to either the mid or posterior vitreous cavity and steady state vitreous oxygen tension was measured as a function of distance from the source using a commercially available probe. The reaction rate constant of ascorbate oxidation was estimated ex vivo by measuring the change in oxygen tension over time using vitreous harvested from porcine eyes. Vitreous ascorbate from mid and posterior vitreous was measured spectrophotometrically. When the oxygen source was placed in either the mid-vitreous (N = 6) or the posterior vitreous (N = 6), we measured a statistically significant decrease in vitreous oxygen tension as a function of distance from the oxygen source when compared to control experiments without an oxygen source; (pvitreous and pvitreous at all distances). The mid-vitreous oxygen tension change was significantly different from the posterior vitreous oxygen tension change at 2 and 3mm distances from the respective oxygen source (pvitreous as compared to posterior vitreous (p = 0.02). We determined the reaction rate constant, k = 1.61 M(-1) s(-1) ± 0.708 M(-1) s(-1) (SE), of the oxidation of ascorbate which was modeled following a second order rate equation. Our data demonstrates that vitreous oxygen consumption is higher in the posterior vitreous compared to the mid-vitreous. We also show spatial variations in vitreous ascorbate concentration.

  19. 78 FR 5707 - Lavatory Oxygen Systems (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 121 RIN 2120-AK14 Lavatory Oxygen Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... rulemaking to adopt new standards for chemical oxygen generator system installations, based on the ARC... may use the guidance in that policy statement for approval of chemical oxygen generator systems...

  20. Oxygen Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... of Medicine) Article: Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections. Article: Intensive care unit randomised trial comparing two approaches to oxygen... Article: Impact of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program-Recommended Low Oxygen Strategy on... Oxygen Therapy -- see more articles Find an Expert American Lung ...

  1. Oxygen: problems and solutions in electrochemistry


    Bardini, Luca


    Different aspects of the electrochemistry of oxygen are examined through four experimental examples: corrosion, passivation via organic thin films, oxygen reduction and water oxidation catalysis are outlined in order to outline the very different ways and circumstances in which oxygen plays a major role in electrochemistry.

  2. Oxygen absorption by skin exposed to oxygen supersaturated water. (United States)

    Reading, Stacey A; Yeomans, Maggie


    The present study tests the hypothesis that skin on the plantar surface of the foot absorbs oxygen (O(2)) when immersed in water that has a high dissolved O(2) content. Healthy male and female subjects (24.2 ± 1.4 years) soaked each foot in tap water (1.7 ± 0.1 mg O(2)·L(-1); 30.7 ± 0.3 °C) or O(2)-infused water (50.2 ± 1.7 mg O(2)·L(-1); 32.1 ± 0.5 °C) for up to 30 min in 50 different experiments. Transcutaneous oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate changes in skin PO(2), oxygenated haemoglobin, and cytochrome oxidase aa(3) that resulted from treatment. Compared with the tap water condition, tissue oxygenation index was 3.5% ± 1.3% higher in feet treated for 30 min with O(2)-infused water. This effect persisted after treatment, as skin PO(2) was higher in feet treated with O(2)-infused water at 2 min (237 ± 9 vs. 112 ± 5 mm HG) and 15 min (131 ± 1 vs. 87 ± 4 mm HG) post-treatment. When blood flow to the foot was occluded for 5 min, feet resting in O(2)-infused water maintained a 3-fold higher O(2) consumption rate than feet treated with tap water (9.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.0 ± 1.0 µL·100 g(-1)·min(-1)). We estimate that skin absorbs 4.5 mL of O(2)·m(-2)·min(-1) from O(2)-infused water. Thus, skin absorbs appreciable amounts of O(2) from O(2)-infused water. This finding may prove useful and assist development of treatments targeting skin diseases with ischemic origin.

  3. Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen. Training Module (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the azide modification of the Winkler dissolved oxygen test and the electronic dissolved oxygen meter test procedures for determining the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand of a wastewater sample. Included are…

  4. Oxygenation measurements in head and neck cancers during hyperbaric oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A.; Kuhnt, T.; Dunst, J. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Liedtke, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Anesthesiology; Krivokuca, A. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine 3; Bloching, M. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery


    Background: Tumor hypoxia has proven prognostic impact in head and neck cancers and is associated with poor response to radiotherapy. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) offers an approach to overcome hypoxia. We have performed pO{sub 2} measurements in selected patients with head and neck cancers under HBO to determine in how far changes in the oxygenation occur and whether a possible improvement of oxygenation parameters is maintained after HBO. Patients and Methods: Seven patients (five male, two female, age 51-63 years) with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck were investigated (six primaries, one local recurrence). The median pO{sub 2} prior to HBO was determined with the Eppendorf histograph. Sites of measurement were enlarged cervical lymph nodes (n = 5), the primary tumor (n = 1) and local recurrence (n = 1). Patients then underwent HBO (100% O{sub 2} at 240 kPa for 30 minutes) and the continuous changes in the oxygenation during HBO were determined with a Licox probe. Patients had HBO for 30 minutes (n = 6) to 40 minutes (n = 1). HBO was continued because the pO{sub 2} had not reached a steady state after 30 minutes. After decompression, patients ventilated pure oxygen under normobaric conditions and the course of the pO{sub 2} was further measured over about 15 minutes. Results: Prior to HBO, the median tumor pO{sub 2} in the Eppendorf histography was 8.6 {+-} 5.4 mm Hg (range 3-19 mm Hg) and the pO{sub 2} measured with the Licox probe was 17.3 {+-} 25.5 mm Hg (range 0-73 mm Hg). The pO{sub 2} increased significantly during HBO to 550 {+-} 333 mm Hg (range 85-984 mm Hg, p = 0.018). All patients showed a marked increase irrespective of the oxygenation prior to HBO. The maximum pO{sub 2} in the tumor was reached after 10-33 minutes (mean 17 minutes). After leaving the hyperbaric chamber, the pO{sub 2} was 282 {+-} 196 mm Hg. All patients maintained an elevated pO{sub 2} for further 5-25 minutes (138 {+-} 128 mm Hg, range 42-334 mm Hg, p = 0.028 vs the p

  5. [Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species]. (United States)

    Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz, Helena; Kuźmicka, Ludmiła; Tarasiewicz, Mirosław


    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mainly free radicals which including non-paired electrons. They are constantly formed as side products of biological reactions. They are also generated directly and indirectly by the cells which were exposed to environmental stress, i.e., UV radiation, ionizing radiation, xenobioticts, light-absorbing compounds, e.g., porphyrines. These factors, which are a source of free radicals, initiate a significant signaling cascade inducing many changes in cells, such as cancerogenic transformation or cell death. Cells protect themselves against oxidative stress by means of antioxidative enzymes and compounds which in their structure have redox sensitive spots.

  6. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of the zirconium--niobium--oxygen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, G.H.


    The vaporization behavior of the Zr--Nb--O system was studied by means of successive vaporization, Knudsen effusion-target collection experiments, and mass spectrometric analysis of the vapors effusing from a Knudsen crucible. The successive vaporization experiments were performed on two ternary samples in open crucibles. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the residues and x-ray fluorescence analysis of the condensates and residues indicated the preferential vaporization of niobium-containing species with the composition of the residue subsequently becoming closer to that of congruently vaporizing ZrO/sub 2-x/. The Knudsen effusion-target collection experiments were employed on two samples, pure NbO/sub 2/(s) and a two-phase ZrO/sub 2/--NbO/sub 2/ mixture, in order to obtain information on the activity of NbO/sub 2/ in the two-phase mixture. Second law enthalpies and entropies of sublimation as well as third law enthalpies were obtained for both systems. The vaporization behaviors of five compositions in the Zr--Nb--O system, NbO/sub 2/, NbO, a ZrO/sub 2/--NbO/sub 2/ two-phase mixture, Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and Zr/sub 6/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 17/, were investigated. Above Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and the fully oxidized Zr/sub 6/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 17/ oxygen is preferentially lost; over NbO/sub 2/, the two-phase ZrO/sub 2/--NbO/sub 2/ system, and NbO the principal gaseous species is NbO/sub 2/.

  7. Continuous assessment of oxygen saturation and subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Ullstad, T; Larsen, P N


    Ten patients undergoing abdominal operations had oxygen saturation (SpO2) and transcutaneous (PtcO2) and subcutaneous (PscO2) oxygen tensions monitored continuously during the second and third postoperative nights from 11 pm to 7 am. At the end of the second postoperative night an oxygen stimulat...... near the surgical wound in the late postoperative period. The results suggest that pulmonary oxygenation is the most important determinant of mean subcutaneous oxygen tension after uncomplicated elective abdominal operations....

  8. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (United States)

    Graf, John C.


    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  9. Thermodynamic approach to oxygen delivery in vivo by natural and artificial oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Bucci, Enrico


    Oxygen is a toxic gas, still indispensable to aerobic life. This paper explores how normal physiology uses the physico-chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of oxygen for transforming a toxic gas into a non toxic indispensable metabolite. Plasma oxygen concentration is in the range of 10(-5) M, insufficient to sustain metabolism. Oxygen carriers, present in blood, release oxygen into plasma, thereby replacing consumed oxygen and buffering PO(2) near their P(50). They are the natural cell-bound carriers, like hemoglobin inside red cells, myoglobin inside myocytes, and artificial cell-free hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) dissolved in plasma. Metabolic oxygen replacement can be defined as cell-bound and cell-free delivery. Cell-bound delivery is retarded by the slow diffusion of oxygen in plasma and interstitial fluids. The 40% hematocrit of normal blood compensates for the delay, coping with the fast oxygen consumption by mitochondria. Facilitated oxygen diffusion by HBOCs corrects for the slow diffusion, making cell-free delivery relatively independent from P(50). At all oxygen affinities, HBOCs produce hyperoxygenations that are compensated by vasoconstrictions. There is a strict direct correlation between the rate of oxygen replacement and hemoglobin content of blood. The free energy loss of the gradient adds a relevant regulation of tissues oxygenation. Oxygen is retained intravascularly by the limited permeability to gases of vessel walls.

  10. Oxygen sensor development for LBE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seung Ho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Sang Yeon; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Material corrosion problem has been studied worldwide. The key element from surroundings affecting LBE corrosion is oxygen because the passive oxide formation on the metal surface is the decisive factor. Too low oxygen contents cause mass dissolution of metal substrate into LBE, but too much oxygen contents will be resulted in the coolant channel blockage by oxidation of Pb or Bi, and the porous oxide formation, which is not dense enough to protect the base metal Thus oxygen contents in LBE as well as oxygen partial pressure in cover gas must be monitored and controlled within appropriate value, typically about 10-6wt%. Generally YSZ (Yttria Stabilized Zirconia) tube or membrane is used to measure the oxygen activity, which acts as a good oxygen ion conductor. Theoretically YSZ membrane can measure the oxygen partial pressure down to 10-30 atm or less. But current oxygen sensors have several problems such as temperature hysteresis while operation, short lifetime, and leakage of ambient air into sensor. We developed an oxygen sensor to improve the leakage characteristics by applying new joining technology between YSZ ceramic and stainless steel metal structure. Various metal/oxide references were also tested.

  11. The debate on continuous home oxygen therapy. (United States)

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; García González, José Luis; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario


    Two studies published in the early 80s, namely the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial (NOTT) and the Medical Research Council Trial (MRC), laid the foundations for modern home oxygen therapy. Since then, little progress has been made in terms of therapeutic indications, and several prescription-associated problems have come to light. Advances in technology have gone hand in hand with growing disregard for the recommendations in clinical guidelines on oxygen therapy. The introduction of liquid oxygen brought with it a number of technical problems, clinical problems related to selecting candidate patients for portable delivery devices, and economic problems associated with the rising cost of the therapy. Continuous home oxygen therapy has been further complicated by the recent introduction of portable oxygen concentrators and the development in quick succession of a range of delivery devices with different levels of efficiency and performance. Modern oxygen therapy demands that clinicians evaluate the level of mobility of their patients and the mobility permitted by available oxygen sources, correctly match patients with the most appropriate oxygen source and adjust the therapy accordingly. The future of continuous home oxygen therapy lies in developing the ideal delivery device, improving the regulations systems and information channels, raise patient awareness and drive research. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. A sublimation technique for high-precision measurements of δ13CO2 and mixing ratios of CO2 and N2O from air trapped in ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer


    Full Text Available In order to provide high precision stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13CO2 or δ13C of CO2 from small bubbly, partially and fully clathrated ice core samples we developed a new method based on sublimation coupled to gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS. In a first step the trapped air is quantitatively released from ~30 g of ice and CO2 together with N2O are separated from the bulk air components and stored in a miniature glass tube. In an off-line step, the extracted sample is introduced into a helium carrier flow using a minimised tube cracker device. Prior to measurement, N2O and organic sample contaminants are gas chromatographically separated from CO2. Pulses of a CO2/N2O mixture are admitted to the tube cracker and follow the path of the sample through the system. This allows an identical treatment and comparison of sample and standard peaks. The ability of the method to reproduce δ13C from bubble and clathrate ice is verified on different ice cores. We achieve reproducibilities for bubble ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.07 ‰ and for clathrate ice between 0.05 ‰ and 0.09 ‰ (dependent on the ice core used. A comparison of our data with measurements on bubble ice from the same ice core but using a mechanical extraction device shows no significant systematic offset. In addition to δ13C, the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios can be volumetrically derived with a precision of 2 ppmv and 8 ppbv, respectively.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 25.1441... Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen equipment is requested, the... oxygen available in each source of supply. (d) The oxygen flow rate and the oxygen equipment for...

