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Sample records for subjects twenty male

  1. Prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints in adult male carriers of the FMR1 premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Rachael Cherie; Hocking, Darren Robert; Trollor, Julian Norman

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints among a cohort of male FMR1 premutation (PM) carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Twenty-two PM males (ages 26-80, 7 with FXTAS) and 24 matched controls with normal FMR1 alleles (ages 26-77) completed cross-sectional assessments of subjective memory complaints (memory complaints questionnaire, MAC-Q), objective memory function (Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale, third edition), and psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders). Although a greater proportion of PM males (36%) endorsed subjective memory complaints compared to controls (21%), formal statistical comparisons failed to reach significance. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that subjective memory complaints were not associated with objective memory performance, but rather were predicted by elevated psychiatric symptoms. The relationship between psychiatric symptoms and subjective complaints found in the PM group was not statistically different to that found in the control group. There were no significant relationships between FMR1 molecular measures (CGG repeat length, FMR1 mRNA level) and measures of subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, or psychiatric symptoms. In keeping with findings from the general population, this study suggests that subjective ratings of memory performance in PM males are associated with underlying psychological factors rather than cross-sectional objective memory function. However, future longitudinal studies are required to determine whether subjective memory complaints may predict changes in objective memory function over time.

  2. Effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Nassar, Jihad; Dowli, Alexander; Al Zaghal, Zeid; Sabri, Alain

    2012-11-01

    To address the effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A total of 22 male subjects have been recruited for this study. Subjects with vocal fold pathologies, recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or laryngeal manipulation were excluded. Demographic data included age and history of smoking. All subjects were evaluated while fasting for at least 12 h and non-fasting. By non-fasting we mean that they ate and drank during the day at their discretion with no reservation. The abstention from water and or food intake during the non-fasting period extended from few minutes to 3 h. All subjects were evaluated at the same time during the day. The evaluation consisted of a laryngeal examination and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was used to report on the reflux laryngeal findings. Subjects were considered to have LPRD if either the RSI or the RFS were positive (>9 RSI, >7 RFS). There was a non-significant increase in the total prevalence of LPRD while fasting compared to non-fasting (32 vs. 50 % while fasting, p value 0.361). In the RSI, the most common symptoms while non-fasting and fasting were throat clearing (64 vs. 68 %), postnasal drip (45 vs. 59 %) and globus sensation (36 vs. 50 %). The average score of all the three increased significantly while fasting. For the RFS the most common laryngeal findings in the non-fasting group versus the fasting group were erythema (77 vs. 68 %), thick endolaryngeal mucus (77 vs. 77 %) and posterior commissure hypertrophy (55 vs. 64 %). Fasting results in a nonsignificant increase in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The increase can be hypothetically explained on the change in eating habits and the known alterations in gastric secretions during Ramadan. Fasting subjects must be alert to the effect of LPRD on their throat and voice in particular.

  3. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Rubini; Gerardo, Bosco; Alessandra, Lodi; Lorenzo, Cenci; Andrea, Parmagnani; Keith, Grimaldi; Yang, Zhongjin; Antonio, Paoli

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  4. Gene Polymorphism of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Asthenozoospermic Male Subjects

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    Sina Mohagheghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs play important roles in the structural and functional properties of reproductive organs. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of C-1562T MMP-9 (rs3918242 gene polymorphism in fertile and infertile men. In addition, we aim to determine the association between C-1562T MMP-9 and G-1575A MMP-2 gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 subjects, including 200 fertile and 200 infertile men, were recruited for this casecontrol study. The allele frequencies and genotype distributions of single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter regions of MMP-9 (C-1562T were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. The chi-square (χ2 test was used to assess the distribution of genotype frequencies. Results: There were no significant differences found in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies between fertile and infertile men for the C-1562T MMP-9 gene polymorphism. The percent of immotile sperm in infertile men with the CC and CT genotypes of C-1562T MMP-9 gene polymorphism significantly differed compared with that of subjects with the TT genotype. The frequency of CC/GA-combined genotypes of C-1562T MMP-9 and G-1575A MMP-2 gene polymorphisms significantly differed in fertile and infertile men (P=0.031. Conclusion: Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in MMP may impact male fertility.

  5. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age

  6. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin for male subjects with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid intellectual disabilities: A randomized pilot study

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    Toshio eMunesue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of autism spectrum disorder (ASD individual suffer from comorbid intellectual disabilities (ID. Oxytocin (OXT receptors are highly expressed in temporal lobe structures and are likely to play a modulatory role in excitatory/inhibitory balance, at least based on animal model findings. Thus, it is feasible that in the highly representative group of Kanner type ASD subjects OXT could have a beneficial effect on social communication and social interaction. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and adverse events, such as epilepsy, of the long-term administration of intranasal OXT for adolescent and adult ASD subjects with ID because such patients frequently have seizures. We also addressed the question on how to scale the OXT effects to the core symptoms of social deficits because of the relative difficulty in obtaining objective measurements. Twenty-nine males (aged 15-40 years old participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (each for 8 weeks with OXT (16 international units per day. Except for seizures experienced by one participant, other serious adverse events did not occur. The primary and secondary outcomes measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and several standard scales, respectively, revealed no difference between the OXT and placebo groups. Instead, in an exploratory analysis, the social interactions observed in the play sessions or in daily-life were significantly more frequent in the initial half period in the OXT-first arm of the crossover trial. There were also significant correlations between the plasma OXT concentration and subscale scores for irritability on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates that long-term administration of intranasal OXT is tolerable in a representative cohort of ASD individuals with ID and suggests that future multicenter trials of OXT are warranted and should include measurements

  8. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of [14C]-lenalidomide following oral administration in healthy male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nianhang; Wen, Lian; Lau, Henry; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Kumar, Gondi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of the absorption, metabolism and excretion of [14C]-lenalidomide in healthy male subjects following a single oral dose. Methods Six healthy male subjects were administered a single 25 mg oral suspension dose of [14C]-lenalidomide. Blood (plasma), semen and excreta were collected. Mass balance assessments were done by radioactivity measurements. Metabolite profiling and quantitation were accomplished using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and radiochemical dete...

  9. Juvenile Male Rats Exposed to a Low-Dose Mixture of Twenty-Seven Environmental Chemicals Display Adverse Health Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Svingen, Terje; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals in their daily life, many of which are readily detectable in blood or urine. It remains uncertain if these chemicals can cause adverse health effects when present together at low doses. In this study we have tested whether a mixture...... of 27 chemicals administered orally to juvenile male rats for three months could leave a pathophysiological footprint. The mixture contained metals, perfluorinated compounds, PCB, dioxins, pesticides, heterocyclic amines, phthalate, PAHs and others, with a combined dose of 0.16 (Low dose), 0.47 (Mid...... dose) or 1.6 (High dose) mg/kg bw/day. The lowest dose was designed with the aim of obtaining plasma or urine concentrations in rats at levels approaching those observed in humans. Some single congeners were administered at doses representative of combined doses for chemical groups. With this baseline...

  10. A Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor in a Twenty-Eight Year-old Adult Male Presenting with Urological Symptoms

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    Amr Idris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a malignant tumor of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. This tumor involves serosal surfaces such as the peritoneum, pleura, and scrotum. In this case report a 28-year old male presented with a desmoplastic small round cell tumor located in the abdomen along with urological symptoms. When the diagnosis was completed, the patient’s tumor had metastasized to the liver and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. This case not only has exemplified that this tumor is rare and fatal but its prompt diagnosis is critical. However it is most likely that the diagnosis of this tumor is found when it has metastasized and this is unfortunately very late.

  11. Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

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    Carlos Teodósio Da Ros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years. Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value (p < 0.001. Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency.

  12. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  13. Serum hormonal levels in HIV/AIDS infected male subjects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the serum hormonal levels (Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin and Cortisol) in symptomatic HIV/AIDS male subjects on ART. A total of 411 participants aged between 17 and 58 (43 ±10) years were randomly ...

  14. Affective temperaments in subjects with female-to-male gender dysphoria.

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    Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Kani, Ayşe Sakallı; Duran, Alaattin

    2015-05-01

    Males and females have different temperaments. In individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) there is marked incongruence between a person׳s expressed/experienced gender and their biological sex. The present study aimed to investigate the most common affective temperaments in individuals with female-to-male (FtM) GD. We performed a prospective and comparative study investigating affective temperaments in subjects with FtM GD. Eighty subjects with FtM GD and 68 female controls were enrolled. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was completed by all participants. TEMPS-A scores were significantly higher in subjects with FtM GD for hyperthymic temperament (p≤0.001), whereas depressive (p≤0.001), anxious (p≤0.001), and cyclothymic (p=0.028) temperament scores were significantly higher in female controls. The study was limited by the lack of male-to-female subjects and male controls. The results of our study indicate that individuals with FtM GD have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by TEMPS-A. Biological basis underlying the development of gender identity independent from the biological sex might be related with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    )] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population...... students who were not aware of their own fertility, whereas the previous study subjects were infertility patients. However, the multiple regression models could explain only a limited fraction of total variance in serum levels of hormones. Identification of other contributors is warranted....

  16. Mobile phone use facilitates memory in male, but not female, subjects.

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    Smythe, James W; Costall, Brenda

    2003-02-10

    In the present study we report on the effects of mobile phone exposure on short- and long-term memory in male and female subjects. Subjects were university undergraduate students, and consisted of right-handed, males (n = 33) and females (n = 29). Individuals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: no phone exposure; inactive phone exposure; and active phone exposure. They were provided with a series of words to learn, structured in a two-dimensional shape, and given 3 min to memorise the words. After a 12 min distraction task, they were then asked to draw the shape (spatial) and place the correct words (semantic) into the appropriate boxes. One week later the same subjects were brought back to again redraw the shape and words. Error scores were determined and analysed by non-parametric techniques. The results show that males exposed to an active phone made fewer spatial errors than those exposed to an active phone condition, while females were largely unaffected. These results further indicate that mobile phone exposure has functional consequences for human subjects, and these effects appear to be sex-dependent.

  17. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

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    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  18. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

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    Quintana, Daniel S; Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B; Pedersen, Per Ø; Quraishi, Sophia H; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F; Groote, Inge R; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  19. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p......Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...

  20. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

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    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  1. Attitudes and subjective norms of male and female adolescents toward breastfeeding.

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    Goulet, Céline; Lampron, Annie; Marcil, Isabelle; Ross, Lise

    2003-11-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the attitudes of Québec's adolescents about breastfeeding and how others influence their opinions. The present study aims to describe attitudes and subjective norms of adolescent males and females toward breastfeeding and to determine whether these are related to gender, age, secondary education level, mother tongue, country of origin, feeding method as an infant, feeding method of siblings, and exposure to breastfeeding. Adolescents (N = 439) answered a questionnaire based on the theory of reasoned action. Both genders showed an overall positive attitude but negative subjective norms toward breastfeeding. Gender differences and relationships with external variables in terms of attitudes as well as subjective norms are presented. Possible avenues to promote breastfeeding are discussed.

  2. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  3. Differences in phonetogram features between male and female subjects with and without vocal training.

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    Sulter, A M; Schutte, H K; Miller, D G

    1995-12-01

    Singing not only requires good voluntary control over phonation and a musical ear, it also demands certain capacities of the voice source. These capacities include a desirable range of sound intensity and frequency, which can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. The influence of specific factors on voice capacities may be ascertained by the analysis of phonetograms. To determine the influence of the factors gender and voice training, phonetograms of 224 subjects, subdivided accordingly into four groups, were analyzed in two different ways. One is based on the rescaling of phonetograms, whereas the other derives analytic variables from the features' shape, area, and dynamic range. Analysis showed that, regarding gender, male subjects are able to produce softer phonations, whereas female subjects produced louder phonations at specific parts of their comparable frequency ranges. Trained subjects have a larger enclosed area of the phonetogram, which is primarily based on extended soft voice capabilities in both genders and the significantly larger frequency range in trained female subjects. The shape analysis, performed with Fourier Descriptors, revealed differences for the factors gender and training.

  4. The acute effects of twenty-four hours of sleep loss on the performance of national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters.

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    Blumert, Peter A; Crum, Aaron J; Ernsting, Mark; Volek, Jeff S; Hollander, Daniel B; Haff, Erin E; Haff, G Gregory

    2007-11-01

    Currently, the degree to which sleep loss influences weightlifting performance is unknown. This study compared the effects of 24 hours of sleep loss on weightlifting performance and subjective ratings of psychological states pre-exercise and postexercise in national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters. Nine males performed a maximal weightlifting protocol following 24 hours of sleep loss and a night of normal sleep. The subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced design with each sleep condition separated by 7 days. Testosterone and cortisol levels were quantified prior to, immediately after, and 1 hour after the resistance training session. Additionally, profile of mood states and subjective sleepiness were evaluated at the same time points. The resistance training protocol consisted of several sets of snatches, clean and jerks, and front squats. Performance was evaluated as individual exercise volume load, training intensity and overall workout volume load, and training intensity. During each training session the maximum weight lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and front squat were noted. No significant differences were found for any of the performance variables. A significant decrease following the sleep condition was noted for cortisol concentration immediately after and 1 hour postexercise. Vigor, fatigue, confusion, total mood disturbance, and sleepiness were all significantly altered by sleep loss. These data suggest that 24 hours of sleep loss has no adverse effects on weightlifting performance. If an athlete is in an acute period of sleep loss, as noticed by negative mood disturbances, it may be more beneficial to focus on the psychological (motivation) rather than the physiological aspect of the sport.

  5. Differences between surface EMG in male and female subjects evidenced by automatic analysis.

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    Cioni, R; Giannini, F; Paradiso, C; Battistini, N; Denoth, F; Navona, C; Starita, A

    1988-10-01

    40 healthy volunteers (20 males and 20 females) have been studied by an automatic analysis of their surface EMG. The power density spectrum (PDS) of the electromyographic signal, derived from the tibialis anterior muscle, was used to evaluate the RMS values of the EMG developed during maximal voluntary (Vc) and evoked (Vm) contractions. The ratios between Vc, calculated over each of 5 frequency bands (5-15, 20-40, 45-70, 75-110, 115-160 Hz), and the total Vc have also been calculated. No significant differences emerge in the Vm values for males and females, whereas the Vc values for female subjects are found to be significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) with respect to the corresponding values for males. Significant differences have also been found concerning the percentage distribution of power in the above mentioned frequency bands for men and women (P less than 0.001). It can thus, be hypothesized that there are two different modalities of motor unit recruitment and that different sociological and cultural traditions may be more important in producing these differences than sexually determined physiological differences.

  6. The impact of social exclusion vs. inclusion on subjective and hormonal reactions in females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, E M; Silani, G; Metzler, H; Thaler, H; Lamm, C; Gur, R C; Kryspin-Exner, I; Habel, U; Derntl, B

    2013-12-01

    The experience of social exclusion represents an extremely aversive and threatening situation in daily life. The present study examined the impact of social exclusion compared to inclusion on steroid hormone concentrations as well as on subjective affect ratings. Eighty subjects (40 females) participated in two independent behavioral experiments. They engaged in a computerized ball tossing game in which they ostensibly played with two other players who deliberately excluded or included them, respectively. Hormone samples as well as mood ratings were taken before and after the game. Social exclusion led to a decrease in positive mood ratings and increased anger ratings. In contrast, social inclusion did not affect positive mood ratings, but decreased sadness ratings. Both conditions did not affect cortisol levels. Testosterone significantly decreased after being excluded in both genders, and increased after inclusion, but only in males. Interestingly, progesterone showed an increase after both conditions only in females. Our results suggest that social exclusion does not trigger a classical stress response but gender-specific changes in sex hormone levels. The testosterone decrease after being excluded in both genders, as well as the increase after inclusion in males can be interpreted within the framework of the biosocial status hypothesis. The progesterone increase might reflect a generalized affiliative response during social interaction in females. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory P3a deficits in male subjects at high risk for alcoholism.

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    Hada, M; Porjesz, B; Chorlian, D B; Begleiter, H; Polich, J

    2001-04-15

    Substantial evidence indicates that alcoholism is biologically mediated by a genetic predisposition. As the decreased P300 (P3b) event-related brain potential component does not recover with prolonged abstinence, it is unlikely to be related to drinking history but is more likely to be genetically influenced. This is supported by findings that P3b amplitudes are reduced in subjects at high-risk compared to low-risk for alcoholism. Although there are few studies of P3a in HR subjects, lower P3a amplitudes have been reported with a novel nontarget stimulus paradigm, as well as with a difficult three-stimulus visual paradigm. Using a similar three-tone auditory paradigm in which the discriminability between the target and standard tone is difficult, the P3a component can also be reliably elicited with a rare nontarget perceptually distinct stimulus. This technique was employed in young adult subjects at low-risk and high-risk for alcoholism. A total of 17 low-risk and 24 high-risk male subjects were employed as subjects in an auditory paradigm that yielded a large amplitude P3a with a centro-frontal maximum to the nontarget and a robust low amplitude prolonged P3b with a parietal maximum amplitude to the target stimulus. Current source density maps were derived to assess topographic differences between low-risk and high-risk subjects. The high-risk group manifested significantly lower P3a amplitudes than the low-risk group at the frontal electrodes to rare nontarget stimuli. High-risk subjects also demonstrated a more disorganized current source density map for P3a compared to low-risk subjects. The reduction of P3a in the high-risk group may be due to cortical dysfunction including the frontal and prefrontal cortex. The lower P3a amplitude coupled with more disorganized current source density maps suggest inefficient brain functioning in high-risk subjects.

  8. Impaired masturbation-induced erections: a new cardiovascular risk factor for male subjects with sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastrelli, Giulia; Boddi, Valentina; Corona, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered an early surrogate marker of silent, or even overt, cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, epidemiological studies take into account only sexual intercourse-related erections. Although autoeroticism is a very common practice, data on masturbation-induced erections as a possible predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) are lacking. To evaluate the clinical correlates of impaired masturbation-induced erections and to verify the importance of this sexual aspect in predicting MACE. A consecutive series of 4,031 male patients attending the Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction for the first time was retrospectively studied. Among these subjects, 64% reported autoeroticism during the last 3 months, and only this subset was considered in the following analyses. In the longitudinal study, 862 subjects reporting autoeroticism were enrolled. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (Prostaglandin E1 [PGE1 ] test and penile color Doppler ultrasound) parameters were studied. Subjects with an impaired erection during masturbation (46% of those reporting autoeroticism) had more often a positive personal or family history of CVD, a higher risk of reduced intercourse- and sleep-related erections, hypoactive sexual desire and perceived reduced ejaculate volume, and impaired PGE1 test response. Prolactin levels were lower in those having impaired erection during masturbation. In the longitudinal study, unadjusted incidence of MACE was significantly associated with impaired masturbation-induced erections. When dividing the population according to the median age and diagnosis of diabetes, the association between impaired masturbation-induced erections and incidence of MACE was maintained only in the youngest (masturbation-induced erections, can provide further insights on forthcoming MACE in particular in "low risk" subjects. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Relationship between job stress and subjective oral health symptoms in male financial workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-04-07

    The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.

  10. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  11. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  12. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  13. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, M.; Christensen, N.J.; Sonne, B.; Richter, E.A.; Galbo, H.

    1985-10-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of TH-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min at 160 W, 40 min at 200 W, and 240 W to the end). Work time was 154 +/- 13 (SE) (T) and 75 +/- 6 (C) min. At rest, epinephrine clearance was identical (28.4 +/- 1.3 (T) vs. 29.2 +/- 1.8 (C) ml . kg-1 . min-1), but plasma concentration (1.42 +/- 0.27 (T) vs. 0.71 +/- 0.16 (C) nmol . l-1) and, accordingly, secretion (2.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.4 nmol . min-1) were higher (P less than 0.05) in T than C subjects. Epinephrine clearance was closely related to relative work load, decreasing from 15% above the basal level at 30% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) to 22% below at 76% of VO2 max. Epinephrine concentrations increased much more with work intensity than could be accounted for by changes in clearance and were, at exhaustion, higher (P less than 0.05) in T (7.2 +/- 1.6) than in C (2.5 +/- 0.7 nmol . l-1) subjects despite similar glucose, heart rate, and hematocrit values. At a given load, epinephrine clearance rapidly became constant, whereas concentration increased continuously. Forearm extraction of epinephrine invalidated use of blood from a cubital vein or a hand vein arterialized by hot water in turnover measurements. During exercise, changes in epinephrine concentrations reflect changes in secretion rather than in clearance. Training may increase adrenal medullary secretory capacity.

  14. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  15. Dysfunctional core beliefs, perceived parenting behavior and psychopathology in gender identity disorder: A comparison of male-to-female, female-to-male transsexual and nontranssexual control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Zsolt, Unoka; Fogd, Dora; Czobor, Pál

    2011-03-01

    Research into the association between Gender Identity Disorder (GID) and psychological disturbances as well as on its relation with parenting experiences yielded mixed results, with different patterns for Male-to-Female (MF) and Female-to-Male (FM) transsexual subjects. We investigated vulnerability markers of maladjustment and their possible origins in MF and FM transsexuals by examining maladaptive core beliefs and parenting behaviors thought to be specifically related to them. Dysfunctional core beliefs, parenting experiences and psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire indexing 19 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS), the Young Parenting Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-R, respectively, in 30 MF, 17 FM transsexual and 114 control subjects (43 males, 114 females). Subjects with GID demonstrated a level of psychiatric distress comparable to that of controls. They did display elevated scores, however, on multiple EMSs compared to nontranssexual subjects, indicating feelings of isolation, emotional deprivation and an urge to meet others' needs, with MF transsexuals conceptualizing themselves also as more vulnerable and deficient than controls. Parenting experiences of transsexual subjects were characterised by increased maternal dominance, emotional abuse and neglect compared to controls, with males being exposed to a disengaged maternal style and more paternal emotional neglect and criticism. Both MF and FM transsexuals were made felt that in areas of achievement they will inevitably fail. There is no evidence of elevated levels of psychiatric symptoms in GID, but potential predisposing factors, particularly in MF transsexuals, are present; these may originate from the more intense rejection they experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucose challenge increases circulating progenitor cells in Asian Indian male subjects with normal glucose tolerance which is compromised in subjects with pre-diabetes: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairagi Soumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematopoietic stem cells undergo mobilization from bone marrow to blood in response to physiological stimuli such as ischemia and tissue injury. The aim of study was to determine the kinetics of circulating CD34+ and CD133+CD34+ progenitor cells in response to 75 g glucose load in subjects with normal and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Asian Indian male subjects (n = 50 with no prior history of glucose imbalance were subjected to 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. 24 subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 17 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 9 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG. The IGT and IFG subjects were grouped together as pre-diabetes group (n = 26. Progenitor cell counts in peripheral circulation at fasting and 2 hour post glucose challenge were measured using direct two-color flow cytometry. Results The pre-diabetes group was more insulin resistant (p + cells (p = 0.003 and CD133+CD34+ (p = 0.019 cells was seen 2 hours post glucose challenge in the NGT group. This increase for both the cell types was attenuated in subjects with IGT. CD34+ cell counts in response to glucose challenge inversely correlated with neutrophil counts (ρ = -0.330, p = 0.019, while post load counts of CD133+CD34+ cells inversely correlated with serum creatinine (ρ = -0.312, p = 0.023. Conclusion There is a 2.5-fold increase in the circulating levels of haematopoietic stem cells in response to glucose challenge in healthy Asian Indian male subjects which is attenuated in subjects with pre-diabetes.

  17. Emotions or Science? Pre-Tertiary Males' Accounts of Psychology as a Subject Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jenny; Sander, Paul; Williams, Stella; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the number of males studying psychology in the UK, both at A-level and on degree courses, is disproportionately low compared to females. There is a paucity of research, however, which discusses how psychology is viewed by this group. The present study employed focus groups with 35 pre-tertiary males (some of whom were…

  18. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  19. Sex Stereotypes of Secondary School Teaching Subjects: Male and Female Status Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    A survey reveals that teachers considered different subjects appropriately taught by men or by women and that higher prestige was attributed to whatever sex conformed to the subjects' sex stereotypes. (Author/KM)

  20. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  3. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Christensen, N J; Sonne, B

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of 3H-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 m...

  4. Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chassaing Augustin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500 is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement. Methods We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39 affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy. Results A total of 12 patients (54.5% with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32% experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.

  5. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  6. Gene expression and reproductive abilities of male Drosophila melanogaster subjected to ELF-EMF exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Si; Zhang, Zi-Yan; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2013-12-12

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure is attracting increased attention as a possible disease-inducing factor. The in vivo effects of short-term and long-term ELF-EMF exposure on male Drosophila melanogaster were studied using transcriptomic analysis for preliminary screening and QRT-PCR for further verification. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that 439 genes were up-regulated and 874 genes were down-regulated following short-term exposures and that 514 genes were up-regulated and 1206 genes were down-regulated following long-term exposures (expression >2- or 2- or EMF effects on reproduction, some experiments on male reproduction ability were performed. Their results indicated that short-term ELF-EMF exposure may decrease the reproductive ability of males, but long-term exposures had no effect on reproductive ability. Down-regulation of ark gene in the exposed males suggests that the decrease in reproductive capacity may be induced by the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on spermatogenesis through the caspase pathway. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed that jra, ark and decay genes were down regulated in males exposed for 1 Generation (1G) and 72 h, which suggests that apoptosis may be inhibited in vivo. ELF-EMF exposure may have accelerated cell senescence, as suggested by the down-regulation of both cat and jra genes and the up-regulation of hsp22 gene. Up-regulation of totA and hsp22 genes during exposure suggests that exposed flies might induce an in vivo immune response to counter the adverse effects encountered during ELF-EMF exposure. Down-regulation of cat genes suggests that the partial oxidative protection system might be restrained, especially during short-term exposures. This study demonstrates the bioeffects of ELF-EMF exposure and provides evidence for understanding the in vivo mechanisms of ELF-EMF exposure on male D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Bruno Dias; Lima, Patricia Oliveira de; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Rolim, Gustavo Sattolo; Moraes, Antonio Bento Alves de; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects. Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument. The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p stressed group (p stressed subjects.

  8. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  9. Me acuerdo… ¿Te acuerdas?: Memory, Space and the Individualizing Transformation of the Subject in Twenty-First-Century Mexican Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Treviño Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the twentieth-century, Mexican fictions operated under a revisionist historical logic that employed national spaces to allegorize the relationship between the individual, society and the nation. Countering this trend, since the mid-nineties, Mexican literature has witnessed a departure from an interest in collectivizing discourses of identity, displaying instead a growing faith in individualism as a means to resist state-driven cultural visions. To analyze this emphasis in individual personal emergence, this paper proposes a comparative reading of subject-formation in Álvaro Enrigue's Vidas perpendiculares (2008, and in José Emilio Pacheco’s canonical novella Las batallas en el desierto (1981. The publication of Vidas and Las batallas coincides with two moments of crisis and transformation in Mexico. Consequently, these novels of formation reflect the reconceptualization of the multiple relations between individuals, communities, and the state prompted by such changes. These coming-of-age fictions use the personal recollections of their protagonists to articulate the narration of their characters’ emergence into adulthood. Vidas and Las batallas present two highly divergent visions of the subject and her or his relationship to the social body, where in the case of Vidas the individual takes primacy over the community. Following Ulrich Beck’s insights regarding individualization in industrial societies, and informed by theories of memory and nostalgia, this study explores how literary understandings of identity have transformed to reflect the experience of late modernity in Mexico. This paper argues that in recent Mexican fiction history is spatialized as a way of examining individual subjectivity outside the framework that views history in literature as a discourse directly linked to collective, often national, identity.

  10. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavior al indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  11. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-Like disease presentation of MCT8 mutated male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs-Barrière, Catherine; Deville, Marlène; Sarret, Catherine; Giraud, Geneviève; Des Portes, Vincent; Prats-Viñas, José-Maria; De Michele, Giuseppe; Dan, Bernard; Brady, Angela F; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Touraine, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease is an X-linked hypomyelinatiing leukodystrophy. We report mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter gene MCT8 in 11% of 53 families affected by hypomyelinating leukodystrophies of unknown aetiology. The 12 MCT8 mutated patients express initially a Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-Like disease phenotype with a latter unusual improvement of magnetic resonance imaging white matter signal despite absence of clinical progression. This observation underlines the interest of determining both free T3 and free T4 serum concentrations to screen for MCT8 mutations in young patients (<3 y) with a severe Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-Like disease presentation or older severe mentally retarded male patients with "hypomyelinated" regions.

  12. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  13. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Robin IM

    2007-01-01

    The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis) is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20) add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between the two sexes in the social mechanisms and brain units involved. Female sociality (which is more affiliative) is related most closely to neocortex volume, but male sociality (which is more competitive and combative) is more closely related to subcortical units (notably those associated with emotional responses). Thus different brain units have responded to different selection pressures. PMID:17493267

  15. An Exploratory Study in Healthy Male Subjects of the Mechanism of Mirabegron-Induced Cardiovascular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marcel; Stölzel, Matthias; Meijer, John; Kerbusch, Virginie; Collins, Christiane; Korstanje, Cees

    2017-12-01

    To explore the role of β1 -adrenoceptors (ARs) in the heart rate response to the selective β3 -adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron, 12 young male volunteers received single oral doses of the nonselective β1/2 -AR antagonist propranolol (160 mg), the selective β1 -AR antagonist bisoprolol (10 mg), or placebo on days 1 and 5 of each period in a 3-period crossover study. On day 5, dosing was followed by a supratherapeutic dose of mirabegron (200 mg). Vital signs, impedance cardiography, and plasma renin activity were collected. Mirabegron increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure and reduced stroke volume, whereas cardiac output and diastolic blood pressure were unaffected. Mirabegron-induced changes were attenuated by propranolol and bisoprolol. The data indicate that mirabegron has a positive chronotropic effect at supratherapeutic concentrations, which is at least partly mediated by stimulation of β1 -AR. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunbar Robin IM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20 add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between the two sexes in the social mechanisms and brain units involved. Female sociality (which is more affiliative is related most closely to neocortex volume, but male sociality (which is more competitive and combative is more closely related to subcortical units (notably those associated with emotional responses. Thus different brain units have responded to different selection pressures.

