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Sample records for subjects stood quietly

  1. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    . Medial longitudinal-arch deformation was measured during walking gait using 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrated a significantly larger navicular drop (mean +/- 1 SD, 7.7 +/- 3.1 mm) and medial longitudinal-arch deformation (5.9 +/- 3.2 degrees) during......The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography...

  2. Safety of needle electromyography of the diaphragm: Anterior lung margins in quietly breathing healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podnar, Simon; Doorduin, Jonne

    2016-06-01

    Controversy persists as to whether the lung interposes on the needle electrode insertion path during diaphragm electromyography (EMG). Using high-resolution ultrasonography, we measured the distances between the medial recess of the intercostal spaces (ICSs) around the mid-clavicular line (MCL) and the lung margin. We performed measurements bilaterally during quiet breathing in the seated and supine positions. We studied 10 young healthy men and found that, in the first ICS with the medial recess clearly (i.e., several cm) lateral to MCL (usually the eighth ICS), the distance between the recommended insertion site and the lung margin varied from 7.5 to 17 cm. The distance was slightly larger on the right side and in the supine position. This study confirms that properly conducted "trans-intercostal" needle EMG of the diaphragm is generally safe in healthy subjects. Muscle Nerve 54: 54-57, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mechanisms underlying center of pressure displacements in obese subjects during quiet stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priano Lorenzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective the aim of this study was to assess whether reduced balance capacity in obese subjects is secondary to altered sensory information. Design cross sectional study. Subjects 44 obese (BMI = 40.6 ± 4.6 kg/m2 , age = 34.2 ± 10.8 years, body weight: 114,0 ± 16,0 Kg, body height 167,5 ± 9,8 cm and 20 healthy controls (10 females, 10 males, BMI: 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2, age: 30.5 ± 5.5 years, body weight: 62,9 ± 9,3 Kg, body height 170,1 ± 5,8 cm were enrolled. Measurements center of pressure (CoP displacements were evaluated during quiet stance on a force platform with eyes open (EO and closed (EC. The Romberg quotient (EC/EO was computed and compared between groups. Results we found statistically significant differences between obese and controls in CoP displacements (p 0.08. Conclusion the increased CoP displacements in obese subjects do not need an hypothesis about altered sensory information. The integration of different sensory inputs appears similar in controls and obese. In the latter, the increased mass, ankle torque and muscle activity may probably account for the higher CoP displacements.

  4. Auditory cortical activity in normal hearing subjects to consonant vowels presented in quiet and in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold

    2013-06-01

    Compare brain potentials to consonant vowels (CVs) as a function of both voice onset times (VOTs) and consonant position; initial (CV) versus second (VCV). Auditory cortical potentials (N100, P200, N200, and a late slow negativity, (SN) were recorded from scalp electrodes in twelve normal hearing subjects to consonant vowels in initial position (CVs: /du/ and /tu/), in second position (VCVs: /udu/ and /utu/), and to vowels alone (V: /u/) and paired (VVs: /uu/) separated in time to simulate consonant voice onset times (VOTs). CVs evoked "acoustic onset" N100s of similar latency but larger amplitudes to /du/ than /tu/. CVs preceded by a vowel (VCVs) evoked "acoustic change" N100s with longer latencies to /utu/ than /udu/. Their absolute latency difference was less than the corresponding VOT difference. The SN following N100 to VCVs was larger to /utu/ than /udu/. Paired vowels (/uu/) separated by intervals corresponding to consonant VOTs evoked N100s with latency differences equal to the simulated VOT differences and SNs of similar amplitudes. Noise masking resulted in VCV N100 latency differences that were now equal to consonant VOT differences. Brain activations by CVs, VCVs, and VVs were maximal in right temporal lobe. Auditory cortical activities to CVs are sensitive to: (1) position of the CV in the utterance; (2) VOTs of consonants; and (3) noise masking. VOTs of stop consonants affect auditory cortical activities differently as a function of the position of the consonant in the utterance. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  6. Evaluation of postural stability during quiet standing, step-up and step-up with lateral perturbation in subjects with and without low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ram Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The  evaluation  of  postural  stability  during  quiet stance,  step  up  and step  up  task  with  perturbation  using posturography  could  be  useful  in treatment  and  outcome monitoring  in  chronic  low  back  pain rehabilitation  (CLBP.  The aims  of  this  study  were  twofold  and investigating  1  differences of postural stability measures between CLBP patients and healthy participants  during  above  mentioned  tasks.  2 postural  stability characteristics between control and movement impairment groups of  CLBP  patients  on  above  tasks.  Fourteen  CLBP  and fifteen normal  individuals  participated  and  posturography outcome variables  were  obtained  during  above  tasks.  The  low  back pain  subjects  showed  significantly  different  anterior-posterior (p=0 .01 as well as medio- lateral (p=0.05 postural stability characteristics during the step up task with external perturbation, whereas quiet standing and simple step up task did not show any differences. In addition to these values, in CLBP population, the maximum COP excursion (p=0.01, standard stability (p=0.02 and the stability scores (p=0.02 were also found significant in step up with perturbation task compared to healthy participants. As the task difficulty increases CLBP patients exhibited significantly different postural stability characteristics compared to healthy participants. Conversely, sub-group analysis in CLBP patients revealed significant differences only in medio-lateral COP excursions during normal standing (p=0.005. No significant differences were observed in tasks of higher difficulties such as step up and step up task with lateral perturbation in-between patients with movement and control impairment groups of CLBP. These findings have implications for assessment and optimizing postural control interventions on functional back pain rehabilitation.