  14. Analysis of fuel oxygenates in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T.C.; Berg, M.; Haderlein, S.B. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Duong, Hong-Anh [Vietnam National Univ.,Hanoi (Viet Nam). Center for Environmental Chemistry


    This paper presents an overview of currently available analytical methods for fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods. The occurrence of fuel oxygenates in water and air is explored, and sampling and enrichment of oxygenates in water are described covering water sampling, direct aqueous injection into a chromatographic column, headspace analysis, purge and trap enrichment, and solid phase microextraction. Methods for sampling and enrichment of oxygenates in air, separation of fuel oxygenates, preparation of standards and calibration, and detection using flame ionisation and photoionisation detection, mass spectrometry, atomic emission detection, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are examined. Environmentally relevant physiochemical parameters of fuel oxygenates are tabulated, and injection and enrichment techniques for water analysis are compared.

  15. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...

  16. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne


    A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late...... Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first...... appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans...

  17. Oxygen content and oxidation in frying oil. (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G


    The relation between oxygen content and oxidation was investigated in frying oils. When canola oil, a canola-soybean oil blend or a trioctanoylglycerol (glycerol tricaprate) sample were heated with stirring, their dissolved oxygen content decreased abruptly at about 120°C and the carbonyl values (CV) increased gradually with heating and reached values of 6-7 at 180°C in the blended and canola oils, while the CV of trioctanoylglycerol was zero up to 150°C. Probably this abrupt decrease in oxygen content above 120°C can be attributed to the solubility of oxygen in oil rather than because of oxidative reactions. The oxygen content of oil that has been stripped of part of its oxygen, increased at temperatures between 25 and 120°C. In oils that have lost their oxygen by being heated to 180°C, standing at room temperature will slowly restore their oxygen content as the oil cools. Intermittent simple heating of oil promoted oxygen absorbance during cooling periods and standing times, and it resulted in an elevated content of polar compounds (PC). Domestic deep-frying conditions also favor the presence of oxygen in oil below 120°C and during the oil's long standing at room temperature. The oxygen content in oil was low during deep-frying, but oxidation was active at the oil/air interface of bubbles generated by foods being fried. Repeated use of oil at temperatures between 25-180°C resulted in oil with low oxygen values.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in muscle injuries


    Cervaens, Mariana; Marques, Franklim; Camacho, Óscar; Barata, Pedro


    Oxygen is a drug with several therapeutic applications. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBO) consists in the administration of oxygen, at pressures superior than 1 atmosphere inside a sealed chamber. The growing interest on HBO generated many studies that demonstrated its clinical interest in several pathologies and its safety. In the field of muscle injuries treatment, HBO is promising but more studies are necessary. O oxigénio é um fármaco com inúmera...

  19. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riding, Dr Robert E [University of Tennessee (UT); Fralick, Dr Philip [Lakehead University, Canada; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL


    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  20. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems. (United States)

    Byrne, N J


    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  1. Technology advancement of an oxygen generation subsystem (United States)

    Lee, M. K.; Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.


    An oxygen generation subsystem based on water electrolysis was developed and tested to further advance the concept and technology of the spacecraft air revitalization system. Emphasis was placed on demonstrating the subsystem integration concept and hardware maturity at a subsystem level. The integration concept of the air revitalization system was found to be feasible. Hardware and technology of the oxygen generation subsystem was demonstrated to be close to the preprototype level. Continued development of the oxygen generation technology is recommended to further reduce the total weight penalties of the oxygen generation subsystem through optimization.

  2. Normobaric oxygen for cerebral ischemic injury (United States)

    Chen, Chunhua; Cui, Haimeng; Li, Zihe; Wang, Ruifeng; Zhou, Changman


    Oxygen inhalation has been shown to increase oxygen supply to tissues after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury, protecting injured neural cells. However, hyperbaric oxygen may aggravate oxidative stress. By contrast, normobaric oxygen has the rapid and non-invasive characteristics and may have therapeutic effects on ischemic/hypoxic disease. Rats inhaled normobaric oxygen (95% O2) for 6 consecutive days, and then a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established. Nissl and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining revealed that normobaric oxygen pretreatment improved neurological deficits and reduced infarct volume. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot assay revealed that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, Notch-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin were increased. Behavioral studies also verified that neurological deficit scores increased. The hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol treatment at 1 hour before administration of normobaric oxygen could suppress the protective effect of normobaric oxygen. Given these observations, normobaric oxygen pretreatment may alleviate cerebral ischemic injury via the hypoxia-inducible factor signal pathway. PMID:25206609

  3. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets (United States)


    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  4. Supplemental oxygen needs during sleep. Who benefits? (United States)

    Owens, Robert L


    The physiologic changes that occur in ventilation during sleep contribute to nocturnal oxygen desaturation in those with lung disease. Nocturnal supplemental oxygen is often used as therapy, although convincing data exist only for those who are hypoxemic both during sleep and wake. Ongoing trials may help address whether oxygen should be used in those with only desaturation during sleep. If used, oxygen should be dosed as needed, and patients should be monitored for hypercapnia. Because of its prevalence, obstructive sleep apnea may commonly overlap with lung disease in many patients and have important consequences. Patients with overlap syndromes may be good candidates for noninvasive ventilation during sleep.

  5. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang


    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  6. Sorbents Remove Oxygen At High Temperatures (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.


    Cobalt-exchanged, platinized zeolites 13X and L found conveniently reducible in hot gaseous mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen and thereafter useful as sorbents of trace amounts of oxygen at high temperatures. Aided by catalytic action of platinum, sorbents exhibit rapid oxygen-sorption kinetics and, according to thermodynamic properties of O2/CoO system, capable of lowering level of oxygen in otherwise inert gaseous atmosphere to less than 1 part per trillion in temperature range of 400 to 800 degrees C. Inert atmospheres with these oxygen levels required for processing of certain materials in semiconductor industry.

  7. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...

  8. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache: a review. (United States)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H


    Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy of oxygen treatment. One study is observational and the remaining five are RCTs. Another five studies were on hyperbaric oxygen treatment hereof two case studies. Oxygen therapy can be administered at different flow rates. Three studies investigate the effect of low-flow oxygen, 6-7 l/min, and found a positive response in 56%, 75% and 82%, respectively, of the patients. One study investigates high-flow oxygen, 12 l/min, and found efficacy in 78% of attacks. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been investigated in a few small studies and there is evidence only for an acute, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  9. Increased sediment oxygen flux in lakes and reservoirs: The impact of hypolimnetic oxygenation (United States)

    Bierlein, Kevin A.; Rezvani, Maryam; Socolofsky, Scott A.; Bryant, Lee D.; Wüest, Alfred; Little, John C.


    Hypolimnetic oxygenation is an increasingly common lake management strategy for mitigating hypoxia/anoxia and associated deleterious effects on water quality. A common effect of oxygenation is increased oxygen consumption in the hypolimnion and predicting the magnitude of this increase is the crux of effective oxygenation system design. Simultaneous measurements of sediment oxygen flux (JO2) and turbulence in the bottom boundary layer of two oxygenated lakes were used to investigate the impact of oxygenation on JO2. Oxygenation increased JO2 in both lakes by increasing the bulk oxygen concentration, which in turn steepens the diffusive gradient across the diffusive boundary layer. At high flow rates, the diffusive boundary layer thickness decreased as well. A transect along one of the lakes showed JO2 to be spatially quite variable, with near-field and far-field JO2 differing by a factor of 4. Using these in situ measurements, physical models of interfacial flux were compared to microprofile-derived JO2 to determine which models adequately predict JO2 in oxygenated lakes. Models based on friction velocity, turbulence dissipation rate, and the integral scale of turbulence agreed with microprofile-derived JO2 in both lakes. These models could potentially be used to predict oxygenation-induced oxygen flux and improve oxygenation system design methods for a broad range of reservoir systems.

  10. Boron and oxygen-codoped porous carbon as efficient oxygen reduction catalysts (United States)

    Lei, Zhidan; Chen, Hongbiao; Yang, Mei; Yang, Duanguang; Li, Huaming


    A low-cost boron- and oxygen-codoped porous carbon electrocatalyst towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been fabricated by a facile one-step pyrolysis approach, while a boron- and oxygen-rich polymer network was used as precursor. The boron- and oxygen-codoped carbon catalyst with high ORR electrocatalytic activity is comparable to that of Pt/C and is superior to that of catalysts doped solely with boron atoms or with oxygen atoms. Furthermore, the optimized boron- and oxygen-codoped carbon catalyst possesses excellent methanol tolerance and long-term durability in alkaline media. The high electrocatalytic activity of the dual-doped carbon catalysts can be attributed to the synergistic effects of high surface area, predominant mesostructure, abundant active oxygen-containing groups, and effective boron doping. The present results show that this boron- and oxygen-codoping strategy could be as a promising way for the preparation of highly efficient ORR catalysts.

  11. Demand valve oxygen: a promising new oxygen delivery system for the acute treatment of cluster headache. (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S


    To show that demand valve oxygen is an effective acute treatment for cluster headache and to compare this oxygen delivery technique with standard cluster headache therapy of continuous flow oxygen. Single-center, open-label, two-period, two-treatment crossover design, pilot study was used. Subjects treated with one of two sequences: first, headache treated with continuous flow oxygen (100% oxygen at 15 liters per minute), and subsequent with demand valve oxygen, or vice versa. Treatment began when pain was at least moderate. Subjects taught a specific breathing technique for demand valve oxygen that included initial period of hyperventilation. Primary end point was headache response (moderate-to-very-severe pain reduced to mild or none) after 30 minutes of treatment. Three subjects completed the trial, while a fourth completed demand valve oxygen only. All had chronic cluster headache. All subjects treated with demand valve oxygen became pain-free (time in minutes: 15, 19, 6, 8). Three of four had no recurrence within 24 hours. Demand valve oxygen reduced cranial autonomic symptoms in all and resolved them in two subjects. For continuous flow oxygen, two of three subjects became pain-free (20, 10 minutes). Continuous flow oxygen reduced but did not eliminate cranial autonomic symptoms. Continuous flow oxygen had higher recurrence rates. No adverse events noted with either treatment. Demand valve oxygen appears to be an effective acute treatment for cluster headache. All subjects became headache-free. Time to pain freedom was fast (average 12 minutes). The small number of study subjects does not allow a direct comparison of efficacy between demand valve oxygen and continuous high flow oxygen. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David


    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep...

  13. Oxygen permeation through oxygen ion oxide-noble metal dual phase composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.S.; Chen, C.S.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.


    Oxygen permeation behaviour of three composites, yttria-stabilized zirconia-palladium, erbia-stabilized bismuth oxidenoble metal (silver, gold) was studied. Oxygen permeation measurements were performed under controlled oxygen pressure gradients at elevated temperatures. Air was supplied at one side

  14. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian


    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  15. Comparison of domiciliary oxygen using liquid oxygen and concentrator in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ling Su


    Conclusion: Patients in the LOG used oxygen for longer hours, went on more outings, and were more likely to travel with oxygen than patients in the OCG. Being ambulatory with liquid oxygen might enable patients with COPD to walk more effectively.

  16. Cathodic oxygen consumption and electrically induced osteogenesis. (United States)

    Brighton, C T; Adler, S; Black, J; Itada, N; Friedenberg, Z B


    Small amounts of electric current stimulate bone formation in the region of a cathode. The purpose of this experiment is to compare changes in oxygen and hydroxyl ion concentration that occur at the cathode at current levels known to be capable of inducing osteogenesis (10-20 muamps) with those changes that occur at current levels known to be toxic to bone (100 muamps). An oxygen consumption chamber containing an oxygen electrode is fitted with two stainless steel electrodes which are connected to a constant current source. At the cathode, with a current of 100 muamps, oxygen is consumed at nearly stoichiometric rates. At higher current (100 muamps) levels, cathodic oxygen consumption gives way to hydrogen evolution. Cathodic hydroxyl ion production is directly proportional to current. It is concluded from these in vitro experiments that at 10-20 muamps the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the cathode is lowered and the pH is moderately increased. At 100 muamps the oxygen tension is not lowered, but the pH is increased dramatically. If these same changes occur in the vicinity of a cathode in vivo, then lowering the local tissue oxygen tension and raising the local pH may be mechanisms operative in electrically induced bone formation.