  17. Visual P3a in male subjects at high risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Holguín, S; Porjesz, B; Chorlian, D B; Polich, J; Begleiter, H

    1999-07-15

    Voltage of the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has been proposed as a phenotypic marker of risk for alcoholism. P3a elicited by intrusive events is important in the context of deficits in inhibition found during psychophysiological and behavioral evaluations in children of alcoholics. ERPs were recorded from a group of adult children of alcoholics (n = 26) and controls (n = 23) with a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm. The task required a difficult perceptual discrimination between a frequent (.80) vertical line and an infrequent (.10) 2 degrees tilted line (target). An easily discriminable nontarget infrequent horizontal line also occurred (.10). Subjects were required to press a button to the target. P3a was compared using mixed-model ANCOVAs at 31 sites organized in 5 scalp regions. Current source density (CSD) maps were also analyzed. High-risk (HR) subjects manifested reduced P3a amplitudes compared to controls at frontal, central, parietal, and temporal electrodes. CSD analyses supported these findings with group differences found for all the scalp regions. The results are discussed in relation to previous HR studies. P3a reductions may be related to deficits in neuronal inhibition during stimulus processing. These results suggest that P3a amplitude may be important as a marker for vulnerability to alcoholism.

  18. Differential impact of glucose administered intravenously or orally on bone turnover markers in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg-Rasmussen, Sidse; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Hermansen, Kjeld; Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Vestergaard, Peter; Gregersen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    Patients with type-1 (T1D) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of hip fracture. The underlying mechanisms may involve disturbances in the incretin hormones. Our aim was to clarify if glucose administration i.e. orally or intravenously differentially affects bone turnover markers in healthy males. 12 healthy males were included in a cross-over study consisting of three tests following an 8hour fast. First, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Subsequently, we carried out an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) that closely mimicked the glucose response curve to the oral glucose load. We analyzed blood samples for the bone turnover markers serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX) and serum procollagen type I N propeptide (s-P1NP), as well as insulin, glucose, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Finally, eight of the twelve participants underwent a control experiment where they fasted for 3h (Control). While OGTT induced a 50% reduction in s-CTX, only a ~30% reduction was seen during the IIGI and the Control. Neither intervention influenced s-P1NP. The concentration of insulin was highest during the OGTT. However, insulin was also increased significantly during the IIGI compared to the Control. Plasma concentrations of GIP, GLP-1 and GLP-2 were higher under the OGTT than during the IIGI and Control. A linear regression indicated that peak p-GIP significantly predicts nadir s-CTX (p=0.03), and that peak p-GIP could explain 34% of the variability in nadir s-CTX (adjusted R2=0.34). This study indicates that glucose per se does not acutely affect bone turnover markers. However, gastrointestinal hormones, especially GIP, possibly in combination with hyperglycemia, may have an acute, uncoupling effect on bone turnover leading to a decrease in bone resorption but no change in bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of three different exercise modalities on markers of male reproduction in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity continuous training (HICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of male reproduction including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in healthy human subjects. A total of 397 healthy male volunteers were screened and 280 were randomly assigned to one of the MICT (n = 70), HICT (n = 70), HIIT (n = 70) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups. Subjects had inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), oxidants (ROS, MDA and 8-isoprostane), antioxidants (SOD, catalase and TAC), semen parameters and sperm DNA damage measured at baseline (T1), the end of week 12 (T2), the end of week 24 (T3), and 7 (T4) and 30 days (T5) after training. Chronic MICT, HICT and HIIT attenuated seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with different kinetics for the three types of exercise (P reproductive function (P reproduction with different kinetics, suggesting intensity-, duration- and type-dependent adaptations to exercise training in healthy human subjects. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Variation of {sup 210}Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    {sup 210}Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of {sup 210}Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted {sup 210}Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of {sup 210}Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of {sup 210}Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of {sup 210}Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  1. The effect of foot overpronation on Achilles tendon blood supply in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, K; Kalogeris, M; Mandalidis, D; Geladas, N; Karteroliotis, K; Athanasopoulos, S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon blood flow in individuals with overpronated feet during non-weight- and weight-bearing positions. Achilles tendon blood flow was measured by means of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistance index (RI) in 15 male individuals with overpronated feet and 15 counterparts with normal feet, using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDI). Achilles tendon ultrasonographic (US) assessment was performed at its musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ), mid-tendon (MT), and osseotendinous junction (OTJ) at a non-weight-bearing relaxed position (RP) and during two-leg stance (TLS) and one-leg upright stance (OLS). PI and RI indices were significantly greater in individuals with overpronated feet compared to individuals with normal feet at the OTJ in OLS position (P < 0.01), and at MT in both TLS (P < 0.001) and OLS positions (P < 0.001). All individuals demonstrated also greater PI and RI indices at MT followed by the OTJ and MTJ in all positions (P < 0.001), and in OLS compared to TLS and the RP at the OTJ (P < 0.01) as well as at MT and MTJ (P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that foot overpronation may affect Achilles tendon blood flow, particularly at mid-tendon, thus enhancing the possibility for injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Metformin improves performance in high-intensity exercise, but not anaerobic capacity in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learsi, S K; Bastos-Silva, V J; Lima-Silva, A E; Bertuzzi, R; De Araujo, G G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ergogenic effects of metformin in high-intensity exercise, as well as its effects on anaerobic capacity, in healthy and physically active men. Ten subjects (mean (± standard deviation) maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max ) 38.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg per min) performed the following tests in a cycle ergometer: (i) an incremental test; (ii) six submaximal constant workload tests at 40%-90% (V˙O2max ); and (iii) two supramaximal tests (110% (V˙O2max ). Metformin (500 mg) or placebo was ingested 60 min before the supramaximal test. There were no significant differences between the placebo and metformin groups in terms of maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (2.8 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.8 L, respectively; P = 0.08), lactate concentrations (7.8 ± 2.6 vs 7.5 ± 3.0 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.75) or O2 consumed in either the last 30 s of exercise (40.4 ± 4.4 vs 39.9 ± 4.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.35) or the first 110 s of exercise (29.0 ± 2.5 vs 29.5 ± 3.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.42). Time to exhaustion was significantly higher after metformin than placebo ingestion (191 ± 33 vs 167 ± 32 s, respectively; P = 0.001). The fast component of V˙O2 recovery was higher in the metformin than placebo group (12.71 vs 12.18 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.025). Metformin improved performance and anaerobic alactic contribution during high-intensity exercise, but had no effect on overall anaerobic capacity in healthy subjects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Effect of vitamin supplementation on serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in male subjects with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour Boushehri, Saeid; Yusof, Rokiah Mohammad; Nasir Mohammad Taib, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Kamran; Yazdekhasti, Narges; Akbarzadeh, Samad

    2012-07-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs) appear to play a significant role in atherogenesis. In fact, circulating ox-LDL concentrations have been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamins on ox-LDL as a biomarker of CVD in male subjects with CVD risk factors. The effect of antioxidant vitamins on ox-LDL as a biomarker of CVD in male subjects with CVD in male subjects with CVD risk factors at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation with vitamin E (400 IU), C (500 mg), ß-carotene (15 mg), and the combined supplements (E, C, and ß-carotene) respectively defined as group E, C, B and control group was considered as group P. The mean values for ox-LDL at the baseline were 86.93 ± 26.30 U/l in group C, 94.52 ± 38.40 U/l in group E, 79.73±2.07 U/l in group B, 85.97±23.07 U/l in combined group, and 84.90± 14.66 U/l in group P. After 12 weeks of intervention the percentage of changes for group C, group E, group B, COM group, and group P were (-18.32), (-2286), (-17.31), (-19.01) and (-2.0), respectively. Using Wilcoxon method, significant differences were detected in the mean ox-LDL concentrations of baseline and after intervention, values in the C, E, B and combined groups (PLDL levels.

  4. Acute hypobaric-hypoxia challenge and salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontremolesi, Sara; Biselli, Roberto; Ciniglio Appiani, Giuseppe; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Simona, Simeoni; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2012-07-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia is a stressful emergency situation that can cause a degradation of the sensory, motor, and higher cognitive functions necessary for safe flight. We studied the salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations of 12 healthy male military aviators (AV) exposed to an altitude-induced hypoxia challenge in a hypobaric chamber. A matched control group (C) of eight flight physiology instructors wearing oxygen masks during the challenge was studied. Salivary samples were collected every 2 h on 3 experimental days (the day before, the day of, and the day after the hypobaric chamber challenge). In the AV group, salivary cortisol concentrations showed a statistically significant increase from 5.42 +/- 0.15 measured at 08:30 to 11.37 +/- 1.86 ng ml(-1) during the hypobaric chamber challenge and a statistically significant increase in DHEA-S was also measured (from 3.15 +/- 0.42 ng x ml(-1) at 08:30 to 5.99 +/- 0.15 ng x ml(-1)). The day after the challenge, the concentrations of both hormones were comparable to those measured the day before; neither C nor AV showed any disturbances of the physiological diurnal fluctuations of cortisol and DHEA-S. No differences were found among the cortisol/DHEA-S ratios measured during the 3 experimental days in the AV group. In spite of having experienced a psycho-physical stress, the AVs did not show any dysregulation of the diurnal fluctuations of cortisol and DHEA-S, thus presenting a good level of stress resilience. Data presented in this paper are consistent with recent literature suggesting a stress-buffering role of DHEA-S.

  5. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje C P Geraedts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. METHODS: Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m² and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m² healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water, either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. RESULTS: CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02 and 20(p<0.01 minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA, in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA(p<0.04. GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02 to 120(p<0.01 minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01 and -298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01, respectively, compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (-132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01, compared to OPA. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity.

  6. Effects of the handle diameter and tip angle of chopsticks on the food-serving performance of male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S P

    1995-12-01

    The effects of chopsticks handle diameter and tip angle on the food-serving performance of pinching food, pulling food, shearing food and thrusting food, were investigated in this study. A total of 24 male subjects was tested using 12 pairs of experimental chopsticks, consisting of three types of different handle diameters and four types of different tip angles. These results indicated that chopstick handle diameter and tip angle have a significant influence on eating efficiency, and that these two variables have a significant interaction. In addition, chopstick tip diameter also had significant effects on performance at the four tasks and subjective ratings. Generally, according to the results, when the chopsticks design is presented in terms of handle diameter, tip angle and tip diameter, a pair of chopsticks with 6 mm handle diameter x 2 degrees tip angle x 4 mm tip diameter would be optimum.

  7. CYP2C19 genotype has a major influence on labetalol pharmacokinetics in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Ko, Sara Shun Wah; Tam, Catherine Wing Yan; Fok, Benny Siu Pong; Yin, Ophelia Qi Ping; Chow, Moses Sing Sum; Tomlinson, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of labetalol show wide inter-subject variability, but the genetic causes for this are largely undetermined. This study was performed to examine whether common polymorphisms in UGT1A1, UGT2B7, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 affect the PK of labetalol. The PK of labetalol were determined in 37 Chinese healthy male subjects who took a single oral dose of 200 mg labetalol. Plasma concentrations of labetalol were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Subjects were genotyped for the CYP2C19 2 and 3, UGT1A1 6, 28 and 60, UGT2B7 2 and ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms. Subjects with the CYP2C19 2/ 2 genotype had a higher peak concentration (255.5 ± 80.1 vs. 156.0  ±  66.3 ng/mL; P labetalol concentrations, accounting for approximately 60 % of the total variance in the AUC0-∞. Our results suggest that the PK of labetalol are significantly affected by the common CYP2C19 polymorphisms in individuals of Chinese ethnicity. Future larger studies are needed to evaluate the effect of CYP2C19 and UGT1A1 polymorphisms on the PK of labetalol stereoisomers and the pharmacodynamic effects.

  8. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2015-08-01

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  10. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  11. Female and male adolescents' subjective orientations to mathematics and the influence of those orientations on postsecondary majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-11-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.

  12. A single consumption of curry improved postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects: a randomized, controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Masamura, Noriya; Yamada, Shohei; Satomi, Shigeki; Higashi, Yukihito

    2014-06-28

    Curry, one of the most popular foods in Japan, contains spices that are rich in potentially antioxidative compounds, such as curcumin and eugenol. Oxidative stress is thought to impair endothelial function associated with atherosclerosis, a leading cause of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single consumption of curry meal would improve endothelial function in healthy men. Fourteen healthy male subjects (BMI 23.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; age 45 ± 9 years) were given a single serving of curry meal or spice-free control meal (180 g of curry or control and 200 g of cooked rice; approximately 500 kcal in total) in a randomized, controlled crossover design. Before and 1 hr after the consumption, fasting and postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses and other parameters were measured. The consumption of the control meal decreased FMD from 5.8 ± 2.4% to 5.1 ± 2.3% (P = 0.039). On the other hand, the consumption of the curry meal increased FMD from 5.2 ± 2.5% to 6.6 ± 2.0% (P = 0.001), and the postprandial FMD after the curry meal was higher than that after the control meal (P = 0.002). Presence of spices in the curry did not alter significantly the systemic and forearm hemodynamics, or any biochemical parameters including oxidative stress markers measured. These findings suggest that the consumption of curry ameliorates postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects and may be beneficial for improving cardiovascular health. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000012012.

  13. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  14. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the foodrestricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in foodrestricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk.

  15. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  16. Objective analysis versus subjective assessment of vowels pronounced by native, non-native, and deaf male speakers of Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkum, M J; Plomp, R; Pols, L C

    1993-10-01

    An objective analysis has been performed on all 15 Dutch vowels pronounced in /hVt/ words by nine native Dutch, nine non-native, and six deaf males. Spectral representations of the vowel segments were created by determining the mean output levels of a bank of 16 filters (90-7200 Hz), with 1/3-oct bandwidths and logarithmic spacing of their center frequencies. The adequacy of the objective analysis is determined by the extent to which spectral information provides an accurate description of pronunciation quality. Spectral distances between the 24 utterances of each monophthong agree rather well with subjective distances obtained by listeners in an elaborate paired-comparisons experiment. For the various monophthongs, the correlation coefficients are within the range 0.63 to 0.88; averaging across all 12 monophthongs of each speaker results in a coefficient of 0.94. Furthermore, it appeared that the objective spectral analysis is as reliable as a subjective assessment by magnitude estimation by two to three listeners. Using principal components analysis (PCA), the number of dimensions by which the vowel spectra are described can be reduced. For the various monophthongs the range of the correlation coefficients between subjective distances and objective distances in a two-dimensional PCA subspace is 0.30-0.93. The three groups of speakers can still be distinguished in this subspace. In the extreme case of the deaf speakers all vowels are strongly "neutralized," whereas the different vowels of the native speakers are well separated, especially after speaker normalization; results are less clear for the non-natives.

  17. Electrically evoked and voluntary maximal isometric tension in relation to dynamic muscle performance in elderly male subjects, aged 69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C T; White, M J; Young, K

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic performance and electrically evoked mechanical properties of elderly triceps surae muscle have been investigated in 9 men, aged 69 yr. Dynamic performance consisted of cycling on a force bicycle and a vertical jump off two feet from a force platform. The results showed that the time to peak tension (TPT) and half relaxation time (1/2 RT) were significantly greater (p less than 0.001) by 30 ms and 22 ms and the supramaximal twitch (Pt) and tetanic (20 Hz-P020) tensions and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were less by 45 N (-33%), 708 N (-49%), and 899 N (-43%) in the elderly compared with young male control subjects. On the force platform, the height jumped (Ht), maximal force exerted (P), take-off velocity (VT), net impulse (NI) and peak power output (W) were less by 18.6 cm, 173 N, 0.9 ms-1, 52 Ns and 1120 w respectively. Similar differences of power, force and velocity were observed on the force bicycle. The reduction of W in the elderly was associated with the contractile characteristics of the leg muscle. The loss of contractile speed and capacity to to generate force in old people was reflected in their inability to develop power during the performance of a maximal vertical jump and cycling.

  18. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P healthy human bone for studies on bone aging and metabolic bone diseases. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  19. Flaxseed flour, compared to flaxseed oil, contributes to femoral structure in male rats subjected to early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; da Camara Boueri, Bianca Ferolla; da Costa, Luanna Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maitê Rocha; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, Letícia Rozeno; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether flaxseed flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to femoral structure in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mothers at 14 days (early weaning, EW) or 21 days (control, C). After 21 days, the control (C60) was fed with the control diet. The EW group was divided based on control (EWC60), flaxseed flour (EWFF60) and flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Femoral dimension, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area and biomechanical properties were determined. EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) femur mass. EWC60 and EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) distance between epiphyses, diaphysis width and BMD. BMC was lower (P < 0.05) in EWC60 (vs. C60 and EWFF60). EWC60 and EWFO60 showed lower (P < 0.05) maximum force (vs. C60). Breaking strength was lower (P < 0.05) in EWFO60 (vs. C60). EWFF60 showed higher (P < 0.05) rigidity. Flaxseed flour abbreviated the femoral fragility secondary to early weaning.

  20. The correlations of glycated hemoglobin and carbohydrate metabolism parameters with heart rate variability in apparently healthy sedentary young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, Andriy; Abrahamovych, Orest; Golota, Sergii; Nersesyan, Armen; Pichler, Christoph; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Zarkovic, Neven; Eckl, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular and many other age-related diseases. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the function of regulatory systems of internal organs and may sensitively indicate early metabolic disturbances. We hypothesize that quantitative and qualitative changes of HRV in young subjects may reflect early metabolic derangements responsible for further development of clinically significant disease. The aim of our study was to determine whether the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting blood glucose, HBA1c and surrogate insulin sensitivity/resistance indices) correlate with anthropometric data and HRV. The study group consisted of 30 healthy sedentary male subjects aged 20-40, nonsmokers, mainly office and research employees, medical staff and students. Athletes, actively training more than one hour per week, severely obese and men of physical work were excluded from the study. HRV parameters were derived from short term ECG records (five minutes intervals) in supine position and during orthostatic test. Anthropometric data included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and body composition (estimation by bioelectric impedance method). The fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated. Linear correlation coefficient (r) was calculated using Statistica 10.0 software. HOMA-IR index correlated positively with body weight, visceral fat and BMI (p=0.047, 0.027 and 0.017 respectively). In supine position pNN50 positively correlated with glucose/insulin ratio (p=0.011) and heart rate with HOMA-IR (p=0.006). In orthostatic test negative correlations of HBA1c with standard deviation, total and low frequency power were determined (p=0.034, 0.400 and 0.403 respectively), which indicates a gradual worsening of functional capacity of cardiovascular system with low-grade increase (under the conventional threshold) of HBA1c

  1. Temperamental dimensions of the TEMPS-A in male and female subjects engaging in extreme or/and high risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika; Drozdowicz, Katarzyna; Jaeschke, Rafał; Styczen, Krzysztof; Arciszewska, Aleksandra; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated temperamental dimensions of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) as well as bipolarity features in male and female subjects engaging in extreme or/and high risk sports. The web-based case-control study was performed in 480 subjects engaging in extreme or/and high risk sports (255 male, 225 female) aged 26 ± 6 years and in 235 age- and sex-matched healthy controls subjects (107 male, 128 female), aged 28 + 9 years. The TEMPS-A questionnaire, 110 questions version, has been used, evaluating five temperament domains: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) was employed for the assessment of bipolarity. Both male and female athletes had significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperaments compared with control male and female subjects who had declared themselves as not involved into the activities of extreme or/and high risk sports. In addition, compared with controls, male sportsmen had lower scores of depressive and anxious temperaments, and female athletes had higher scores of cyclothymic and irritable temperaments. Both male and female athletes obtained significantly higher scores of bipolarity as measured by the MDQ, than control men and women. Web-based study involving a risk of selection and recall bias, problematic homogeneity of the experimental group. Subjects engaged into extreme or/and high risk sports have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by the TEMPS-A and present sex-specific features of other temperaments. Such subjects obtain also greater bipolarity scores as measured by the MDQ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  3. Body images of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and female control subjects: a comparison with male ideals of female attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoven, Dieter; Raykowski, Lena; Solzbacher, Svenja; Kunzendorf, Sebastian; Jantschek, Günter

    2007-03-01

    Body images of female patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were assessed against females without eating disorders and compared with male ideals of female attractiveness. A computer program was applied to examine body images of 62 patients with anorexia nervosa, 45 patients with bulimia nervosa, and 40 female and 39 male control subjects. Body size overestimation was most distinct in the two patient groups. Self-ideal discrepancy was highest in bulimia nervosa. Estimation of the society's ideal female body in all three female groups did not differ from men's perception of the most attractive female body. Congruence of ideals of female attractiveness in patients, female, and male control subjects and described differences between patients and female controls support the theory that body image disturbance is a problem of processing self-referential information regarding body image rather than a problem of processing body image related information per se.

  4. The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the immune and metabolic response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Naughton, L; Bentley, D; Koeppel, P

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the ergogenic effects of a nucleotide supplement on the metabolic and immune responses to short term high intensity exercise in volunteer, trained, male subjects. Thirty moderately trained male subjects were randomly divided into 3 equal sized groups, control (C), placebo (P) or experimental (E). Each subject undertook a 2 min maximal exercise test prior to, and after 60 days, on either a nucleotide (E) or placebo supplement. Prior to exercise testing unstimulated saliva samples and blood samples were taken. Saliva was analysed for cortisol and IgA, while blood was analysed for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. The postexercise C value was significantly higher than the pre-exercise concentration (Pchanges in blood lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, or creatine kinase concentrations post supplementation. We concluded that a chronically ingested nucleotide supplement blunts the response of the hormones associated with physiological stress.

  5. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: Within-subject variation in male airline pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Summary We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600?h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200?h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times ove...

  6. Social isolation-induced aggression potentiates anxiety and depressive-like behavior in male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-cang Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups; non-stressed controls, in Group I; isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group II and aggression by physical contact in socially isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group III. In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by mice in Groups II and III was significantly lower than in Group I. Furthermore, intake of this solution in Group III mice was significantly lower than in Group II mice. In the open field test, mice in Group III, showed reduced locomotor activity and reduced entry and retention time in the central zone, compared to Groups I and II mice. Moreover, the distances moved in 1 hour by Group III mice did not differ between night and morning. In the light/black box test, Groups II and III animals spent significantly less time in the light box compared to Group I animals. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the immobility times of Group II and Group III mice were significantly longer than in Group I mice. In addition, immobility times in the FST were significantly longer in Group III than in Group II mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that social isolation-induced aggression could potentiate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in isolated male mice subjected to CMS.

  7. Female and Male Adolescents' Subjective Orientations to Mathematics and the Influence of Those Orientations on Postsecondary Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring…

  8. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  9. Glucose metabolism and metabolic flexibility in cultured skeletal muscle cells is related to exercise status in young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jenny; S Tangen, Daniel; Wiig, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    deoxyglucose accumulation and fractional glucose oxidation (glucose oxidation relative to glucose uptake), and were also more sensitive to the suppressive action of acutely added oleic acid to the cells. Despite lack of correlation of fibre types between skeletal muscle biopsies and cultured cells, myotubes......We hypothesised that skeletal muscles of healthy young people have a large variation in oxidative capacity and fibre-type composition, and aimed therefore to investigate glucose metabolism in biopsies and myotubes isolated from musculus vastus lateralis from healthy males with varying degrees...

  10. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  11. Effect of Oral Coadministration of Ascorbic Acid with Ling Zhi Preparation on Pharmacokinetics of Ganoderic Acid A in Healthy Male Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawasri, Patcharanee; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Tharatha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-phase crossover study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid A, an important biologically active triterpenoid compound with anticancer activities, following oral administration of water extract of fruiting bodies of Ling Zhi in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject was randomized to receive either one of the two regimens: (1) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation or (2) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation in combination with 2,500 mg of ascorbic acid. After a washout period of at least two weeks, subjects were switched to receive the alternate regimen. Blood samples were collected in each phase immediately before dosing and at specific time points for 8 hours after dosing. Plasma ganoderic acid A concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (C max), time to reach peak concentration (T max), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t 1/2). An oral coadministration of ascorbic acid with Ling Zhi preparation did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of ganoderic acid A in healthy male subjects. PMID:27747224

  12. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Variation in pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and its metabolites by gender and CYP2C19 genotype in Pakistani male and female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Shabnam; Iqbal, Zafar; Ahmad, Lateef; Ahmad, Sagheer

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) variation of drugs in males and females may affect therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In current study the PK differences for omeprazole and its metabolites5-hydroxy-omeprazole and omeprazole-sulphone were evaluated in males and females. The current study also considered PK comparison of Pakistani subjects using the CYP2C19 genotype as variable. A single oral dose (40mg omeprazole), open-labeland, non-controlled clinical trial was arranged. Samples were quantified using reversed phase HPLC-UV method. CYP2C19 genotype of subjects was determined by tetra primer polymerization chain reaction (PCR) assay. There was a significant increase in Cmax (from 2 to 2.9μg/ml, p=0.004**), (from 6.67 to 8.74μg-hr/ml, p=0.05*) and elimination half-life (from 1.05 to 2.1 hr, p=0.0001*) of omeprazole in females compared with males. Cmax and of 5-hydroxy-omeprazole (0.0248* and 0.0001***, respectively) and omeprazole-sulphone (0.0001*** and 0.001**, respectively) was significantly higher in females than males when compared at 95% confidence interval. The Cmax and AUC of omeprazole showed a significant raise (p=0.01* and 0.04*, respectively) in Homz PMs (Homozygous Poor Metabolizers) compared with Homz EMs (Homozygous Extensive Metabolizers) and Htrz PMs (Heterozygous Poor Metabolizers) while Cmax and AUC of 5-hydroxy-omeprazolewas significantly higher (p=0.01* and 0.04*, respectively) in Homz EMs compared with Homz PMs and HtrzPMs. AUC of omeprazole was significantly higher in females while its elimination also took longer compared with males. AUC of omeprazole was significantly higher in Homz PMs indicating that CYP2C19* displayed genetically deficient metabolism in its homozygous state.

  14. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  15. A randomized double blind study of a green and black tea agent, AssuriTEA®, in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Capodice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green and black teas have known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3 doses of a water-extracted green and black tea agent (AssuriTEA® [AT]. Methods: Subjects who met inclusion criteria were randomized to one of four groups: 1000, 500, or 250 mg AT or placebo for 28 days. At baseline (BL and day 28, serum antioxidant capacity, quality of life and safety were assessed. Results: Of the 55 subjects screened, 43 were considered evaluable. Age was 56.77 ± 2.83 years (mean ± SEM. Evaluable subjects demonstrated improved antioxidant status, as measured by ferric iron reducing antioxidant power at all doses over the placebo (p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in cellular antioxidant protection in the 1000 mg AT group versus the placebo (p=0.032. Glucose levels were higher in the placebo group versus the 250 mg AT group (p=0.023 and there was a significant improvement in systolic blood pressure in the 250 mg AT group at day 28 versus BL (p=0.048. In the 1000 mg AT group, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure at day 28 versus BL (p=0.017. There was a significant improvement in the vitality category in the 1000 mg AT group (p=0.029. Overall, AT was safe and well tolerated with no differences in adverse events or serum chemistries between groups. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the administration of AT resulted in improvement of serum antioxidant status, vitality level, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure in test subjects.

  16. Reward processing in male adults with childhood ADHD--a comparison between drug-naïve and methylphenidate-treated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Meline; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Schlochtermeier, Lorna; Wrase, Jana; Knutson, Brian; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Huss, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing has been proposed as a main deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which could be modulated by treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). We examined differences in reward processing in adulthood (independent of actual ADHD) depending on MPH treatment during childhood. Eleven males with childhood ADHD treated with MPH, 12 drug-naïve males with childhood ADHD, and 12 controls matched by age, handedness, and smoking behavior were studied drug-free using functional magnetic resonance imaging. BOLD-responses were compared during a monetary incentive delay task using an ANOVA design focusing on the ventral striatum during anticipation and the orbitofrontal cortex during outcome. Controls, drug-naïve, and treated subjects did not differ significantly in their activations in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. Explorative analyses revealed decreased insula activation during outcome of loss avoidance in drug-naïve subjects in comparison to both groups, while treated subjects did not differ from controls. Insula activation correlated significantly positive with harm avoidance in the treated group. Furthermore, comparing subjects with actual ADHD symptoms, remitters and controls we observed decreased putamen activition in ADHD persisters. Basal ganglia reward processing seemed to be unrelated to MPH pretreatment, but was related to remission. On the other hand, the revealed differences between treated and drug-naïve subjects with childhood ADHD, i.e., in the insula, give evidence for more pronounced abnormal activation in reward-associated brain regions in untreated subjects with childhood ADHD and underpin the need of prospective studies on long-term effects of psychostimulant treatment.

  17. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bachlechner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days. Each day participants received, in randomized order, one of three isocaloric (protein, carbohydrate or fat 600 kcal, 1,500 mL solutions or a placebo. Olfactory and cognitive tests (monitoring only were conducted three times, i.e., 60 min before the beginning of nutrient intake, following oral ingestion of the solution and 60, and 240 min after. Psychophysical and metabolic function tests (active grehlin, desacyl ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, triglyceride, urea were performed 7 times on each examination day (observation period: −60 min, 0 = solution intake, +60, +120, +180, +240, and +300 min. Ratings of hunger and food craving significantly differed over the observation period with lowest ratings following application of the protein solution. Highest ratings of craving were found following placebo intake. We further observed a significant positive correlation of active grehlin with hunger and fat, protein and sweets craving for each nutrient solution. Active grehlin significantly correlated with carbohydrate craving for carbohydrate and fat solution and with vegetable craving for fat solution only. Hunger hormone levels, hunger and food craving ratings demonstrated that the hierarchical order that appears in satiating efficiencies of isovolumetric-isocaloric ingested macronutrients is protein > fat > carbohydrate. Our study reveals that the type of nutrient exerts a significant influence on metabolic parameters, hunger and food

  18. A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Stress in Homogeneous Male and Female Teams in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.

    Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of

  19. Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Omega-3-Carboxylic Acids in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects: A Phase I, Randomized, Open-label, Three-period, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.

  20. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  1. Current smoking is associated with lower seminal vesicles and ejaculate volume, despite higher testosterone levels, in male subjects of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Vitale, P; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Fino, M G; Maggi, M

    2015-03-01

    What is the impact of smoking behaviour on seminal, hormonal and male genital tract ultrasound parameters in subjects seeking medical care for couple infertility? In males of infertile couples, current smokers (CS), when compared with non-smokers, show lower ejaculate and ultrasound-derived seminal vesicles (SV) volume, despite higher testosterone levels. Data on the effects of smoking on male fertility are conflicting. A correlation between smoking and reduced semen parameters has been reported, however, with a high heterogeneity among studies. An association between smoking behaviour and higher testosterone levels in men has been described in several, but not all, the previous studies. No study has systematically evaluated the impact of smoking on the male genital tract ultrasound characteristics. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a consecutive series of 426 subjects seeking medical care for couple infertility from January 2010 to July 2013. From the entire cohort, 394 men (age 36.0 ± 8.0 years) free of genetic abnormalities were selected. All subjects underwent a complete andrological and physical examination, biochemical and hormonal assessment, scrotal and transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound and semen analysis (including seminal interleukin-8 levels, sIL-8) within the same day. Among the patients evaluated, 229 were never smokers (NS), 56 past smokers (PS) and 109 CS. When CS were compared with the rest of the sample (non-smokers, NS + PS), in a multivariate model (analysis of covariance, ANCOVA) adjusted for age, lifestyle (including alcohol, cannabis and physical activity), BMI and sex hormone-binding globulin, significantly higher androgen (total testosterone, P = 0.001; calculated free testosterone, P fertile men, and therefore true normative data of sonographic parameters cannot be inferred. Due to the cross-sectional nature of our study, neither a causality hypothesis nor mechanistic models can be drawn. Finally, this is a retrospective study

  2. Awakening responses and diurnal fluctuations of salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Cozma-Dima, Corina Lucia; Pasquali, Vittorio; Renzi, Paolo; Simeoni, Simona; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-01-01

    Because the cortisol awakening response (CAR) has received increasing attention as a useful index of adrenocortical activity, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the presence of an awakening response for various salivary biomarkers of adrenocortical activity, including dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), which acts as a cortisol antagonist, and α-amylase, which is a predictor of circulating catecholamine activity. Salivary biological indicators are considered to be valuable markers of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis diurnal activity. In an attempt to overcome problems associated with non-adherence to the requested sampling protocol, only young, healthy males with a physiological CAR value (defined as a 50% increase in salivary cortisol within 30 min after waking) were included in the study (67 out of 102 who initially enrolled met this criterion). Our results suggested that, as is already known for cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase have significant awakening responses. In addition, daily profile of salivary cortisol, α-amylase and DHEA-S fluctuations were analysed. Significant correlations were found between salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase levels. The results showed that cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations were inversely correlated with α-amylase levels. This correlation confirmed the distinctiveness of the two regulatory systems: salivary cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations reflect the activity of the HPA axis, whereas α-amylase activity is more closely related to sympathetic activity. In addition, the present study emphasizes the potential value of saliva collection (which is both easy and stress-free) in monitoring changes of adrenal function, confirming that multiple sampling (especially within 1 h after awakening) is necessary to reliably characterise biomarker activity when investigating neuroendocrine changes under various conditions.

  3. The effect of time of day and exercise on platelet functions and platelet-neutrophil aggregates in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Hatice; Kiliç, Nedret

    2005-12-01

    Platelet activation state changes by exercise. The effect of exercise time on platelet activation state and formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates are not known yet. In this study the effect of exercise and time of day were examined on platelet activity with platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Ten moderately active males aged 27+/- 1.63 (mean+/-S.D.) years completed sub-maximal (70% VO(2max)) exercise trials for 30 min. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately post-exercise and after 30 min of recovery. Whole blood was analysed for haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean platelet count (MPV) and platelet aggregation (PA). Platelet-neutrophil aggregates and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) levels were assayed. Platelet count showed significant increase after morning exercise ((236+/- 32)x10(9) l(-1) versus (202+/- 34)x10(9) l(-1) baseline, p Exercise resulted in significantly lower MPV after the evening exercise (9.16+/- 0.5 fl versus 9.65+/- 0.36 fl, p exercise and the recovery aggregation levels were significantly different at two different times of the day (68+/- 20% a.m. versus 80+/- 12% p.m., p exercises. Exercise-induced platelet-neutrophil aggregates were higher in the evening (10.7+/- 1.3% p.m. versus 6.4+/- 1.8% a.m., p exercise can cause platelet- neutrophil aggregates. In addition, time of day has an effect on platelet activation related events. Circadian variations of physiological parameters may have an effect on thrombus formation by platelet activation.

  4. The effects of a diet rich in inulin or wheat fibre on markers of cardiovascular disease in overweight male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripkovic, L; Muirhead, N C; Hart, K H; Frost, G S; Lodge, J K

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that the beneficial health effects of a diet rich in whole grains could be a result of the individual fibres found in the grain. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of a diet high in either wheat fibre (as an example of an insoluble fibre) or inulin (a nondigestible carbohydrate) on markers of cardiovascular disease. Ten male participants classified as at higher risk of cardiovascular disease [mean (SD) body mass index 30.2 (3) kg m(-2) , mean (SD) waist circumference 106.4 (7) cm, mean (SD) age 39.8 (9) years] were recruited to a randomised, controlled, cross-over study comparing the consumption of bespoke bread rolls containing either inulin, wheat germ or refined grain (control) (15 g day(-1) ) for 4 weeks with a 4-week washout period between each regime. At the end of each regime, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP), plasma lipid status and markers of glucose control. There was no difference in measures of glucose control, lipid status, 24-h AMBP or PWV after the intervention periods and no changes compared to baseline. There was no significant difference between OGTT glucose and insulin time profiles; however, there was a significant difference in area under the curves between the wheat fibre and control interventions when comparing change from baseline (control +10.2%, inulin +4.3%, wheat fibre -2.5%; P = 0.03). Only limited differences between the interventions were identified, perhaps as a consequence of the amount of fibre used and intervention length. The wheat germ intervention resulted in a significant reduction in glucose area under the curve, suggesting that this fibre may aid glucose control. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Temporal dynamics of the circadian heart rate following low and high volume exercise training in sedentary male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Karmakar, C; Kiviniemi, A M; Hautala, A J; Tulppo, M P; Mäkikallio, T H; Huikuri, H V; Khandoker, A H; Palaniswami, M

    2015-10-01

    Increased risk of arrhythmic events occurs at certain times during the circadian cycle with the highest risk being in the second and fourth quarter of the day. Exercise improves treatment outcome in individuals with cardiovascular disease. How different exercise protocols affect the circadian rhythm and the associated decrease in adverse cardiovascular risk over the circadian cycle has not been shown. Fifty sedentary male participants were randomized into an 8-week high volume and moderate volume training and a control group. Heart rate was recorded using Polar Electronics and investigated with Cosinor analysis and by Poincaré plot derived features of SD1, SD2 and the complex correlation measure (CCM) at 1-h intervals over the 24-h period. Moderate exercise significantly increased vagal modulation and the temporal dynamics of the heart rate in the second quarter of the circadian cycle (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007 respectively). High volume exercise had a similar effect on vagal output (p = 0.003) and temporal dynamics (p = 0.003). Cosinor analysis confirms that the circadian heart rate displays a shift in the acrophage following moderate and high volume exercise from before waking (1st quarter) to after waking (2nd quarter of day). Our results suggest that exercise shifts vagal influence and increases temporal dynamics of the heart rate to the 2nd quarter of the day and suggest that this may be the underlying physiological change leading to a decrease in adverse arrhythmic events during this otherwise high-risk period.

  6. The effect of a high-fat breakfast on the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy male subjects: a randomized phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Cailleux, Karine; Fitoussi, Serge; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin. Healthy male subjects were randomized to receive single oral 8 mg doses of moxidectin after an overnight fast or high-fat breakfast. In fasted subjects (N = 27), mean [SD] parameters were C(max): 58.9 [12.5] ng/mL; t(max): 3.7 [1.5] h; area under concentration-time curve (AUC): 3,387 [1,328] ng/h/mL; Vλ(z)/F: 2,829 [1,267] L; CL/F: 2.76 [1.28] L/h; and t(1/2): 784 [347] h. Compared with fasted subjects, fed subjects (N = 27) exhibited a 34% increase in C(max), delay in t(max) to 5.3 [2.1] h, 44% increase in AUC, 40% decrease in Vλ(z)/F, and a 35% decrease in CL/F. There was no significant change in t(1/2). The changes are consistent with an increase in moxidectin bioavailability following administration with food. There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs, laboratory tests, or electrocardiograms.

  7. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  8. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibition reduces de novo lipogenesis in overweight male subjects: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiede, Kathryn; Miao, Wenyan; Blanchette, Heather S; Beysen, Carine; Harriman, Geraldine; Harwood, H James; Kelley, Heather; Kapeller, Rosana; Schmalbach, Tess; Westlin, William F

    2017-08-01

    NDI-010976, an allosteric inhibitor of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACC) ACC1 and ACC2, reduces hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and favorably affects steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in animal models of fatty liver disease. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial evaluating the pharmacodynamic effects of a single oral dose of NDI-010976 on hepatic DNL in overweight and/or obese but otherwise healthy adult male subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive either NDI-010976 (20, 50, or 200 mg) or matching placebo in period 1, followed by the alternate treatment in period 2; and hepatic lipogenesis was stimulated with oral fructose administration. Fractional DNL was quantified by infusing a stable isotope tracer, [1-13 C]acetate, and monitoring 13 C incorporation into palmitate of circulating very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride. Single-dose administration of NDI-010976 was well tolerated at doses up to and including 200 mg. Fructose administration over a 10-hour period stimulated hepatic fractional DNL an average of 30.9 ± 6.7% (mean ± standard deviation) above fasting DNL values in placebo-treated subjects. Subjects administered single doses of NDI-010976 at 20, 50, or 200 mg had significant inhibition of DNL compared to placebo (mean inhibition relative to placebo was 70%, 85%, and 104%, respectively). An inverse relationship between fractional DNL and NDI-010976 exposure was observed with >90% inhibition of fractional DNL associated with plasma concentrations of NDI-010976 >4 ng/mL. ACC inhibition with a single dose of NDI-010976 is well tolerated and results in a profound dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic DNL in overweight adult male subjects. Therefore, NDI-010976 could contribute considerable value to the treatment algorithm of metabolic disorders characterized by dysregulated fatty acid metabolism, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (Hepatology 2017;66:324-334). © 2017 Nimbus Discovery, Inc

  9. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  10. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Geun Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe waist-to-height ratio (WHtR is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men.MethodsA total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%. The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01. The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01. The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466.ConclusionIncreased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  11. Investigation of the Brain Biodistribution of the Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitor [(18)F]GSK2647544 in Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiban, Mickael; Coello, Christopher; Wu, Kai; Xu, Yanmei; Lewis, Yvonne; Brown, Andrew P; Buraglio, Mauro; Guan, Chenbing; Shabbir, Shaila; Fong, Regan; Passchier, Jan; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Lockhart, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    GSK2647544 is a potent and specific inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), which was in development as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to refine therapeutic dose predictions and confirm brain penetration, a radiolabelled form of the inhibitor, [(18)F]GSK2647544, was manufactured for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) biodistribution study. [(18)F]GSK2647544 was produced using a novel, copper iodide (Cu(I)) mediated, [(18)F]trifluoromethylation methodology. Healthy male subjects (n = 4, age range 34-42) received an oral dose of unlabelled GSK2647544 (100 mg) and after 2 h an intravenous (iv) injection of [(18)F]GSK2647544 (average injected activity and mass were 106 ± 47 MBq and 179 ± 55 μg, respectively) followed by dynamic PET scans for 120 min. Defined regions of interest (ROI) throughout the brain were used to obtain regional time-activity curves (TACs) and compartmental modelling analysis used to estimate the primary outcome measure, whole brain volume of distribution (VT). Secondary PK and safety endpoints were also recorded. PET dynamic data were successfully obtained from all four subjects and there were no clinically significant variations of the safety endpoints. Inspection of the TACs indicated a relatively homogenous uptake of [(18)F]GSK2647544 across all the ROIs examined. The mean whole brain VT was 0.56 (95 % CI, 0.41-0.72). Secondary PK parameters, Cmax (geometric mean) and Tmax (median), were 354 ng/ml and 1.4 h, respectively. Metabolism of GSK2647544 was relatively consistent across subjects, with 20-40 % of the parent compound [(18)F]GSK2647544 present after 120 min. The study provides evidence that GSK2647544 is able to cross the blood brain barrier in healthy male subjects leading to a measurable brain exposure. The administered doses of GSK2647544 were well tolerated. Exploratory modelling suggested that a twice-daily dose of 102 mg, at steady state, would

  12. Venous thrombo-embolism as a complication of cross-sex hormone treatment of male-to-female transsexual subjects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscheman, H; T'Sjoen, G; Lemaire, A; Mas, M; Meriggiola, M C; Mueller, A; Kuhn, A; Dhejne, C; Morel-Journel, N; Gooren, L J

    2014-09-01

    Administration of cross-sex hormones to male-to-female transsexual subjects, usually oestrogens + often anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, carries a risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE usually occurs in the first year of oestrogen administration. Ethinyl oestradiol, due to its chemical structure, was in 2003 identified as a major factor in the occurrence of VTE. Most clinics do not prescribe ethinyl oestradiol any longer, but people who take hormones without medical supervision use often oral contraceptives containing ethinyl oestradiol, many times in overdose. Cessation of use of ethinyl oestradiol and peri-operative thrombosis prophylaxis for surgery have reduced prevalence rate of VTE. Other oral oestrogens should not be overdosed, and transdermal oestrogen is to be preferred. Thrombosis prophylaxis for surgery is mandatory. It seems advisable to stop hormone use at least 2 weeks before major surgery, to be resumed only after 3 weeks following full mobilisation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferolla da Camara Boueri, B; Ribeiro Pessanha, C; Rodrigues da Costa, L; Ferreira, M R; Saldanha Melo, H; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, M; Rozeno Pessoa, L; Alves da Silva, P C; Pereira, A D; Cavalcante Ribeiro, D; de Meneses, J A; Soares da Costa, C A; Teles Boaventura, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was analyzed if the flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, part of the pups was evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control (C60) was fed with control diet. EW was divided in control (EWC60); flaxseed flour (EWFF60); flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Body mass, length and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined. EW21 (v. C21) and EWC60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (Pcomposition. EWFO60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (Pcomposition after early weaning.

  14. A randomized, single-blind, single-dose study evaluating the pharmacokinetic equivalence of proposed biosimilar ABP 980 and trastuzumab in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Vladimir; Chow, Vincent; Zhang, Nan; Markus, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the proposed biosimilar ABP 980 and trastuzumab in healthy males. In this single-blind study, 157 healthy males were randomized 1:1:1 to a single 6 mg/kg intravenous infusion of ABP 980, FDA-licensed trastuzumab [trastuzumab (US)], or EU-authorized trastuzumab [trastuzumab (EU)]. Primary endpoints were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf) and maximum observed serum concentration (C max). To establish equivalence, the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and 90% confidence interval (CI) for C max and AUCinf had to be within the equivalence criteria of 0.80-1.25. The GMRs and 90% CIs for C max and AUCinf, respectively, were: 1.04 (0.99-1.08) and 1.06 (1.00-1.12) for ABP 980 versus trastuzumab (US); 0.99 (0.95-1.03) and 1.00 (0.95-1.06) for ABP 980 versus trastuzumab (EU); and 0.96 (0.92-1.00) and 0.95 (0.90-1.01) for trastuzumab (US) versus trastuzumab (EU). All comparisons were within the equivalence criteria of 0.80-1.25. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported in 84.0, 75.0, and 78.2 of subjects in the ABP 980, trastuzumab (US), and trastuzumab (EU) groups, respectively. There were no deaths or TEAEs leading to study discontinuation and no binding or neutralizing anti-drug anti-bodies were detected. This study demonstrated the PK similarity of ABP 980 to both trastuzumab (US) and trastuzumab (EU), and of trastuzumab (US) to trastuzumab (EU). No differences in safety and tolerability between treatments were noted; no subject tested positive for binding anti-bodies.

  15. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendonça, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, José Antônio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Maiorka, Paulo César; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J. curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake. PMID:28620618

  16. Função sexual de homens submetidos a transplante hepático Sexual function of males subjected to liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida sexual masculina antes e depois do transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Foi enviado questionário de avaliação para 56 doentes masculinos, que tinham idade superior a 18 anos e que sobreviveram mais de seis meses após o transplante hepático. O questionário continha 15 perguntas com cinco ou seis alternativas de resposta para mensurar a função sexual masculina segmentada por cinco componentes: função erétil, função orgástica, desejo sexual, satisfação com a relação sexual e satisfação com a vida sexual como um todo. As respostas geraram valores numéricos, os quais foram agrupados dentro de cada domínio e comparados antes e depois do transplante hepático. RESULTADOS: Vinte e cinco doentes responderam completamente o questionário. Todas os cinco componentes da função sexual melhoraram após o transplante hepático, sendo que o escore da função erétil aumentou de 21,12±8,07 para 26,52±5,22 (p=0,004, da função orgástica de 7,28±3,05 para 9,36±1,47 (p=0,008, da função desejo sexual de 6,64±2,58 para 8,68±1,35 (p=0,005, da satisfação com relação sexual de 9,16±3,83 para 12,52±2,65 (pBACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is very common in liver transplantation candidates. Our objective is to determine the sexual life quality of males before and after liver transplantation. METHODS: Questionnaire was sent to 56 males over 18 years of age with at least six-month survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. The self-administered questionnaire contained 15 questions with 5 or 6 alternatives to determine the male sexual function which may be divided into 5 domains: 1 erectile function; 2 orgasmic function; 3 sexual desire; 4 intercourse satisfaction; and 5 overall satisfaction with sexual life. Each answer received a score. Domains scores were computed by summing the scores for individual answers and they were compared before and after the liver transplantation. RESULTS: Twenty

  17. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  19. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  20. Velcalcetide (AMG 416), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces serum parathyroid hormone and FGF23 levels in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kevin J; Bell, Gregory; Pickthorn, Karen; Huang, Saling; Vick, Andrew; Hodsman, Peter; Peacock, Munro

    2014-02-01

    Velcalcetide, also known as AMG 416, is a novel, long-acting selective peptide agonist of the calcium sensing receptor. It is being developed as an intravenous treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder. To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of velcalcetide in healthy male volunteers. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study in healthy males aged 18-45 years conducted at a single center. Each cohort included eight subjects randomized 6:2 to velcalcetide or placebo. Velcalcetide at 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 mg or placebo was administered intravenously. Measurements included plasma ionized calcium (iCa), serum total calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin and urine creatinine, calcium and phosphorus and plasma pharmacokinetics for velcalcetide. Vital signs, safety biochemical and hematological indices, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Intravenous administration of velcalcetide was well tolerated with no adverse reaction of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea reported. Velcalcetide mediated dose-dependent decreases in serum iPTH at 30 min, FGF23 at 24 h and iCa at 12 h post dose (P<0.05) and in urine fractional excretion of phosphorus and increases in tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Velcalcetide plasma exposure increased in a dose-related manner and the terminal elimination of half-life was comparable across the dose range evaluated and ranged from 18.4 to 20.0 h. Single IV doses of velcalcetide were well tolerated and associated with rapid, sustained, dose-dependent reductions in serum PTH. The results support further evaluation of velcalcetide as a treatment for SHPT in hemodialysis patients.

  1. No Effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP3A4/5 Polymorphisms on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ticagrelor in Healthy Chinese Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mupeng; Hu, Yaodong; Li, Huilan; Wen, Zhipeng; Hu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Daoyu; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xiao, Jian; Tang, Jie; Chen, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Ticagrelor is a direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It is rapidly absorbed and partly metabolized to the active metabolite AR-C124910XX by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Three genetic loci (SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, and UGT2B7) were reported to affect ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of SLCO1B1 and CYP3A4/5 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor in healthy Chinese male volunteers. Eighteen healthy male volunteers who participated in pharmacogenetics study of ticagrelor were genotyped for SLCO1B1 rs113681054, SLCO1B1*5 (rs4149056), CYP3A4*1G (rs2242480), and CYP3A5*3 (rs776746). All subjects received a single 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor and then series blood samples were collected from 0 to 48 h. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were determined by the high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Inhibition in platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed and the area under the time-effect curve (AUEC) for the IPA was calculated as pharmacodynamic parameters. No significant difference in ticagrelor pharmacokinetics among genotypes of the two genes was observed. The AUEC did not differ significantly among genotypes of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our data suggest that common genetic variants in SLCO1B1 and CYP3A4/5 may have no effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  2. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  3. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM 900 and WCDMA mobile phones on cognitive function in young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Cornelia; Dorn, Hans; Bahr, Achim; Hansen, Marie-Luise; Peter, Anita; Bajbouj, Malek; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Results of studies on the possible effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on cognitive functions are contradictory, therefore, possible effects of long-term (7 h 15 min) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to handset-like signals of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 and Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) on attention and working memory were studied. The sample comprised 30 healthy male subjects (mean ± SD: 25.3 ± 2.6 years), who were tested on nine study days in which they were exposed to three exposure conditions (sham, GSM 900 and WCDMA) in a randomly assigned and balanced order. All tests were presented twice (morning and afternoon) on each study day within a fixed timeframe. Univariate comparisons revealed significant changes when subjects were exposed to GSM 900 compared to sham, only in the vigilance test. In the WCDMA exposure condition, one parameter in the vigilance and one in the test on divided attention were altered compared to sham. Performance in the selective attention test and the n-back task was not affected by GSM 900 or WCDMA exposure. Time-of-day effects were evident for the tests on divided and selective attention, as well as for working memory. After correction for multiple testing, only time-of-day effects remained significant in two tests, resulting in faster reactions in the afternoon trials. The results of the present study do not provide any evidence of an EMF effect on human cognition, but they underline the necessity to control for time of day. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  6. A Novel Method for Studying the Pharmacokinetics of [14C]Umeclidinium After Application to the Axilla or Palm of Healthy Male Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, LL; Hughes, SC; Pereira, AI; Young, GC; Hussey, E; Charlton, P; Baptiste‐Brown, S; Stuart, JS; Vincent, V; van Marle, SP; Schmith, VD

    2016-01-01

    Umeclidinium (UMEC), a long‐acting muscarinic antagonist approved for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was investigated for primary hyperhidrosis as topical therapy. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of [14C]UMEC applied to either unoccluded axilla (UA), occluded axilla (OA), or occluded palm (OP) of healthy males. After 8 h the formulation was removed. [14C]UMEC plasma concentrations (Cp) were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. Occlusion increased systemic exposure by 3.8‐fold. Due to UMEC absorption‐limited pharmacokinetics, Cp data from the OA were combined with intravenous data from a phase I study. The data were described by a two‐compartment population model with sequential zero and first‐order absorption and linear elimination. Simulated systemic exposure following q.d. doses to axilla was similar to the exposure from the inhaled therapy, suggesting that systemic safety following dermal administration can be bridged to the inhaled program, and offering the potential for a reduced number of studies and/or subjects. PMID:27304394

  7. A Novel Method for Studying the Pharmacokinetics of [(14) C]Umeclidinium After Application to the Axilla or Palm of Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Santos, L L; Hughes, S C; Pereira, A I; Young, G C; Hussey, E; Charlton, P; Baptiste-Brown, S; Stuart, J S; Vincent, V; van Marle, S P; Schmith, V D

    2016-08-01

    Umeclidinium (UMEC), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was investigated for primary hyperhidrosis as topical therapy. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of [(14) C]UMEC applied to either unoccluded axilla (UA), occluded axilla (OA), or occluded palm (OP) of healthy males. After 8 h the formulation was removed. [(14) C]UMEC plasma concentrations (Cp) were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. Occlusion increased systemic exposure by 3.8-fold. Due to UMEC absorption-limited pharmacokinetics, Cp data from the OA were combined with intravenous data from a phase I study. The data were described by a two-compartment population model with sequential zero and first-order absorption and linear elimination. Simulated systemic exposure following q.d. doses to axilla was similar to the exposure from the inhaled therapy, suggesting that systemic safety following dermal administration can be bridged to the inhaled program, and offering the potential for a reduced number of studies and/or subjects. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  9. Comparison of a Novel Formulation of Abiraterone Acetate vs. the Originator Formulation in Healthy Male Subjects: Two Randomized, Open-Label, Crossover Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Ronald; Hussaini, Azra; Bosch, Bill; Nemeth, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Abiraterone acetate is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The originator abiraterone acetate (OAA) formulation is poorly absorbed and exhibits large pharmacokinetic variability in abiraterone exposure. Abiraterone acetate fine particle (AAFP) is a proprietary formulation (using SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™) designed to increase the oral bioavailability of abiraterone acetate. Here, we report on two phase I studies in healthy male subjects aged 18-50 years. In Study 101, 20 subjects were randomized in a crossover design to single doses of AAFP 100, 200, or 400 mg or OAA 1000 mg taken orally under fasting conditions. Results suggested that AAFP 500 mg would be bioequivalent to OAA 1000 mg in the fasted state. To confirm the bioequivalence hypothesis and to further expand the AAFP dose range, in Study 102, 36 subjects were randomized in a crossover design to single doses of AAFP 125, 500, or 625 mg or OAA 1000 mg. Both studies included a 7-day washout period between administrations. Dose-dependent increases in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration with AAFP were observed in both studies. The AAFP 500-mg bioavailability relative to OAA 1000 mg measured by the geometric mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration was 93.4% (90% confidence interval 85.3-102.4), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was 91.0% (90% confidence interval 83.3-99.4), and maximum plasma concentration was 99.8% (90% confidence interval 86.3-115.5). Dose proportionality was seen across all AAFP dose levels (100-625 mg). Abiraterone acetate fine particle was found to be safe and well tolerated in this study. Abiraterone acetate fine particle 500 mg was demonstrated to be bioequivalent to OAA 1000 mg in healthy volunteers under fasted conditions.

  10. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR-OLD MALE WITH CONGENITAL ANOMALIES,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the case of a 21-year-old secondary school leaver as a likely case of Townes-Brocks syndrome. He was born with congenital abnormalities consisting of fixed flexion deformities of hands, wrist and elbows, urethral meatal stenosis, scoliosis and aortic stenosis. He was diagnosed with obstructive.

  11. Twenty-one-year-old male with congenital anomalies, obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Townes – Brocks syndrome is an autosomal dominant multiple malformations syndrome comprising of ear anomalies/hearing loss, limb defects, anal, genitourinary, eye, spine anomalies, heart defects and sometimes mental retardation. This report presents the case of a 21-year-old secondary school leaver as a likely case ...

  12. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2015-01-01

    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  13. The endotoxin-induced increase of cytokines is followed by an increase of cortisol relative to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, R H; Schuld, A; Mullington, J; Haack, M; Schölmerich, J; Pollmächer, T

    2002-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) inhibit T-helper lymphocyte type 2 immune reactions and exert anti-inflammatory effects in some chronic inflammatory diseases. Both DHEA and, in particular, DHEAS levels are dramatically decreased in chronic inflammatory diseases whereas cortisol levels remain stable or are elevated. However, the time course of cortisol relative to DHEA production is not known. We tested whether administration of endotoxin to healthy male subjects can induce an early predominance of cortisol relative to DHEA and DHEAS. It is demonstrated that endotoxin induces a dose-dependent increase of cortisol in relation to DHEA (no effect at 0.2 ng endotoxin/kg body weight (b.w.), clear effect at 0.4 and 0.8 ng/kg b.w., pDHEAS (tested at 0.4 ng/kg b.w., P=0.014). The increase of cortisol relative to DHEA appears 4 h after endotoxin injection and 2 h after a strong increase of interleukin (IL)-6 relative to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). In addition, an increase of cortisol relative to 17OH-progesterone was observed. The ratio of serum IL-6/TNF was positively correlated with the ratio of serum cortisol/DHEA (R(Rank)=0.472, P=0.041) and serum cortisol/17OH-progesterone (R(Rank)=0.514, P=0.048). In conclusion, dissociation of cortisol relative to DHEA, DHEAS or 17OH-progesterone appears very early during a systemic inflammatory response which is associated with an increase of IL-6 relative to TNF. As in chronic inflammatory diseases, during an acute inflammatory response with endotoxin, these physiological hormone changes are probably necessary to achieve adequate cortisol levels at the expense of adrenal androgens.

  14. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p < 0.05), except for TV, when compared to pre training results, which were the same as those in the standard device training group. No statistical difference was shown between these groups after the training period had been performed. Furthermore, results of applying artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device

  15. Seasonal Variability in Blood Platelet 5-HT2 Receptor Binding in Healthy Male Subjects as Studied by [3H]-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide ([3H]-LSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal Variability in Blood Platelet 5-HT2 Receptor Binding in Healthy Male Subjects as Studied by [3H]-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide ([3H]-LSD) In studies on platelet 5-HT2 receptor binding in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, there has been a marked variability and a considerable overlap of values between patients and controls. In the present study binding of [3H]-LSD to blood platelet membranes was determined twelve times (three times each season) in 32 healthy male volunteers, ...