  7. Experimental muscle pain challenges the postural stability during quiet stance and unexpected posture perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Rogério Pessoto; Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impairs postural control and stability. Nine subjects stood as quietly as possible on a moveable force platform before, during, and after experimental pain in the right leg muscles. A moveable force platform was used to measure the center of pressure and provided unexpected perturbations. Lower limb muscle activity, joint angles, and foot pressure distributions were measured. Hypertonic saline was used to induce pain in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, or biceps femoris muscle of the right leg. Compared to baseline and control sessions, pain in the knee extensor muscles during quiet standing evoked: 1) larger sway area, greater medial-lateral center of pressure displacement and higher speed (P increased sway displacement in the anterior-posterior direction (P increased electromyography (EMG) activity for left tibialis anterior and left erector spinae muscles (P < .05). Pain provoked longer time to return to an equilibrium posture after forward EMG activity for, and pain in vastus medialis muscle decreased the time for the maximum hip flexion during this perturbation (P < .05). These results show that muscle pain impairs postural stability during quiet standing and after unexpected perturbation, which suggest that people suffering from leg muscle pain are more vulnerable to falls. This article presents the acute responses to leg muscle pain on the postural control. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how pain responses may contribute to patient's postural control and stability during quiet standing and after recovering from unexpected perturbations. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D A; Patla, A E; Prince, F; Ishac, M; Gielo-Perczak, K

    1998-09-01

    Our goal was to provide some insights into how the CNS controls and maintains an upright standing posture, which is an integral part of activities of daily living. Although researchers have used simple performance measures of maintenance of this posture quite effectively in clinical decision making, the mechanisms and control principles involved have not been clear. We propose a relatively simple control scheme for regulation of upright posture that provides almost instantaneous corrective response and reduces the operating demands on the CNS. The analytic model is derived and experimentally validated. A stiffness model was developed for quiet standing. The model assumes that muscles act as springs to cause the center-of-pressure (COP) to move in phase with the center-of-mass (COM) as the body sways about some desired position. In the sagittal plane this stiffness control exists at the ankle plantarflexors, in the frontal plane by the hip abductors/adductors. On the basis of observations that the COP-COM error signal continuously oscillates, it is evident that the inverted pendulum model is severely underdamped, approaching the undamped condition. The spectrum of this error signal is seen to match that of a tuned mass, spring, damper system, and a curve fit of this "tuned circuit" yields omega n the undamped natural frequency of the system. The effective stiffness of the system, Ke, is then estimated from Ke = I omega n2, and the damping B is estimated from B = BW X I, where BW is the bandwidth of the tuned response (in rad/s), and I is the moment of inertia of the body about the ankle joint. Ten adult subjects were assessed while standing quietly at three stance widths: 50% hip-to-hip distance, 100 and 150%. Subjects stood for 2 min in each position with eyes open; the 100% stance width was repeated with eyes closed. In all trials and in both planes, the COP oscillated virtually in phase (within 6 ms) with COM, which was predicted by a simple 0th order spring