  17. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder Phase I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of several equipment and devices like the oxygenator.[1,2]. The oxygenator comes in different makes depending on the manufacturer and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or. 'holder' of this device specific to their design [Figures 1 and 2]. Aim.

  18. [Mechanism of photooxidation of porphyrins with oxygen]. (United States)

    Byteva, I M; Gurinovich, G P; Petsol'd, O M


    Dependence of quantum yield of porphyrines photooxidation with oxygen on their concentration has been shown. Sensitized by some porphyrines oxidation of other ones with oxygen has been studied in relation to concentration, intensity and wave length of absorbed light, quantum yield, interconversion and life time of the molecules in triplet state. Common mechanism for direct and sensitized photooxidation has been suggested.

  19. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon


    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  20. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.


    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  1. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  2. Guide for Oxygen Component Qualification Tests (United States)

    Bamford, Larry J.; Rucker, Michelle A.; Dobbin, Douglas


    Although oxygen is a chemically stable element, it is not shock sensitive, will not decompose, and is not flammable. Oxygen use therefore carries a risk that should never be overlooked, because oxygen is a strong oxidizer that vigorously supports combustion. Safety is of primary concern in oxygen service. To promote safety in oxygen systems, the flammability of materials used in them should be analyzed. At the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), we have performed configurational tests of components specifically engineered for oxygen service. These tests follow a detailed WSTF oxygen hazards analysis. The stated objective of the tests was to provide performance test data for customer use as part of a qualification plan for a particular component in a particular configuration, and under worst-case conditions. In this document - the 'Guide for Oxygen Component Qualification Tests' - we outline recommended test systems, and cleaning, handling, and test procedures that address worst-case conditions. It should be noted that test results apply specifically to: manual valves, remotely operated valves, check valves, relief valves, filters, regulators, flexible hoses, and intensifiers. Component systems are not covered.

  3. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  4. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  5. 76 FR 12550 - Lavatory Oxygen Systems (United States)


    .... 21-94, 25-133, 121-354, and 129-50; SFAR 111] RIN 2120-AJ92 Lavatory Oxygen Systems AGENCY: Federal... oxygen systems inoperative. DATES: This interim rule is effective March 8, 2011 and remains in effect... systems installed inside the lavatories of most transport category airplanes. As a result, the FAA has...

  6. Improved Zirconia Oxygen-Separation Cell (United States)

    Walsh, John V.; Zwissler, James G.


    Cell structure distributes feed gas more evenly for more efficent oxygen production. Multilayer cell structure containing passages, channels, tubes, and pores help distribute pressure evenly over zirconia electrolytic membrane. Resulting more uniform pressure distribution expected to improve efficiency of oxygen production.

  7. The enigmatic reaction of flavins with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaiyen, Pimchai; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    The reaction of flavoenzymes with oxygen remains a fascinating area of research because of its relevance for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Several exciting recent studies provide consistent mechanistic clues about the specific functional and structural properties of the oxidase and

  8. Current status of artificial oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Spahn, D R


    Artificial oxygen carriers may be grouped into modified hemoglobin solutions and fluorocarbon emulsions. In animal experiments, both have been shown to be efficacious in improving tissue oxygenation and as substitutes for blood transfusions. Advantages and disadvantages are being discussed in this article as well as the latest steps in the clinical development.

  9. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason


    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...

  10. Mathematical analysis of corneal oxygenation | Avtar | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a quasi steady state model for the time course concentration profile describing the oxygen diffusion and consumption in a multilayered corneal tissue and investigate the effect of various model parameters on the oxygen concentration for open and closed eyes. Method: A simple mathematical model for ...

  11. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review. (United States)

    Cichello, Simon Angelo


    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  12. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants. (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C


    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Oxygen cost of sprint training. (United States)

    Berg, K; Buresh, R; Parks, L; Kissinger, K; Karasek, D; Sinnett, A; Trehearn, T


    The purpose of the study was to profile the oxygen uptake of sprinters during various portions of a typical sprint training workout. This was a descriptive study of 11 female sprinters and jumpers on an NCAA Division II university track team. Subjects were assessed for VO(2max), and VO(2) and HR kinetics during a 65 min typical sprint training session on a treadmill. The sprint session included a warm-up, static stretching, acceleration runs, 8x20 s sprints at 150% of velocity VO(2max) (vVO(2max)) with a 3-min walk recovery, and a cool-down. Mean VO(2) and HR (M+/-SD) for the entire 65 min sprint training session were 19.1+/-7.6 mL/kg/min and 138.7+/-24.0 b/min, respectively. VO(2) rose to 33 mL/kg/min during and immediately following each 20 s sprint which represented 73% of VO(2max). VO(2) during and after each sprint remained nearly constant (P>0.05) rather than rising as hypothesized. VO(2) during a 65 min sprint training workout in female college athletes varies greatly but was elevated to 33 mL/kg/min following each 20 s sprint. VO(2) did not rise across the series of eight sprints. These results suggest that chronic sprint training may elicit a moderate aerobic training effect. Implications for training are discussed.

  14. Artificial oxygen carriers: a current review. (United States)

    Henkel-Honke, Thad; Oleck, Mark


    Artificial oxygen carriers are not blood substitutes. They serve to carry oxygen to tissues and are either hemoglobin based or perfluorocarbon based. Driving the development of artificial oxygen carriers are concerns involving both the safety and quantity of the blood supply. No artificial oxygen carriers are currently approved for clinical use in the United States. Hemopure has been approved for use in South Africa. The companies producing Hemopure and PolyHeme, both of which are hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, have filed a Biologic License Application in the United States. Phase III trials have been completed for Hemopure, while PolyHeme is currently undergoing phase III trials in the PolyHeme Urban Ambulance Trial. No North American trials are under way for perfluorocarbons.

  15. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... on a remarkable journey through the history of the oxygenation of our planet....

  16. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.


    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  17. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    reaction kinetics. At oxygen partial pressures below 10-6 bar at 700 C, the mass transport processes dominated the response time. The response time increased with decreasing oxygen partial pressure and inlet gas flow rate. A series of porous platinum electrodes were impregnated with the ionically...... conducting gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO). The addition of CGO was found to decrease the polarisation resistance of the oxygen reaction by up to an order of magnitude compared with a single phase platinum electrode by increasing the effective triple phase boundary (TPB) length. It did not have any......Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...

  18. Transcutaneous oxygen tension in imminent foot gangrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H


    Transcutaneous oxygen tension at 44 degree C and maximal isotope clearance (90m Tc-pretechnetate + histramine) just proximal to the 1st toe and systolic toe blood pressure (strain gauge) were studied on a tilt table in patients with various degrees of obstructive arteriosclerotic disease. In legs...... with moderate obstruction, the oxygen tension reached zero at a toe systolic blood pressure of 5--10 mmHg (tilt toe up) and reached arterial oxygen tension at about 50 to 70 mmHg (tilt toe down). In legs withsevere arterial obstruction and ischaemic rest pain, oxygen tension rose from zero not before systolic...... toe blood pressure reached 20--50 mmHg. Significant isotope clearance was seen at pressures below the limits just mentioned for both types of patients. This phenomenon here seen of a perfusion without oxygen supply is explained by a gas leak (rendered significant because of the slow flow rate) from...

  19. Sublimation-Condensation of Multiscale Tellurium Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Sundaram, S. K.


    This paper presents a simple technique for making tellurium (Te) nano and microtubes of widely varying dimensions with Multi-Scale Processing (MSP). In this process, the Te metal is placed in a reaction vessel (e.g., borosilicate or fused quartz), the vessel is evacuated, and then sealed under vacuum with a torch. The vessel is heat-treated in a temperature gradient where a portion of the tube that can also contain an additional substrate, is under a decreasing temperature gradient. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies have shown that multifaceted crystalline tubes have been formed extending from nano- up to micron-scale with diameters ranging from 51.2 ± 5.9 to 1042 ± 134 nm between temperatures of 157 and 224 °C, respectively. One-dimensional tubular features are seen at lower temperatures, while three-dimensional features, at the higher temperatures. These features have been characterized with X-ray diffraction and found to be trigonal Te with space group P3121. Our results show that the MSP can adequately be described using a simple Arrhenius equation.

  20. The Sublimated Ideology of The Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Loewen


    Full Text Available The idea that ideologies present to us a rationality for making decisions, for getting things done, allows us to avoid the agony of choosing one world or another as a finite being, allows us to forget that it is we ourselves who must do and thus who are also to be done. Due to the work of having to live a human life with others who do not agree with us and will never be our servants, we are all ready to give up responsibilities to the political saviour; already this one presents to ourselves the One and only. By examining our private and picayune dogmatisms, we might gain some insight into why we are ever so often willing to become public fascists. We might well object to being objected to. Along with this, we are also objects in a world of objects. This is routine when compared to the dialectical intersubjectivity of voicing an objection in a throng of objections, of questioning the objectionable in a questionable politics. It is the very mundanity of acquiescence that dulls us to the danger pedestal-dwelling ideologies still represent.

  1. Cute, Creepy and Sublime Unnamed Childhood Monstrosities (United States)

    Tesar, Marek; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka


    Strangers, Gods, and monsters are all names for the experience of alterity and otherness within and amongst us. We need monsters in our lives. In this paper we use philosophy as a method to explore language, developmental and cultural instabilities, and terrifying (and discursive) monstrosity located within children's literature and childhood…

  2. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  3. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries. (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook


    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O2 and Na-O2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Oxygen and animal evolution: did a rise of atmospheric oxygen "trigger" the origin of animals? (United States)

    Mills, Daniel B; Canfield, Donald E


    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still relevant to understanding early animal evolution, the relationships between the two might be less straightforward than previously thought. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  6. Autoignition characteristics of oxygenated gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changyoul


    Gasoline anti-knock quality, defined by the research and motor octane numbers (RON and MON), is important for increasing spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency. Gasoline knock resistance can be increased using a number of blending components. For over two decades, ethanol has become a popular anti-knock blending agent with gasoline fuels due to its production from bio-derived resources. This work explores the oxidation behavior of two oxygenated certification gasoline fuels and the variation of fuel reactivity with molecular composition. Ignition delay times of Haltermann (RON = 91) and Coryton (RON = 97.5) gasolines have been measured in a high-pressure shock tube and in a rapid compression machine at three pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar, at equivalence ratios of φ = 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8, and in the temperature range of 650–1250 K. The results indicate that the effects of fuel octane number and fuel composition on ignition characteristics are strongest in the intermediate temperature (negative temperature coefficient) region. To simulate the reactivity of these gasolines, three kinds of surrogates, consisting of three, four and eight components, are proposed and compared with the gasoline ignition delay times. It is shown that more complex surrogate mixtures are needed to emulate the reactivity of gasoline with higher octane sensitivity (S = RON–MON). Detailed kinetic analyses are performed to illustrate the dependence of gasoline ignition delay times on fuel composition and, in particular, on ethanol content.

  7. Oxygen Nonstoichiometry and Oxygen Transport Properties of YBa2Cu2CoO6+δ (United States)

    Ran, S.; Zheng, C. H.; Liu, W.; Peng, D. K.; Chen, C. S.

    Oxygen nonstoichiometry (δ) YBa2Cu2CoO6+δ was determined by double iodometric titration technique. It is found that the value of δ is strongly affected by the temperature and oxygen partial pressure. An appreaciable oxygen permeation flux through a 1.2 mm thick dense sample were observed at elevated temperatures under a relatively small oxygen partial pressure gradient (Po2(h)=0.209 and Po2(l)=10-3 atm). The oxygen permeation is a thermally activated process, the apperant activation energy being 64.5±0.4kJ/mol. From the measured oxygen nonstoichiometry and permeation flux, the oxygen chemical diffusion coefficient is derived.

  8. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure (United States)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.


    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  9. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer. (United States)

    Carter, A M


    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic gene yielded HBG-T2, a gene that is expressed in the fetus and confers high oxygen affinity on its haemoglobin. A separate event in ruminants involved duplication of an adult gene, again resulting in a fetally expressed variant (HBB-T3) that conveys high oxygen affinity. In rodents and lagomorphs, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown that epitheliochorial placentation is a derived state and that the common ancestor of placental mammals probably had a placenta of the endotheliochorial type. Where evolutionary trends are implied for mammals as a whole or within orders such as primates they often accompany a switch in reproductive strategy that is manifested in a change of newborn state from poorly developed (altricial) to well developed (precocial).