  16. Associations of Sexual Subjectivity with Global and Sexual Well-Being: A New Measure for Young Males and Comparison to Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; French, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Sexual subjectivity refers to multiple aspects of sexual self-perceptions, including sexual body-esteem, perceptions of efficacy and entitlement to sexual desire and pleasure, and sexual self-reflection (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2006). Previous research on sexual subjectivity has shown that it is elevated in young women who report better global well-being and have more sexual experience. However, research has not focused on young men. Thus, two studies were conducted to develop a new measure to assess young men's sexual subjectivity (Study 1, N = 304 men) and to examine associations of sexual subjectivity with general and sexual well-being among young men and women (Study 2, N = 208 men and 214 women). In Study 1, five elements of men's sexual subjectivity were found, which paralleled the elements found in previous research with young women. In Study 2, sexual subjectivity, especially two elements of sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, was significantly associated with enhanced global and sexual well-being in both men and women. Gender did not moderate these associations, supporting sexual subjectivity as an aspect of sexual health in all young adults. As anticipated, men reported greater entitlement to self-pleasure and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, but women reported greater entitlement to pleasure with partners. Women's feelings of less efficacy but more entitlement to pleasure with partners suggest that feelings of entitlement may not be consistent with their experiences. Future research with young men and women will be important for understanding sexual health and development during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  17. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  18. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  19. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects of naloxegol at peripheral and central nervous system receptors in healthy male subjects: A single ascending-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, Michael A; Kugler, Alan R; Medve, Robert A; Bui, Khanh; Butler, Kathleen; Sostek, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose, crossover study evaluated single oral doses of naloxegol (NKTR-118; 8, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg), a PEGylated derivative of naloxone, for safety and tolerability, antagonism of peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) effects of intravenous morphine, and pharmacokinetics. Healthy men were randomized 1:1 to naloxegol or naloxegol-matching placebo administered with morphine and lactulose in a 2-period crossover design. Periods were separated by a 5- to 7-day washout. Assessments included safety, tolerability, orocecal transit time (OCTT), pupillary miosis, and pharmacokinetics. The study was completed by 46 subjects. The most common adverse events were somnolence, dizziness, headache, and nausea. Greater reversal of morphine-induced delay in OCTT occurred with increasing naloxegol dose, demonstrating dose-ordered antagonism of morphine's peripheral gastrointestinal effects. Forty-four subjects showed no reversal of pupillary miosis; 2 showed potential partial reversal at 250 and 1000 mg, indicating negligible antagonism of morphine's CNS effects at doses ≤ 125 mg. Rapid absorption, linear pharmacokinetics up to 1000 mg, and low to moderate between-subject pharmacokinetic variability was observed. The pharmacokinetics of morphine or its glucuronide metabolites were unaltered by concurrent naloxegol administration. Naloxegol was generally safe and well tolerated at single doses up to 1000 mg. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Jin; Hwang, Hyun Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Geun Hyeog; Cho, Yun-Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Soo Yeon; Cho, Kyung Hee; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Yun Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-07-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the Cmax and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using Cmax and AUC0-last converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of Cmax and AUC0-last were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1

  1. Illegitimate tasks associated with higher cortisol levels among male employees when subjective health is relatively low: an intra-individual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Maria U; Meier, Laurenz L; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Kälin, Wolfgang; Elfering, Achim; Hennig, Jürgen; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-05-01

    Illegitimate tasks refer to tasks that do not conform to what can appropriately be expected from an employee. Violating role expectations, they constitute "identity-stressors", as one's professional role tends to become part of one's identity. The current study investigated the impact of illegitimate tasks on salivary cortisol. We analyzed data on an intra-individual level, that is, by examining fluctuations in illegitimate tasks and cortisol within individuals. Furthermore, we investigated the moderating role of perceived health, expecting that illegitimate tasks evoke stronger reactions when perceived health is relatively poor. Illegitimate tasks, salivary cortisol, and perceived health were assessed in each of three waves (time lag: 6 months) in a sample of 104 male employees. Data were analyzed by multilevel analysis using group mean centering. Controlling for social stressors, work interruptions, and emotional stability, the experience of more illegitimate tasks was associated with increased cortisol release if personal health resources were low compared to one's mean value of perceived health. Results cannot be explained by inter-individual differences. This is the first study showing that illegitimate tasks predict a biological indicator of stress, thus confirming and extending previous research on illegitimate tasks. The moderating role of perceived health confirms its importance as a personal resource, implying augmented vulnerability when perceived health is below its usual value. It is plausible to assume that increased stress reactions due to relatively poor health may further weaken available personal resources. Both avoiding illegitimate tasks and restoring personal health seem to be crucial.

  2. Short-term effect of spinal manipulation on pain perception, spinal mobility, and full height recovery in male subjects with degenerative disk disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Pellenz, Felipe; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect on spinal mobility, pain perception, neural mechanosensitivity, and full height recovery after high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation (SM) in the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with evaluations at baseline and after intervention. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Men (N=40; mean age ± SD, 38 ± 9.14 y) with diagnosed degenerative lumbar disease at L5-S1 were randomly divided into 2 groups: a treatment group (TG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 39 ± 9.12 y) and a control group (CG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 37 ± 9.31 y). All participants completed the intervention and follow-up evaluations. A single L5-S1 SM technique (pull-move) was performed in the TG, whereas the CG received a single placebo intervention. Measures included assessing the subject's height using a stadiometer. The secondary outcome measures included perceived low back pain, evaluated using a visual analog scale; neural mechanosensitivity, as assessed using the passive straight-leg raise (SLR) test; and amount of spinal mobility in flexion, as measured using the finger-to-floor distance (FFD) test. The intragroup comparison indicated a significant improvement in all variables in the TG (Pperceived pain, spinal mobility in flexion, hip flexion during the passive SLR test, and subjects' full height. Future studies should include women and should evaluate the long-term results. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  4. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result...

  5. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  6. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  7. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Ferland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline. In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K1 and menaquinone-4 (MK-4 vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K1 diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR since adulthood. Dietary K1 intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K1 intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K1 intakes per unit body weight, tissue K1 and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K1 or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions.

  8. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal: a randomised, controlled, crossover study of Danish sea buckthorn and strawberries in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-10-11

    Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at t = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 140 min and subsequent ad libitum intake was recorded. Statistical differences in all continuous measures were evaluated based on the existence of a meal or a time-meal interaction by repeated measures linear model analyses or by differences in AUC by linear mixed models. None of the berries affected postprandial glucose. However, sea buckthorn improved glycaemic profile (44.7%, p Sea buckthorn also resulted in a decrease in plasma insulin concentration at 30 min (39.6%, p sea buckthorn compared with control (23.6%, p sea buckthorn meal compared to control. There was no effect on postprandial glucose response to a sugar challenge given together with purees of strawberry or sea buckthorn. Sea buckthorn decreased and delayed the insulin response and improved glycaemic profile compared with control. Strawberry had no such effects. No important differences were seen for the appetite measures. Sea buckthorn might be useful as a culinary tool for lowering meal insulin response.

  9. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  10. Subjective age in the academic development of Algerian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MERABET

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjective age has been studied in various domains (health, consumption, work, but the works which investigated the subjective age that the students give themselves during their academic development are rare (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. One-hundred-and-twenty-two Algerian students answered a questionnaire comprising (a an identification part (b the subjective age questionnaire by Gana, Alaphilippe and Bailly, (2002 and (c the questionnaire of subjective age in academic development (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. The results show that the Algerian students have a tendency to rejuvenate themselves, all the more so if they are of male gender. They show the impact of the societal and cultural factors on subjective age in academic development of university students.

  11. Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up-regulate paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against low-density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl₂), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl₂ by up-regulating PON1 activity (P onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins.

  12. Double-Blinded, Vehicle-Controlled Proof of Concept Study to Investigate the Recurrence of Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Acne Lesions Using Tretinoin Gel (Microsphere) 0.04% in Male Patients after Oral Isotretinoin Use

    OpenAIRE

    Reid Vender; Ronald Vender

    2012-01-01

    Background. Although isotretinoin orally is commonly used for moderate to severe or scarring acne, it is not a cure. Unfortunately recurrence is unpredictable and varies within the acne population. Objectives. Using a proof of concept study, determine the recurrence of acne after isotretinoin use in male patients. Methods. Twenty males aged 18–45 years old were enrolled. Subjects successfully completed a treatment of acne vulgaris with oral isotretinoin (120–150 mg/kg/course). Subjects were r...

  13. Anorexic syndromes in the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, M M; Daser, C; Postpischil, F

    1985-01-01

    Forty-two male patients with an anorexic syndrome were assessed personally (n = 29) or by reviewing the case-notes. Twenty-nine male patients were classified as primary anorexia nervosa and they were compared to our series of atypical male patients and a series of 23 female anorexia nervosa patients. There was no difference between male and female patients in the age at onset. Male and female anorexia nervosa cases were very similar in their personality profile and symptomatology; however, male cases were more preoccupied in their thoughts with food, weight etc., and showed more hyperactivity, more achievement orientation and more sexual anxiety than female cases. The mothers' age at the male patients' birth was significantly younger than in the female group. Male anorexia nervosa patients were more extraverted and scored "superfeminine" on the masculinity vs feminity scale (FPI). A continuum from "true" anorexia nervosa to atypical cases and to secondary loss of appetite was observed.

  14. A soy-based phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) normalizes the stress reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis in chronically stressed male subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellhammer, Juliane; Vogt, Dominic; Franz, Nadin; Freitas, Ulla; Rutenberg, David

    2014-07-31

    Supplementation with a phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) has been observed to normalize stress induced dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Prolonged stress first induces a hyper-activation of the HPAA, which then can be followed by a state of hypo-activation.The aim of this study was to examine effects of an oral supplementation with 400 mg PS & 400 mg PA (PAS 400) per day on the endocrine stress response (ACTH, saliva and serum cortisol) to a psychosocial stressor. A special focus was to analyze subgroups of low versus high chronically stressed subjects as well as to test efficacy of 200 mg PS & 200 mg PA (PAS 200). 75 healthy male volunteers were enrolled for this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, stratified by chronic stress level, and randomly allocated to one of three study arms (placebo, PAS 200 and PAS 400 per day, respectively). Study supplementation was administered for 42 days for each participant. Chronic stress was measured with the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS), and subgroups of high and low chronic stress were differentiated by median values as provided by the TICS authors. A six week period of supplementation was followed by an acute stress test (Trier Social Stress Test - TSST). Chronic stress levels and other baseline measures did not differ between treatment groups (all p>0.05). Acute stress was successfully induced by the TSST and resulted in a hyper-responsivity of the HPAA in chronically stressed subjects. Compared to placebo, a supplementation with a daily dose of PAS 400 was effective in normalizing the ACTH (p=0.010), salivary (p=0.043) and serum cortisol responses (p=0.035) to the TSST in chronically high but not in low stressed subjects (all p>0.05). Compared to placebo, supplementation with PAS 200 did not result in any significant differences in these variables (all p>0.05). There were no significant effects of supplementation with PAS on heart rate

  15. Comparison of steady-state plasma concentrations of armodafinil and modafinil late in the day following morning administration: post hoc analysis of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose studies in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Hellriegel, Edward T

    2009-01-01

    Armodafinil, the R- and longer-lasting isomer of modafinil, may maintain higher plasma drug concentrations compared with racemic modafinil because of stereospecific differences in elimination of its isomers. This analysis set out to compare the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of armodafinil and modafinil on a milligram-to-milligram basis following once-daily administration. A post hoc analysis of two multiple-dose pharmacokinetic studies in healthy male subjects aged 18-50 years was conducted to compare dose-normalized (200 mg/day) plasma drug concentration and pharmacokinetic data for subjects in each study who completed 7 days of once-daily (morning) administration of armodafinil (n = 34) or modafinil (n = 18). Dose-normalized plasma concentrations of armodafinil on day 7 were higher than those of modafinil, with the greatest differences being observed later in the day. Across the 24-hour dose interval, plasma drug concentration fluctuation and swing were 28% and 42% less, respectively, with armodafinil than with modafinil. In addition, average late-day (3 pm to 7 pm after an 8 am dosing) plasma drug concentrations and partial values for the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve for 7-11 hours after dosing were both 44% higher with armodafinil. At steady state, armodafinil produces consistently higher plasma drug concentrations late in the day than modafinil when compared on a milligram-to-milligram basis. The distinct pharmacokinetic profile of armodafinil compared with that of the racemate may result in fundamentally different durations of action. These differences between the two medications cannot be made equivalent by increasing the dose of the racemate without introducing potential safety concerns.

  16. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... The male condom is a thin cover that fits over a man's erect penis . Condoms are made of: Animal ...

  17. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male hypogonadism Overview Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key ... sperm or both. You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life, ...

  18. IRVINGIA GABONENSIS FOR TWENTY-FOUR WEEKS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark Extracts oflrvingia Gubonensis For Twenty-four eeI

  19. Male contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception.

  20. Acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan 20 mg compared with esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg in healthy adult male subjects--a randomised open-label cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Mori, Y; Okamoto, H; Nishimura, A; Komura, E; Araki, T; Shiramoto, M

    2015-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related diseases. Vonoprazan is a member of a new class of acid suppressants; potassium-competitive acid blockers. Vonoprazan may thus be an alternative to PPIs. To evaluate efficacy, rapidity and duration of acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan vs. two control PPIs, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, in 20 healthy Japanese adult male volunteers with CYP2C19 extensive metaboliser genotype. In this randomised, open-label, two-period cross-over study, vonoprazan 20 mg and esomeprazole 20 mg (Study V vs. E) or rabeprazole 10 mg (Study V vs. R) were orally administered daily for 7 days. Primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was gastric pH over 24 h measured as percentage of time pH ≥3, ≥4 and ≥5 (pH holding time ratios; HTRs) and mean gastric pH. Acid-inhibitory effect (pH4 HTR) of vonoprazan was significantly greater than that of esomeprazole or rabeprazole on both Days 1 and 7; Day 7 difference in pH4 HTR for vonoprazan vs. esomeprazole was 24.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.2-33.1] and for vonoprazan vs. rabeprazole 28.8% [95% CI: 17.2-40.4]. The Day 1 to Day 7 ratio of 24-h pH4 HTRs was >0.8 for vonoprazan, compared with 0.370 for esomeprazole and 0.393 for rabeprazole. Vonoprazan was generally well tolerated. One vonoprazan subject withdrew due to a rash which resolved after discontinuation. This study demonstrated a more rapid and sustained acid-inhibitory effect of vonoprazan 20 mg vs. esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg. Therefore, vonoprazan may be a potentially new treatment for acid-related diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Twenty Statement Test in Teacher Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aypay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe teacher characteristics using Twenty Statements Test (TST. Study group includes a total of thirty-five individuals, including teachers, guidance and counselors and research assistants. The study used a qualitative approach on teacher identity. TST is one of the qualitative methods that were used to determine individual self-conceptualization. Study group were requested to write twenty statements that describe themselves responding to the question “Who I am?” in a free format. The findings indicated that teachers were overwhelmingly in group c (reflective. No differences were found in terms of gender and profession. Only few significant differences have been found based on marital status. The utility of TST in teacher training and development was discussed

  2. The Twenty Statement Test in Teacher Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aypay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe teacher characteristics using Twenty Statements Test (TST. Study group includes a total of thirty-five individuals, including teachers, guidance and counselors and research assistants. The study used a qualitative approach on teacher identity. TST is one of the qualitative methods that were used to determine individual self-conceptualization. Study group were requested to write twenty statements that describe themselves responding to the question “Who I am?” in a free format. The findings indicated that teachers were overwhelmingly in group c (reflective. No differences were found in terms of gender and profession. Only few significant differences have been found based on marital status. The utility of TST in teacher training and development was discussed.

  3. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Shebarshin, Leonid V.

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  4. Notional syllabuses : twenty one years on

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Nicolas

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out to reappraise the original 1976 book entitled "Notional Syllabuses" by D.A.Wilkins on the advent of the twenty-first anniversary of its publication. An outline and personal assessment of the content of the book are presented in the light of more recent developments in methodological approaches to T.E.F.L., more specifically with reference to Communicative Language Teaching.

  5. Contribution of Bacterial Infection to Male Infertility in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is disagreement as to the influence of certain microbial infection on male infertility and such agents are ignored. The incidence of these microbial agents in seminal fluid isolates is on the increase. This study therefore evaluates the prevalence of male factor infertility and contribution of microbial infection to male infertility in Kano, northern Nigeria. Seminal fluid analysis in five hundred males who were investigated for infertility was evaluated using the 5th generation SQ AII C-P sperm quality analyzer and the Neubaeur counting chamber. The result indicates that 58.2% had sperm density less than twenty million per millilitre. The oligospermic subjects (sperm density 2-19 millions/ml were 27.6%, severe oligospermic (sperm density less than 2 million 13.2% and azoospermia, 17.4%. Asthenospermia (motility less than 50% decrease from 44.8% in oligospermia to 24.0% in severe oligospermia. Teratospermia (abnormal morphology greater than 50% also deteriorated from 46.3% to 35.4% in oligospermic and severe oligospermic males respectively. Seminal fluid infection increases with decreasing sperm density, motility and morphology. The prevalence of abnormal sperm indices and bacterial infection is high and Staphylococcus aureus infection should be treated and no longer ignored in the management of male factor infertility.

  6. The Study on Work Load Calibration by Using Step Test and Ergometer Test Was Carried Out in Order to Find the Best Way 10 Calibrate the Data Measurement and to Predict Human Work Load by Using Heart Rate Data. This Study Was Conducted on Four Male Subjects. But the Data Analysis Has Just Been Done to Three Subjects Due One of the Subject Was Insufficient Performance. the Sport Tester PE3000 Heart Rate Monitor is Used for Measuring the Heart Rate Data Which Will Be Useful for Predicting the Work

    OpenAIRE

    Herodian, Sam; Kastaman, Roni

    1998-01-01

    The study on Work Load Calibration by using Step Test and Ergometer test was carried out in order to find the best way 10 calibrate the data measurement and to predict human work load by using heart rate data. This study was conducted on four male subjects. but the data analysis has just been done to three subjects due one of the subject was insufficient performance. The sport tester PE3000 heart rate monitor is used for measuring the heart rate data which will be useful for predicting the wo...

  7. Investigation of bioequivalence of a new fixed-dose combination of acarbose and metformin with the corresponding loose combination as well as the drug-drug interaction potential between both drugs in healthy adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Jang, I-J; Shin, D; Shin, D S; Yoon, S; Lim, K S; Yu, K-S; Li, J; Zhang, H; Liu, Y; Brendel, E; Blode, H; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Both metformin and acarbose are recommended monotherapy and add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of acarbose and metformin has been developed to reduce pill burden and potentially improve compliance. The current study investigated the bioequivalence of the acarbose/metformin FDC compared with the individual agents administered simultaneously (loose combination). Secondary endpoints were the safety and tolerability of the FDC and the potential for drug-drug interactions between acarbose and metformin. A single-centre, randomized, open-label, four-period crossover study was conducted in healthy male Korean subjects aged 18-45 years. Following one-period balanced Williams design, participants were randomized to receive four single oral treatments on different study days separated by ≥7 days' washout. Treatments were as follows: (i) acarbose/metformin 50/500 mg FDC (test); (ii) acarbose 50 mg and metformin 500 mg as loose combination (reference); (iii) acarbose 50 mg; and (iv) metformin 500 mg. Serial blood samples were taken for glucose and insulin levels for 4 h after a sucrose load on the day before and day of study drug administration. Additionally, serial blood samples were taken for analysis of metformin levels for 24 h after each drug containing metformin. The area under the curve for 4 h post-test (AUC0-4 h ) and the maximal serum concentration (Cmax ) of plasma glucose and serum insulin were primary pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, and Cmax , AUC0-last and AUC for metformin levels were primary pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. The bioequivalence of the FDC to the loose combination was considered established if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the baseline-adjusted PD parameter ratios (test vs. reference) for plasma glucose and the PK parameter ratios for metformin fell completely within current acceptance limits (0·8-1·25). Thirty-three of 40 randomized subjects completed the study; five withdrew

  8. Enhancing the self-esteem of selected male nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, D E; Kelbley, T J; Durham, L; James, J S

    1992-08-01

    This study investigated treatment procedures for enhancing the self-esteem of older adult male nursing home residents. Twenty-one subjects were assigned randomly to either a control group meeting to discuss current news events or an experimental group receiving the intervention. Self-esteem significantly increased for the experimental subjects but not before they experienced a significant decrease in feelings of self-worth. The midtreatment observation of the dependent variable was a vital factor in determining the curvilinear relationship between time and the protocol.

  9. Twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Nicholas J; Pallen, Mark J

    2015-12-01

    Twenty years ago, the publication of the first bacterial genome sequence, from Haemophilus influenzae, shook the world of bacteriology. In this Timeline, we review the first two decades of bacterial genome sequencing, which have been marked by three revolutions: whole-genome shotgun sequencing, high-throughput sequencing and single-molecule long-read sequencing. We summarize the social history of sequencing and its impact on our understanding of the biology, diversity and evolution of bacteria, while also highlighting spin-offs and translational impact in the clinic. We look forward to a 'sequencing singularity', where sequencing becomes the method of choice for as-yet unthinkable applications in bacteriology and beyond.

  10. The association of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR gene polymorphisms and antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Kavi, Vasish; Wang, Wenfu; Wu, Zhimei; Hao, Wei

    2012-03-30

    To explore the association between the 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR polymorphisms with comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent patients. In case control study, we compared the polymorphic distributions of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR in 588 male heroin-dependent patients (including 311 patients with antisocial personality disorder and 277 patients without antisocial personality disorder) and 194 normal males by genotypes, alleles, and interaction between genes. Between male heroin-dependent patients with antisocial personality disorder and normal males, and between male heroin-dependent patients with and without antisocial personality disorder, the distributions of 5-HTTVNTR polymorphic genotypes and alleles were in statistical significance. Individuals carrying 10R allele were in higher risk of the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder and heroin dependence. By MDR analyses, the interaction between 5-HTTVNTR and DATVNTR was close to statistical significance in predicting the risk of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin dependent patients. In male heroin dependent patients, individuals carrying 5-HTTVNTR 10R allele or/and DATVNTR 9R allele were in higher risks of co-occurring antisocial personality disorder, while individuals with 5-HTTVNTR 12R/12R and DATVNTR 10R/10R genotypes together were in lower risks of antisocial personality disorder. 5-HTTVNTR, and the interaction between 5-HTTVNTR and DATVNTR may be associated with the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swelling in the testicle area Have a history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems Have had groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes Male fertility is a complex process. To ...

  12. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Mathew; Ganapathi Bantwal

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  13. Male Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Amory, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women cannot use them due to health conditions or side effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancy, of which 80–90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, wh...

  14. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  15. HDECAY: Twenty++ Years After arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Djouadi, Abdelhak; Muehlleitner, Margarete; Spira, Michael

    The program HDECAY determines the partial decay widths and branching ratios of the Higgs bosons within the Standard Model with three and four generations of fermions, including the case when the Higgs couplings are rescaled, a general two--Higgs doublet model where the Higgs sector is extended and incorporates five physical states and its most studied incarnation, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The program addresses all decay channels including the dominant higher-order effects such as radiative corrections and multi-body channels. Since the first launch of the program, more than twenty years ago, important aspects and new ingredients have been incorporated. In this update of the program description, some of the developments are summarized while others are discussed in some detail.

  16. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  18. Vicarious Emotional Responses of Macho College Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explored whether vicarious emotional reactions of macho males reflect a lack of empathy and a tendency to respond with anger. Male subjects (n=107) viewed videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Macho males reported more anger and less empathy for the crying baby than did less macho males. (RJM)

  19. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  20. Circumcision (Male)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrics; 2009:828. Provencio-Vasquez E. Circumcision revisited. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing. 2009;14:295. Brown-Trask B, et al. Circumcision care. RN. 2009;72:22. Circumcision policy statement. American ... BJU International. 2008;101:65. Task Force on Circumcision. Male ...

  1. Twenty-First Century Space Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    17 Antigravity ................................................. 19 SPACE PROPULSION POLICY ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES...were dropped. Most of the purported "reactionless space drives" and " antigravity " machines that the PI was asked to evaluate fall into that category. A...spent on subjects (reactionless drives, antigravity , space warps, etc.) that would normally be forbidden topics in a government contract. Since the PI has

  2. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  3. Inexpensive Complex Hand Model Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago the author unveiled his inexpensive complex hand model, which reproduced every motion of the human hand. A control system programmed in the Forth language operated its actuators and sensors. Follow-on papers for this popular project were next presented in Texas, Canada and Germany. From this hand grew the author’s meter-tall robot (nicknamed ANNIE: Android With Neural Networks, Intellect and Emotions). It received machine vision, facial expressiveness, speech synthesis and speech recognition; a simian version also received a dexterous ape foot. New artificial intelligence features included op-amp neurons for OCR and simulated emotions, hormone emulation, endocannabinoid receptors, fear-trust-love mechanisms, a Grandmother Cell recognizer and artificial consciousness. Simulated illnesses included narcotic addiction, autism, PTSD, fibromyalgia and Alzheimer’s disease. The author gave 13 robotics-AI presentations at NASA in Houston since 2006. A meter-tall simian robot was proposed with gripping hand-feet for use with space vehicles and to explore distant planets and moons. Also proposed were: intelligent motorized exoskeletons for astronaut force multiplication; a cognitive prosthesis to detect and alleviate decreased crew mental performance; and a gynoid robot medic to tend astronauts in deep space missions. What began as a complex hand model evolved into an innovative robot-AI within two decades.

  4. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  5. Affective and cognitive determinants of intention to consume twenty foods that contribute to fat intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Burema, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework to study beliefs and attitudes towards twenty foods that contribute to fat intake in a Netherlands smaple population. Subjects between 18 and 75 years of age (n = 419, response rate 23€filled out a self-administered

  6. Fast-food consumption among 17-year-olds in the Birth to Twenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Assessment of fast-food consumption in urban black adolescents. Design: The current research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Subjects attending the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) research facility at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg between September 2007 and May ...

  7. Sex-specific effects of subjective memory complaints with respect to cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sugawara, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Okubo, Noriyuki; Iwane, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints (SMC) and sex. We researched the prevalence of SMC in a sample of 394 participants who were at least 60 years of age (138 male and 256 female). We also administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis, which included SMC in association with the MMSE or CES-D scores and other confounding factors, was performed to determine the influence of sex on SMC. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The durations of education of male participants were significantly higher than those of female participants. MMSE scores for female participants were significantly higher than those for male participants. There was no significant difference in CES-D scores between male and female participants. Twenty-four male participants and 72 female participants showed evidence of SMC. The incidence of SMC was more frequent in female participants than in male participants. In all participants, sex difference and CES-D score were significantly associated with SMC. In male participants, MMSE score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. Both in female participants and all participants, CES-D score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. SMC varied by sex and were associated with the degree of cognitive impairment in male participants, while they were associated with depressive symptoms in female participants.

  8. Heights of twenty years old males of Friuli (Italy born between 1846 and 1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Breschi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the historical trend of heights of conscripts born in the province of Friuli in the years 1846-90. This work is dedicated to identifying the problems encountered when using enrolment lists and to proposing solutions which can, at least in part, correct these problems. Particular interest is posed in evidencing the very high importance of using homogeneous measurements and in introducing some techniques which have allowed us to render statures uniform and therefore also comparable over time. The results obtained bring to light some possible weak points of the series of Italian historical heights which has been used up to date.

  9. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonho...

  10. MALE OSTEOPOROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães; Guimarães, Mara Lucia Rassi

    2010-01-01

    As a result of population ageing worldwide, osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious problem in the western world. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with a significant burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. Although less frequent than in women, male osteoporosis is also a relatively common problem. Since bone loss and fragility fractures in men have been recognized as a serious medical condition, over the last two decades several studies have investigated a numb...

  11. Changes in stature during and after spinal traction in young male subjects Alterações na estatura antes e após a tração vertebral em homens jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALF Rodacki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal traction is a relatively popular procedure for increasing the intervertebral space by applying separating forces. The parameters of time and magnitude of the traction forces may influence the outcomes from this procedure and need to be investigated. The duration of the benefits derived from traction is unknown and needs to be determined so that physiotherapists can provide better and more effective treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between load magnitude and time during spinal traction in relation to stature variations. Traction effect duration was also analyzed. METHOD: Fifteen healthy male subjects (23.1 ± 5.77 years; 1.80 ± 0.17 m and 87.0 ± 9.6 kg were assessed under three traction conditions (0, 30 and 60% of body weight, BW of 42 minutes. Stature variation was used to determine intervertebral disc height variation. Stature was assessed every 7 minutes during traction of 42 minutes and every 5 minutes for 45 minutes after traction ceased. RESULTS: 0 and 30% BW traction produced similar gains (6.09 ± 1.89 mm, 5.70 ± 1.88 mm, respectively; p>0.05, while these were smaller (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A tração sobre a coluna vertebral é um procedimento relativamente popular para aumentar o espaço inter-vertebral pela aplicação de forças de separação. Os parâmetros de tempo e magnitude da força aplicada podem influenciar os resultados desse procedimento e ainda precisam ser investigados. A duração dos benefícios derivados da tração não é conhecida e precisa ser determinada para que fisioterapeutas possam prover tratamentos melhores e mais eficientes. OBJETIVO: Este estudo analisou a relação entre a magnitude de carga e de tempo durante a tração vertebral sobre as variações de estatura, bem como a duração deste efeito. MÉTODOS: Quinze sujeitos saudáveis do sexo masculino (23,1 ± 5,77 anos; 1,80 ± 0,17 m e 87,0 ± 9,6 Kg foram mensurados sob três condições (0, 30 e 60% PC

  12. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  14. A twenty-seven kilometre film

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the past two weeks, Bram Conjaerts, a Belgian filmmaker, has been touring the CERN sites and surrounding countryside conducting research for his new documentary. The film will follow the entire 27 Km length of the LHC ring, but unlike most documentaries about the LHC, it will take place mostly above ground! Bram Conjaerts during his visit to CERN.While working towards his film degree in 2008, Bram Conjaerts won an award at the International Documentary Festival for his documentary "Henri and the Islands", an anthropological documentary about the smallest village in Belgium. In an unlikely change of subject matter he decided to use the prize money to make a film about the LHC. "With the money granted by the Flemish government, I wanted to create a documentary about something adventurous and something that I did not know about, " explains Conjaerts. "I started doing research about the LHC and CERN and I came across the fantasy of...