  9. Quiet Areas and the Need for Quietness in Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booi, Hester; van den Berg, Frits

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Quiet Places Project in Amsterdam. The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) which public quiet places there are according to Amsterdam residents; (2) what characterizes a quiet place; (3) to what extent do residents want peace and quiet; (4) how do residents realize these needs. The factors determining the need for quietness are presented in a model showing the influence of demographic and socio-economic issues, health status, sensitiveness to noise, daily activities and the noisiness in and around home. Most important of these factors is sensitivity to noise. Elderly and less healthy people are more often sensitive to noise. People who are annoyed by sound from traffic, airplanes and the like show a higher need for quietness. People with a lively household or neighbourhood report lower needs for quietness. Visiting a quiet place and going outside to walk or bike can have a compensating effect on the need for quietness. This suggests that creating quiet places and enhancing possibilities for quiet recreation in urban environments can have a positive effect on the quality of life in the city. Objective noise levels at the quiet places were taken from environmental noise maps. This shows that there may be a preference for low transportation noise levels, but levels up to 60 dB Lday are acceptable. Apparently this depends on a relative quietness or on non-acoustic characteristics of an area: the presence of vegetation and other pleasant stimuli. PMID:22690181

  10. Altered postural control strategies in quiet standing more than 20 years after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    To explore long-term consequences of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on postural sway and control strategies during bilateral quiet standing, in subjects treated with or without reconstructive surgery compared to uninjured controls. 70 individuals who had unilateral ACL rupture 23±2.4 years ago (33 received ACL reconstructive surgery, ACLR, and 37 had physiotherapy only, ACLPT) and 33 uninjured matched controls (CTRL) (mean age 46±5.3) stood quietly with eyes closed for 3min on a firm and on a compliant surface, respectively. Center of pressure (CoP) was registered with a force plate and postural sway was calculated from center of mass (CoM) derived from 3D kinematics. Sway density (SD) analyses of CoP assessed distance and duration of stable phases. The torque controlling postural sway was estimated from CoP-CoM. Comparisons across conditions to CTRL revealed larger CoP-CoM-area in ACLR (p=0.017, CI: 10.95, 143.10), but not in ACLPT. Mean distance between SD-peaks was greater for ACLR (ppostural control efforts than CTRL but without significant differences in postural sway. Control efforts were thus not directly associated with sway and further research should be focused on variance in postural control strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Recruitment of motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle during human quiet standing: is recruitment intermittent? What triggers recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D.; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process. PMID:21994258

  12. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  13. Quiet Moment around the Campfire

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-18

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay, "Quiet Moment around the Campfire," about the art of Frederic Remington and the transmission of pathogens as frontiers expand.  Created: 6/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/19/2014.

  14. MOUT: The Quiet Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-20

    MOBA ).2 This report seems to have coincided with a renewed interest in this partic- ular area resulting in some thoughtful efforts both within the Army...importance of the subject by devoting 11 pages of its 1976 capstone manual on operations to MOBA .3 The fact that the most recent edition of FM 100-5...Terrain (MOUT)5--MOUT being the currently preferred term in lieu of MOBA . Videotape films have also been prepared and distributed which describe the

  15. Influence of vision and static stretch of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akinori; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Hay, Dean C; Himeno, Ryutaro; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of vision and stretching of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing. Under pre-stretch conditions, participants stood on a force plate for 30s and the sway of the ground reaction force center of pressure was recorded. The following postural sway variables were calculated off-line: sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range, mean mediolateral position and mean anteroposterior position. For post-stretch conditions, participants stood quietly on a device that was utilized to impose a static 3 min ankle joint dorsiflexion stretch. Immediately thereafter, participants moved onto the force platform where postural sway parameters were again recorded. Randomized eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were tested in both cases. Results showed that postural sway significantly increased due to stretch (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal anteroposterior range, mean anteroposterior position), as well as eye closure (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range). The interaction between stretch and eye closure was also significant (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range), suggesting that there were only minor increases in postural sway after stretch under the eyes-open condition. It was suggested that stretching of the calf muscles has the effect of increasing postural sway, although this effect can be greatly compensated for when vision is included.