  10. Low Oxygen Response Mechanisms in Green Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierdomenico Perata


    Full Text Available Low oxygen stress often occurs during the life of green organisms, mostly due to the environmental conditions affecting oxygen availability. Both plants and algae respond to low oxygen by resetting their metabolism. The shift from mitochondrial respiration to fermentation is the hallmark of anaerobic metabolism in most organisms. This involves a modified carbohydrate metabolism coupled with glycolysis and fermentation. For a coordinated response to low oxygen, plants exploit various molecular mechanisms to sense when oxygen is either absent or in limited amounts. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a direct oxygen sensing system has recently been discovered, where a conserved N-terminal motif on some ethylene responsive factors (ERFs, targets the fate of the protein under normoxia/hypoxia. In Oryza sativa, this same group of ERFs drives physiological and anatomical modifications that vary in relation to the genotype studied. The microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii responses to low oxygen seem to have evolved independently of higher plants, posing questions on how the fermentative metabolism is modulated. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings related to these topics, highlighting promising developments for the future.

  11. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)


    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  12. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam


    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  13. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William


    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  14. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity. (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C


    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  15. Exploring alternative routes for oxygen administration. (United States)

    Damiani, Elisa; Dyson, Alex; Zacchetti, Lucia; Donati, Abele; Singer, Mervyn


    Hypoxemia may compromise cell metabolism and organ function. Supplemental oxygen (O2) at high concentrations may prove ineffective, and issues relating to hyperoxia, barotrauma, mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal oxygenation are well documented. Old reports suggest the potential safety and efficacy of alternative routes for O2 administration, such as intravenous or intestinal. We re-explored these routes in rat models of hypoxemia. Hypoxemia was induced in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized rats by breathing a hypoxic gas mix (FiO2 0.1). Pilot studies infusing pure O2 gas caused early death, likely due to pulmonary embolism. Instead, rats (n = 6/group) were given intravenous O2 via a continuous infusion of pre-oxygenated Hartmann's solution (10 ml/kg/h) for 3 h with normal Ringer's lactate used in control animals. In separate experiments (n = 8/group), bowel intraluminal oxygenation was assessed with pure O2 administered through a cannula placed into the jejunal lumen at a dose of a 15 ml/kg bolus followed by a continuous infusion of 50 ml/kg/h; no treatment was given to controls. Echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, mean arterial pressure, muscle and liver tPO2, muscle microvascular perfused vessel density, and urine output were measured. Administration of oxygenated Hartmann's solution (PO2 of solution at end-experiment = 87.5 ± 1.7 kPa) was safe but did not increase either systemic or tissue oxygenation. Similarly, the administration of bowel O2 was safe but did not improve neither systemic nor liver oxygenation. In this rat model of hypoxemia, the intravenous infusion of gaseous O2 was unfeasible as it induced early mortality. Although safe, both intravenous infusion of oxygenated Hartmann's solution and bowel O2 administration were unable to improve arterial or tissue oxygenation.

  16. Oxygen and viruses: a breathing story. (United States)

    Morinet, Frédéric; Parent, Mathilde; Bergeron, Corinne; Pillet, Sylvie; Capron, Claude


    The effect of oxygen on virus replication is complex, and the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in the metabolism of virus-infected cells remains uncertain. Solid tumours are hypoxic, and some viruses use this low oxygen tension level to facilitate their replication in tumour cells, thereby causing cell lysis. In addition, the interactions between viruses and HIF-1α may stimulate a trained immunity. However, the evolutionary basis for the oxygen regulatory mechanism of virus replication is ill-defined and requires further investigation.

  17. Oxygen exchange in silicone rubber capillaries. (United States)

    Heineken, F G; Predecki, P K; Filley, G F


    Capillaries of 7 and 12.5 mu diameter have been fabricated in silicone rubber. Whole blood treated with heparin has been perfused through these capillaries. Under flowing conditions, no clotting or other clumping effects have been observed and red cells appear to maintain a constant velocity. Oxygen transfer data to and from saline perfusing the 12.5 mu diameter capillaries have been obtained in order to determine how rapidly O2 will permeate the silicone rubber film. The data indicate that the capillaries simulate lung tissue oxygen exchange and will allow for the first time the experimental determination of oxygen exchange kinetics in flowing whole blood.

  18. Ceria Based Composite Membranes for Oxygen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurauskis, Jonas; Ovtar, Simona; Kaiser, Andreas


    Mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes for oxygen gas separation are attracting a lot of interest due to their promising potential for the pure oxygen and the syngas production. Apart from the need for a sufficiently high oxygen permeation fluxes, the prolonged stability of these membranes....... Composite thin film was deposited on tubular structural support made of porous MgO phase. Porous CGO layers (20 μm) were implemented as backbones for catalytic phase on both sides of a composite membrane (Fig. 1). During initial trials, the catalytic phase free CGO/LSF composite membranes demonstrated...

  19. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  20. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  1. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG


    Full Text Available African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy VOLUME 107 REFEREED PAPER FEBRUARY 2007 Background Expected relationship between oxygen activity and iron content of matte The ideas tested in this work are that the activity of oxygen, as established.... © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2007. SA ISSN 0038–223X/3.00 + 0.00. This paper was first published at the SAIMM Conference, Platinum Surges Ahead, 8–12 October 2006. T r a n s a c t i o n P a p e r L123 Oxygen...

  2. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  3. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors (United States)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David


    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  4. Making oxygen with ruthenium complexes. (United States)

    Concepcion, Javier J; Jurss, Jonah W; Brennaman, M Kyle; Hoertz, Paul G; Patrocinio, Antonio Otávio T; Murakami Iha, Neyde Yukie; Templeton, Joseph L; Meyer, Thomas J


    Mastering the production of solar fuels by artificial photosynthesis would be a considerable feat, either by water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen or reduction of CO(2) to methanol or hydrocarbons: 2H(2)O + 4hnu --> O(2) + 2H(2); 2H(2)O + CO(2) + 8hnu --> 2O(2) + CH(4). It is notable that water oxidation to dioxygen is a key half-reaction in both. In principle, these solar fuel reactions can be coupled to light absorption in molecular assemblies, nanostructured arrays, or photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) by a modular approach. The modular approach uses light absorption, electron transfer in excited states, directed long range electron transfer and proton transfer, both driven by free energy gradients, combined with proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) and single electron activation of multielectron catalysis. Until recently, a lack of molecular catalysts, especially for water oxidation, has limited progress in this area. Analysis of water oxidation mechanism for the "blue" Ru dimer cis,cis-[(bpy)(2)(H(2)O)Ru(III)ORu(III)(OH(2))(bpy)(2)](4+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine) has opened a new, general approach to single site catalysts both in solution and on electrode surfaces. As a catalyst, the blue dimer is limited by competitive side reactions involving anation, but we have shown that its rate of water oxidation can be greatly enhanced by electron transfer mediators such as Ru(bpy)(2)(bpz)(2+) (bpz is 2,2'-bipyrazine) in solution or Ru(4,4'-((HO)(2)P(O)CH(2))(2)bpy)(2)(bpy)(2+) on ITO (ITO/Sn) or FTO (SnO(2)/F) electrodes. In this Account, we describe a general reactivity toward water oxidation in a class of molecules whose properties can be "tuned" systematically by synthetic variations based on mechanistic insight. These molecules catalyze water oxidation driven either electrochemically or by Ce(IV). The first two were in the series Ru(tpy)(bpm)(OH(2))(2+) and Ru(tpy)(bpz)(OH(2))(2+) (bpm is 2,2'- bipyrimidine; tpy is 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine), which undergo

  5. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR) Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Variable Oxygen Regulator Element is to develop an oxygen-rated, contaminant-tolerant oxygen regulator to control suit pressure with a...

  6. Oxygen and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeptar, A.R.; Scheerens, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.


    The oxygen reductase and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) are reviewed. During the oxygen reductase activity of P450, molecular oxygen is reduced to superoxide anion radicals (O

  7. A Low-Power Medical Oxygen Generator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An on-board oxygen concentrator is required during long duration manned space missions to supply medical oxygen. The commercial medical oxygen generators based on...

  8. A Compact Medical Oxygen Generator for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An on-board oxygen concentrator is required during long duration manned space missions to supply medical oxygen. Commercial medical oxygen generators are pressure...

  9. Contemporary oxygenator design relative to hemolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Leonie; Sharma, Ajay; Simons, Antoine; Bekers, Otto; Weerwind, Patrick

    Hemolysis is a well-known phenomenon during cardiovascular surgery and generally attributed to cardiopulmonary bypass, particularly when using high-resistant oxygenators. This study aimed at investigating whether transoxygenator pressure drop can be considered an independent factor of hemolysis.

  10. The origin and evolution of atmospheric oxygen (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.


    This paper discusses the chemical processes involved in the evolution of the earth's atmospheric oxygen and ozone, as well as the sources, sinks, and transfer rates of oxygen in the present atmosphere. Special attention is given the evolution of atmospheric O3 as a function of the buildup of O2, with the results of calculations presented as the vertical profiles of O3, in terms of the present atmospheric level (PAL) oxygen values. Calculations show that the total O3 column density that is approximately half of the present level was reached when atmospheric oxygen level reached 0.1 PAL. At this level of ozone, the biological shielding of the earth's surface from the UV radiation is believed to have been achieved.

  11. Covalency-reinforced oxygen evolution reaction catalyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yagi, Shunsuke; Yamada, Ikuya; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Seno, Akihiro; Murakami, Makoto; Fujii, Hiroshi; Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto; Abe, Hideki; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Mori, Shigeo


    The oxygen evolution reaction that occurs during water oxidation is of considerable importance as an essential energy conversion reaction for rechargeable metal-air batteries and direct solar water splitting...

  12. Oxygen sparging of bedrock impacted by sulfolane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J. E.; Sevigny, J. H. [Komex International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dibble, N. C. [Mobil Oil Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The feasibility of enhancing sulfolane degradation by using pure oxygen sparging was investigated. Sulfolane is a water soluble miscible process chemical used for sweetening sour gas and is known to have contaminated ground water at several gas processing facilities in western Canada. Some recent laboratory studies have shown that sulfolane is readily degradable under nutrient-amended, aerobic conditions, but does not adsorb to aquifer materials and does not degrade under anaerobic conditions. Thus, it would appear that low dissolved oxygen concentration is a limiting factor to sulfolane biodegradation in the subsurface. The oxygen sparging project was undertaken to verify these laboratory studies by in-situ observations. Results showed no decrease in sulfolane concentrations during or after oxygen sparging. Subsequent laboratory studies demonstrated that aerobic sulfolane biodegradability was nutrient limited, primarily by available phosphates, and to a lesser extent, by nitrogen. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production (United States)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.


    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  14. Semiconductors and semimetals oxygen in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Shimura, Fumio


    This volume reviews the latest understanding of the behavior and roles of oxygen in silicon, which will carry the field into the ULSI era from the experimental and theoretical points of view. The fourteen chapters, written by recognized authorities representing industrial and academic institutions, cover thoroughly the oxygen related phenomena from the crystal growth to device fabrication processes, as well as indispensable diagnostic techniques for oxygen.Key Features* Comprehensive study of the behavior of oxygen in silicon* Discusses silicon crystals for VLSI and ULSI applications* Thorough coverage from crystal growth to device fabrication* Edited by technical experts in the field* Written by recognized authorities from industrial and academic institutions* Useful to graduate students, scientists in other disciplines, and active participants in the arena of silicon-based microelectronics research* 297 original line drawings

  15. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  16. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matchett, John


    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  17. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans


    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  18. A Solar Powered, Ceramic Oxygen Concentrator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Oxygen is an essential treatment for several life-threatening conditions including pneumonia, the single biggest cause of death in children less than five years of...

  19. Oxygen tension affects lubricin expression in chondrocytes. (United States)

    Hatta, Taku; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Okuno, Hiroshi; Itoi, Eiji


    We assessed the effects of oxygen tension on lubricin expression in bovine chondrocytes and cartilage explants and a role for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α in regulating lubricin expression was investigated using a murine chondroprogenitor cell line, ATDC5, and bovine chondrocytes isolated from superficial and middle/deep zones of femoral cartilage. ATDC5 cells and bovine chondrocytes were cultured in micromass under different oxygen tensions (21%, 5%, and 1%). ATDC5 cells and middle/deep zone chondrocytes that initially had low lubricin expression levels were also cultured with or without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to determine lubricin and chondrogenic marker gene mRNA levels and immunohistochemistry was used to assess lubricin protein expression. Explant cartilage plugs cultured under different oxygen tensions were also subjected to immunohistological analysis for lubricin. HIF-1α gene silencing was achieved by electroporatic transfer into ATDC5 cells. A low oxygen tension reduced lubricin gene expression levels in bovine superficial chondrocytes, TGF-β1-treated middle/deep zone chondrocytes, and TGF-β1-treated ATDC5 cells. Lubricin expression in explant cartilage was also suppressed under hypoxia. HIF-1α gene silencing in ATDC5 cells attenuated the lubricin expression response to the oxygen tension. These results corroborate with previous studies that the oxygen tension regulates lubricin gene expression and suggest that HIF-1α plays an important role in this regulation. The normal distribution of lubricin in articular cartilage may be due to the hypoxic oxygen environment of cartilage as it is an avascular tissue. An oxygen tension gradient may be a key factor for engineering cartilage tissue with a layered morphology.