  15. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  16. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  17. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Focal dermal hypoplasia in a male

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leni; Agrawal, Nisha; Hogan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare mesoectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by cutaneous, skeletal, dental, ocular and soft-tissue defects. An X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in male subjects has been proposed. Only around 30 cases of FDH have been reported in male subjects. Live born affected males are mosaic for mutations in PORCN gene . We present the mosaic pattern of FDH in a young boy. PMID:25386262

  19. Perceptions of eating disorder diagnoses and body image issues in four male cases in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Evelyn; Zainal, Kelly Ann; Touyz, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing number of patients presenting for treatment, little is still known about male eating disorders cases. The current study presents four male eating disorder cases presented to our specialized treatment facility in Singapore. Case presentation Cases 1, 2 and 3 are homosexual males in their twenties and thirties who presented with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Case 4 is a heterosexual male in his twenties diagnosed with binge eating disorder. All four cas...

  20. Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A

    1985-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men.

  1. Personal and practice profile of male and female ophthalmologists in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to study the practice pattern, personal profile, and work-family balance of male and female ophthalmologists in India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted through 41 point questionnaire sent to the members of All India Ophthalmological Society dealing with practice profile and personal circumstances of ophthalmologists. Results: Six hundred and twenty-two (8% responses were obtained out of 7723 invitations sent. A total of 452 were male and 170 were female ophthalmologists. Age group of 30-39 years was most common age of respondents (male 155; 35.3%; female 81; 47.6%. Larger number of male ophthalmologists (157; 34.7% worked for more than 9 h a day than female ophthalmologists (41; 24.1% (P = 0.01. Larger number of male ophthalmologists (229; 50.7% earned more than Rs. 1 lakh/month than female ophthalmologists (55; 32.4% (P = 0.00001 More female ophthalmologists (21; 12.4% than males (26; 5.8% said that they faced cultural, ethnic or gender bias at work place (P = 0.002. Forty-four (25.9% female and 54 (12% male ophthalmologists said that they often curtailed their work for family needs (P = 0.0001. Two hundred and fifty-two (55.8% male ophthalmologists and 78 (45.9% female ophthalmologists considered their profession rewarding (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Ophthalmology as a profession was considered rewarding by both male and female ophthalmologists. However, female ophthalmologists were curtailing their work for family needs and earning less than male ophthalmologists. Female ophthalmologists were also subject to gender bias at workplace. These issues need to be tackled to improve the work satisfaction of ophthalmology workforce.

  2. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  3. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  4. Cytotoxic potentials of thiocyanate administration on the liver of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence this study was performed to elucidate the consequence(s)of thiocyanate administration on the liver of adult male wistar rats. Twenty adult male wistar rats with an average weight of 234.5g were used. The rats were grouped into four (A, B, C & D) with five animals in each group. Group A represented the control and ...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.9 - Twenty acre lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION General Requirements § 1710.9 Twenty acre lots. (a) The sale of lots in a subdivision is exempt from the registration requirements of...

  6. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A

    2007-01-01

    ...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...

  7. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER NATO’S RELEVANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...belief of community, partnership and cooperation are essential elements of the advancement of self interest.5 In the era of globalization nations still...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  8. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families.

  9. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  10. Index to the Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. July 1956 - December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject indext for the twenty-first semiannual report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from July 1956 through December 1956.

  11. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323 samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72 age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8% infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%, Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%, Escherichia coli (4.3%, Micoplasma genitalium (4.0% Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%. Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%, Schistosoma haematobium (0.9% Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%, Human immune virus (2.7%. Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.

  12. Sex Hormones And Biochemical Profiles Of Male Gossypol Users In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of gossypol administration on sex hormones and biochemical parameters of male subjects. Twelve male subjects receiving 20mg daily gossypol at the family planning clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan were studied. Blood samples collected from the subjects ...

  13. Contact toxicity of twenty insecticides applied to Symmerista canicosta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline L. Robertson; Robert L. Lyon; Fay L. Shon; Nancy L. Gillette

    1972-01-01

    Twenty insecticides were tested by topical application on mixed groups of 4th- and 5th -stage larvae of Symmerista canicosta Franclemont. Four exceeded DDT in toxicity at LD50 but only resmethrin was significantly mor toxic. Most of the compounds showed unusually high toxicities. Twelve, listed in decreasing order of toxicity...

  14. Tradition and interpretation: Twenty-five attempted approaches - in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a collection of essays in honour of prof E Earle Ellis twenty-five scholars surveyed the present (1987) state of New Testament scholarship and presented their own contributions. The title, Tradition and interpretation in the New Testament, epitomises the paradigm by means of which the authors dealt with issues such as ...

  15. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part

  16. Management of twenty patients with neck trauma in Khartoum ENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck trauma is a great surgical challenge, because there are multi organ and systems involved. Objective: To study the clinical presentation, management and outcome of twenty patients presented to Khartoum ENT Hospital with neck trauma. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in Khartoum ENT ...

  17. University medical education in the twenty first century: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University medical education in the twenty first century: Challenges of social determinants of health and noncommunicable diseases. ... The challenge begins with an analysis of how the Medical Education that is offered at the graduate level prepares graduates in understanding the role of SDH in NCDs. Objectives: To ...

  18. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  19. Twenty Years of The Open University of Tanzania in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty Years of The Open University of Tanzania in the Development of Education in the Country: The Role of OUT in Improving Peoples' Welfare. ... of graduates from 1999 to 2010 has reached 8,830. Students graduating from OUT are engaged in different activities for personal and national socio-economic development.

  20. Genetic variation of twenty autosomal STR loci and evaluate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was of twofold. One was to determine the genetic structure of Iraq population and the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Twenty (20) STR loci and Amelogenin), ...

  1. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark......, are included at the end of the proceedings....

  2. Atypical odontalgia. A report of twenty-two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, R I

    1980-03-01

    The findings in twenty-two cases of a condition that causes pain in the teeth and gingivae are presented. Two cases are described in detail. The importance of recognizing the problem and avoiding unnecessary dental treatment is stressed. The most effective treatment appears to be reassurance and the use of antidepressant drugs.

  3. Globalisation drivers in the Twenty First Century | Ramakrishina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a global manager it is said that twenty first centenary offers an exciting and challenging atmosphere to work. Does it mean a big change in the way the business has been conducted so far as far or simply means a change in emphasis on certain ways. These currently, are some of the issues which are currently engaging ...

  4. Educational Technologies and Twenty-First Century Leadership for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents information on current aspects in the use of technology to improve student outcomes and engagement, prepare learners for their future and support educators in adopting new pedagogies for teaching and learning. Based on the authors' research of exemplary school leaders and reviewing literature on the use of twenty-first…

  5. Leadership Context for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an upcoming significant transition in the leadership of Americas community colleges and some potential opportunities and challenges surrounding this leadership turnover. Discusses some rewards of community college leadership and some problems that they face. Identifies some skills that may be necessary for leadership in the twenty-first…

  6. Factor structure of trunk performance data for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kuo, C

    2000-05-01

    To examine the factor structure of various measurements of trunk muscle performance for healthy subjects. A total of 22 performance scores were collected and their univariate and multi-variate relationships were examined. Extensive literature exists on the measurement of trunk performance data and the relationships between measurements but what needs to be collected to realize a true performance score remains unclear. Trunk muscle performance scores of 150 subjects (71 males and 79 females) were obtained on an Isostation B-200 Dynamometer. Twenty-two parameters measuring range of motion, isometric strength, velocity, and endurance on all three planes of motion were collected. The factor structures were constructed using Principal Components Analysis. Clear-cut factor patterns (explained 96.3% of the total variance) suggests that the five-factor structure might be valid and appropriate for this population. The major loading on each factor indicated that: Factor 1 could be labeled as a static strength measure; Factor 2 as velocity; Factor 3 as flexibility; and Factors 4 and 5 as fatigue-resistance. No single mode of measurement can provide a good representation of a total trunk muscle performance. RelevanceFor the realization of trunk muscle performance, clinics have to measure all modes of isometric strength, velocity, range of motion, and endurance. Care must be taken in eliminating any parameter.

  7. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  8. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    OpenAIRE

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the h...

  9. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  10. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  11. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  12. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Thomas; Schiffer, Boris; Zwarg, Thomas; Krüger, Tillmann H C; Karama, Sherif; Schedlowski, Manfred; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2008-06-01

    Although heterosexual and homosexual individuals clearly show differences in subjective response to heterosexual and homosexual sexual stimuli, the neurobiological processes underlying sexual orientation are largely unknown. We addressed the question whether the expected differences in subjective response to visual heterosexual and homosexual stimuli may be reflected in differences in brain activation pattern. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers, 12 heterosexuals and 12 homosexuals, were included in the study. BOLD signal was measured while subjects were viewing erotic videos of heterosexual and homosexual content. SPM02 was used for data analysis. Individual sexual arousal was assessed by subjective rating. As compared to viewing sexually neutral videos, viewing erotic videos led to a brain activation pattern characteristic for sexual arousal in both groups only when subjects were viewing videos of their respective sexual orientation. Particularly, activation in the hypothalamus, a key brain area in sexual function, was correlated with sexual arousal. Conversely, when viewing videos opposite to their sexual orientation both groups showed absent hypothalamic activation. Moreover, the activation pattern found in both groups suggests that stimuli of opposite sexual orientation triggered intense autonomic response and may be perceived, at least to some extent, as aversive. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Open Adoption Placement by Birth Mothers in Their Twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutter, Lynn B

    The purpose of this study was to summarize birth mothers' descriptions of unplanned pregnancy experienced in their twenties and how open adoption influenced their lives. Naturalistic inquiry was used with purposive sampling from one agency and telephone interviews of women who experienced unplanned pregnancy in their twenties and relinquishment through open adoption. Recorded, transcribed, and deidentified interviews were analyzed for qualitative themes. Fifteen participants judiciously weighed the open adoption decision. Over half parented other children prior to placement. Most knew they could not have parented this child due to life stressors. Placement was a hard decision, but ongoing contact with birth child and adoptive family was valued. Open adoption processes made them stronger by being happy that their child experienced family life with greater opportunities than birth mothers could offer at the time. Summarized themes used the acronym COMMITTED: C-care deeply about what is best for the child, O-ongoing open adoption: good and hard, M-meeting together regularly, M-moving on in personal growth, accomplishments, and milestones, I-independence from previous stressors or crises, T-transitions, T-therapeutic support, E-emotions, D-depression giving way to deepened strength and personal direction. Open adoption is reinforced as a positive resolution of unintended pregnancy for birth mothers in their twenties.

  14. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  15. Effects of a neurodynamic sliding technique on hamstring flexibility in healthy male soccer players. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Martín-Martín, Lydia; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2013-08-01

    To compare the short-term effects of a neurodynamic sliding technique versus control condition on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic male soccer players. Twenty-eight young male soccer players from Palencia, Spain (mean age 20.7 yrs ± 1.0, range 19-22) with decreased hamstring muscle flexibility. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: neurodynamic sliding intervention or no intervention control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) pre- and post-intervention. Subjects received interventions as per group allocation over a 1 week period. Data were analyzed with a 2 (intervention: neurodynamic and control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(1,26) = 159.187, p sliding technique can increase hamstring flexibility in healthy, male soccer players. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  17. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  18. Schizophrenia-The spirit possessed 23 year old male from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a twenty-three year old rural Ghanaian male suffering from schizophrenia and presenting as “possessed by spirits” is reported. Treatment, and outcome by physical means with chlorpromazine; and implications for further research are discussed.

  19. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglesang Jensen, Christian S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  20. Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose

    A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…

  1. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  2. Differences between Male Students' and Female Students' Perception of Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Joseph; Bass, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male college seniors' perceptions between male and female college professors. Subjects were presented with three variations of a scale designed to measure students' perceptions of university professors in general, female professors, and male professors. These…

  3. How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Donald; And Others

    Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

  4. Twenty Questions for Noël Arnaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren F. Motte Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Noël Arnaud, the president of the Ouvroir de Litterature Potentielle (Oulipo, discusses that institution's history, its literary aesthetic, and its goals. He offers art assessment of twenty-five years of Oulipian activity, in the course of which he touches upon notions which are crucial to the Oulipo's praxis: the fundamental analogy of mathematics and literature, the role of formal constraint in the literary text, and the mutual complementarity of scholarship in literary history and the practice of innovative literary experimentalism.

  5. A Study of Anti-Sperm Antibodies among Infertile Subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to evaluate the contribution of ASA to infertility in male and female subjects investigated for infertility and to correlate their presence with seminal fluid viscosity. Materials and methods: Two hundred and two infertile subjects: males (n=110) and females (n=92) irrespective of the etiologies were consecutively ...

  6. Histomorphological Effect of Zidovudine on the Liver of Adult Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZT) used as part of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for the management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on the liver of adult Wistar rats(Rattus Novergicus). Method:Twenty (20), adult male rat with an average weight of ...

  7. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding graded levels of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on genital tract morphometry and haematology of twenty 8-week old male rabbits weighing between 815 to 910g. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments viz: T (control), T , T and T with CLM inclusion ...

  8. Body composition and somatotype of male Zimbabwean league ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Quintana-Murci, Luis; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Gillberg, Christopher; Sponheim, Eili; Skjeldal, Ola H.; Fellous, Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities. 1 Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have f...

  11. Drosophila Male Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Gatti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila males, there is no synaptonemal complex and recombination does not occur. Thus, Drosophila male meiosis is a good model system for the analysis of achiasmate chromosome segregation. In addition, due to their large size, the meiotic spindles of Drosophila males are an excellent system for mutational dissection of the mechanisms of spindle assembly. Here, we describe the main techniques for visualization of live Drosophila testes and for preparation of fixed meiotic chromosomes and spindles.

  12. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  13. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  14. Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, D; Cantacessi, C; Testini, G; Lia, R P

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge about Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae, Steganinae), the intermediate host of the eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), is confined to experimental studies. To investigate the role P. variegata plays in the transmission of T. callipaeda under natural conditions, the population dynamics of these flies in the natural environment and their feeding preferences (on vegetables and/or animal lachrymal secretions) were examined. From April to November 2005, a total number of 969 (557 males and 412 females) P. variegata flies were collected weekly in a region of southern Italy with a history of canine thelaziosis. The flies were identified and dissected or subjected to a PCR assay specific for a region within the ribosomal ITS-1 DNA of T. callipaeda. The zoophilic preferences of P. variegata were assessed by collecting flies around the eyes of a person or around a fruit bait. Seven hundred and twenty flies (398 males and 322 females) were dissected under a stereomicroscope; 249 flies (158 males and 91 females) that died prior to the dissection were subjected to molecular investigation. Only P. variegata males were infected with larval T. callipaeda both at dissection (six, 0.83%) and with the specific PCR (seven, 2.81%), representing a total percentage of 1.34% flies infected. Interestingly, only males were collected around the eyes, compared with a male/female ratio of 1:4 around the fruit. This survey indicated that P. variegata males act as intermediate hosts of T. callipaeda under natural conditions in Europe. Both the zoophilic behaviour of P. variegata males on lachrymal secretions and their role as vector of T. callipaeda have been discussed as they represent a peculiarity in medical and veterinary entomology. The synchrony between the fly population dynamics and the biology of the nematode in the definitive host provides an interesting model for exploring the co-evolution of Thelazia spp. with their hosts.

  15. Civil war and male infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Inhorn, Marcia C; Hannoun, Antoine B; Hammoud, Najwa; Awwad, Johnny; Abu-Musa, Antoine A

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the long-term impacts of the 15-year Lebanese civil war on male infertility. Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history and risk factor interview data and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male cases and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. Infertile male cases were more likely than fertile controls to have lived through the Lebanese civil war and to have experienced war-related trauma (residence in bombing areas, participation in combat, injuries, kidnapping, and displacement from home). Cases had a 57% increase in their odds of exposure to civil war-related trauma. This case-control study demonstrates an association between the Lebanese civil war and male infertility. Wartime and postwar exposure to a number of potential reproductive risk factors-including toxins, injuries, and stress-is believed to be the main factor leading to this finding.

  16. Effects of activator and activator headgear treatment: comparison with untreated Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkkahraman, Hakan; Sayin, M Ozgür

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the activator and activator headgear encourage mandibular growth, and whether there is any superiority of one appliance over the other or if the resultant changes are due to normal growth. Forty-nine skeletal Class II division 1 patients were selected. Thirty-three (13 females, 20 males; mean age 12.52 +/- 1.42 years) were treated with an Andresen activator and the remaining 16 (7 females, 9 males; mean age 13.04 +/- 1.47 years) with an activator headgear combination. Twenty Class II subjects (9 females, 11 males; mean age 12.57 +/- 1.11 years) who had previously refused treatment served as a control group. Cephalometric landmarks were marked and digitized by one author to avoid inter-observer variability. Nine angular and 12 linear measurements were established and measured using Vistadent AT software. A paired-sample t-test and an ANOVA test were used to statistically evaluate the findings. The results revealed that both the activator and the activator headgear combination significantly (P headgear combination group. The resultant skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes differed significantly from those due to growth.

  17. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  18. In vitro Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggen, Erwin L

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) article "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy" (National Research Council, 2007) was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound. Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modeling tools for, e.g., system biology, physiologically based modeling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the twenty-first century.

  19. The Turn to Precarity in Twenty-First Century Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Jago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen several attempts by writers and critics to understand the changed sensibility in post-9/11 fiction through a variety of new -isms. This essay explores this cultural shift in a different way, finding a ‘turn to precarity’ in twenty-first century fiction characterised by a renewal of interest in the flow and foreclosure of affect, the resurgence of questions about vulnerability and our relationships to the other, and a heightened awareness of the social dynamics of seeing. The essay draws these tendencies together via the work of Judith Butler in Frames of War, in an analysis of Trezza Azzopardi’s quasi-biographical study of precarious life, Remember Me.

  20. Criminological psychology in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, David P

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to review key issues that criminological psychologists should address in the twenty-first century, especially in relation to why people become offenders, why people commit offences, and the link between explanation and the prevention and reduction of offending. It is important to explain between-individual differences in the development of criminal potential and within-individual differences in the commission of crimes. More research is needed on protective factors, on investigating which risk factors are causes, and on causal mechanisms linking risk factors and offending. Questions about situational influences on offending should be included in longitudinal studies of the development of offenders. Comprehensive theories of offending need to be developed and tested. More longitudinal and experimental studies need to be carried out by criminological psychologists.

  1. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  2. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  3. Globalisation and Social Imaginaries: The Changing Ideological Landscape of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred B. Steger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of prefixes like ‘neo’ and ‘post’ that adorn conventional ‘isms’ has cast a long shadow on the contemporary relevance of traditional political belief systems like liberalism, conservatism, and Marxism. This article explores how the thickening of global consciousness finds its expression in the growing capability of today’s political ideologies to translate the rising global imaginary into concrete political programs and agendas. But these subjective dynamics of denationalization at the heart of globalisation have not yet dispensed with the declining national imaginary. The twenty-first century promises to be an ideational interregnum in which both the global and national stimulate people’s deep-seated understandings of community. The essay also offers a rough outline and basic features of a new classification scheme that divides contemporary political ideologies into ‘market globalism’, ‘justice globalism’, and ‘religious globalism’.

  4. Changes of clinical outcomes and health care resources in moderate and in severe COPD treated uniquely with tiotropium 18 mcg od for twenty-four months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, R W; Bonadiman, L; Micheletto, C; Tognella, S; Turati, C; Turco, P

    2011-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and progressive respiratory disease characterized by incompletely reversible bronchial obstruction. The effects of current therapeutic options in early stages of COPD have been poorly investigated in the past, being this specific topic revamped by the results of recent secondary analyses from large international trials. To measure and monitor in real life the changes in main clinical outcomes and health care resources in patients suffering from mild-to-moderate and severe COPD treated with only tiotropium br. for twenty-four months. The population sample of the present observational retrospective study consists of 319 COPD subjects (214 males; average age 71.7 years ± 06 se) automatically extracted from the DataBase of the Health Care Institution. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥ 40 y; basal FEV1 50% predicted). Lung function; n. exacerbations; n. hospitalizations; absenteeism; n. GP's visits, and use of systemic steroids or antibiotics were checked during the observational period and mean values compared in both subsets with those of the twelve months preceding tiotropium br. (such as during other therapeutic strategies). T test was used for checking the comparability of groups, while ANOVA--Duncan test was used to compare the trends of all variables over time; p consumption of health care resources. The overall reduction in COPD morbidity was significant in both groups, but the improvement in FEV1 and in other main long-term outcomes observed in subjects with mild-to-moderate COPD was particularly significant and substantial (p natural history of COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  6. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  7. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  8. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  9. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male ...

  10. Male contraception: another Holy Grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Fern E; Goldberg, Erwin

    2014-01-15

    The idea that men should participate in family planning by playing an active role in contraception has become more acceptable in recent years. Up to the present the condom and vasectomy have been the main methods of male contraception. There have been and continue to be efforts to develop an acceptable hormonal contraceptive involving testosterone (T) suppression. However the off target affects, delivery of the analogs and the need for T replacement have proven difficult obstacles to this technology. Research into the development of non-hormonal contraception for men is progressing in several laboratories and this will be the subject of the present review. A number of promising targets for the male pill are being investigated. These involve disruption of spermatogenesis by compromising the integrity of the germinal epithelium, interfering with sperm production at the level of meiosis, attacking specific sperm proteins to disrupt fertilizing ability, or interfering with the assembly of seminal fluid components required by ejaculated sperm for acquisition of motility. Blocking contractility of the vas deferens smooth muscle vasculature to prevent ejaculation is a unique approach that prevents sperm from reaching the egg. We shall note the lack of interest by big pharma with most of the support for male contraception provided by the NIH. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  12. Critical Influences on Sexual Minority College Males' Meaning-Making of Their Multiple Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillapaugh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the critical influences on college sexual minority males' meaning-making of their multiple identities. Twenty-six cisgender males attending colleges and universities within the United States and Canada were interviewed and provided journal responses to specific prompts. Four themes emerged, including:…

  13. Trajectory of Adaptive Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in mentally retarded males with fragile X syndrome was longitudinally examined in 17 subjects, ages 1 to 17. Findings included relative strength in daily living skills and weakness in socialization only for older subjects, and significant declines in adaptive behavior scores from first to second testing for the older subjects.…

  14. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; pmasculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not representative to the general population. Self-reports of the participants were not validated by a clinical evaluation. The results suggest that male depression might also be highly prevalent in females, at least in university students. This can be explained by a growing social acceptance of aggression in women, by a greater

  15. Pseudocyesis in the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D L; Seely, T J

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of pseudocyesis in a male patient and reviews the literature in pseudocyesis in the male and female. Pseudocyesis is a rare psychiatric syndrome with only about 100 cases reported in females and three in males in the past 45 years. The authors suggest that somatic factors may play a role in the genesis of some cases of pseudocyesis by stimulating pregnancy wishes and interacting with these wishes to set up a psychophysiological interaction leading to the clinical syndrome of pseudocyesis.

  16. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  17. Twenty-Four Genes are Upregulated in Patients with Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, R; Turkyilmaz, Z; Sonmez, K; Kumas, G; Ergun, SG; Ergun, MA; Basaklar, AC

    2013-01-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital hypoplasia of the penis, with displacement of the urethral opening along the ventral surface, and has been reported to be one of the most common congenital anomalies, occurring in approximately 1:250 to 1:300 live births. As hypospadias is reported to be an easily diagnosed malformation at the crossroads of genetics and environment, it is important to study the genetic component in order to elucidate its etiology. In this study, the gene expression profiles both in human hypospadias tissues and normal penile tissues were studied by Human Gene Expression Array. Twenty-four genes were found to be upregulated. Among these, ATF3 and CYR61 have been reported previously. Other genes that have not been previously reported were also found to be upregulated: BTG2, CD69, CD9, DUSP1, EGR1, EIF4A1, FOS, FOSB, HBEGF, HNRNPUL1, IER2, JUN, JUNB, KLF2, NR4A1, NR4A2, PTGS2, RGS1, RTN4, SLC25A25, SOCS3 and ZFP36 (p <0.05). Further studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with expression studies in a large patient group will help us for identifiying the candidate gene(s) in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:24778562

  18. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  19. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  20. Understanding Patterns of Intimate Partner Abuse in Male-Male, Male-Female, and Female-Female Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Alexandru; McAfee, Scot; Homel, Peter; Jacob, Theresa

    2017-06-01

    Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA), a major social problem, can lead to mental health conditions and is implicated in 30 % of female and 5 % of male homicide deaths. We hypothesized that due to distinct relationship structures and power dynamics which are immersed in varying sociocultural contexts, victims of male-male, female-female and female-male dyads experience different patterns of IPA. Our objectives were: (1) To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of male victim-male abuser (M-M), female victim-male abuser (F-M), male victim-female abuser (M-F), and female victim-female abuser (F-F) dyads. (2) To compare patterns of IPA reported by the victims in these groups. Out of 397 subjects in the general population that attempted this Internet-based study, 214 English-speaking subjects were older than 18 years, had experienced IPA, and provided complete information for the analysis. Victims of IPA were screened and specific methods of abuse were evaluated. M-Ms were significantly more educated (70 %) than other groups. F-Fs experienced more abuse before age 18 by a parent or relative. F-Fs experienced the most physical abuse while M-Ms the least (p = 0.004). Physical abuse or threats of abuse in front of children was reported more in F-Fs (p < 0.01) and least in M-Ms. IPA patterns differ significantly with F-Fs presenting the most physical profile and M-Ms presenting the least.

  1. Developmental Topographical Disorientation in a Healthy Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, F.; Incoccia, C.; Palermo, L.; Piccardi, L.; Zompanti, L.; Sabatini, U.; Peran, P.; Guariglia, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of F.G., a healthy, normally developed 22-year-old male subject affected by a pervasive disorder in environmental orientation and navigation who presents no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A neuro-radiological examination showed no evidence of anatomical or structural alterations to the brain. We submitted the…

  2. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  3. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys ...

  4. The tuberous male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S; Gault, D

    2003-04-01

    Whilst tuberous female breasts are well described, the tuberous male breast is a very unusual variant of gynaecomastia. Two cases are presented, the development of the condition is considered and the surgical management is discussed.

  5. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  6. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  7. Subjective recovery time after exhausting muscular activity in postpolio and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, J C; Rodriquez, A A; Franke, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the time to subjectively fully recover after the performance of exhausting muscular exercise was greater in unstable postpolio as compared with stable postpolio or control subjects. Twenty-five unstable (those complaining of declining muscle strength) postpolio, 16 stable (those denying declining muscle strength) postpolio, and 25 control subjects performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensor (quadriceps femoris) musculature at 40% of maximal torque until they were no longer able to do so. Five-second maximal effort contractions were made every 30 s through 2 min after the time of failure was reached and then at 1-min intervals through 10 min after failure was reached. Subjects reported the duration of time required to subjectively fully recover from this activity. Choices of "less than 1 day," "1 day," "2 days," etc., up to "greater than 2 wk" were given to the subjects for their response. Analysis was by nonparametric ANOVA and appropriate post hoc comparison procedures. Unstable postpolio subjects reported a greater recovery time than either the stable postpolio or control subjects (mean +/- SD of 2.6 +/- 3.0 days, 0.6 +/- 1.0 days, and 0.7 +/- 1.1 days, respectively, P postpolio subjects than stable postpolio or control subjects. The cause for this finding is unknown and requires further investigation.

  8. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  9. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

  10. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in…

  11. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  12. Thyroid and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  13. Update on male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rajesh K; Rowan, Shon

    2009-06-01

    To review current options of contraception available for men and the recent developments in the field of male contraception. Current options for male contraception are the barrier methods such as condoms and the surgical methods such as vasectomy. Condoms are coital-dependent and not always reliable as they are prone to slippage and breakage. Vasectomy has the advantage of being coital-independent but is permanent. Recent surveys have shown that men want to be more involved in contraception decisions, and women trust their male partners to take an active role in this area. Nonsurgical steroidal methods comprising various derivatives of the androgens and their receptors are in various phases of clinical trials in men. The ideal male contraceptive should be coitalin-dependent, nonsurgical, reversible, effective, and should not alter androgen levels or libido. Several nonsteroidal molecules and vaccines are being investigated in animal models for male contraception. Male hormonal contraception may become a reality in the near future. Nonsteroidal methods including contraceptive vaccines targeting various molecules are an exciting proposition and are under investigation.

  14. Comparison of Occlusion Effect in Normal Hearing Subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meymaneh Jafari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most common complaints, particularly among patients with normal or near normal low-frequency hearing, is that their voice sounds "hollow". This is associated with "Occlusion effect". The aim of this study was to comparison of occlusion effect in normal hearing subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing test. Materials and Method: Twenty volunteers with normal hearing (10 male, 10 female, with ages ranging from 18 – 24 years were enrolled in this study. First, audiometric Bing test was performed in frequencies of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Hz. Then in real ear measurement, subjects were instructed to vocalize /â/ and /i/ for 5 seconds. Probe microphone was recorded the sound pressure in the ear canals. The degrees of occlusion effect unit were obtained for further analysis.Results: The means of occlusion effect were present in all subjects. There was no correlation between the results of audiometric Bing test and real-ear measurement. No significant difference was obtained between genders and monaural or binaural occlusion in real-ear measurement. But in audiometric Bing test, the difference between monaural or binaural occlusion was significant(p<0.05.Conclusion: The peak of occlusion effect varies significantly among hearing aid users, so the hearing aid must be tuned. Probe- microphone measures will assist in determination how much gain is enough, and where frequency- specific adjustments are needed.