  16. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  17. Implementation of Quiet Time for Noise Reduction on a Medical-Surgical Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Diane; Calo, Oriana; Neville, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this evidence-based investigation is to determine the efficacy of a quiet-time intervention to reduce noise in the hospital setting. For many reasons, noise continues to increase in the hospital setting. In a descriptive comparative design, using a convenience sample of hospitalized patients, 80 patients were assessed on their perceptions of noise using the Patient Survey on Noise During Hospital Stay. Data revealed favorable responses to quiet time, with 70% of subjects reporting quiet-time intervention to be effective in reducing noise. Sixty percent of participants felt that 1 hour of quiet time helped to facilitate a quieter, more restful environment for the whole day. A quiet-time intervention is effective in addressing patient perception of noise while in the acute care hospital setting.

  18. The NASA Quiet Engine Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the experimental Quiet Engine developed under the NASA program to reduce jet aircraft noise levels. The current status of the program is given as follows: Aerodynamic evaluation of the three fans is complete and their acoustic evaluation is partially complete. Tests of fan casing boundary-layer section and of serrated leading edges on the half-scale B fan are complete and are underway on the half-scale C fan. Tests of the first engine with the A fan began in August 1971.

  19. Smart materials for turbomachinery quieting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson, Michael L.; Lysak, Peter D.; Willits, Steven M.

    2000-06-01

    As part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) SAMPSON program, a team has been developing and testing the use of smart materials for quieting turbomachinery. The team is composed of representatives form Pennsylvania State University, General Dynamics Electric Boat, GTE BBN Technologies, and the Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division. Four concepts for quieting were proposed and wind tunnel testing, water tunnel testing, as well as computational fluid dynamic analysis were performed to down select two of the concepts for further consideration: protuberance and gap control. The wind tunnel testing was performed to determine the optimum shape of the protuberance. Water tunnel testing was performed at Penn State University/Applied Research Laboratory to establish the performance of the protuberance and gap control elements. Piezoelectric inchworm actuators, developed by PSU/Center for Acoustics and Vibration, were utilized for the evaluation of the two concepts. GTE BBN Technologies developed the control system simulation for the ultimate concept, the General Dynamics Electric Boat was responsible for hydrodynamic and hydroacoustic analysis. Naval Surface Warfare Center/Carderock Division performed hydrodynamic analysis and developed the rotary component design for the water tunnel test fixture. Successful testing in the twelve- inch diameter water tunnel at PSU/ARL demonstrated superior performance with the gap control concept over the protuberance control concept, and efforts are on-going to develop the final large scale demonstration. This paper summarizes the result of these activities.

  20. Quiet sustainability: Fertile lessons from Europe's productive gardeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, J.; Jehlička, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 148-157 ISSN 0743-0167 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Quiet sustainability * Sustainable development * Sharing Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.036, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016713000454

  1. A Quiet Place for Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    As electronic gadgets predominate a student's life, there comes a need for silence. A quiet place free of electromagnetic spectrum waves, dirty and stray electricity, and the endless chirps, whistles, beeps, and customized signaling. A quiet place can offer solitude for meditation, inspiration, and spiritual awareness. Student involvement in the…

  2. 76 FR 64353 - Buy Quiet Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Buy Quiet Workshop AGENCY: National Institute...) will be holding a two-day Buy Quiet Workshop. The Workshop is a National Occupational Research Agenda... the NIOSH Hearing Loss Prevention Cross-sector Program. The purpose of the Workshop is to determine...

  3. Installations Modernization, Quelling the "Quiet Crisis"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamner, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... A 'quiet crisis' has emerged. Unless immediate, diverse, measured, sustainable, and sufficient action is brought to bear, continued impacts on quality of life, health/safety, aesthetics, security, community relations...

  4. Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet...