  20. Cyanobacterial Diazotrophy and Earth's Delayed Oxygenation. (United States)

    Olson, Stephanie L; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W


    The redox landscape of Earth's ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth's protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth's redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth's oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion years delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of the deep ocean, in large part owing to major deficiencies in our understanding of the coevolution of O2 and Earth's key biogeochemical cycles (e.g., the N cycle). For example, although possible links between O2 and N scarcity have been previously explored, the consequences of N2 limitation for net biological O2 production have not been examined thoroughly. Here, we revisit the prevailing view that N2 fixation has always been able to keep pace with P supply and discuss the possibility that bioavailable N, rather than P, limited export production for extended periods of Earth's history. Based on the observation that diazotrophy occurs at the expense of oxygenesis in the modern ocean, we suggest that an N-limited biosphere may be inherently less oxygenic than a P-limited biosphere-and that cyanobacterial diazotrophy was a primary control on the timing and tempo of Earth's oxygenation by modulating net biogenic O2 fluxes. We further hypothesize that negative feedbacks inhibit the transition between N and P limitation, with the implication that the pervasive accumulation of O2 in Earth's ocean-atmosphere system may not have been an inevitable consequence of oxygenic photosynthesis by marine cyanobacteria.

  1. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.


    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  2. Rosacea, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Azelaic Acid


    Jones, David A.


    Rosacea is a common skin condition thought to be primarily an inflammatory disorder. Neutrophils, in particular, have been implicated in the inflammation associated with rosacea and mediate many of their effects through the release of reactive oxygen species. Recently, the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of rosacea has been recognized. Many effective agents for rosacea, including topical azelaic acid and topical metronidazole, have anti-inflammatory properties. in-vitro...

  3. Tutorial on Atomic Oxygen Effects and Contamination (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K.


    Atomic oxygen is the most predominant specie in low Earth orbit (LEO) and is contained in the upper atmosphere of many other planetary bodies. Formed by photo-dissociation of molecular oxygen, it is highly reactive and energetic enough to break chemical bonds on the surface of many materials and react with them to form either stable or volatile oxides. The extent of the damage for spacecraft depends a lot on how much atomic oxygen arrives at the surface, the energy of the atoms, and the reactivity of the material that is exposed to it. Oxide formation can result in shrinkage, cracking, or erosion which can also result in changes in optical, thermal, or mechanical properties of the materials exposed. The extent of the reaction can be affected by mechanical loading, temperature, and other environmental components such as ultraviolet radiation or charged particles. Atomic oxygen generally causes a surface reaction, but it can scatter under coatings and into crevices causing oxidation much farther into a spacecraft surface or structure than would be expected. Contamination can also affect system performance. Contamination is generally caused by arrival of volatile species that condense on spacecraft surfaces. The volatiles are typically a result of outgassing of materials that are on the spacecraft. Once the volatiles are condensed on a surface, they can then be fixed on the surface by ultraviolet radiation andor atomic oxygen reaction to form stable surface contaminants that can change optical and thermal properties of materials in power systems, thermal systems, and sensors. This tutorial discusses atomic oxygen erosion and contaminate formation, and the effect they have on typical spacecraft materials. Scattering of atomic oxygen, some effects of combined environments and examples of effects of atomic oxygen and contamination on spacecraft systems and components will also be presented.

  4. Phosphorous–vacancy–oxygen defects in silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao


    Electronic structure calculations employing the hybrid functional approach are used to gain fundamental insight in the interaction of phosphorous with oxygen interstitials and vacancies in silicon. It recently has been proposed, based on a binding energy analysis, that phosphorous–vacancy–oxygen defects may form. In the present study we investigate the stability of this defect as a function of the Fermi energy for the possible charge states. Spin polarization is found to be essential for the charge neutral defect.

  5. Trematode Hemoglobins Show Exceptionally High Oxygen Affinity


    Kiger, Laurent; Rashid, Aftab K.; Griffon, Nathalie; Haque, Masoodul; Moens, Luc; Gibson, Quentin H.; Poyart, Claude; Marden, Michael C.


    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of ox...



    Подгорный, И. П.


    Medical gas oxygen is one of the most popular medicines. Its production is the major branch of the pharmaceutical industry. Provision of its high quality in the process of obtaining is an actual problem for companies of cryogenic oxygen production. For this purpose a concrete enterprise necessary to implement a quality assurance system in the production of medicinal products (QAS). The main component of the QAS is good manufacturing practice (Good Manufacturing Practice, GMP). It is shown how...

  7. Multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation (United States)

    Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Stratonnikov, Aleksander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.


    The system of multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation is an instrument that can record both spectral and spatial information about a sample. In this project, the spectral imaging technique is used for monitoring of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in human tissues. This system can be used for monitoring spatial distribution of oxygen saturation in photodynamic therapy, surgery or sports medicine. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range is an effective and extensively used technique for the non-invasive study and characterization of various biological tissues. In this article, a short review of modeling techniques being currently in use for diffuse reflection from semi-infinite turbid media is presented. A simple and practical model for use with a real-time imaging system is proposed. This model is based on linear approximation of the dependence of the diffuse reflectance coefficient on relation between absorbance and reduced scattering coefficient. This dependence was obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon propagation in turbid media. Spectra of the oxygenated and deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin differ mostly in the red area (520 - 600 nm) and have several characteristic points there. Thus four band-pass filters were used for multi-spectral imaging. After having measured the reflectance, the data obtained are used for fitting the concentration of oxygenated and free hemoglobin, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

  8. Oxygenated fuels mandate: marketers ponder additive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.V.


    When Colorado created its mandatory oxygenated fuels program to combat cold-weather carbon monoxide pollution it did more than just take a giant step toward a cleaner environment. It created a training ground where refiners and producers of oxygenated fuel additives can sharpen their marketing skills for the time when other states and metropolitan areas also might decide to go the oxygenated fuels route. The Colorado oxygenated fuels program was a major reason why officials from more than a dozen states and cities, as well as scores of representatives from concerned companies, were attracted to last month's Conference on New Fuels for Cleaner Air, held in Arlington, VA. Although no one went away with definitive answers to all their questions it became apparent that the Colorado oxygenated fuels market will develop into a one-on-one battle between ethanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether). The oxygen level of the fuel set by Colorado's new program probably gives MTBE the edge. The advantages of using MTBE are discussed.

  9. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jung, Hun-Ji [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lau, Kah Chun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, John A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Du, Peng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Greeley, Jeffrey P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ferguson, Glen A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Hsien-Hau [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hassoun, Jusef [Univ. of Rome, Rome (Italy); Iddir, Hakim [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Jigang [Canadian Light Sources, Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Zuin, Lucia [Canadian Light Sources, Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Hu, Yongfeng [Canadian Light Sources, Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sun, Yang-Kook [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Scrosati, Bruno [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Univ. of Rome, Rome (Italy); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Rome, Rome (Italy); Amine, Khalil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  10. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product. (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil


    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Seafloor alteration, oxygen isotopes and climate (United States)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Kump, L. R.; Kasting, J. F.


    Seafloor alteration can be related to climate in two ways: through storage of carbon dioxide as carbonates and indirectly through its influence on the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. Low temperature alteration of the seafloor, or seafloor weathering, can store carbon dioxide as carbonates formed as the result of dissolution of cations from silicate rocks, and since this process is temperature dependent, can serve as a climate regulator. On the other hand, the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is determined by the balance between low temperature crustal alteration (including continental weathering) and high temperature seafloor alteration, because the heavy isotope is depleted from and added to seawater in low and high temperature alteration, respectively. The oxygen isotopic composition of seawater is a parameter necessary to estimate surface temperature of the Earth from the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic sedimentary rocks. Thus seafloor alteration is related to reconstruction of Earth's climate. We have developed a comprehensive model of seafloor alteration that captures both seafloor weathering and oxygen isotope exchange, and use it to reconcile observations of long-term stability in both climate and altered ocean crust δ18O with secular changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of marine sediments.

  12. Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera as measured with oxygen microsensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geslin, E.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Lombard, Fabien


    Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera are still badly known, mainly because they are difficult to measure. Oxygen respiration rates of seventeen species of benthic foraminifera were measured using microelectrodes and calculated on the basis of the oxygen fluxes measured in the vicinity...... of the foraminiferal specimens. The results show a wide range of oxygen respiration rates for the different species (from 0.09 to 5.27 nl cell−1 h−1) and a clear correlation with foraminiferal biovolume showed by the power law relationship: R = 3.98 10−3 BioVol0.88 where the oxygen respiration rate (R) is expressed...... groups (nematodes, copepods, ostracods, ciliates and flagellates) suggests that benthic foraminifera have a lower oxygen respiration rates per unit biovolume. The total contribution of benthic foraminifera to the aerobic mineralisation of organic matter is estimated for the studied areas. The results...

  13. Non-self-sustained electric discharge in oxygen gas mixtures: singlet delta oxygen production

    CERN Document Server

    Ionin, A A; Kotkov, A A; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Hager, G D


    The possibility of obtaining a high specific input energy in an electron-beam sustained discharge ignited in oxygen gas mixtures O sub 2 : Ar : CO (or H sub 2) at the total gas pressures of 10-100 Torr was experimentally demonstrated. The specific input energy per molecular component exceeded approx 6 kJ l sup - sup 1 atm sup - sup 1 (150 kJ mol sup - sup 1) as a small amount of carbon monoxide was added into a gas mixture of oxygen and argon. It was theoretically demonstrated that one might expect to obtain a singlet delta oxygen yield of 25% exceeding its threshold value needed for an oxygen-iodine laser operation at room temperature, when maintaining a non-self-sustained discharge in oxygen gas mixtures with molecular additives CO, H sub 2 or D sub 2. The efficiency of singlet delta oxygen production can be as high as 40%.

  14. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.


    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  15. Microsensor and transcriptomic signatures of oxygen depletion in biofilms associated with chronic wounds: Biofilms and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Garth A. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Ge Zhao, Alice [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Usui, Marcia [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Underwood, Robert A. [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Nguyen, Hung [The Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington; Beyenal, Haluk [The Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington; deLancey Pulcini, Elinor [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Agostinho Hunt, Alessandra [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 5180 Biomedical and Physical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan; Bernstein, Hans C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Richland Washington; Fleckman, Philip [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Olerud, John [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Washington; Williamson, Kerry S. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Franklin, Michael J. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana; Stewart, Philip S. [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana


    Polymicrobial biofilms have been implicated in delayed wound healing, although the mechanisms by which biofilms impair wound healing are poorly understood. Many species of bacteria produce exotoxins and exoenzymes that may inhibit healing. In addition, oxygen consumption by biofilms may impede wound healing. In this study, we used oxygen microsensors to measure oxygen transects through in vitro-cultured biofilms, biofilms formed in vivo in a diabetic (db/db) mouse model, and ex vivo human chronic wound specimens. The results show that oxygen levels within both euthanized and live mouse wounds had steep gradients that reached minima ranging from 19 to 61% oxygen partial pressure, compared to atmospheric oxygen levels. The oxygen gradients in the mouse wounds were similar to those observed for clinical isolates cultured in vitro and for human ex vivo scabs. No oxygen gradients were observed for heat-killed scabs, suggesting that active metabolism by the viable bacteria contributed to the reduced oxygen partial pressure of the wounds. To characterize the metabolic activities of the bacteria in the mouse wounds, we performed transcriptomics analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms associated with the db/db mice wounds using Affymetrix microarrays. The results demonstrated that the bacteria expressed genes for metabolic activities associated with cell growth. Interestingly, the transcriptome results indicated that the bacteria within the wounds also experienced oxygen-limitation stress. Among the bacterial genes that were expressed in vivo were genes associated with the Anr-mediated hypoxia-stress response. Other bacterial stress response genes highly expressed in vivo were genes associated with stationary-phase growth, osmotic stress, and RpoH-mediated heat shock stress. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the metabolic activities of bacteria in biofilms act as oxygen sinks in chronic wounds and that the depletion of oxygen contributes to the

  16. Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer in stirred bioreactors using oxygen-vectors 2. Propionibacterium shermanii broths. (United States)

    Galaction, Anca-Irina; Cascaval, Dan; Turnea, Marius; Folescu, Elena


    The previous works on simulated broths are continued and developed for Propionibacterium shermanii broths. The obtained results indicated the considerable increase of kLa in presence of n-dodecane as oxygen-vector and the existence of a certain value of hydrocarbon concentration that corresponds to the maximum mass transfer rate of oxygen. The magnitude of the positive effect of the oxygen-vector strongly depends on operational conditions of the bioreactor, on broth characteristics and on P. shermanii concentration.