  15. Acute ozone exposure increases plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha in ozone-sensitive human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Giri, S.N.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1989-07-01

    Twenty O/sub 3/-sensitive and /sup 2/O O/sub 3/-nonsensitive subjects participated in a study to investigate the effects of disparate O/sub 3/ sensitivity on plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha responses consequent to exposure to ambient O3 concentrations. Subjects were selected from a pool of 75 normal healthy college-aged males who had been previously exposed to 0.35 ppm O3 for 1 h at an exercising VE of 60 L/min. The selection criterion used was the observed decrement in FEV1 after the O/sub 3/ exposure: O/sub 3/-sensitive, FEV1 decrement greater than 24%; O/sub 3/-nonsensitive, FEV1 decrement less than 11%. Each subject was exposed to filtered air and to 0.20 and 0.35 ppm O/sub 3/ for 80 min while exercising at a VE of 50 L/min. These experimental protocols were divided into two 40-min sessions separated by a period of 4 to 10 min. PGF2 alpha, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were evaluated before, during, and after each protocol. SGaw and Vtg were measured before and after each protocol. Plasma PGF2 alpha was significantly increased in the O/sub 3/-sensitive group during and after the 0.35-ppm O/sub 3/ exposure.

  16. Perceptions of eating disorder diagnoses and body image issues in four male cases in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Evelyn; Zainal, Kelly Ann; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of patients presenting for treatment, little is still known about male eating disorders cases. The current study presents four male eating disorder cases presented to our specialized treatment facility in Singapore. Cases 1, 2 and 3 are homosexual males in their twenties and thirties who presented with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Case 4 is a heterosexual male in his twenties diagnosed with binge eating disorder. All four cases expressed body image dissatisfaction, fat phobia and fear of weight gain. Additionally, all of them sought treatment because of comorbid psychiatric conditions or parental wishes. Premorbid obesity and homosexual orientation may be potential risk factors for males in developing eating disorders. These findings suggest that more exploration needs to be done for males diagnosed with eating disorders, particularly in the Asian society. A deeper understanding into factors associated with symptom presentation and treatment-seeking behaviors would greatly assist in informing the direction and focus of treatment in the region.

  17. Reliability of the Tuck Jump Injury Risk Screening Assessment in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; de Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-06-01

    Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, de Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Reliability of the tuck jump injury risk screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1510-1516, 2016-Altered neuromuscular control has been suggested as a mechanism for injury in soccer players. Ligamentous injuries most often occur during dynamic movements, such as decelerations from jump-landing maneuvers where high-risk movement patterns are present. The assessment of kinematic variables during jump-landing tasks as part of a preparticipation screen is useful in the identification of injury risk. An example of a field-based screening tool is the repeated tuck jump assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-subject variation of the tuck jump screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. Twenty-five pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 25 post-PHV elite male youth soccer players from the academy of a professional English soccer club completed the assessment. A test-retest design was used to explore the within-subject intersession reliability. Technique was graded retrospectively against the 10-point criteria set out in the screening protocol using two-dimensional video cameras. The typical error range reported for tuck jump total score (0.90-1.01 in pre-PHV and post-PHV players respectively) was considered acceptable. When each criteria was analyzed individually, kappa coefficient determined that knee valgus was the only criterion to reach substantial agreement across the two test sessions for both groups. The results of this study suggest that although tuck jump total score may be reliably assessed in elite male youth soccer players, caution should be applied in solely interpreting the composite score due to the high within-subject variation in a number of the individual criteria. Knee valgus may be reliably used to screen elite youth male soccer players for this plyometric technique error and for test-retest comparison.

  18. The tragedy of the commons: twenty-two years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeny, D; Berkes, F; Mccay, B J; Acheson, J M

    1990-03-01

    The authors take up the hypothesis originally proposed by Garrett Hardin that resources held in common, such as oceans, rivers, air, and parklands, are bound to be subject to massive degradation. Specifically, they "examine the accumulated evidence pertaining to common-property resource management and provide a critique of the conventional theory expounded by Hardin." They conclude that recent evidence suggests that users of such resources are able to restrict access to them and establish rules among themselves for their sustainable use. excerpt

  19. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  20. Children's environmental health in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronczuk, Jenny; Surdu, Simona

    2008-10-01

    In the twenty-first century, the global burden of disease trends are the result of complex interaction among rapid industrialization and urbanization, unsustainable use of natural resources, and population growth. In addition, global environmental changes due to climate change, ozone depletion, desertification/deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and increased used of some biotechnologies are having an important impact on human health. Many other factors also play an important role in the population's health response to global environmental threats, including poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and infectious diseases. Worldwide, the burden of environmental disease is much higher for children than adults, especially in young children under 5 years of age. Quantification of the burden of diseases attributable to environment shows that environmental risk factors can contribute to more than one-third of the disease burden in children, a fraction of disease that could be prevented. Children are often exposed to multiple environmental threats combined with other behavioral, social, and economic risk factors. Many of the environmental health risk factors are shared among children's home, school, and community. Therefore, an integrated approach should be considered in order to create healthy environments for children. The promotion of safe environments for children has to involve decision makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), families, and various sectors including health, education, housing, environment, agriculture, industry, transport, and energy. Multiple initiatives have been proposed from collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information on children's health and the potential environmental threats to research, monitoring, risk assessment, and policies to improve the environmental conditions and ultimately children's growth and development.

  1. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  2. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects : Y chromosome in autistic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jamain, Stéphane; Quach, Hélène; Quintana-Murci, Luis; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Gillberg, Christopher; Sponheim, Eili; Skjeldal, Ola,; Fellous, Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities. Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have fai...

  3. Targeting the adolescent male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  5. The dynamics of male male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer Sylvia; Suefuji Masaki; Schrempf Alexandra; Heinze Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless ...

  6. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  7. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  8. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  9. [Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Anecy de Fátima Faustino; Hardy, Ellen

    2007-08-01

    To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same age group as them. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was carried out. Gender stereotypes were identified in which the role of leader, provider, and sexually active was stressed and the role of caregiver was rejected. These roles seemed consolidated especially in the subjects' perspective regarding paid employment as a marker of their male condition as well as of a family provider. Adolescents' leadership prevailed in the relationship with the mother of their child especially in taking initiative in sexual intercourse and the use of contraceptives. They considered that pregnancy was unexpected and happened "by chance". However, fatherhood was experienced as a definite evidence of their status as adult men. Male adolescents showed to be vulnerable to fatherhood due to gender socialization following traditional patterns. This was evidenced by the inexistence of roles related to self care and care for others, and early playing roles of male sexual dominance, of father and family provider in order to grow up and become a man.

  10. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2011-01-15

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing Male Mammary Maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentiman, Ian S

    2018-01-01

    This review examines the symptoms, need for referral and management of the benign breast conditions which afflict males, together with the steps that are necessary to exclude or confirm male breast cancer. The most common complaint is gynaecomastia, either true or pseudo, and the majority of these cases need reassurance without over-investigation. Drugs that induce breast enlargement are described in order that, when possible, a medication switch can be made. Men receiving endocrine therapy for prostate cancer may develop painful gynaecomastia and this can be relieved with tamoxifen. All men with breast cancer need mammography as part of their work-up but this should not be used as a screening technique for symptomatic males. Because of lack of lobular development, both cysts and fibroadenomas are very rare in men; but those with nipple discharge need referral and investigation as some will have underlying malignancy.

  12. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  13. Cumulative Index to Twenty Five Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The first twenty five semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through January 1959. In addition to the semiannual summaries, a series of special reports on important atomic energy programs were included in many of the semiannual reports. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports. Beginning in 1960, the Commission will be issuing annual reports, each separately indexed, ceasing the semiannual reporting.

  14. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  15. Ocular findings in adult subjects with an inactivating mutation in GH releasing hormone receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Augusto C N; Pereira-Gurgel, Virginia M; Salvatori, Roberto; Campos, Viviane C; Melo, Gustavo B; Oliveira, Francielle T; Oliveira-Santos, Alecia A; Oliveira, Carla R P; Pereira, Francisco A; Hellström, Ann; Oliveira-Neto, Luís A; Valença, Eugenia H O; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2017-06-01

    Ocular function is fundamental for environmental adaptation and survival capacity. Growth factors are necessary for a mature eyeball, needed for adequate vision. However, the consequences of the deficiency of circulating growth hormone (GH) and its effector insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on the physical aspects of the human eye are still debated. A model of untreated isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), with low but measurable serum GH, may clarify this issue. The aim of this study was to assess the ocular aspects of adult IGHD individuals who have never received GH therapy. Cross sectional study. Setting: University Hospital, Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Twenty-five adult (13 males, mean age 50.1years, range 26 to 70years old) IGHD subjects homozygous for a null mutation (c.57+1G>A) in the GHRH receptor gene, and 28 (15 males, mean age 51.1years, range 26 to 67years old) controls were submitted to an endocrine and ophthalmological assessment. Forty-six IGHD and 50 control eyes were studied. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refraction (spherical equivalent), ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous depth (VD), mean corneal curvature (CC) and central corneal thickness (CCT). IGHD subjects exhibited unmeasurable serum IGF-I levels, similar visual acuity, intraocular pressure and LT, higher values of spherical equivalent and CC, and lower measures of AL, ACD, VD and CCT in comparison to controls, but within their respective normal ranges. While mean stature in IGHD group was 78% of the control group, mean head circumference was 92% and axial AL was 96%. These observations suggest mild ocular effects in adult subjects with severe IGF-I deficiency due to non-treated IGHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  17. Premalignant Laryngeal Lesions: Twenty-Year Experience in Specialized Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Avila, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Premalignant lesions are considered both a hyperplastic and dysplastic stage of epithelial lesions in the glottic larynx that may or may not progress into an invasive carcinoma. The evolution of laryngoscopic procedures in outpatients has provided better access to important information for safe and easy diagnosis of laryngeal pathologies. Objective The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of the preoperative exam for diagnosis of premalignant laryngeal lesions and their connection with benign diseases of the vocal folds, as well as to assess their epidemiologic characteristics. Methods This is a retrospective and longitudinal cohort study performed through the review of surgical records of patients who underwent laryngeal microsurgery performed by a single surgeon from 1990 to 2009. Results Preoperative assessment of outpatients was 64.4% accurate. Vocal fold cysts were the most frequently associated benign lesions. The patients who apparently had premalignant lesions represented 10.57% of those who underwent laryngeal microsurgery. Premalignant lesions prevailed in men (69.49% age from 41 to 50 years (32.20%. Conclusion Although the evolution of laryngoscopic procedures in outpatients has provided better access to important information for safe and easy diagnosis of laryngeal pathologies, about one-third of premalignant lesions are diagnosed just during the laryngeal microsurgery. Cysts were the most prevalent concomitant benign lesion of the vocal folds. Males were more prevalent than females and the predominant age bracket was between 41 and 50 years.

  18. Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim; SMITH, KIRK R.

    2008-01-01

    The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) an...

  19. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain.

  20. Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes on spermatozoa from male partners of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Rosaria; Capra, Giuseppina; Bellavia, Carmela; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Scazzone, Concetta; Venezia, Renato; Perino, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in patients who attended a fertility clinic. Cross-sectional clinical study. University-affiliated reproductive medicine clinic. A total of 308 male partners of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization techniques. Specimens of semen were collected from all patients. Sperm parameters were evaluated according to the World Health Organization manual. The presence of HPV DNA was researched by the combined use of two HPV assays and a highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay followed by HPV genotyping. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis was performed. Results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and ISH analysis. Twenty-four out of 308 semen samples (7.8%) were HPV DNA positive, but HPV infection did not seem to affect semen quality. Moreover, ISH revealed a clear HPV localization at the equatorial region of sperm head in infected samples. Oncogenic HPV genotypes were detected on spermatozoa from asymptomatic subjects, but a role of the infection in male infertility was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  3. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Generational differences in male sexuality that may affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine generational differences in male sexuality, which could predispose men's female sexual partners to STDs/HlV. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety seven male adults aged eighteen years and above. Main outcome measures: Number of ...

  7. Lycopene and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  8. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  9. Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Twenty-eight Hatha Yoga Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sylvia J; Hager, Ron; Lockhart, Barbara; Seeley, Matthew K

    Adherents claim many benefits from the practice of yoga, including promotion of bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. However, no known studies have investigated whether yoga enhances bone mineral density. Furthermore, none have estimated reaction forces applied by yoga practitioners. The purpose of this study was to collect ground reaction force (GRF) data on a variety of hatha yoga postures that would commonly be practiced in fitness centers or private studios. Twelve female and eight male volunteers performed a sequence of 28 hatha yoga postures while GRF data were collected with an AMTI strain-gauge force platform. The sequence was repeated six times by each study subject. Four dependent variables were studied: peak vertical GRF, mean vertical GRF, peak resultant GRF, and mean resultant GRF. Univariate analysis was used to identify mean values and standard deviations for the dependent variables. Peak vertical and resultant values of each posture were similar for all subjects, and standard deviations were small. Similarly, mean vertical and resultant values were similar for all subjects. This 28 posture yoga sequence produced low impact GRF applied to upper and lower extremities. Further research is warranted to determine whether these forces are sufficient to promote osteogenesis or maintain current bone health in yoga practitioners.

  10. Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Twenty-eight Hatha Yoga Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILCOX, SYLVIA J.; HAGER, RON; LOCKHART, BARBARA; SEELEY, MATTHEW K.

    2012-01-01

    Adherents claim many benefits from the practice of yoga, including promotion of bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. However, no known studies have investigated whether yoga enhances bone mineral density. Furthermore, none have estimated reaction forces applied by yoga practitioners. The purpose of this study was to collect ground reaction force (GRF) data on a variety of hatha yoga postures that would commonly be practiced in fitness centers or private studios. Twelve female and eight male volunteers performed a sequence of 28 hatha yoga postures while GRF data were collected with an AMTI strain-gauge force platform. The sequence was repeated six times by each study subject. Four dependent variables were studied: peak vertical GRF, mean vertical GRF, peak resultant GRF, and mean resultant GRF. Univariate analysis was used to identify mean values and standard deviations for the dependent variables. Peak vertical and resultant values of each posture were similar for all subjects, and standard deviations were small. Similarly, mean vertical and resultant values were similar for all subjects. This 28 posture yoga sequence produced low impact GRF applied to upper and lower extremities. Further research is warranted to determine whether these forces are sufficient to promote osteogenesis or maintain current bone health in yoga practitioners. PMID:27182380

  11. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  12. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  13. No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavin Joanne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence supports that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lowered risk of chronic diseases included coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. One potential mechanism for the protective properties of whole grains is their antioxidant content. The aim of this study was to compare differences in antioxidant measures when subjects consumed either refined or whole grain diets. Methods Twenty healthy subjects took part in a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study. Subjects consumed either a refined grain or whole grain diet for 14 days and then the other diet for the next 14 days. Male subjects consumed 8 servings of grains per day and female subjects consumed 6 servings of grains per day. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of each diet. Antioxidant measures included oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC in blood, and isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in urine. Results The whole grain diet was significantly higher in dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, selenium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and cystine compared to the refined grain diet. Despite high intakes of whole grains, no significant differences were seen in any of the antioxidant measures between the refined and whole grain diets. Conclusions No differences in antioxidant measures were found when subjects consumed whole grain diets compared to refined grain diets.

  14. USE OF MALE METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION WORLDWIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Hardee, Karen

    2017-09-01

    This article analyses male contraceptive use, both globally and for developing countries. Shares of all contraceptive use due to males are examined, in the context of female use and all use. Patterns according to wealth quintiles are analysed, as well as time trends and geographic variations. Data are drawn primarily from compilations by the UN Population Division and from the Demographic and Health Series and subjected to relatively simple statistical methods including correlation/regression applications. Contraceptive methods that men use directly, or that require their co-operation to use, including condoms, withdrawal, rhythm and male sterilization, account for one-quarter of all contraceptive use worldwide. This represents 13% of married/in-union women. Both the share and the prevalence of male methods vary widely by geography and by the four methods, as well as by quintile wealth groups. With greater wealth there is an unbroken rise for total use; among the male methods, the shares of condom use and rhythm rise by wealth quintiles, while the share of withdrawal drops. The share for male sterilization is highest in the lowest and highest wealth quintiles and dips for the middle quintiles. The overall time trend since the 1980s has been steady at one-quarter of all use involving men; moreover, the share is about the same at all levels of total use. The female-only methods continue to dominate: female sterilization, IUD, pill, injectable and implant, again with great diversity geographically. In surveys men report less total use but more condom use, while females report more injectable use. For the future the male share of one-quarter of use seems secure, with little prospect of an increase unless concerted programmatic efforts are made to expand access to male methods and promote their use as part of a broadened contraceptive method mix.

  15. Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574

  16. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  17. Twenty Years of Ablative Photodecomposition (Industrial Applications of Physics Prize Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rangaswamy

    2004-03-01

    It was a little over twenty years ago that two groups, one in the U.S. and another in Hull, U.K. working independently, reported that ultraviolet laser pulses of nanosecond duration were capable of etching organic polymer films without any need for further development.In 1982, our group at the IBM Research Center which studied this phenomenon at 193nm named the process "Ablative Photodecomposition". Dyer and his group in Hull reported similar results at 248nm and 308nm in 1983. We also showed that the process worked well in the etching of tissue and had the potential to be of use in surgery since there was no detectable heat damage around the exposed area. These reports led to a burst of activity from numerous groups all over the world which has not slowed down significantly to the present day. The driving force behind the activity was and continues to be the potential for applications in several areas of computer hardware technology as well as in corneal refractive surgery. Today these applications can be said to be firmly in place and well-accepted. Strangely, the science behind the process is still a subject for serious discussion. The reason for this is the mix of physicists, chemists, medical doctors and engineers who have stepped into the debate. The result is a true 'Babel' which will be pointed out.

  18. Twenty Years of National Minority Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Tatalović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of policies towards national minorities in the Republic of Croatia in the past twenty years, with reference to the perspective of minority rights implementation. The topic has been analysed in relation to two independent variables – the influence of external factors, i.e. the international community, and internal political processes that have had influence on the realisation of national minority rights. Today, as a country and society on the eve of accession to the European Union, along with a legislatively developed and institutionally branched model of the implementation of national minority rights, we can not claim to have established permanent protection of their rights. The degree of national minority integration in society is the only true indicator of policy success in relation to national minorities. The goal of this policy ought to be complete integration of national minorities into public, cultural, economic and political life, but accompanied by the preservation of their cultural and national identity. The Croatian model has been set up in such a way, but the manner in which it functions will depend on the political will to implement it, the willingness of national minority members to be active subjects of social and political life, as well as on civil society and Croatian society as a whole.

  19. Male genital lichen sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barry Bunker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV hepatitis C (HCV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and Borrelia factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS and squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  1. Twenty-five years of airway research: personal thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Jay A

    2010-11-01

    The airway research presented for 25 years annually at the Transatlantic Airway Conferences is impressive! The imaginative Conference design, the quality of speakers, and the generosity of the sponsor are outstanding. The breadth of the Conferences is too broad for an objective review here. Instead, I offer some subjective thoughts by one who has observed the evolution of modern pulmonology. Pulmonology came late as a specialty. The National Institutes of Health deserves credit for recognizing the increasing importance of lung disease through its funded grants and changing the designation to the Heart and Lung Institute. The combined effect of enthusiastic young investigators and an increasing commitment from what was to become the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provided us pulmonologists with a jump start. Here, I note the importance of the emergence of modern biology in shaping evolving airway research, and our special opportunities because of accessible anatomic features of airways. My presentation of opportunities here in immunology and in signaling may be the result of individual prejudice! Cystic fibrosis was chosen for discussion because of the importance of cloning the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene and the limited novel therapies thus far, with a plea for new ideas. The gene was (brilliantly) cloned 2 decades ago, but insights that give rise to novel life-saving therapies are still lacking. I finish with accolades to those who seek to learn from a variety of sources, including artists; I am proud and grateful that I became an early convert from cardiology to pulmonology. It continues to be an exciting experience.

  2. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  3. Effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; Dewitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.

    1990-12-06

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases FVC and increases sRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airways responses. In the study the authors employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy non-smoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for one hour while exercising at 20 l/min/m{sup 2} (BSA). Prior to and immediately following exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and sRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300 ml bolus of a 0.5 micrometers triphenyl phosphate (TPP) aerosol injected into a 2 liters tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 liters of clean air was inhaled from FRC; at depth B after 1.2 liters; and at depth C after 1.2 liters but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW).

  4. Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal in Adult Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    end (females), euthanasia Subjects Subjects were 24 female and 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats obtained from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington, MA...stimulation. Brain Research Bulletin, 54(6),681-688. Rhodes, M. E., Kennell , J.S., Belz, E.E., Czambel, R.K., &Rubin, R.T. (2004). Rat estrous cycle

  5. Twenty-three-hour stay loop ileostomy closures: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, O; Bhalla, A; Simpson, J A; Gold, S; Hurst, N G; Speake, W J; Tierney, G M; Lund, J N

    2013-02-01

    In UK in 2010-2011, 4,463 ileostomy closures were performed (35,442 bed days) with a median inpatient stay of 5 days (Hospital Episode Statistics data). This seems anomalous when there are reports of 23-h stay colectomies. We present our early experience of 23-h discharge for loop ileostomy closures. A specific patient journey/pathway for 23-h discharge following loop ileostomy closure was implemented at a single UK institution between August 2011 and April 2012. Follow-up was by telephone contact 24-48 h postdischarge and by routine outpatient appointment, and patients were also provided with a 24-h contact point in case of emergency. Twenty-three patients were included (18 male patients; median age, 63 years; range, 28-78 years). Fifteen were discharged within 23 h. The remaining 8 patients were all discharged within 48 h of surgery. Four patients were readmitted with superficial wound infection (1), slight wound discharge (1), Clostridium difficile diarrhoea (1) and an anastomotic leak 8 days after surgery (1). Median length of follow-up was 3 months (range, 1-10 months). A specific 23-h discharge protocol for loop ileostomy closures is feasible and safe. Improved primary care and out-of-hours hospital support would have prevented both minor wound complications requiring readmission. The anastomotic leak presented at postoperative day 8 and would have occurred in the community even if a standard protocol was used. Additional patient information and support via stoma care have been introduced to build on our experience, and 23-h stay has been introduced as standard care.

  6. Twenty Years of Adult Congenital Heart Surgery: A Single-Center African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael A; Smit, Francis E; Brown, Stephen C

    2016-09-01

    Lack of data exists on the surgical management of adult congenital heart disease on the African continent. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical profile and surgical outcome of adult patients with congenital heart disease undergoing surgery in a single-center African study population. A retrospective medical chart review of consecutive adult patients (≥18 years) undergoing congenital heart surgery between October 1995 and December 2015 at our institution was undertaken. We described cardiac diagnosis, diagnostic complexity, risk profile, and surgical morbidity and mortality. Data were collected of 233 surgical procedures performed in 219 patients (45.6% males). The most common diagnostic category was septal defects (41.2%), followed by right heart lesions (17.2%), left heart lesions (12.4%), thoracic arteries (9.0%), and conduit failure (6.9%). Twenty-four percent of patients presented in functional class III or IV, and 46% of patients met the criteria for the simple Bethesda diagnostic class. Preoperative risk factors were identified in 19.8% of patients. Corrective surgery was performed in 71.7% of cases, reoperative surgery in 27.6%, and palliative surgery in 0.8%. Right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit placement comprised 53.1% of reoperations. The overall hospital mortality was 1.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 26.3% of cases. This study presents a detailed description of this emerging population in a developing world context. Our outcomes data suggest that adult congenital heart disease surgery is feasible in a Southern African tertiary referral center with low operative mortality and acceptable morbidity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. TWENTY-FIVE-GAUGE PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY IN COMPLEX RETINAL DETACHMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH GIANT RETINAL TEAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumawat, Devesh; Bhari, Anju; Chandra, Parijat

    2017-03-22

    To study the structural and functional outcomes of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in giant retinal tear-associated retinal detachments. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with giant retinal tear, who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy over a period of 15 months at a tertiary eye care center by a single surgeon, were recruited in this retrospective interventional study. Giant retinal tears were mostly traumatic (35.3%) or associated with myopia (35.3%) and occurred in young (mean age 25.7 years) males (94.1%). Most eyes had best-corrected visual acuity ≤20/1,200 (in 82.3%), foveal detachment (in 88.2%), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy ≤Grade B (in 82.3%). The giant retinal tear extent was more than 180° in 29.4% and the fellow eye was involved in 35.2% of eyes. All eyes underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with encircling band in 41.1%, perfluorocarbon liquid use in 82.3%, and endotamponade with sulphur hexafluoride (23.6%) or silicone oil (76.4%). At mean follow-up of 10.2 months, reattachment rate was 88.2%. Only 35.2% of eyes achieved final visual acuity ≥20/80 with a cause of poor vision being cataract, secondary glaucoma, macular pucker, and corneal edema. Twenty-five-gauge pars plana vitrectomy can achieve excellent attachment rates in eyes with giant retinal tear-associated retinal detachment. It can be as efficient as larger-gauge vitrectomy, at the same time retaining all advantages of smaller-gauge surgery.

  8. Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim; Smith, Kirk R

    2008-02-12

    The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). We conclude that ambient temperature affects the characteristics of human populations by influencing who survives gestation, a heretofore unrecognized effect of climate on humanity.

  9. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  10. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  11. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  12. The Overrepresentation of African-American Males in Special Education and the Effects on Self Esteem Based on Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, DeJuan Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In this twenty-first century there is a disproportionate amount of African American males in special education in the U.S. This is a factor happening day by day affecting the achievement gap between Black and White students, especially males. The purpose of this study is to point out factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African…

  13. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  14. Ethnic differences in thermal pain responses: a comparison of South Asian and White British healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paul J; Latif, R Khalid; Rowbotham, David J

    2005-11-01

    The expression and report of pain is influenced by social environment and culture. Previous studies have suggested ethnically determined differences in report of pain threshold, intensity and affect. The influence of ethnic differences between White British and South Asians has remained unexplored. Twenty age-matched, male volunteers in each group underwent evaluation. Cold and warm perception and cold and heat threshold were assessed using an ascending method of limits. Magnitude estimation of pain unpleasantness and pain intensity were investigated with thermal stimuli of 46, 47, 48 and 49 degrees C. Subjects also completed a pain anxiety questionnaire. Data was analysed using t-test, Mann-Whitney and repeated measures analysis of variance as appropriate. There were no differences in cold and warm perception between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups for heat pain threshold (P=0.006) and heat pain intensity demonstrated a significant effect for ethnicity (F=13.84, P=0.001). Although no group differences emerged for cold pain threshold and heat unpleasantness, South Asians demonstrated lower cold pain threshold and reported more unpleasantness at all temperatures but this was not statistically significant. Our study shows that ethnicity plays an important role in heat pain threshold and pain report, South Asian males demonstrated lower pain thresholds and higher pain report when compared with matched White British males. There were no differences in pain anxiety between the two groups and no correlations were identified between pain and pain anxiety Haemodynamic measures and anthropometry did not explain group differences.

  15. Serum Resistin Level in Obese Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Amirhakimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Resistin is a member of cysteine-rich molecules. Several studies have been carried out to determine the biological effect of resistin, nevertheless a significant number are animal studies. All the studies performed regarding the relationship between serum resistin and obesity were merely accomplished in women. To the best of our knowledge, there is no survey on the correlation of the serum resistin level and obesity in male children. The aim of the present study is to assess serum concentration of resistin in obese male children. Methods. Between June 2009 and January 2010, we enrolled 42 randomly selected obese male students (body mass index (BMI >95th percentile, age 15.7±1.5. Thirty-eight healthy age-matched male students with normal BMI (<85th percentile were selected as a control group for the purpose of comparison of the serum resistin levels. Results. Serum resistin levels were measured in obese and control group. No significant difference was found between resistin levels of the 2 groups (obese: 9.21±5.6 ng/mL versus normal: 9.83±4.3 ng/mL; =.582. There was no significant correlation between serum resistin level and BMI. Assessing the resistin level in male subjects was the distinct feature of our study. The outstanding finding of this research is that there is no correlation between serum resistin level and obesity. Conclusion. We have demonstrated that there is no correlation between obesity in male children and resistin level. Consequently, metabolic abnormalities of insulin resistance seen in obese male patients are not related to resistin.

  16. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  17. Male breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Ari-Nareg; Falardeau, Maurice; Martin, Ginette

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer. Data sources Articles, written in English or French, selected from the Medline database (1966 to January 2001), corresponding to the key words “male breast cancer,” according to the following criteria: covering institutional experience or comparing diagnostic and treatment modalities, and epidemiologic or general reviews. Study selection Of 198 articles found 50 fulfilled the review criteria. Data synthesis Risk factors included advanced age, a positive family history, Jewish origin, black race, excess exposure to female hormones (Klinefelter’s syndrome), environmental exposure (irradiation), alcohol, obesity, higher socioeconomic or higher educational status and childlessness. Gynecomastia remains a controversial factor, this term being used for both a histologic reality and a physical finding. Advanced disease is characterized by pain, bloody discharge and skin ulceration. There is no definitive diagnostic algorithm. Experience with male breast mammography is limited, and imaging is less informative for patients under 50 years of age. Fine-needle aspiration tends to overestimate the rate of malignancy. The commonest histologic finding is infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma. Treatment includes modified radical mastectomy, followed by cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluo-rouracil or 5-fluorouracil–Adriamycin–cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for disease of stage II or greater. Radiotherapy does not seem to add any benefit. The disease is highly receptor-positive; however, many patients discontinue tamoxifen due to side effects. The most important prognostic factors are tumour size, lymphatic invasion and axillary node status. Conclusions Because of the low incidence of male breast cancer, advances will be obtained mainly with the rapid transfer of newly gained knowledge in female mammary neoplasia. The increased use of adjuvant

  18. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    : the extra X chromosome of a 39,XXY karyotype introduces the possibility of an orange and a non-orange allele which produce the mixture of orange and non-orange coat spotting known as tortoiseshell. We analyzed the chromosome complement of a fibroblast culture and did histological examinations of testicular...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells...