  5. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  6. Pain in the quiet (not red) eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Pasternak, Andrew V; Radwan, Rabab M

    2010-07-01

    Although eye pain is often accompanied by redness or injection, pain can also occur with a quiet eye. Pain in a quiet eye can be the first sign of a vision-threatening condition, a more benign ophthalmologic condition, or a nonophthalmologic condition. Acute narrow-angle glaucoma is an emergent vision-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment and referral to an ophthalmologist. Although most nonophthalmologic conditions that cause eye pain do not need immediate treatment, giant cell (temporal) arteritis requires urgent treatment with corticosteroids. Other vascular conditions, such as carotid artery disease, thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, and transient ischemic attack or stroke, rarely cause eye pain but must be considered. Pain may also be referred from the sinuses or from neurologic conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia, migraine and cluster headaches, and increased intracranial pressure. The differential diagnosis of eye pain in the quiet eye is extensive, necessitating a systematic and thorough approach. (c) 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  7. Supersonic and hypersonic quiet tunnel technology at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Anders, S. G.; Chen, F.-J.; Beckwith, I. E.

    1992-01-01

    Quiet tunnel technology at NASA Langley is reviewed focusing on historical background, basic quiet tunnel concepts, design methodology, and significant results. Each of the NASA Langley quiet tunnels and recent flow quality results for a refurbished Mach 6 quiet nozzle are presented. It is concluded that high-speed quiet tunels should be viewed as a required adjunct to computational and experimental tools being developed to explore issues of instability and transition physics. The quiet tunnel technology can produce and maintain an adequately smooth nozzle finish, control settling chamber disturbances, and keep the facility clean and is capable of adequately measuring flow disturbances.

  8. Changes of postural control and muscle activation pattern in response to external perturbations after neck flexor fatigue in young subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Yen, Ling-Wei; Lin, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have identified sensorimotor disturbances and greater fatigability of neck muscles in patients with neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck pain and neck flexor fatigue on standing balance following postural perturbations. Twenty patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) (24.7±3.6 year-old) and 20 age-matched asymptomatic subjects (22.1±2.2 year-old) were recruited. Subjects stood barefoot on a force plate and experienced backward perturbations before and after neck flexor fatigue. Center of pressure, electromyography of cervical and lumbar muscles, and head/trunk accelerations were recorded. Two-way ANOVA (pain×fatigue) was used for statistical analysis. CNP group showed larger body sway during quiet standing but not during perturbed standing compared with asymptomatic adults. In both groups, neck flexor fatigue resulted in greater body sway during the quiet standing but smaller body sway during perturbed standing, increased neck muscle activations and decreased lumbar muscle activations, as well as increased time to maximal head acceleration. Disturbed balance control was observed in CNP patients during the quiet standing. However, a rigid strategy was used to minimize the postural sway and to protect the head against backward perturbations in both CNP and asymptomatic young adults after neck flexor fatigue. The results facilitate the understanding of how the subjects with chronic neck pain and with neck muscle fatigue deal with the challenging condition. Further studies are needed to verify if such phenomenon could be changed after the intervention of specific flexor muscle retraining and balance control exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "All Quiet on the Western Front."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Erich Maria Remarque's novel "All Quiet on the Western Front" and other war literature, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that works of art about war can call up strong emotions in readers; and that the writing process can be applied to writing poems. The main activity of the lesson involves…

  10. Reflections on Reflections on "The Quiet Evolution."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent

    1999-01-01

    Responds to the articles, available in this issue of Arts Education Policy Review, included in the Symposium on "The Quiet Evolution: Changing the Face of Arts Education." Articles by E. Louis Lankford, Michael Fullan, Martin Schiralli, and W. Dwaine Greer. (CMK)

  11. Quiet swimming at low Reynolds number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Wadhwa, Navish; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    -Stokeslet model of a swimming organism which uses breast stroke type kinematics is an example of such a quiet swimmer. We show that the fluid disturbance in both the near field and the far field is significantly reduced by appropriately arranging the propulsion apparatus, and we find that the far field power laws...

  12. The radio structure of radio-quiet quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leipski, C.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bennert, N.; Hüttemeister, S.