  17. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Birna Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals.Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1. Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min and then again room air (10 minutes recovery.Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001 and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001. The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001. The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001 and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001.Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye.

  18. Effect of oxygen on tachycardia and arterial oxygen saturation during colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Christensen, M; Schulze, S


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplementary oxygen on heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation during colonoscopy. DESIGN: Controlled study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 40 patients having colonoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: 20 patients were given supplementary oxygen...... colonoscopy. RESULTS: There were no differences in the incidence of tachycardia or mean heart rate during endoscopy between the two groups, and no patient developed symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias or hypotensive episodes. 10 patients in the room air compared with none in the oxygen treatment group (p = 0...

  19. Comparative quantification of oxygen release by wetland plants: electrode technique and oxygen consumption model. (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Liu, Jufeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cong; Fan, Jinlin; Xu, Xiaoli


    Understanding oxygen release by plants is important to the design of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lab-scale systems planted with Phragmites australis were studied to evaluate the amount of oxygen release by plants using electrode techniques and oxygen consumption model. Oxygen release rate (0.14 g O2/m(2)/day) measured using electrode techniques was much lower than that (3.94-25.20 gO2/m(2)/day) calculated using the oxygen consumption model. The results revealed that oxygen release by plants was significantly influenced by the oxygen demand for the degradation of pollutants, and the oxygen release rate increased with the rising of the concentration of degradable materials in the solution. The summary of the methods in qualifying oxygen release by wetland plants demonstrated that variations existed among different measuring methods and even in the same measuring approach. The results would be helpful for understanding the contribution of plants in constructed wetlands toward actual wastewater treatment.

  20. Comparison of oxygen transfer parameters and oxygen demands in bioreactors operated at low and high dissolved oxygen levels. (United States)

    Mines, Richard O; Callier, Matthew C; Drabek, Benjamin J; Butler, André J


    The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L -1 of dissolved oxygen (DO). In this investigation, two 11.4-L bench-scale completely mixed activated process (CMAS) reactors were operated at various solid retention times (SRTs) to ascertain the relationship between the α-factor and SRT, and between the β-factor and SRT. The second goal was to determine if actual oxygen uptake rates (AOURs) are equal to calculated oxygen uptake rates (COURs) based on mass balances. Each reactor was supplied with 0.84 L m -1 of air resulting in SOTRs of 14.3 and 11.5 g O 2 d -1 for Reactor 1 (R-1) and Reactor 2 (R-2), respectively. The estimated theoretical oxygen demands of the synthetic feed to R-1 and R-2 were 6.3 and 21.9 g O 2 d -1 , respectively. R-2 was primarily operated under a dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and high nitrogen loading to determine if nitrification would be inhibited from a nitrite buildup and if this would impact the α-factor. Nitrite accumulated in R-2 at DO concentrations ranging from 0.50 to 7.35 mg L -1 and at free ammonia (FA) concentrations ranging from 1.34 to 7.19 mg L -1 . Nonsteady-state reaeration tests performed on the effluent from each reactor and on tap water indicated that the α-factor increased as SRT increased. A simple statistical analysis (paired t-test) between AOURs and COURs indicated that there was a statistically significant difference at 0.05 level of significance for both reactors. The ex situ BOD bottle method for estimating AOUR appears to be invalid in

  1. Using oxygen isotopes to establish freshwater sources in Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia, a Northwestern Atlantic fjord (United States)

    Kerrigan, Elizabeth A.; Kienast, Markus; Thomas, Helmuth; Wallace, Douglas W. R.


    A weekly time-series of oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements was collected over a 16-month period from near-surface (1 m) and near-bottom (60 m) waters of Bedford Basin, a coastal fjord adjacent to the Scotian Shelf, off eastern Canada. The time-series was complemented with δ18O measurements of local precipitation (rain and snow), river, and wastewater runoff. The isotopic composition of precipitation displayed strong seasonality with an average (volume-weighted) δ18O value of -5.39‰ (±0.96) for summer and a depleted value of -10.37‰ (±2.96) over winter. Winter precipitation exhibited more depleted and variable δ18O of solid precipitation relative to rainfall. The annual, amount-weighted average δ18O of Sackville River discharge (-6.49‰ ± 0.82) was not statistically different from precipitation (-7.24‰ ± 0.92), but exhibited less seasonal variation. Freshwater end-members (zero-salinity intercepts) estimated from annual and seasonal regressions of δ18O versus salinity (S) for Bedford Basin near-surface samples were consistent with the δ18O of summer precipitation and the annual, amount-weighted average for the Sackville River. However, the isotopically depleted signature of winter precipitation was not observed clearly in near-surface waters of Bedford Basin, which might reflect isotope enrichment during sublimation from accumulated snowfall prior to melting and discharge, or retention and mixing within the drainage basin. In near bottom waters, most of the δ18O-S variation (average freshwater end-member: 7.47‰ ± 2.17) could be explained by vertical mixing with near-surface waters (average freshwater end-member: -6.23‰ ± 0.34) and hence with locally-derived freshwater. However the near-bottom δ18O-S variation suggested an additional contribution of a freshwater end-member with a δ18O of -15.55‰ ± 2.3, consistent with a remotely-derived freshwater end-member identified previously for the Scotian Shelf. Residuals from a long

  2. The role of oxygen in quinternary superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, D.R.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    The oxygen composition of the new generation of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) has been found to play a crucial role in determining the superconductivity of these materials. However, measurement of the oxygen stoichiometry in such samples has proven difficult due to the small scattering cross section of oxygen, a light element, which has caused the oxygen scattering signal to be overwhelmed by the far larger signals generated off the heavier elements present in the HTSC samples. It is for this reason that previous ion beam analysis of oxide crystals has often either made no attempt to determine the oxygen content or has used O({alpha},{alpha})O resonances such as that at {approx} 3.05 MeV to probe the crystal. This work continues tests of a new technique for probing oxygen which overcomes the problem of an insignificant O BS signal by exploiting the large nuclear resonance found to occur in the O(p,p)O cross-section near an energy of 3.5 MeV in order to produce a significant oxygen edge in the H{sup +} BS spectrum obtained for the HTSC sample. The use of a H{sup +} beam is preferable to a He{sup 2+} beam for such work due to its enhanced sensitivity to light elements. The quinternary superconductor used for this investigation was a good quality pure Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} (BISCO, 2212) crystal. The size of this crystal was 5x5xl mm{sup 3} with the [001] face perpendicular to the surface. Measurements were performed using the University of Melbourne nuclear microprobe. The sample was mounted on an aluminium target holder using a carbon base adhesive which provided good electrical contact and it was oriented inside the target chamber by means of a four axis precision eucentric goniometer. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones. (United States)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J


    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future.

  4. Oxygen production System Models for Lunar ISRU (United States)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo


    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) seeks to make human space exploration feasible; by using available resources from a planet or the moon to produce consumables, parts, and structures that otherwise would be brought from Earth. Producing these in situ reduces the mass of such that must be launched and doing so allows more payload mass' for each mission. The production of oxygen from lunar regolith, for life support and propellant, is one of the tasks being studied under ISRU. NASA is currently funding three processes that have shown technical merit for the production of oxygen from regolith: Molten Salt Electrolysis, Hydrogen Reduction of Ilmenite, and Carbothermal Reduction. The ISRU program is currently developing system models of, the , abovementioned processes to: (1) help NASA in the evaluation process to select the most cost-effective and efficient process for further prototype development, (2) identify key parameters, (3) optimize the oxygen production process, (4) provide estimates on energy and power requirements, mass and volume.of the system, oxygen production rate, mass of regolith required, mass of consumables, and other important parameters, and (5) integrate into the overall end-to-end ISRU system model, which could be integrated with mission architecture models. The oxygen production system model is divided into modules that represent unit operations (e.g., reactor, water electrolyzer, heat exchanger). Each module is modeled theoretically using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), and will be validated using experimental data from on-going laboratory work. This modularity (plug-n-play) feature of each unit operation allows the use of the same model on different oxygen production systems simulations resulting in comparable results. In this presentation, preliminary results for mass, power, volume will be presented along with brief description of the oxygen production system model.

  5. Oxygen monitor for semi-closed rebreathers: design and use for estimating metabolic oxygen consumption (United States)

    Clarke, John R.; Southerland, David


    Semi-closed circuit underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) provide a constant flow of mixed gas containing oxygen and nitrogen or helium to a diver. However, as a diver's work rate and metabolic oxygen consumption varies, the oxygen percentages within the UBA can change dramatically. Hence, even a resting diver can become hypoxic and become at risk for oxygen induced seizures. Conversely, a hard working diver can become hypoxic and lose consciousness. Unfortunately, current semi-closed UBA do not contain oxygen monitors. We describe a simple oxygen monitoring system designed and prototyped at the Navy Experimental Diving Unit. The main monitor components include a PIC microcontroller, analog-to-digital converter, bicolor LED, and oxygen sensor. The LED, affixed to the diver's mask is steady green if the oxygen partial pressure is within pre- defined acceptable limits. A more advanced monitor with a depth senor and additional computational circuitry could be used to estimate metabolic oxygen consumption. The computational algorithm uses the oxygen partial pressure and the diver's depth to compute O2 using the steady state solution of the differential equation describing oxygen concentrations within the UBA. Consequently, dive transients induce errors in the O2 estimation. To evalute these errors, we used a computer simulation of semi-closed circuit UBA dives to generate transient rich data as input to the estimation algorithm. A step change in simulated O2 elicits a monoexponential change in the estimated O2 with a time constant of 5 to 10 minutes. Methods for predicting error and providing a probable error indication to the diver are presented.

  6. Evolution, atmospheric oxygen, and complex disease. (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L


    If evolution is an accurate statement of our biology, then disease must be tightly associated with its patterns. We considered selection for more optimal capacity for energy transfer as the most general pattern of evolution. From this, we propose that the etiology of complex disease is linked tightly to the evolutionary transition to cellular complexity that was afforded by the steep thermodynamic gradient of an oxygen atmosphere. In accord with this thesis, clinical studies reveal a strong statistical link between low aerobic capacity and all-cause mortality. In addition, large-scale unbiased network analyses demonstrate the pivotal role of oxygen metabolism in cellular function. The demonstration that multiple disease risks segregated during two-way artificial selection for low and high aerobic capacity in rats provides a remote test of these possible connections between evolution, oxygen metabolism, and complex disease. Even more broadly, an atmosphere with oxygen may be uniquely essential for development of complex life anywhere because oxygen is stable as a diatomic gas, is easily transported, and has a high electronegativity for participation in energy transfer via redox reactions.

  7. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J


    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  8. Oxygen and the evolution of metabolic pathways (United States)

    Jahnke, L. L.


    While a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated about the history of oxygen on this planet, little is known about the relative amounts to which primitive cells might have been exposed. One clue may be found in the metabolic pathways of extant microorganisms. While eucaryotes are principally aerobic organisms, a number are capable of anaerobic growth by fermentation. One such eucaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, will grow in the complete absence of oxygen when supplemented with unsaturated fatty acid and sterol. Oxygen-requiring enzymes are involved in the synthesis of both of these compounds. Studies have demonstrated that the oxidative desaturation of palmitic acid and the conversion of squalene to sterols occur in the range of 10-(3) to 10(-2) PAL. Thus, if the oxygen requirements of these enzymatic processes are an indication, eucaryotes might be more primitive than anticipated from the microfossil record. Results of studies on the oxygen requirements for sterol and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a more primitive procaryotic system are also discussed.

  9. Bacterial oxygen production in the dark (United States)

    Ettwig, Katharina F.; Speth, Daan R.; Reimann, Joachim; Wu, Ming L.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Keltjens, Jan T.