  19. Projection of male fantasies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2013-01-01

    -war period. Advocates of women's athletics interpreted competitive sports as perfect tools for women's conquest of male territory, whereas supporters of female gymnastics considered athletics to be an antidote to the health-promoting and graceful essence of femininity. Agnete Bertram was one of Lindhard...... and was sometimes performed in Greek robes in the neo-classic building of the Carlsberg foundation to the accompaniment of classical music such as Mozart's sonata in A-major. This was well suited to the bourgeois women in their roles as aesthetic domestic angels....

  20. 77 FR 25781 - Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-first meeting of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft...

  1. 77 FR 50207 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...: Meeting notice of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft...

  2. 78 FR 6400 - Twenty Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty third meeting of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft...

  3. Digital Systems Supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Twenty-First Century: Guest Editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2016-01-01

    Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning, teaching and assessment towards offering unique learning experiences to the twenty-first century learners. This Special Issue on "Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in twenty-first century" aims to…

  4. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total disability for twenty years or more. 8.31 Section 8.31 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has...

  5. Preparing Students for a Twenty-First Century Global Workplace in an Era of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognetta, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to thoroughly examine a school district's plan for developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan for adequately preparing students with twenty-first century skills or the marketable skills students will need in order to contribute to the dynamic twenty-first century workplace while meeting federal and state…

  6. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  7. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  8. 76 FR 68117 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... September 8, 2011, a document concerning implementation of the Video Description elements of the Twenty...

  9. Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for Twenty-First Century STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Susan

    2010-01-01

    It has been over twenty years since the publication of reports calling for increased efforts to reform undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. There are more STEM classrooms today that utilize "pedagogies of engagement" than there were twenty years ago; however, these kinds of learning environments are…

  10. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  12. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  13. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  14. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  15. Transitioning Back to Maleness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B

    2017-12-20

    Thirty-one years after living full time as a woman, a 53-year-old skilled machinist returned to have therapy with me, a psychiatrist, because of a decision to return to living as a man. As our work together continued, I suggested to this would-be published novelist that others might benefit from his experience. This led to his posting an extensive account of his life in September 2016 on Gender Trender. Now living in good mental and physical health as a male, he has given me permission to discuss his initial presentation, my understanding of his motivations, and to reflect on the broader questions that his life rises for the field of transgenderism. This report describes regret, defenses against regret, and a dramatic 3-day catharsis followed by the patient's first loving relationship. He now ironically reflects that he escaped from the sensed inauthenticity of his youthful maleness only to create a felt inauthentic feminine social psychological state. The professional literature about the long-term outcome of the transgendered who do not have surgery is largely nonexistent in English. Anecdotal accounts, however, are readily accessible on the Internet.

  16. Imaging of male urethra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  17. Which one Enhances Muscular Performance in ACL Reconstructed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur; Baltacı, Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional knee brace and kinesiotaping on muscular performance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects who reached return to sport phase of the rehabilitation. Methods: Twenty (17 males, 3 females, Age: 24.7±7.1 years, Body weight: 74.4±12.0 kg, Height: 177.9±6.5 cm, BMI: 23.9±3.6 kg/m2) subjects who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by using hamstring tendon auto graft were included in this study. When the subjects reached the return to sports phase of rehabilitation which was 6th months after surgery, knee muscle strength, jump performance and balance tests were performed 3 times: bare, with knee brace and with kinesio taping. The order of the tests were randomized to eliminate the effects of fatigue and motor learning. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 180 °/s and 60°/s angular velocities. Vertical Jump (VJ) and One Leg Hop Tests (OLHT) were used to assess jump performance. Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) with anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral reach distance was used to assess the dynamic balance. When all tests were performed, the subjects were asked under which test condition they felt more confident. Repeated measures of ANOVA was used to analyze the difference among three test conditions (bare, kinesiotaping, knee brace). Bonferroni post hoc test was used for pairwise comparison. Results: SEBT posteromedial (PM)and posterolateral (PL) reach distances were found significantly different among three test conditions(PM: F(2,38)=3.42,p=0.04), PL: F(2,38)=4.37,p=0.02). Kinesiotaping increased posteromedial reach distance (p=0.03). On the other hand, brace decreased posterolateral reach distance (p=0.04). VJ and OLHT performance were also found significantly different between three test conditions (VJ: F (2,38)=3.44,p=0.04, OLHT: (F(2,38)=4.04,p=0.02). Kinesio taping increased one leg hop distance

  18. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after...... the lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  19. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  20. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin George

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40 and the second group (n = 98 reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7.The results show that 29% (n = 40 of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8 who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002 than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period.

  1. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gavin; Govender, Kaymarlin; Beckett, Sean; Montague, Carl; Frohlich, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40) and the second group (n = 98) reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7).The results show that 29% (n = 40) of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8) who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002) than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period.

  2. Evidence of familial nature of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, R C; Weinrich, J D

    1986-08-01

    We recruited 51 predominantly homosexual and 50 predominantly heterosexual men as index subjects for a family study of sexual orientation. The sexual orientation of siblings (115 sisters and 123 brothers) was ascertained in two ways: via interview with the index subjects and via interview of and/or mailed questionnaire to the siblings themselves. Index subjects' knowledge of the sexual orientation of their siblings was, for the most part, quite accurate. Moreover, heterosexual index men had about as many homosexual brothers as would be predicted given national prevalence figures for homosexuality, but homosexual index men had about four times as many homosexual brothers, although in both cases most brothers were heterosexual. There was no significant difference between the index groups in number of homosexual sisters. We conclude that there is a significant familial component to male homosexuality.

  3. Effects of cow's milk on reproduction in ICR male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Xia; Ebine, Naoyuki; Aoki, Kazuo; Kusunoki, Masahiro; Misumi, Junichi

    2009-04-01

    To study the effects of Cow's milk on the reproduction in male mice. Twenty-four male mice were divided randomly into two groups: milk group (M) and control group (C). Each mouse was given 10 mL milk per day from 4 to 16 weeks in the group M. At the age of 17 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed. Serum testosterone was decreased in the group M (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in weight of testes, seminal vesicle or adrenal gland of mice between the groups C and M. However, the weight of seminal vesicle decreased when expressed in g/100 g body weight in the group M. Epididymal sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and sperm head number were not affected by milk. Cow's milk has adverse effects on the reproductive system in ICR male mice. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific effects of milk on reproductive health.

  4. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  5. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  6. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23

  7. [Diagnosis of male anorgasmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavierre, Dominique

    2008-02-01

    Anorgasmia (anejaculation without orgasm) is defined as persistent or frequent absence of orgasm after a normal phase of sexual arousal. Delayed ejaculation is a minor form of anorgasmia. The prevalence of male anorgasmia was estimated in the ACSF (France 1993) and NHSLS (USA 1999) surveys to be 14 and 8%, respectively. The aetiological diagnosis of anorgasmia is essentially based on clinical interview. The risk factors for anorgasmia are usually psychological but can also be neurological and drug-related in some cases. In particular, alpha-blockers, often used in urology, and serotonin and/or noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor antidepressants fairly frequently induce delayed orgasm or anorgasmia. A psychological assessment should be proposed for patients with anorgasmia with no organic risk factor.

  8. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  9. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  10. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-07-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunities. In addition to a number of well-known, large public repositories, there are dozens of smaller public collections that differ in the range of species and strains preserved, field of emphasis and services offered. Several collections have converted their catalogues to comprehensive databases and synchronize them continuously through public services, making it easier for users worldwide to locate a suitable source for specific yeast strains and the data associated with these yeasts. In-house research such as yeast taxonomy continues to be important at culture collections. Because yeast culture collections preserve a broad diversity of species and strains within a species, they are able to make discoveries in many other areas as well, such as biotechnology, functional, comparative and evolution genomics, bioprocesses and novel products. Due to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol (NP), there are new requirements for both depositors and users to ensure that yeasts were collected following proper procedures and to guarantee that the country of origin will be considered if benefits arise from a yeast's utilization. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are extremely relevant to the current access and benefit-sharing (ABS) mechanisms; most research and development involving genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge will be subject to this topic. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity when Compared to Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfield, Lesley M.; McAnulty, Steven R.; McBride, Jeffrey M.; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J.; Austin, Melanie D.; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D.; Calhoun, Mason C.; Young, Juliane O.; Haines, Traci L.; Utter, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared to plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hr rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and twenty-six NCAA women’s soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10% and 6%, respectively) and females (29% and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition. PMID:26694503

  12. Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Zunic, Edita; Borovac, Aida; Ibertsson, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified. To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects. Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr). Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor

  13. Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min; Zhou, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases which comprises a group of small DNA viruses that infect both cutaneous and mucous squamous epithelia. Liquid bead microarray technology (LBMA) were used to evaluate 24 HPV genotypes in confirmed fertile and infertile males of North China so that the effects of HPV infection on semen parameters and relationship with male infertility could be discussed. A total of 1138 subjects were recruited in this study; 142 were HPV-positive (12.48%). Among 523 confirmed fertile males, only 35 were HPV-positive (6.70%), and two of them had multiple infections. Among 615 infertile males, 107 were HPV-positive (17.4%), and 29 of them had multiple infections. Infertile males had a relatively high HPV infection rate compared with confirmed fertile males. Sperm progressive motility (PR) and the normal morphology rate were significantly decreased in HPV-positive subjects. HPV-45, HPV-52, HPV-18, HPV-59 and HPV-16 infections were more frequently in infertile males. Hence, HPV infection is closely related to male infertility which will decrease sperm PR and morphology. HPV-45, HPV-52, HPV-18, HPV-59 and HPV-16 infection seems to be major risk factors.

  14. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  15. Estimation of stature from arm span of male Igbo students of Ebonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to predict the stature of Igbo male subjects from arm span. The height and arm span of 400 Igbo male students of Ebonyi State University whose age range varies from 15-40 years were measured and documented. The subjects were free from physical deformities that can affect stature or arm span.

  16. Social Environmental Conceptions of Male Homosexual Behavior: A University Climate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed university climate of 32 male homosexual and 32 male heterosexual undergraduates. Subjects completed the University Climate Scale, Alienation Scale, Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the University Homophobia Scale. Results revealed that homosexual subjects perceived measures of university climate as significantly…

  17. A Global Overview of Male Escort Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navin; Minichiello, Victor; Scott, John; Harrington, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This article details a preliminary dataset of global male escort sites to give insight into the scale of the online market. We conducted a content analysis of 499 Web sites and also measured traffic to these sites. Our analysis examined the structural characteristics of escort services, geographical and regulatory contexts, and resilience of such services. Results suggest that most sites are independent and not affiliated to escort agencies, and the majority cater to male escorts soliciting male clients, with a number of sites for female clientele and couples. These Web sites are dispersed globally, with Asian, European, and South American countries the major hubs in the market and a small number of large multinational sites based in the United States and Europe figuring as a major presence in markets. Although still subject to high levels of regulation in many parts of the world, the data suggest that male escorting is becoming more visible in diverse cultural contexts as measured by the number of Web sites appearing in public spaces.

  18. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of pollution. This is an indication that crime has taken over the society due to the economic situation of Delta state of Nigeria. ..... embark on education of his children so that they will not just have good jobs, but penetrate the oil companies in which ...

  19. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Oil has constituted a physical problem to Delta State and Nigeria as a whole. It is a serious impediment to survival among the indigenes of Niger Delta area. It has constituted nuisance which inhibits economic growth and endangers lives and property. It annuls indigenous participation in oil excavations to assure survival ...

  20. The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. This study suggests that there are differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral

  1. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  2. Ethiology of urinary tract infections in male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on data from 4317 positive urine cultures collected at S. Orsola, Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital of Brescia (Italy from 2007 to 2009.The patient group was heterogeneous and included in- and outpatients of both gender, ranging in age from 1 to 99 years. E. coli was the most frequently pathogen isolated in all the urine cultures independently from age or sex. Our findings differ from those of a similar study made in the U.S.A., where Enterococcus (Group D Streptococcus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in the urine cultures of the male subjects. These results suggest to maintain an identical empirical therapy in male and female because the most frequently isolated bacteria responsible of urinary tract infections are Gram negative.

  3. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  4. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  5. Ear canal papilloma in a 20 year old Ghanaian male | Adjeso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Squamous papilloma in the head and neck region commonly affects the skin, oral mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract. Ear canal papillomas are relatively rare worldwide, even more uncommon in the West African subregion. We report a twenty year old Ghanaian male seen with ear canal papilloma at our clinic in Kumasi, ...

  6. A Farewell to Innocence? African Youth and Violence in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles Ugochukwu Ukeje; Akin Iwilade

    2012-01-01

      This is a broad examination of the issue of youth violence in twenty-first-century Africa, looking at the context within which a youth culture of violence has evolved and attempting to understand...

  7. Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karen L. Mansfield; Lv Jizhou; L. Paul Phipps; Nicholas Johnson

    2017-01-01

    .... For some viruses, even the principal tick-vector is not known. It is likely that tick-borne viruses will continue to emerge and challenge public and veterinary health long into the twenty-first...

  8. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N.; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging

  9. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  10. Twenty-second Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-second semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1957.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Zheng, Y.; Fei, Z.; Pucci, A.; Mazzucato, E.; Večeřová, R.; Sedlářová, M.; Fellner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), č. článku e0170715. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tapetum-degeneration-retardation * male reproductive development * early anther development * differential expression * lycopersicon-esculentum * stamenless-2 mutant * abscisic-acid * arabidopsis-thaliana * brassica-napus * cell-wall Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  12. Models of «business twenty» governance: possibilities of optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. Prokhorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article investigates the activities and structure of the «Group of Twenty» (G20 main outreach group - «Business Twenty» (B20. «Group of Twenty» is one of the leading international economic summitry institutions, which has enough capacity to infl uence on the development and implementation at the level of global community policies. B20 aims at facilitating the development of sustainable economic growth which, in turn, would contribute to job creation as well as representation and protection of the interests of the national business communities in dialogue with the G20. One of the main B20 objectives is to make an impact on the G20 agenda and fi nal commitments, with an emphasis on the consolidated interests of the global business community as the main participants of the outreach group are business associations, CEOs of global corporations, consulting organizations.The approach to the B20 organization differs, for the seven-year history of the G20-B20 dialogue the permanent format has not been worked out and there is no unifi ed, rolling from the Chairman to Chairman mechanism of representation of the business interests within the «Group of Twenty».Analysis of different «Business Twenty» organizational models allowed to sort out the main elements of the institution entrusted with executive functions: Chairman of «Business Twenty», «Troika», Chairs and Co-Chairs of Task Forces. The investigation suggests possible ways of their optimization in accordance with the criterion of effi ciency which is defi ned by the engagement of business community in the process of recommendations development, ensure of the maximum implementation of the business-community recommendations in the «Group of Twenty» fi nal documents, possibility of a subsequent implementation of the assumed by «Group of Twenty» obligations.

  13. Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang YANG; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min; Zhou, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases which comprises a group of small DNA viruses that infect both cutaneous and mucous squamous epithelia. Liquid bead microarray technology (LBMA) were used to evaluate 24 HPV genotypes in confirmed fertile and infertile males of North China so that the effects of HPV infection on semen parameters and relationship with male infertility could be discussed. A total of 1138 subjects were recruited in this study; 142 ...

  14. Decreased alcohol consumption among former male users of finasteride with persistent sexual side effects: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwig, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    There is a robust literature in rodents, but not in humans, on the interaction between finasteride and alcohol, particularly as it relates to neurosteroids. Finasteride has been shown to reduce alcohol intake and suppress alcohol preference in male mice. This study examines the role of finasteride in alcohol consumption in humans with male pattern hair loss. The subjects were 83 otherwise healthy men who developed persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride, despite the cessation of this medication for at least 3 months. Information from standardized interviews was collected regarding medical histories, sexual function, and alcohol consumption before and after finasteride use. Of the 63 men who consumed at least 1 alcoholic beverage/wk prior to starting finasteride, 41 (65%) noted a decrease in their alcohol consumption after stopping finasteride. This reduction typically began before discontinuing finasteride. Twenty men (32%) reported no change in their alcohol consumption, and 2 men (3%) reported an increase in their alcohol consumption. For the 63 consumers of alcohol, the mean number (± SE) of alcoholic beverages/wk declined from 5.2 ± 0.7 before finasteride to 2.0 ± 0.3 after finasteride (p finasteride who developed persistent sexual side effects, 65% noticed a decline in their alcohol consumption as compared to baseline. This finding is consistent with finasteride's ability to modulate alcohol intake in rodents. Further research is needed on the central nervous system effects of finasteride in humans. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamain, S; Quach, H; Quintana-Murci, L; Betancur, C; Philippe, A; Gillberg, C; Sponheim, E; Skjeldal, O H; Fellous, M; Leboyer, M; Bourgeron, T

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities.(1) Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have failed to detect linkage on the X chromosome(2,3,4) and this approach cannot study the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome. In this study, we searched for a specific Y chromosome effect in autistic subjects. Using informative Y-polymorphic markers, the Y chromosome haplotypes of 111 autistic subjects from France, Sweden and Norway were defined and compared with relevant control populations. No significant difference in Y-haplotype distribution between the affected and control groups was observed. Although this study cannot exclude the presence of a Y susceptibility gene, our results are not suggestive of a Y chromosome effect in autism.

  16. Subjective sleep quality in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adult populations and can have a significant effect on daytime activities. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of sleep problems and subjective sleep quality in the adult population of Tehran, Iran. From an urban community of Tehran, a random sample of 3400 adult men and women were selected by a cross-sectional design. Using the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), subjects were interviewed face-to-face. There were 3114 completed questionnaires returned and analyzed. The mean age of the subjects was 43.57 (± SD 17.5) years. Overall 37% (95% CI: 35-39) of the population were categorized as poor sleepers. The PSQI > 5 showed 27% were males versus 35% among females. The global PSQI scores ranged from 4.20 ± 2.67 to 5.60 ± 3.74 for males and 5.03 ± 3.00 to 7.97 ± 4.31 for females by age groups. The difference across age groups for global PSQI score was significant in females (P rate of sleep complaints in this population-based study was high. Females, older adults, widows and separated couple were the most important risk factors for sleep disturbances.

  17. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    more cordial relationship among members of these ethnic groups and indeed other ethnic groups in ... And this symbiotic relationship between the oral .... But unlike Ezenwa-Ohaeto, Niyi Osundare also uses lexical repetition to mark transition from one stanza to another as illustrated in 'Daughter of the Word'. I invoke. Grief.

  18. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Ohaeto's The Voice of the. Night Masquerade and Niyi Osundare's The Word Is an Egg. Both writers draw a lot from their respective oral traditions, a phenomenon that is greatly manifested in the works under study. Thus, this paper holds that the ...

  19. Quantification of toy sword kinematics with male pediatric volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    While extensive research in toy safety has been performed, data is unavailable with regard to the kinematics of toy swords. To improve upon design criteria, knowledge of a child’s physical capacity is essential. The purpose of this study was to quantify the linear and angular velocities generated by children swinging toy swords. A total of 36 male subjects, ages 4-14 years old, each participated in one trial. Subjects were instructed to swing a toy sword as fast and hard as possible for ~10 seconds. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture subject and sword kinematics. Peak linear and angular sword velocities were calculated. A strong correlation was identified between age and velocity. The 8-14 year old males were not significantly different. The 4 year old males generated significantly lower velocities than the 8-14 year old males. The 6 year old males produced significantly lower velocities than the 10- 14 year old males. It was concluded that age had a significant effect on the linear and angular velocities generated by children. The trends observed within this study likely result from typical pediatric and adolescent development. By accounting for the physical capabilities of a specific population, toys can be designed with decreased inherent risks of injury.

  20. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  1. A study on male homosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R; Viswanath, Sudha; Elangovan, P; Saravanan, N

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual behavior carries a high risk of transmitting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ignorance regarding the associated high risk, indulgence inspite of no natural homosexual orientation and not using protective barrier methods can affect the sexual health of adolescents and adults. (1) To assess the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) having a natural homosexual orientation compared to those who had acquired the homosexual behavior initially under various circumstances (such as due to certain misconceptions, fear of having heterosexual contact, peer pressure, and influence of alcohol). (2) To assess the level of awareness regarding increased risk of transmission of STIs associated with homosexual behavior and regarding protective barrier methods. After obtaining consent from the subjects, questionnaire - based interview used for obtaining data for this observational (cross-sectional) study. (1) Of the 50 subjects, only about 25% had interest in homosexual behavior prior to initial episode. (2) About 50% subjects indulged in homosexual behavior due to lack/fear of having heterosexual contact. (3) About 60% subjects believed that homosexual behavior carried relatively lower risk of acquiring STIs and 68% subjects have had unprotected contact. (4) About 70% subjects had only acquired this behavior and nearly 60% subjects were interested in heterosexual marriage and not interested in further homosexual behavior. (1) Homosexuality is a natural orientation in some and an acquired behavior in the rest. (2) If homosexual behavior is acquired, due to misconceptions, then imparting sex education and awareness regarding involved risks, and the importance of protective barrier methods will prevent ignorance driven behavior. For those with natural homosexual orientation, the importance of protective barrier methods in homosexual behavior needs emphasis.

  2. Maxillofacial Fractures: Twenty Years of Study in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Sejfija, Osman; Salihu, Sami; Gjinolli, Fellanza; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta

    2013-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this study was to analyze maxillofacial region fractures during the past 20 years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina. Methods: We have analyzed the histories of all patients with trauma who were hospitalized in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina since the opening of the clinic in 1983 through 2005. Narrowing the subject of our research, we concentrated on fractures of the maxillofacial region treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery for the period 2001–2005. We have analyzed those fractures and compared them with the period from 1983 to 2005 only when it was reasonable. Results: During this period, 1,945 patients were treated for trauma in the maxillofacial region by the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery. This group included 19.8% females and 80.2% males. The largest age group were those between 20 and 20 years of age. Causes of trauma for both periods were predominantly traffic accidents; however, during the period 2001-2005, interpersonal conflicts were increasingly the cause of fractures. Conclusion: Interpersonal conflict as a cause of maxillofacial trauma has risen in recent years. With this increase the methods of treating fractures in this region are also changing. PMID:24167433

  3. Acceptability and feasibility of smartphone–assisted twenty-four-hour recalls in the Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiajie; Song, Jun; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yao, Chunxia; Ma, Jianhong; Huang, Cuihua; Zhu, Zhenni; Smith, Lindsey P.; Du, Shufa; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Popkin, Barry M.; Zou1, Shurong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the acceptability and feasibility of using smartphone technology to assess beverage intake and evaluate whether the feasibility of smartphone use is greater amongst key subpopulations. Design An acceptability and feasibility study of recording the video dietary record, the acceptability of the ecological momentary assessment (EMA), wearing smartphones and whether the videos helped participants recall intake after a cross-over validation study. Setting Rural and urban area in Shanghai, China. Subjects 110 healthy adults (20-40 years old). Results Most participants reported that the phone was acceptable in most aspects, including that videos were easy to use (70%), helped with recalls (77%), EMA reminders helped them record intake (75%), and apps were easy to understand (85%). However, 49% of the participants reported that they had trouble remembering to take videos of the beverages before consumption or 46% felt embarrassed taking videos in front of others. Moreover, 72% reported that the EMA reminders affected their consumption. When assessed overall acceptability of using smartphone, 72% of the participants were favorable responders. There were no statistically significant differences in overall acceptability for overweight vs. normal weight or for rural vs. urban residents. However, we did find that the overall acceptability was higher for males (81%) than females (61%, p=0.017). Conclusions Our study did not find smartphone technology helped with dietary assessments in Chinese population. However, simpler approaches, such as using photographs instead of videos, may be more feasible for enhancing 24-hour dietary recalls. PMID:25857612

  4. Biochemical and histopathological changes of subacute cadmium intoxication in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rasha M; Awadin, Walaa F

    2017-11-01

    Biochemical and histopathological effects of subacute intoxication of rats with cadmium (Cd) were studied in rats. Twenty adult healthy male albino rats were randomly divided into two duplicate groups (five rats in each cage); (1) control group where rats were provided with standard diet and water ad-libitum, (2) Cd group where rats were subjected to freshly prepared Cd chloride solution (CdCl2) 200 mg/l in drinking water daily for 8 weeks, the whole duration of experiment. Blood samples were obtained after 4 weeks, via retro-orbital bleeding for separation of serum. Five rats were killed, each sacrifice by decapitation for collection of kidneys and heart. Disturbed renal and cardiac functions were achieved after 4 weeks as indicated by the increase of most biochemical parameters measured in the serum, renal, and cardiac tissues. Histopathological examination of kidneys and hearts showed pathological alterations in Cd-intoxicated rats after 4 and 8 weeks with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome stains. It was concluded that subacute exposure of rats to Cd (200 mg/l) in drinking water daily induced glomerular shrinkage, focal renal, and cardiac fibrosis at 4 and 8 weeks.

  5. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  6. Medical treatment of male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A Dabaja; Schlegel, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    The majority of male infertility is idiopathic. However, there are multiple known causes of male infertility, and some of these causes can be treated medically with high success rates. In cases of idiopathic or genetic causes of male infertility, medical management is typically empirical; in most instances medical therapy represents off-label use that is not specifically approved by the FDA. Understanding the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the effect of estrogen excess is criti...

  7. Skeletal pattern in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almăşan, Oana Cristina; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Almăşan, Horea Artimoniu; Bran, Simion; Lascu, Liana; Iancu, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2013-02-21

    To establish the skeletal pattern in subjects with malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders (TMD); to assess the relationship between craniofacial skeletal structures and TMD in subjects with malocclusions. Sixty-four subjects with malocclusions, over 18 years of age, were included in the study. Temporomandibular disorders were clinically assessed according to the Helkimo Anamnestic Index. Subjects underwent a lateral cephalogram. Subjects were grouped according to the sagittal skeletal pattern (ANB angle) into class I, II and III. Parametric Student tests with equal or unequal variations were used (variations were previously tested with Levene test). Twenty-four patients with TMD (experimental sample); 40 patients without TMD (control group); interincisal angle was higher in class I and II (p < 0.05) experimental subjects; overjet was larger in experimental subjects; midline shift and Wits appraisal were broader in the experimental group in all three classes. In class III subjects, the SNB angle was higher in the experimental group (p = 0.01). Joint noises followed by reduced mandible mobility, muscular pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain were the most frequent symptoms in subjects with TMD and malocclusions. Temporomandibular joint status is an important factor to consider when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with severe malocclusions; midline shift, large overjet and deep overbite have been associated with signs and symptoms of TMD.

  8. Effect of Head Elevation on Passive Upper Airway Collapsibility in Normal Subjects under Propofol Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Background Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Method Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: Fixed-jaw or Free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood concentration constant at a target level between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, & 9 cm). We measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion and jaw opening within each group. Results In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased as with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ −7 cmH2O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared to the baseline position (PCRIT ~ −3 cmH2O at 0 cm elevation; P elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia. PMID:21701378

  9. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan R; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-08-01

    Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: fixed-jaw or free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood at a constant target concentration between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, and 9 cm). The authors measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion, and jaw opening within each group. In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ -7 cm H₂O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared with the baseline position (PCRIT ~ -3 cm H₂O at 0 cm elevation; P Elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia.

  10. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  11. The effect of dairy and nondairy beverages consumed with high glycemic cereal on subjective appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marron; Huot, Pedro S P; Lee, Ying Ti; Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effect of dairy and nondairy beverages when consumed with carbohydrate at breakfast on subjective appetite, food intake (FI), and postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy young adults. Twenty-six healthy males and females (13 males and 13 females; 23.0 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.3 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study. They consumed nonisocaloric amounts (250 mL) of almond beverage, soy beverage, 1% fat milk, yogurt beverage, and water (control) with cereal and 120 min later, an ad libitum meal. Subjective appetite, PPG, and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals before and after the meal at which FI was measured. Post-treatment blood glucose was lowest following soy beverage compared with all treatments but was not different from milk (p = 0.0002). There were no differences between any other treatments. However, over the first hour, PPG for all treatments was 27% lower compared with water (p beverage led to the highest insulin concentrations post-treatment (p beverage (p beverages consumed with a high glycemic cereal at breakfast increased satiety and decreased FI compared with water with cereal. Despite higher carbohydrate content, all beverages led to similar or lower PPG than the water breakfast, but dairy beverages increased insulin more than nondairy beverages.

  12. BITE FORCE EVALUATION IN SUBJECTS WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Renata Sipert; Ana Claudia Martins Sampaio; Inge Elly Kiemle Trindade; Alceu Sérgio Trindade Junior

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years) and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years). Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (in...

  13. Bite force evaluation in subjects with cleft lip and palate

    OpenAIRE

    Sipert, Carla Renata; Sampaio,Ana Claudia Martins; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle; TRINDADE JUNIOR, Alceu Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years) and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years). Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (in...

  14. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific ?

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Chanal; Frédéric Guay

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the ...