    2006-01-01

    Aims.We investigate the radio emitting structures of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei with an emphasis on radio-quiet quasars to study their connection to Seyfert galaxies.
    Methods: .We present and analyse high-sensitivity VLA radio continuum images of 14 radio-quiet quasars and six Seyfert

  13. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupin Chun-Che Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400 of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on are also to specified discuss their common and specific features.

  14. Independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Kerry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human balance during quiet standing is influenced by adding mass to the body with a backpack, with symmetrically-applied loads to the trunk, or with obesity. Adding mass to the body increases both the weight and inertia of the body, which theoretically could provide counteracting effects on body dynamics and balance. Understanding the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance may provide additional insight into human balance that could lead to novel advancements in balance training and rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing. Methods Sixteen normal-weight young adult participants stood as still as possible on a custom-built backboard apparatus under four experimental conditions: baseline, added inertia only, added weight only, and added inertia and weight. Results Adding inertia by itself had no measurable effect on center of pressure movement or backboard movement. Adding weight by itself increased center of pressure movement (indicated greater effort by the postural control system to stand as still as possible and backboard movement (indicating a poorer ability of the body to stand as still as possible. Adding inertia and weight at the same time increased center of pressure movement but did not increase backboard movement compared to the baseline condition. Conclusions Adding inertia and adding weight had different effects on balance. Adding inertia by itself had no effect on balance. Adding weight by itself had a negative effect on balance. When adding inertia and weight at the same time, the added inertia appeared to lessen (but did not eliminate the negative effect of adding weight on balance. These results improve our fundamental understanding of how added mass influences human balance.

  15. Quiet as an environmental value: a contrast between two legislative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert; Shepherd, Daniel

    2013-07-03

    This paper examines the concept of "quiet" as an "environmental value" in terms of amenity and wellbeing from a legislative context. Critical review of two pieces of environmental legislation from Australia and New Zealand forms the basis of the paper. The Australian legislation is Queensland's Environmental Protection Act, and the New Zealand legislation is that nation's Resource Management Act. Quiet is part of the psychoacoustic continuum between a tranquil and an intrusively noisy sound environment. As such, quiet possesses intrinsic value in terms of overall sound within the environment (soundscape) and to individuals and communities. In both pieces of legislation, guidance, either directly or indirectly, is given to "maximum" sound levels to describe the acoustic environment. Only in Queensland is wellbeing and amenity described as environmental values, while in the New Zealand approach, amenity is identified as the core value to defend, but guidance is not well established. Wellbeing can be related to degrees of quietness and the absence of intrusive noise, the character of sound within an environment ("soundscape"), as well as the overall level of sound. The quality of life experienced by individuals is related to that person's physical and mental health, sense of amenity and wellbeing. These characteristics can be described in terms of subjective and objective measures, though legislation does not always acknowledge the subjective.

  16. Introductory guide to quiet in the home

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available t is difficult, expensive and probably unnecessary to make the whole house soundproof. To enable one to relax, chatand listen to music more easily in a quiet room, however, it is often worthwhile to take the trouble to protect one or two rooms from noise... slab, 200 mm thick and with a mass of 480 kg m-2 will take care of airborne (speech, music) and impact noise (footsteps, moving of furniture). Thinner slabs will probably not be adequateagainst impact noise. Although a carpet will help, its effect...

  17. Road Traffic Noise and Annoyance: A Quantification of the Effect of Quiet Side Exposure at Dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Janssen, Sabine A.; Vos, Henk; Salomons, Erik M.; Zhou, Han; van den Berg, Frits

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a “quiet side” to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the most and least exposed façade (Lden,most and Lden,least respectively) of dwellings for subjects in a population based survey (N = 1,967). It was investigated if and to what extent relative quietness at the least exposed façade affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance by comparing two groups: (1) The subgroup with a relatively quiet façade; (2) the subgroup without a relatively quiet façade (large versus small difference in exposure between most and least exposed façade; DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF noise annoyance. Results indicate a significantly lower road traffic noise annoyance score at a given Lden,most, in the subgroup with DIF ≥ 10 dB versus DIF < 10 dB. Furthermore, results suggest an effect of Lden,least independent of Lden,most. The estimated size of the effect expressed in an equivalent change in Lden,most approximated 5 dB for both the difference between the two subgroups (DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB), and for a 10 dB change in Lden,least. PMID:23736655