    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are among nature’s most powerful electron acceptors. In recent years it became clear that microorganisms can take advantage of the oxidizing power of these compounds to degrade aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. For two unrelated bacterial species, the “NC10” phylum bacterium “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” and the γ-proteobacterial strain HdN1 it has been suggested that under anoxic conditions with nitrate and/or nitrite, monooxygenases are used for methane and hexadecane oxidation, respectively. No degradation was observed with nitrous oxide only. Similarly, “aerobic” pathways for hydrocarbon degradation are employed by (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria, which are known to produce oxygen from chlorite (ClO2−). In the anaerobic methanotroph M. oxyfera, which lacks identifiable enzymes for nitrogen formation, substrate activation in the presence of nitrite was directly associated with both oxygen and nitrogen formation. These findings strongly argue for the role of NO, or an oxygen species derived from it, in the activation reaction of methane. Although oxygen generation elegantly explains the utilization of “aerobic” pathways under anoxic conditions, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In this perspective, we review the current knowledge about intra-aerobic pathways, their potential presence in other organisms, and identify candidate enzymes related to quinol-dependent NO reductases (qNORs) that might be involved in the formation of oxygen. PMID:22891064

  10. Metabolic Prosthesis for Oxygenation of Ischemic Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL


    This communication discloses new ideas and preliminary results on the development of a "metabolic prosthesis" for local oxygenation of ischemic tissue under physiological neutral conditions. We report for the first time the selective electrolysis of physiological saline by repetitively pulsed charge-limited electrolysis for the production of oxygen and suppression of free chlorine. For example, using 800 A amplitude current pulses and <200 sec pulse durations, we demonstrated prompt oxygen production and delayed chlorine production at the surface of a shiny 0.85 mm diameter spherical platinum electrode. The data, interpreted in terms of the ionic structure of the electric double layer, suggest a strategy for in situ production of metabolic oxygen via a new class of "smart" prosthetic implants for dealing with ischemic disease such as diabetic retinopathy. We also present data indicating that drift of the local pH of the oxygenated environment can be held constant using a feedback-controlled three electrode electrolysis system that chooses anode and cathode pair based on pH data provided by local microsensors. The work is discussed in the context of diabetic retinopathy since surgical techniques for multielectrode prosthetic implants aimed at retinal degenerative diseases have been developed.

  11. Pharmaceutical preparation of oxygen-15 labelled molecular oxygen and carbon monoxide gasses in a hospital setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, Geert; Boellaard, Ronald; Greuter, Henri; Rijbroek, Abraham; Takkenkamp, Kevin; de Geest, Frank; Buijs, Fred; Hendrikse, NH; Franssen, Eric; van Lingen, Arthur; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    BACKGROUND: Clinical positron emission tomography (PET) requires safe and effective PET radiopharmaceuticals. Tracers used for measuring oxygen consumption and blood volume are [(15)O]O(2) and [(15)O]CO, respectively. In general, these oxygen-15 labelled tracers are produced using a cyclotron that

  12. Optimal Oxygen Titration in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Role for Automated Oxygen Delivery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lellouche


    Full Text Available Oxygen therapy can be life-saving for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and is the backbone of any acute COPD treatment strategy. Although largely considered to be a benign drug, many publications have highlighted the need to accurately adjust oxygen delivery to avoid both hypoxemia and the problem of hyperoxia-induced hypercapnia. Recent clinical data have shown that the deleterious effects of excess oxygen treatment can not only alter carbon dioxide levels (which has been known for more than 60 years but can also lead to an increase in mortality. Nevertheless, despite the extensive literature, the risks associated with hyperoxia are often overlooked and published clinical recommendations are largely ignored. This failure in knowledge translation has become increasingly important not only because of the desire to reduce medical error, but in a society with limited health care resources, the economic burden of COPD is such that it cannot afford to make preventable medical mistakes. Recently, novel devices have been developed to automatically adjust oxygen flow rates to maintain stable oxygen saturations. These closed-loop oxygen delivery systems have the potential to reduce medical error, improve morbidity and mortality, and reduce health care costs. Preliminary data in this field are promising and will require a significant amount of research in the coming years to determine the precise indications for these systems. The importance of appropriate oxygen dosing and the current literature regarding novel oxygen delivery systems are reviewed.

  13. A monitor for Cellular Oxygen METabolism (COMET): monitoring tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, R. (Rinse); M.A.W. Bettink; R. Janse (Rineke); F.A. Harms (Floor A.); T. Johannes (Tanja); Münker, F.M. (F. Michael); E.G. Mik (Egbert)


    textabstractAfter introduction of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique as a new method to measure mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo, the development of a clinical monitor was started. This monitor is the “COMET”, an acronym for Cellular Oxygen METabolism. The COMET is a

  14. Renal transplantation induces mitochondrial uncoupling, increased kidney oxygen consumption, and decreased kidney oxygen tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazova, Diana A.; Friederich-Persson, Malou; Joles, Jaap A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114595; Verhaar, Marianne C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182921840


    Hypoxia is an acknowledged pathway to renal injury and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and is known to reduce renal oxygen tension (PO2). We hypothesized that renal I/R increases oxidative damage and induces mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and hence kidney

  15. Rapid hydrogen and oxygen atom transfer by a high-valent nickel-oxygen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, Teresa; Draksharapu, Apparao; Padamati, Sandeep K; Gamba, Ilaria; Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Acuña-Parés, Ferran; Browne, Wesley R; Company, Anna


    Terminal high-valent metal-oxygen species are key reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle of both enzymes (e.g., oxygenases) and synthetic oxidation catalysts. While tremendous efforts have been directed towards the characterization of the biologically relevant terminal manganese-oxygen and

  16. Co and Cu ZSM-5 zeolites for the direct production of oxygenates from methane and oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beznis, N.


    The direct partial oxidation of methane to oxygenates still remains one of the greatest challenges in catalysis. Metal-containing zeolites hold great potential for the direct partial oxidation of methane to oxygenates. The nature of the active sites in these materials is, however, still a matter of

  17. Microcarbon-based facial creams activate aerial oxygen under light to reactive oxygen species damaging cell (United States)

    Maity, Sheli; Pakhira, Bholanath; Ghosh, Subrata; Saha, Royina; Sarkar, Ripon; Barui, Ananya; Sarkar, Sabyasachi


    Nanosized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is found in active microcarbon used in popular face cream from the manufacturers like Ponds, Nevia, and Garnier which, under visible light exposure, gets activated by aerial oxygen to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) harmful to skin.

  18. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.


    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated

  19. 21 CFR 868.1730 - Oxygen uptake computer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen uptake computer. 868.1730 Section 868.1730...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1730 Oxygen uptake computer. (a) Identification. An oxygen uptake computer is a device intended to compute the amount of oxygen consumed by a...

  20. Long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy – the Johannesburg hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients attending an oxygen clinic, to assess the relevance of the current clinical criteria determining the need for domiciliary oxygen, to assess the cost-effectiveness of an oxygen clinic and to assess compliance with the oxygen prescription. Design.

  1. Excess post hypoxic oxygen consumption in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Marie; Deurs, Mikael van; Steffensen, J.F.


    Atlantic cod Gadus morhua experienced oxygen deficit (DO2 ) when exposed to oxygen levels below their critical level (c. 73% of pcrit) and subsequent excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (CEPHO) upon return to normoxic conditions, indicative of an oxygen debt. The mean±s.e. CEPHO:DO2 was 6...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. 870.4350... bypass oxygenator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange... the FDA guidance document entitled “Guidance for Cardiopulmonary Bypass Oxygenators 510(k) Submissions...

  3. Oxygen production by urban trees in the United States (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane


    Urban forests in the coterminous United States are estimated to produce ≈61 million metric tons (67 million tons) of oxygen annually, enough oxygen to offset the annual oxygen consumption of approximately two-thirds of the U.S. opulation. Although oxygen production is often cited as a significant benefit of trees, this benefit is relatively insignificant and...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1441 - Oxygen equipment and supply. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oxygen equipment and supply. 23.1441... Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply. (a) If certification with supplemental oxygen..., during the flight, the quantity of oxygen available in each source of supply. (d) Each required flight...

  5. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator (United States)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Torbin, A. P.; Pershin, A. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.


    The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O3(υ) formed in O + O2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O3(υ ⩾ 2) + O2(a1Δ) → 2O2 + O is the main O2(a1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O2(a1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. [Monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation]. (United States)

    Nakamura, Shunsuke


    The continuous monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation(SjO2) has become a practical method for monitoring global cerebral oxygenation and metabolism. SjO2 reflects the balance between the cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), if arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation, hemoglobin concentration remain constant. Normal SjO2 values range between 55% and 75%. Low SjO2 indicates cerebral hypoperfusion or ischemia. Conversely, an increased SjO2 indicates either cerebral hyperemia or a disorder that decreases CMRO2. In minimizing secondary brain damage following resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest, SjO2 monitoring is thus considered to be an integral part of multimodality monitoring and can provide important information for the management of patients in neurointensive care.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in diabetic foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doctor N


    Full Text Available To study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in chronic diabetic foot lesions, a prospective controlled study was undertaken. Thirty diabetics with chronic foot lesions were randomised to study group (conventional management and 4 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and control group (conventional management. The patients were assessed for average hospital stay, control of infection and wound healing. The control of infection spread was quicker. Positive cultures decreased from initial 19 to 3 in study group as against from 16 to 12 in the control group. (p < 0.05. This difference was most pronounced for Escherichia coli. Also, the need for major amputation was significantly less in the study group (n = 2 as against the control group (n = 7 (p < 0.05. The average hospital stay was not affected. We conclude that hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be safely used and is beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in chronic diabetic foot lesions.

  8. Origin of oxygen species in Titan's atmosphere (United States)

    Hörst, S. M.; Vuitton, V.; Yelle, R. V.


    The detection of O+ precipitating into Titan's atmosphere by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) represents the discovery of a previously unknown source of oxygen in Titan's atmosphere. The photochemical model presented here shows that those oxygen ions are incorporated into CO and CO2. We show that the observed abundances of CO, CO2 and H2O can be simultaneously reproduced using an oxygen flux consistent with the CAPS observations and an OH flux consistent with predicted production from micrometeorite ablation. It is therefore unnecessary to assume that the observed CO abundance is the remnant of a larger primordial CO abundance or to invoke outgassing of CO from Titan's interior as a source of CO.

  9. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Matsubara


    Full Text Available Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations.

  10. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sharifipour


    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  11. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng


    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  12. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ruipeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Lannutti, John J., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9 ± 0.12 s while the t{sub 95} for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79 ± 0.23 s and 2.29 ± 0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50 °C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern–Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES–PCL core–shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. Highlights: • Nanofiber-based structures can self-report localized oxygen concentrations. • Ideal for tissue engineering as they allow close interaction of cells. • Nanofiber-incorporated oxygen-sensitive probes provide a perfectly linear response. • Photobleaching is largely eliminated by the use of PES–PCL core

  13. Energy spectra of geomagnetically trapped oxygen ions

    CERN Document Server

    Leicher, M; Enge, W


    In a series of COSMOS satellite flights plastic nuclear track detectors have been exposed in low-earth orbits to monitor anomalous cosmic rays (ACR) at energies below 25 MeV/nuc. The analysis of energy spectra has now been extended to energies up to 40 MeV/nuc for two exposures aboard COSMOS 2260 in 1993 and COSMOS 2311 in 1995. Our data on trapped ACR (TACR) oxygen energy spectra might indicate the influence of energy-dependent stripping probabilities and the presence of multiply charged ACR oxygen at high energies as reported by latest SAMPEX observations.

  14. Oxygen Equipment and Rapid Decompression Studies (United States)


    electroencephalographic and electro - cardiographic changes. Crew-type oxygen masks and demand regu- lators were set to the 100-percent-oxygen position...of electro - encephalographic slow waves as shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. a01I-212 11 - 7)- I 4-) C4 C4 - cco 00’lC4 4i 4in 0 4-4 -44 cl)00V %0m nCh 4...01) used in the C-141 aircraft (Figs. I and 2), Immediately before ascent the test subject was instrumented for EKG monitoring with three-position

  15. Lunar production of oxygen by electrolysis (United States)

    Keller, Rudolf


    Two approaches to prepare oxygen from lunar resources by direct electrolysis are discussed. Silicates can be melted or dissolved in a fused salt and electrolyzed with oxygen evolved at the anode. Direct melting and electrolysis is potentially a very simple process, but high temperatures of 1400-1500 C are required, which aggravates materials problems. Operating temperatures can be lowered to about 1000 C by employing a molten salt flux. In this case, however, losses of electrolyte components must be avoided. Experimentation on both approaches is progressing.

  16. Engineering the oxygen coordination in digital superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Seyoung [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Andersen, Tassie K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Hong, Hawoong [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rosenberg, Richard A. [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Marks, Laurence D. [Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Fong, Dillon D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA


    The oxygen sublattice in the complex oxides is typically composed of corner-shared polyhedra, with transition metals at their centers. The electronic and chemical properties of the oxide depend on the type and geometric arrangement of these polyhedra, which can be controlled through epitaxial synthesis. Here, we use oxide molecular beam epitaxy to create SrCoOx:SrTiO3 superlattices with tunable oxygen coordination environments and sublattice geometries. Using soft X-ray spectroscopy, we find that the chemical state of Co can be varied with the polyhedral arrangement, demonstrating a new strategy for achieving unique electronic properties in the transition metal oxides.

  17. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (United States)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.