  15. Feminist Physics Education: Deconstructed Physics and Students' Multiple Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammula, Diane Crenshaw

    Physics is one of the least diverse sciences; in the U.S. in 2010, only 21% of bachelors degrees in physics were awarded to women, 2.5% to African Americans, and 4% to Hispanic Americans (AIP, 2012). Though physics education reform efforts supporting interactive engagement have doubled students' learning gains (Hake, 1998), gender and race gaps persist (Brewe et al., 2010; Kost, Pollock, & Finkelstein, 2009). When students' subjectivities align with presentations of physics, they are more likely to develop positive physics identities (Hughes, 2001). However, both traditional and reformed physics classrooms may present physics singularly as abstract, elite, and rational (Carlone, 2004). Drawing from feminist science, I argue that binaries including abstract / concrete, elite / accessible, and rational / emotional are hierarchal and gendered, raced and classed. The words on the left define conventional physics and are associated with middle class white masculinity, while the words on the right are associated with femininity or other, and are often missing or delegitimized in physics education, as are females and minorities. To conceptualize a feminist physics education, I deconstructed these binaries by including the words on the right as part of doing physics. I do not imply that women and men think differently, but that broadening notions of physics may allow a wider range of students to connect with the discipline. I used this conceptual framework to modify a popular reformed physics curriculum called Modeling Instruction (Hestenes, 1987). I taught this curriculum at an urban public college in an introductory physics course for non-science majors. Twenty-three students of diverse gender, race, ethnic, immigrant and class backgrounds enrolled. I conducted an ethnography of the classroom to learn how students negotiate their subjectivities to affiliate with or alienate from their perceptions of physics, and to understand how classroom experiences exacerbate or

  16. PET/CT with 18F-choline: Physiological whole bio-distribution in male and female subjects and diagnostic pitfalls on 1000 prostate cancer patients: 18F-choline PET/CT bio-distribution and pitfalls. A southern Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Cicciò, Carmelo; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Gullà, Domenico; Rocca, Federico; Gallo, Gianpasquale; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-08-01

    The 11C/18F-choline is a PET/CT radiopharmaceutical useful in detecting tumors with high lipogenesis. 11C/18F-choline uptake can occur in physiological conditions or tumors. The knowledge of its bio-distribution is essential to recognize physiologic variants or diagnostic pitfalls. Moreover, few information are available on the bio-distribution of this tracer in female patients. Our aim was to discuss some documented 18F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in prostate cancer patients. Our secondary aim was to describe the 18F-choline bio-distribution in the female body. We collected diagnostic pitfalls in three PET centers examining 1000 prostate cancer by 18F-choline PET/CT. All pitfalls were ensured by follow-up, imaging and/or histology. We also performed whole body 18F-choline PET/CT in 5 female patients. 169/1000 (16.9%) patients showed pitfalls not owing to prostate cancer. These findings were due to inflammation, benign tumors while, in 1% of examined patients, a concomitant neoplasm was found. In the female body, the breast showed low physiological uptake. The accurate knowledge of 18F-choline PET/CT bio-distribution and diagnostic pitfalls is essential. Correlative imaging and histological exam are often necessary to depict pitfalls. In women, the uptake in the breast is due to the physiological gradient of 18F-choline uptake in the exocrine glands. Our results confirm the possibility of 18F-choline uptake in several diseases other than prostate cancer. However, our experience was acquired on a large population and shows that a conspicuous amount of 18F-choline diagnostic pitfalls are easily recognizable and attributable to inflammation. A new advance in knowledge is the minimal difference in terms of physiological tracer bio-distribution between male and female patients. The knowledge of the physiological bio-distribution and of the potential pitfalls linked of a tracer could help physicians to choose the best diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for a better

  17. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  18. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  19. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  20. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  1. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  2. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior.

  3. Effect of Antiandrogen, Aromatase Inhibitor, and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog on Adult Height in Familial Male Precocious Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschek, Ellen Werber; Flor, Armando C; Bryant, Joy C; Jones, Janet V; Barnes, Kevin M; Cutler, Gordon B

    2017-11-01

    Antiandrogen, aromatase inhibitor, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) treatment normalizes growth rate and bone maturation and increases predicted adult height (AH) in boys with familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP). To evaluate the effect of long-term antiandrogen, aromatase inhibitor, and GnRHa on AH, boys with FMPP who were treated were followed to AH. Twenty-eight boys with FMPP, referred to the National Institutes of Health, were started on antiandrogen and aromatase inhibitor at 4.9 ± 1.5 years of age; GnRHa was added at 6.9 ± 1.5 years of age. Treatment was discontinued at 12.2 ± 0.5 years of age (bone age, 14.4 ± 1.3). AH was assessed at 16.4 ± 1.3 years of age (bone age, 18.5 ± 0.6). AH (mean ± SD) for all treated subjects was 173.6 ± 6.8 cm (-0.4 ± 1.0 SD relative to adult US males). For 25 subjects with pretreatment predicted AH, AH significantly exceeded predicted AH at treatment onset (173.8 ± 6.9 vs 164.9 ± 10.7 cm; P < .001), but fell short of predicted AH at treatment discontinuation (177.3 ± 9.0 cm; P < .001). For 11 subjects with maternal or sporadic inheritance, the mean AH was 3.1 cm (0.4 SD score) below sex-adjusted midparental height (175.4 ± 5.8 vs 178.5 ± 3.1 cm [midparental height]; P = .10). For 16 subjects with affected and untreated fathers, AH was significantly greater than fathers' AH (172.8 ± 7.4 vs 168.8 ± 7.2 cm; P < .05). Long-term treatment with antiandrogen, aromatase inhibitor, and GnRHa in boys with FMPP results in AH modestly below sex-adjusted midparental height and within the range for adult males in the general population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Double-Blinded, Vehicle-Controlled Proof of Concept Study to Investigate the Recurrence of Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Acne Lesions Using Tretinoin Gel (Microsphere 0.04% in Male Patients after Oral Isotretinoin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Vender

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although isotretinoin orally is commonly used for moderate to severe or scarring acne, it is not a cure. Unfortunately recurrence is unpredictable and varies within the acne population. Objectives. Using a proof of concept study, determine the recurrence of acne after isotretinoin use in male patients. Methods. Twenty males aged 18–45 years old were enrolled. Subjects successfully completed a treatment of acne vulgaris with oral isotretinoin (120–150 mg/kg/course. Subjects were randomized 1 to 1. The study duration was 24 weeks. The primary endpoint measured was the absolute change in lesion counts from baseline to weeks 16 and 24. Local tolerability assessments were measured. Results. There were favorable changes in all outcomes measured. Overall, there was a 38.7% lower lesion count with tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel use versus vehicle. The active product was well tolerated with great patient satisfaction. There were no significant safety issues. The limitations included the low number of patients enrolled, average age, and percentage of patients lost to follow-up. Conclusion. In summary, the results favored tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel in the prevention of recurrent acne after isotretinoin use in male patients over 18 years old over a six-month period.

  5. Interexaminer reliability of the electromagnetic radiation receiver for determining lumbar spinal joint dysfunction in subjects with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, H.A.; Jacobson, B.H.; Edwards, S.W.; Heng, B.J.

    1990-03-01

    Twenty subjects (6 male, 14 female) with low back pain were examined by two experienced and licensed chiropractic doctors (E1 and E2). Both examiners examined the patients using a Toftness Electromagnetic Radiation Receiver (EMRR) and by manual palpation (MP) of the spinous processes. Interexaminer reliability was calculated at three sites (L3, L4, L5) for the following combinations: (a) E1,MP--E2,MP; (b) E1,EMRR--E2,EMRR; (c) E1,MP--E2,EMRR; and (d) E2,MP--E1,EMRR, and intraexaminer reliability was calculated for the following variables: (e) E1,MP--E1,EMRR; and (f) E2,MP--E2,EMRR. Results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for interexaminer reliability of the stated combinations and at the specific sites were: (a) -0.071, 0.400, 0.200; (b) -0.013, 0.100, -0.120; (c) 0.286, 0.300, 0.200; (d) -0.081, 0.000, 0.048. These results predominantly indicate a poor to fair interexaminer reliability. The results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for intraexaminer reliability of the stated combinations were: (e) 0.111, 0.400, 0.737; (f) 0.000, 0.100, 0.368. These results indicate a poor to fair reliability. It was concluded that in subjects with low back pain the EMRR may not be a reliable indicator of spinal joint dysfunction.

  6. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  7. Immediate effects of hamstring muscle stretching on pressure pain sensitivity and active mouth opening in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretischwerdt, Cristina; Rivas-Cano, Luis; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the immediate effect of hamstring muscle stretching on pressure pain sensitivity over the masseter and the upper trapezius muscles and maximum active mouth opening in healthy subjects. One hundred twenty volunteers, 70 males and 50 females, between the ages of 22 and 47, were randomly divided into 3 groups: group 1 (control group) that did not receive any intervention, group 2 where a unilateral hamstring muscle stretching was applied, and group 3 where a bilateral stretching was applied. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally assessed over the masseter and upper trapezius muscles pre- and 5 minutes posttreatment by an assessor blinded to group assignment. Maximum mouth opening was also assessed pre- and 5 minutes posttreatment. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the effects of the intervention. The primary analysis was the group x time interaction. The ANOVA revealed significant group x time interaction for changes in PPTs over the upper trapezius (F = 4.5; P = .01) and masseter (F = 6.3; P = .002) muscles. Pre-post effect sizes were moderate (0.5 >d > 0.7) for both stretching groups and negative (d 0.7) for both stretching groups and negative (d stretching of the hamstring musculature produced an immediate increase in PPTs over both masseter and upper trapezius muscles in healthy subjects. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  9. Male parentage in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    In most social insects workers do not mate, but have retained the ability to produce haploid eggs that can develop into viable male offspring. Under what circumstances this reproductive potential is realized and how the ensuing worker-queen conflict over male production is resolved, is an area...

  10. Latino Males in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  11. Stress Reactivity in Male Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; Fleming, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Measured heart rate reactivity of typical sample of male undergraduates. Found cardiac reactivity of undergraduate males in response to a stressor task was not a function of success at or familiarity with task but was more likely an outcome of genetic factors. (Author/ABL)

  12. Sexism and the Black Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara A.

    1973-01-01

    Explores the myth'' of matriarchy, compares the status of black women with that of white women in terms of marriage, education, income and political participation, and examines the ideology of several black men in order to analyze the black male's participation in upholding the value of male superiority. (RJ)

  13. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  14. Twenty-First Century Educational Theory and the Challenges of Modern Education: Appealing to the Heritage of the General Teaching Theory of the Secondary Educational Curriculum and the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarin, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of educational theory in light of the challenges confronting education in the twenty-first century. The author examines how our ideas about the methods for managing the transmission of culture, the subject of education, and the consequences of these changes for the theory of education have changed. The author…

  15. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aedma, Martin; Suvi, Silva; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria

    2017-01-01

    .... However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects...

  16. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...... in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate....

  17. Participants in urban Mexican male homosexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, J M

    1971-12-01

    Preliminary data are presented on 53 urban Mexican males interviewed during 1970-1971 in a study of homosexual encounters in a large Mexican city. These data are compared with data from recent studies in the United States and England of male homosexual behavior. Although preliminary and limited, the Mexican data indicate that cultural factors are important determinants of life styles and sex practices of homosexual males. Forty-eight of the 53 (90%) preferred and usually practiced anal intercourse, four preferred oral contacts, and one preferred mutual masturbation. Interviewees were also grouped according to major type of sex activity during the first sustained year of homosexual activity after puberty. One intragroup comparison indicates significant differences between anal active and anal passive interviewees. For example, as children anal passive subjects had significantly more homosexual contacts with adults; they also considered themselves more effeminate and as children were more involved with female sex-typed activities. Comparison of data from the English and United States studies with the present data suggests that preference for a particular sexual technique is not as developed in the former two countries; when there is a preference, it is not usually for anal intercourse.

  18. Perceptions of body image among Malaysian male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, G L; Zalilah, M S; Phan, Y Y; Ang, M; Maznah, B; Norimah, A K

    2009-03-01

    Body image concerns are common among adolescents as they undergo rapid physical growth and body shape changes. Having a distorted body image is a risk factor for the development of disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate body image concerns among Malaysian male and female adolescents aged 11-15 years. A total of 2,050 adolescents (1,043 males and 1,007 females) with a mean age of 13.1 +/- 0.8 years from secondary schools in Kedah and Pulau Pinang were included in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect socioeconomic data and body image indicators. The majority (87 percent) of the adolescents were concerned with their body shape. While the majority of underweight, normal weight and overweight male and female subjects perceived their body weight status correctly according to their body mass index (BMI), a noteworthy proportion in each category misjudged their body weight. About 35.4 percent of the males and 20.5 percent of the females in the underweight category perceived themselves as having a normal weight, while 29.4 percent and 26.7 percent of the overweight males and females respectively also perceived that they had a normal weight. A higher proportion of the females (20 percent) than males (9 percent) with a normal BMI perceived themselves as fat. Most of the male (78-83 percent) and female subjects (69-74 percent) in all the BMI categories desired to be taller than their current height. An appreciable proportion of both the males (41.9 percent) and females (38.2 percent) preferred to remain thin, or even to be thinner (23.7 percent of males and 5.9 percent of females). Females had a significantly higher mean body dissatisfaction score than males, indicating their preference for a slimmer body shape. More males (49.1 percent) preferred a larger body size while more females (58.3 percent) idealised a smaller body size. Compared to normal weight and underweight subjects, overweight males and females

  19. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  20. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  1. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  2. Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability, and the Twenty-First Century Monarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Monarchy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Barrett /Roby C. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...The JSOU Press MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 2015 Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability, and the Twenty- First Century Monarchy Roby C. Barrett This...Foreword Dr. Roby Barrett’s Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability and the Twenty-First Century Monarchy will be of interest to any reader seeking a

  3. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  4. Influence of food-environment interactions on health in the twenty-first century.

    OpenAIRE

    Fennema, O

    1990-01-01

    The quality and safety of foods are affected by the environment, and the quality and safety of the environment are, in turn, affected by foods and food processing. To explore these interrelationships, as they might exist in the twenty-first century, one must speculate regarding future changes in foods and food processing. Several trends in food processing seem likely to predominate into the twenty-first century, and they will be, for the most part, evolutionary in nature and of low consumer v...

  5. [Male sexual and reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Marin, Sandra C; Vásquez-Salazar, Edwin A

    2012-01-01

    Analysing scientific publications about male sexual and reproductive health in Colombia during the last two decades and determining the main findings about knowledge regarding the topic in Colombia. A systematic review was made of scientific publications in international databases concerned with male sexual and reproductive health in Colombia. Inclusion criteria concerned research concerning heterosexual males or men and women from 1990 to 2010 in both English and Spanish. Sexual health has mainly been approached quantitatively and, more recently, qualitatively. Only 4 (12.5 %) of the 32 articles analysed dealt with an adult population; most were orientated towards a younger population (i.e. school and university students) who were questioned about their knowledge and perception of risk behaviour and conduct regarding sexual and reproductive health; no articles were found which inquired about older males' sexual health, only 1 article explored aspects related to erectile dysfunction and none emphasised cultural aspects related to a particular region. Few studies were found concerning male sexual health; health policy and services were centred on female needs, thereby limiting male participation and/or identifying their needs in this area. Including cultural diversity and gender, especially from a male perspective, represents a challenge for the integral design of sexual and reproductive health programmes and services in Colombia.

  6. Prostaglandin levels and semen quality in male partners of infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide data on semen prostaglandins in Nigerian men and relate this to fertility potential as provided by semen analysis results. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Infertility Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Subjects: All male partners of infertile couples who ...

  7. Detecting salary discrimination against male and female managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutte, C.G.; Messick, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments that examine factors influencing the detection of salary discrimination in organizations. Subjects were presented with information about the qualifications and salaries of female and male managers in 10 departments of an hypothetical company and were asked to judge

  8. Burden and Characteristics of Domestic Violence among Males in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Domestic violence has been a subject of interest worldwide. However, most studies document men as the culprits with little attention given to male victims. This study sought to find out the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence experienced by men in a sub Saharan African setting. METHOD: ...

  9. Factors Associated with Marital Aggression in Male Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher M.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    The stereotype of the "drunken bum" wife abuser has a long history in American culture. U.S. population surveys document a positive correlation between alcohol consumption levels and marital violence. In this study risk factors for marital violence among treatment seeking male alcoholics were examined. Subjects were couples (N=107) who had a newly…

  10. Histopathological effects of acetaminophen abuse in male Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aimed to examine the histopathological effects of acetaminophen (ACMP) abuse in select organs of male Wistar rats. The second goal was aimed at determining the prevalence of ACMP abuse in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional design (structured questionnaire and oral interview) ...

  11. Masculinity-Feminity in Fathers of Creative Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas N.; Domino, George

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of paternal masculinity-femininity to filial creativity in a sample of male high school students and their fathers. Subjects were 31 boys rated creative and an equal size control group matched on sex, educational level, grade point average, and geographical residence. (MS)

  12. Prostate cancer awareness and screening among male public

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    has led to a stage migration with increased detection of early stage, potentially curable disease. Knowledge about PSA screening for PCa among men will lead to increased detection of potentially curable disease. Subjects and methods: Male public servants in Anambra State, Southeast, Nigeria, were invited to complete.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Subjected to Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Pérez-Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to sudden temperature changes during its life cycle. Adaptation to these variations is crucial for parasite survival, reproduction, and transmission. Some of these conditions may change the pattern of genetic expression of proteins involved in homeostasis in the course of stress treatment. In the present study, the proteome of T. cruzi epimastigotes subjected to heat shock and epimastigotes grow normally was compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. Twenty-four spots differing in abundance were identified. Of the twenty-four changed spots, nineteen showed a greater intensity and five a lower intensity relative to the control. Several functional categories of the identified proteins were determined: metabolism, cell defense, hypothetical proteins, protein fate, protein synthesis, cellular transport, and cell cycle. Proteins involved in the interaction with the cellular environment were also identified, and the implications of these changes are discussed.

  14. Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy in asymptomatic and chronic low back pain subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J Munns

    Full Text Available To examine ligamentum flavum thickness using magnetic resonance (MR images to evaluate its association with low back pain symptoms, age, gender, lumbar level, and disc characteristics.Sixty-three individuals were part of this IRB-approved study: twenty-seven with chronic low back pain, and thirty-six as asymptomatic. All patients underwent MR imaging and computed tomography (CT of the lumbar spine. The MR images at the mid-disc level were captured and enlarged 800% using a bilinear interpolation size conversion algorithm that allowed for enhanced image quality. Ligamentum flavum thickness was assessed using bilateral medial and lateral measurements. Disc height at each level was measured by the least-distance measurement method in three-dimensional models created by CT images taken of the same subject. Analysis of variance and t-tests were carried out to evaluate the relationship between ligamentum flavum thickness and patient variables.Ligamentum flavum thickness was found to significantly increase with older age, lower lumbar level, and chronic low back pain (p < 0.03. No difference in ligamentum flavum thickness was observed between right and left sided measurements, or between male and female subjects. Disc height and both ligamentum flavum thickness measurements showed low to moderate correlations that reached significance (p < 0.01. Additionally, a moderate and significant correlation between disc degeneration grade and ligamentum flavum thickness does exist (p <0.001.By measuring ligamentum flavum thickness on MR images at two different sites and comparing degrees of disc degeneration, we found that ligamentum flavum thickness may be closely related to the pathogenesis of pain processes in the spine.

  15. The effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; DeWitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.; Gerrity, T.R. (Clinical Research Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases in FVC and increases in SRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airway responses. In this study we employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy nonsmoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 1 h while exercising at 20 L/min/m2 body surface area. Before and immediately after exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and SRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300-ml bolus of a 0.5 micron triphenyl phosphate aerosol injected into a 2-L tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at Depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 L of clean air were inhaled from FRC, at Depth B after 1.2 L, and at Depth C after 1.2 L but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW). Secondary measures were the ratio (expressed as percent) of peak exhaled aerosol concentration to peak inhaled concentration (PR), shift in the median bolus volume between inspiration and expiration (VS), and percent of total aerosol recovered (RC). Changes in pulmonary function after ozone exposure were consistent with previous findings.

  16. Heel Lifts and the Stance Phase of Gait in Subjects With Limited Ankle Dorsiflexion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Marie A; Cooksey, Alanna; Hillier, Caroline; Kobbeman, Heather; Stambaugh, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Context: Heel lifts are often prescribed as part of the treatment program for patients with overuse injuries associated with limited ankle dorsiflexion. However, little is known about how joint kinematics and temporal variables are affected by heel lifts. Objective: To determine the effects of heel lifts on selected lower extremity kinematic and temporal variables during the stance phase of gait in subjects with limited ankle dorsiflexion. Design: Two-way, fully repeated-measures design. The 2 factors were side (right or left) and walking condition (shoes alone, 6-mm heel lifts in shoes, 9-mm heel lifts in shoes). Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-six volunteers (21 females, 5 males) with no more than 5° of ankle joint dorsiflexion. Intervention(s): Subjects were tested in shoes alone and in shoes with 6-mm and 9-mm heel lifts. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used the Qualisys Motion Analysis System to measure ankle dorsiflexion excursion, maximal knee extension, and time to heel off during the stance phase of gait under the 3 walking conditions. Results: On the right side, ankle dorsiflexion excursion increased significantly with the 6-mm and 9-mm heel lifts compared with shoes alone ( P dorsiflexion increased significantly with the 9-mm heels lifts over shoes alone and with the 9-mm heel lifts compared with the 6-mm heel lifts ( P .05). Conclusions: Clinicians may consider prescribing heel lifts for patients with limited dorsiflexion range of motion if increasing ankle dorsiflexion excursion and time to heel off during the stance phase of gait may be beneficial. PMID:16791300

  17. [Features of subjects purchasing Sildenafil at community pharmacies in Concepción, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennickent, Sigrid; Zurita, Libna; Vega, Mario; Villegas, Guiljardy

    2005-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a public health problem. Millions of men worldwide experience this condition, affecting their quality of life. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is the treatment of choice for erectile dysfunction. To study the characteristics of Sildenafil use among costumers of community pharmacies in Concepcion Chile. A structured interview about Sildenafil use was applied to subjects purchasing the drug in community pharmacies and that consented to participate. One hundred thirty eight males were studied. Forty six percent of patients were fifty years old or older. Most (47.1%) used Sildenafil for one year or more and 60.5% had no adverse events. Among those experiencing side effects, headache was experienced by 38.9%, flushing by 16.6% and gastrointestinal effects by 16.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good evaluation of the drug in terms of benefits and tolerance. Thirty two percent of the subjects, had diseases associated to erectile dysfunction. Among these, 45% had diabetes mellitus, 29.5% had hypertension, and 18.2% had prostatic diseases. In 54% of cases, the drug was prescribed by a physician. Twenty two percent of patients experienced changes in the effect of the drug when it was simultaneously used with other drugs or meals. Thirty four percent of patients used other drugs. Among these, 43.3% were using antihypertensives, and 26.7% were using antidiabetic drugs. Considering the elevated age and the number of associated disease of patients using Sildenafil, the use of the drug under medical prescription must be emphasized to avoid untoward effects.

  18. Females' Duration Estimates of Briefly-Viewed Male, but Not Female, Photographs Depend on Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Arantes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested a prediction that females' duration estimates of briefly-viewed male, but not female, photos would be modulated by attractiveness. Twenty-seven female participants viewed sequences of five stimuli of identical duration in which the first four were sine-wave gratings (Gabor discs and the fifth was either the same sine-wave grating (control trials or a photo of an attractive or unattractive male or female (test trials. After each sequence, participants had to reproduce the duration of the fifth stimulus. Results confirmed our prediction and showed that duration estimates of attractive male photos were significantly longer than corresponding estimates for unattractive male photos, while there was no significant difference in estimated duration for attractive and unattractive female photos. Our data show that unexpectedly viewing an attractive male affects time perception in females, and are the first demonstration that stimuli relevant to reproductive fitness, which engage the appetitive motivational system, can increase perceived duration.

  19. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  20. Pharmacokinetic interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine: a randomized, open-labeled crossover study in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Mi Young Bahng,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 2Clinical Development Department, Dong-A ST Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: “Udenafil” is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for erectile dysfunction. “Dapoxetine” is a serotonin transport inhibitor indicated for premature ejaculation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine in healthy male subjects. Methods: An open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period crossover study was performed in healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subjects received single oral doses of udenafil 200 mg, dapoxetine 60 mg, and both treatments. The periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing. The plasma concentrations of udenafil and dapoxetine were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for udenafil were 0.923 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863–0.987 and 0.864 (90% CI: 0.789–0.947, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for dapoxetine were 1.125 (90% CI: 1.044–1.213 and 0.837 (90% CI: 0.758–0.925, respectively. There were no serious adverse events reported, and none of the subjects dropped out due to adverse events

  1. The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2013-07-01

    In multimale groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father's presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant's mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here, we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioural data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semi-free-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0-4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than nonsires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother's proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall, our results suggest that male-infant affiliation is also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low-cost paternal care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  3. How to attract a male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Grant

    2017-05-10

    In Malcolm Harrison's response (letters, 26 April) to Andrew Haydon's article 'Where are all the male nursing students?' (students, 12 April), he asks why men aren't being provided with the same support as other minority groups.

  4. Net macromineral requirements in male and female Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Neto, J M; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A; Vargas, J A C; Lima, A R C; Leite, R F; Figueiredo, F O M; Tedeschi, L O; Fernandes, M H M R

    2016-08-01

    These experiments estimated Ca, P, Mg, K, and Na requirements of intact male, castrated male, and female Saanen goats. Two experiments were performed: one to determine the net macromineral requirements for maintenance (Exp. 1) and another to determine net macromineral requirements for growth (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 75 goats (26 intact males, 25 castrated males, and 24 females) with initial BW (iBW) of 15.76 ± 0.10 kg were used. These animals were divided in 2 groups: baseline animals and pair-fed animals. Twenty-one goats (8 intact males, 7 castrated males, and 6 females) were slaughtered (16.6 ± 0.96 kg BW) at the beginning of the experiment to be used as the baseline group. The 54 remaining goats (18 intact males, 18 castrated males, and 18 females) were pair fed in 6 blocks of 3 goats per sex. The goats within each block were then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 levels of intake: ad libitum, restricted fed to 75% of the ad libitum intake, and restricted fed to 50% of ad libitum intake. When the animal fed ad libitum reached 31.2 ± 0.58 kg BW, it and the other goats from the same block were slaughtered. The effects of sex and level of intake were evaluated in a split-plot design, where sex was the main plot observation and level of intake was the subplot. Daily net macromineral requirements for maintenance did not differ among the sexes ( > 0.05), and the average values obtained were 35.4 mg Ca, 24.7 mg P, 2.5 mg Mg, 5.0 mg K, and 3.30 mg Na per kg BW∙d. The net requirements for growth in Exp. 2 were obtained using 58 goats (20 intact males, 20 castrated males, and 18 females) with 15.8 ± 0.11 kg iBW, all fed ad libitum. These animals were assigned in a completely randomized design and allocated in 3 slaughter weight groups: 16.6 ± 0.96, 23.1 ± 1.33, and 31.2 ± 0.58 kg BW. The net Ca, P, and Mg requirements for growth were not different among the sexes ( > 0.05). There was a sex effect on net K and Na requirements for growth ( goats grew from 15 to 30 kg BW

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the international consultation incontinence questionnaire male lower urinary tract symptoms-long form (ICIQ-MLUTS-LF) in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Mazdak, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate male lower urinary tract symptoms long form (MLUTS-LF) questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian speaking subjects. Assessment instrument is essential for research, making diagnosis, and for evaluating the treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of either gender. Long form of MLUTS questionnaire is a robust self-report questionnaire that investigates the major aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life. After getting permission from the International Consultation International Questionnaire website, the forward and backward translation MLUTS carried out by researcher team and assess content/face/construct validity, reliability in sample of MLUTS Iranian patients and, quality rating and pilot testing. The irritating and obstructing lower urinary disorders were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe in the study sample. Twenty two subjects were suffering from urinary incontinence and most of the participants had benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.819. Correlations between the MLUTS and International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 0.753. The MLUTS Questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content validity, and construct validity, as measured by correlation with scores on the IPSS. The Iranian version of the MLUTS questionnaire is a valid and robust instrument that can be used in clinical settings and in research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stable and efficient systems for the twenty-first century | Duisenberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable and efficient systems for the twenty-first century. W Duisenberg. Abstract. No Abstract. Securities Market Journal Vol. 10 (2) 2005: pp. 30-33. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/smj.v10i1.39046 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Twenty-first century relevance of Soyinka's A dance of the forests : a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article embarks on a re-reading of Wole Soyinka's A Dance of the Forests in order to determine the relevance of the play to the twenty-first century Nigerian cum African society. The re-reading is cast in a postmodern conceptualization because it attempts a deconstructive reading procedure, which reassesses and ...

  8. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  9. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation of...

  10. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control...

  11. 78 FR 54612 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 79 Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal...

  12. Twenty Years of MALL Project Implementation: A Meta-Analysis of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Despite the hundreds of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) publications over the past twenty years, statistically reliable measures of learning outcomes are few and far between. In part, this is due to the fact that well over half of all MALL-related studies report no objectively quantifiable learning outcomes, either because they did not…

  13. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis with twenty-nail dystrophy and a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 2 year old female child, a product of consanguinous marriage who presented with seborrhoeic dermatitis like eruption involving scalp, twenty nail dystrophy, oral lesions and loosened teeth, mild hepatomegaly, low RBC count, multiple osteolytic lesions in skull and pelvic bones thus falling into the category of ...

  14. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  15. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  16. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  17. Surgical excision of hypothalamic hamartoma in a twenty months old boy with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Ghanta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty months old boy presented to our department with true precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Total surgical excision of pedunculated hypothalamic hamartoma was done successfully by the pterional trans-sylvian approach as he could not afford medical management. Patient had uneventful post-operative course with normalization of serum testosterone levels and regression of secondary sexual characters.

  18. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  19. Access to archives in South Africa in the first twenty years of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to archives in South Africa in the first twenty years of democracy: is there transformation or deformation? ... government. The contents of the article are based on an extensive literature review. However, the author's personal professional experience in the archival field has also substantially contributed to the process.

  20. Theme: The Twenty-seventh Annual School Vision Forum and Reading Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Joseph S., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    An account of the sessions of the twenty-seventh annual School Vision Forum and Reading Conference is included in this issue. Contents consist of the reports of the following sessions: A School Program Focused on Learning Rather Than Teaching; What Psychologists Can Contribute to Educators and Optometrists; Perceptual Clairvoyance; Empowering the…