  18. Quiet echo planar imaging for functional and diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Jana; Price, Anthony N; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Malik, Shaihan; Ferrazzi, Giulio; Gaspar, Andreia; Hughes, Emer J; Christiaens, Daan; McCabe, Laura; Schneider, Torben; Rutherford, Mary A; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2018-03-01

    To develop a purpose-built quiet echo planar imaging capability for fetal functional and diffusion scans, for which acoustic considerations often compromise efficiency and resolution as well as angular/temporal coverage. The gradient waveforms in multiband-accelerated single-shot echo planar imaging sequences have been redesigned to minimize spectral content. This includes a sinusoidal read-out with a single fundamental frequency, a constant phase encoding gradient, overlapping smoothed CAIPIRINHA blips, and a novel strategy to merge the crushers in diffusion MRI. These changes are then tuned in conjunction with the gradient system frequency response function. Maintained image quality, SNR, and quantitative diffusion values while reducing acoustic noise up to 12 dB (A) is illustrated in two adult experiments. Fetal experiments in 10 subjects covering a range of parameters depict the adaptability and increased efficiency of quiet echo planar imaging. Purpose-built for highly efficient multiband fetal echo planar imaging studies, the presented framework reduces acoustic noise for all echo planar imaging-based sequences. Full optimization by tuning to the gradient frequency response functions allows for a maximally time-efficient scan within safe limits. This allows ambitious in-utero studies such as functional brain imaging with high spatial/temporal resolution and diffusion scans with high angular/spatial resolution to be run in a highly efficient manner at acceptable sound levels. Magn Reson Med 79:1447-1459, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in

  19. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the 'Quiet' Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Astr. (2000) 21, 237 240. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the 'Quiet' Sun. R. Ramesh, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034, India, e mail: ramesh@iiap. ernet. in. Abstract. We present observations of the 'quiet' Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our.

  20. The "Quiet" Troubles of Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Most of the troubles poor at-risk children have are not "loud" problems like disruptive behavior or gang involvement. They are "quiet." The range of these problems is vast. Hunger, dehydration, asthma, obesity, and hearing problems can all insidiously trip children up in school. Some quiet problems are psychological--depression, anxiety, the fear…

  1. Increasing Quiet Compliance by Detained Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Kristen M; Rapp, John T; Niedfeld, Amanda M; Coon, Jodi C; Everhart Newman, Jan L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-11-01

    Some adjudicated adolescents receive treatment for their offenses in residential facilities. Detained adolescents' engagement in either low levels of compliant behavior or excess behavior (e.g., swearing, gestures) while following commands from residential personnel may result in decreased opportunities for those youth to access preferred activities. The current study employed nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants designs to evaluate the effects of a procedure to increase seven detained adolescents' quiet compliance with academic and vocational demands. Results show that problem behavior decreased to zero or near-zero levels for each participant during simulated conditions and suggest that self-control, alone or in combination with a differential reinforcement of low rate behavior for omitting problem behavior, may have been responsible for the behavior changes. We discuss some clinical implications of the findings.

  2. Quiet(er) marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rob; Erbe, Christine; Ashe, Erin; Clark, Christopher W

    2015-11-15

    A core task in endangered species conservation is identifying important habitats and managing human activities to mitigate threats. Many marine organisms, from invertebrates to fish to marine mammals, use acoustic cues to find food, avoid predators, choose mates, and navigate. Ocean noise can affect animal behavior and disrupt trophic linkages. Substantial potential exists for area-based management to reduce exposure of animals to chronic ocean noise. Incorporating noise into spatial planning (e.g., critical habitat designation or marine protected areas) may improve ecological integrity and promote ecological resilience to withstand additional stressors. Previous work identified areas with high ship noise requiring mitigation. This study introduces the concept of "opportunity sites" - important habitats that experience low ship noise. Working with existing patterns in ocean noise and animal distribution will facilitate conservation gains while minimizing societal costs, by identifying opportunities to protect important wildlife habitats that happen to be quiet. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Active children and quiet bodies wanted!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2015-01-01