    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91μmolg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62μmolg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  18. Oxygen therapy in critical illness: precise control of arterial oxygenation and permissive hypoxemia. (United States)

    Martin, Daniel Stuart; Grocott, Michael Patrick William


    The management of hypoxemia in critically ill patients is challenging. Whilst the harms of tissue hypoxia are well recognized, the possibility of harm from excess oxygen administration, or other interventions targeted at mitigating hypoxemia, may be inadequately appreciated. The benefits of attempting to fully reverse arterial hypoxemia may be outweighed by the harms associated with high concentrations of supplemental oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation strategies. We propose two novel related strategies for the management of hypoxemia in critically ill patients. First, we describe precise control of arterial oxygenation involving the specific targeting of arterial partial pressure of oxygen or arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation to individualized target values, with the avoidance of significant variation from these levels. The aim of precise control of arterial oxygenation is to avoid the harms associated with inadvertent hyperoxia or hypoxia through careful and precise control of arterial oxygen levels. Secondly, we describe permissive hypoxemia: the acceptance of levels of arterial oxygenation lower than is conventionally tolerated in patients. The aim of permissive hypoxemia is to minimize the possible harms caused by restoration of normoxemia while avoiding tissue hypoxia. This review sets out to discuss the strengths and limitations of precise control of arterial oxygenation and permissive hypoxemia as candidate management strategies in hypoxemic critically ill patients. We searched PubMed for references to "permissive hypoxemia/hypoxaemia" and "precise control of arterial oxygenation" as well as reference to "profound hypoxemia/hypoxaemia/hypoxia," "severe hypoxemia/hypoxaemia/hypoxia." We searched personal reference libraries in the areas of critical illness and high altitude physiology and medicine. We also identified large clinical studies in patients with critical illness characterized by hypoxemia such as acute respiratory distress syndrome

  19. Cyanobacterial Diazotrophy and Earth?s Delayed Oxygenation


    Olson, Stephanie L.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lyons, Timothy W.


    The redox landscape of Earth’s ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth’s protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth’s redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth’s oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion years delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of th...

  20. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation


    Jiang, Dongsheng; Bu, Xueqin; Sun, Bing; Lin, Guiping; Zhao, Hongtao; Cai, Yan; Fang, Ling


    The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure d...

  1. The impact of the Danish Oxygen Register on adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas J; Lange, Peter


    To evaluate the impact of The Danish Oxygen Register on COPD patients' treatment modalities, survival, and adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT).......To evaluate the impact of The Danish Oxygen Register on COPD patients' treatment modalities, survival, and adherence to guidelines for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT)....

  2. Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy. (United States)

    Clemence, Caulle; Meryem, Mojtahid; Karoliina, Koho; Andy, Gooday; Gert-Jan, Reichart; Gerhard, Schmiedl; Frans, Jorissen


    Benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: towards a paleo-oxygenation proxy. C. Caulle1, M. Mojtahid1, K. Koho2,3, A. Gooday4, G. J. Reichart2,3, G. Schmiedl5, F. Jorissen1 1UMR CNRS 6112 LPG-BIAF, University of Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 2Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Royal Netherland Institute for Sea Research (Royal NIOZ), Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ 't Horntje (Texel) 4Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK 5Department of Geosciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany The thermohaline circulation oxygenates the deep ocean sediment and therefore enables aerobic life on the sea-floor. In the past, interruption of this deep water formation occurred several times causing hypoxic to anoxic conditions on the sea-floor leading to major ecological turnover. A better understanding of the interaction between climate and bottom water oxygenation is therefore essential in order to predict future oceanic responses. Presently, permanent (stable over decadal timescale) low-oxygen conditions occur naturally at mid-water depths in the northern Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea). Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ) are key areas to understand the hypoxic-anoxic events and their impact on the benthic ecosystem. In this context, a good knowledge of the ecology and life cycle adaptations of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages living in these low oxygen areas is essential. A series of multicores were recovered from three transects showing an oxygen gradient across the OMZ: the Murray Ridge, the Oman margin and the Indian margin. The stations located at the same depths showed slightly different oxygen concentrations and large differences in organic matter content. These differences are mainly related to the geographic location in the Arabian Sea. We investigated at these stations live and dead benthic

  3. Visible light optical coherence tomography measure retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Yi, Ji; Liu, Wenzhong; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Sheibani, Nader; Sorenson, Christine M.; Fawzi, Amani A.; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Zhang, Hao F.


    The lack of capability to quantify oxygen metabolism noninvasively impedes both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of a wide spectrum of diseases including all the major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Using visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), we demonstrated accurate and robust measurement of retinal oxygen metabolic rate (rMRO2) noninvasively in rat eyes. The rMRO2 was calculated by concurrent measurement of blood flow and blood oxygen saturation (sO2). Blood flow was calculated by the principle of Doppler optical coherence tomography, where the phase shift between two closely spaced A-lines measures the axial velocity. The distinct optical absorption spectra of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin provided the contrast for sO2 measurement, combined with the spectroscopic analysis of vis-OCT signal within the blood vessels. We continuously monitored the regulatory response of oxygen consumption to a progressive hypoxic challenge. We found that both oxygen delivery, and rMRO2 increased from the highly regulated retinal circulation (RC) under hypoxia, by 0.28+/-0.08 μL/min (p<0.001), and 0.20+/-0.04 μL/min (p<0.001) per 100 mmHg systemic pO2 reduction, respectively. The increased oxygen extraction compensated for the deficient oxygen supply from the poorly regulated choroidal circulation (CC).

  4. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins


    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  5. Yeast alter micro-oxygenation of wine: oxygen consumption and aldehyde production. (United States)

    Han, Guomin; Webb, Michael R; Richter, Chandra; Parsons, Jessica; Waterhouse, Andrew L


    Micro-oxygenation (MOx) is a common winemaking treatment used to improve red wine color development and diminish vegetal aroma, amongst other effects. It is commonly applied to wine immediately after yeast fermentation (phase 1) or later, during aging (phase 2). Although most winemakers avoid MOx during malolactic (ML) fermentation, it is often not possible to avoid because ML bacteria are often present during phase 1 MOx treatment. We investigated the effect of common yeast and bacteria on the outcome of micro-oxygenation. Compared to sterile filtered wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculation significantly increased oxygen consumption, keeping dissolved oxygen in wine below 30 µg L -1 during micro-oxygenation, whereas Oenococcus oeni inoculation was not associated with a significant impact on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The unfiltered baseline wine also had both present, although with much higher populations of bacteria and consumed oxygen. The yeast-treated wine yielded much higher levels of acetaldehyde, rising from 4.3 to 29 mg L -1 during micro-oxygenation, whereas no significant difference was found between the bacteria-treated wine and the filtered control. The unfiltered wine exhibited rapid oxygen consumption but no additional acetaldehyde, as well as reduced pyruvate. Analysis of the acetaldehyde-glycerol acetal levels showed a good correlation with acetaldehyde concentrations. The production of acetaldehyde is a key outcome of MOx and it is dramatically increased in the presence of yeast, although it is possibly counteracted by the metabolism of O. oeni bacteria. Additional controlled experiments are necessary to clarify the interaction of yeast and bacteria during MOx treatments. Analysis of the glycerol acetals may be useful as a proxy for acetaldehyde levels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Van Brussel, Marco; Bongers, Bart C.; Hulzebos, Erik; Helders, Paul J.M.; Takken, Tim


    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the submaximal Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) in a healthy pediatric population. Bicycle ergometry exercise tests with gas-analyses were performed in 46 healthy children aged 7–17 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES,

  7. Oxygen deficiency in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    in Scptember- 55 Suplemento Gayana 70, 2006 FIGURE 3: Monthly-/fortnightly-averaged records showing annual cycle of (a) temperature, (b) salinity, (c) oxygen, (d-g) inorganic nitrogen species, and (h) hydrogen sulfide at the Candolim Time Series (CATS) site...

  8. STS-84 oxygen generator for Mir installation (United States)


    McDonnell Douglas-SPACEHAB technicians oversee the move of a Russian-made oxygen generator to a SPACEHAB Double Module, at rear, in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility. In foreground, from left, are Marc Tuttle, Dan Porter and Mike Vawter. The oxygen generator, manufactured in Russia by RSC Energia, will be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on Mission STS-84 for the Shuttles scheduled docking with the Russian Space Station Mir next month. The nearly 300-pound generator will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff.

  9. Modeling Fish Growth in Low Dissolved Oxygen (United States)

    Neilan, Rachael Miller


    This article describes a computational project designed for undergraduate students as an introduction to mathematical modeling. Students use an ordinary differential equation to describe fish weight and assume the instantaneous growth rate depends on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Published laboratory experiments suggest that continuous…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Zdorovennova


    Full Text Available The year-round measurement data of water temperature and dissolved oxygen content in a small boreal Lake Vendyurskoe in 2007–2013 were used to explore the hydrophysical prerequisits of anoxia and accumulation and emission of greenhouse gases. Typically, anoxia appears in the bottom layers of lakes in mid-winter and during the summer  stagnation. The thickness of the benthic anaerobic zone (dissolved oxygen concentration <2 mg·l–1 reached one meter in the end of the winter and at the peak of the summer stratification, except for the extremely hot summer of 2010, when it reached five meters. Synoptic conditions had a crucial influence on the formation and destruction of the benthic anaerobic zones in summer. The most favorable oxygen dynamics was observed during the cold summers of 2008, 2009, and 2012, when the repeated full mixings of the water column occurred under conditions of the cyclonic weather. In the winter periods, the early dates of ice season resulted in the most pronounced deficiency of oxygen.

  11. Interaction of oxygen vacancies in yttrium germanates

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao


    Forming a good Ge/dielectric interface is important to improve the electron mobility of a Ge metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor. A thin yttrium germanate capping layer can improve the properties of the Ge/GeO 2 system. We employ electronic structure calculations to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies in yttrium-doped GeO 2 and the yttrium germanates Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5. The calculated densities of states indicate that dangling bonds from oxygen vacancies introduce in-gap states, but the system remains insulating. However, yttrium-doped GeO 2 becomes metallic under oxygen deficiency. Y-doped GeO 2, Y 2Ge 2O 7 and Y 2GeO 5 are calculated to be oxygen substoichiometric under low Fermi energy conditions. The use of yttrium germanates is proposed as a way to effectively passivate the Ge/dielectric interface. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation in double carbonates. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Böttcher, Michael E


    Oxygen isotope fractionations in double carbonates of different crystal structures were calculated by the increment method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 60 °C and 100 °C to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations involving PbMg[CO3]2. The calculations suggest that the double carbonates of calcite structure are systematically enriched in (18)O relative to those of aragonite and mixture structures. Internally consistent oxygen isotope fractionation factors are obtained for these minerals with respect to quartz, calcite and water at a temperature range of 0-1200 °C. The calculated fractionation factors for double carbonate-water systems are generally consistent with the data available from laboratory experiments. The experimentally determined fractionation factors for PbMg[CO3]2, BaMg[CO3]2 and CaMg[CO3]2 against H2O not only fall between fractionation factors involving pure carbonate end-members but are also close to the calculated fractionation factors. In contrast, experimentally determined carbon isotope fractionation factors between PbMg[CO3]2 and CO2 are much closer to theoretical predictions for the cerussite-CO2 system than for the magnesite-CO2 system, similar to the fractionation behavior for BaMg[CO3]2. Therefore, the combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the effects of crystal structure and exchange kinetics on oxygen isotope partitioning in double carbonates.

  13. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation (United States)

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Coleman, Gerald Nelson [Petersborough, GB; Robel, Wade James [Peoria, IL


    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  14. Yttrium doped BSCF membranes for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haworth, P.; Smart, S.; Glasscock, Julie


    BSCF (x = 0) membrane. This was attributed to the combined effect of the formation of a greater number of oxygen vacancies, together with improved ion mobility, associated with the beneficial yttrium substitution into the BSCF perovskite structure which stemmed from the crystal lattice expansion....

  15. Continuous oxygen therapy for hypoxic pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas J


    Continuous oxygen therapy (COT) has become widely accepted in the last 20 years in patients with continuous hypoxemia. This review focuses on guidelines for COT, adherence to these guidelines, and the effect of COT on survival, hospitalization, and quality of life. Guidelines for COT are mainly...

  16. Oxygen diffusion in bilayer polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Zebger, Ingo; Tofte, Jannik Pentti


    through the film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) and into the polystyrene film was monitored using the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen as a spectroscopic probe. To analyze the data, it was necessary to solve Fick's second law of diffusion for both polymer films. Tractable analytical and numerical...

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of our present work is to develop a simple steady state model for intraretinal oxygen partial pressure distribution and to investigate the effect of various model parameters on the partial pressure distribution under adapted conditions of light and darkness.. Method: A simple eight-layered mathematical model ...

  18. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 5. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. Reza Tayebee. Volume 118 Issue 5 September 2006 pp 429-433 ...

  19. Development of stable oxygen transport membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Donkelaar, S.F.P.


    Chapter 1 provides an introduction of relevant developments in the field of oxygen transport membranes, and presents the aims of the work described in this thesis. In Chapter 2, the development of a versatile one-pot auto-combustion method for the synthesis of powders of the perovskite oxide

  20. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H


    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...