    Active children and quiet bodies wanted! A new school law was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system from August 2014. The main purpose of the law is to: – challenge all pupils to become as skilled as possible, – lower the consequences of social background in order to achieve...... better results and – strengthen the confidence to and the wellbeing in the school. These objectives should among other initiatives be achieved by a longer and more diversified school day. Physical activities and movements have been seen as an important tool to create more varied forms of teaching....... Research indicates that there is a correlation between physical activity and cognitive learning. In order to improve the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing all pupils from grade 0-9 must have at least 45 minutes of physical activity and movements in average every day. Next to physical...

  4. The Quiet HMXB Candidate HD 15137

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, M. Virginia

    2009-10-01

    HD 15137 is an intriguing runaway O-type binary that offers a rare opportunity to explore the mechanism by which it was ejected from the open cluster of its birth. All of the evidence from optical spectra points to a compact companion in this system - except for the lack of hard X-ray emission detected from the system. HD 15137 is therefore a "quiet" HMXB candidate, too widely separated for the neutron star to accrete a significant mass of stellar winds and be detected as an X-ray binary. Therefore we propose observations with XMM-Newton, to occur at the time of periastron, that will detect the hard power law spectrum from a weakly accreting neutron star and reveal the evolutionary history of HD 15137.

  5. Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles: A selected, annotated bibliography to aid in the development of quiet wind tunnel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 298 citations arranged in chronological order. The citations were selected to be helpful to persons engaged in the design and development of quiet (low disturbance) nozzles for modern supersonic wind tunnels. Author, subject, and corporate source indexes are included to assist with the location of specific information.

  6. Preferred Compression Threshold and Release Time in Quiet and Noisy Conditions for Elderly Korean Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woojae; Lee, Junghak; Kim, Jinsook; Lee, Kyeongwon; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-09-01

    Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss want to compensate for their narrow dynamic range from appropriate compression functions of hearing aids. The present study aimed to determine which compression threshold and release time of nonlinear hearing aids might affect speech recognition and speech quality judgments. Ten elderly listeners with symmetrical moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss participated in the study. To compare two compression threshold (31 dB SPL vs. 61 dB SPL) and two release time (50 ms vs. 500 ms) conditions, subjects' speech recognition was measured using the Korean version of the Hearing in Noise Test in both quiet and noisy situations. All subjects were also asked to rate the degree of speech quality in terms of loudness, sharpness, clarity, and background noise immediately after completing the speech recognition test. Although no significant difference emerged in speech recognition thresholds between the two compression thresholds in the quiet situation, the compression threshold of 31 dB SPL showed a lower (or better) signal-to-noise ratio of speech recognition compared to that of 61 dB SPL. The release times of 50 and 500 ms did not statistically differ in both quiet and noisy situations. Subjective categories were found to be louder and clearer in the 50 ms release time for quiet and noisy, respectively. We expect that these patterns of current results will apply for better-fitting protocol of elderly Korean hearing aid users.

  7. Speech understanding in quiet and in noise with the bone-anchored hearing aids Baha Compact and Baha Divino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompis, Martin; Krebs, Martin; Häusler, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    Speech understanding is better with the Baha Divino than with the Baha Compact in competing noise from the rear. No difference was found for speech understanding in quiet. Subjectively, overall sound quality and speech understanding were rated better for the Baha Divino. To compare speech understanding in quiet and in noise and subjective ratings for two different bone-anchored hearing aids: the recently developed Baha Divino and the Baha Compact. Seven adults with bilateral conductive or mixed hearing losses who were users of a bone-anchored hearing aid were tested with the Baha Compact in quiet and in noise. Tests were repeated after 3 months of use with the Baha Divino. There was no significant difference between the two types of Baha for speech understanding in quiet when tested with German numbers and monosyllabic words at presentation levels between 50 and 80 dB. For speech understanding in noise, an advantage of 2.3 dB for the Baha Divino vs the Baha Compact was found, if noise was emitted from a loudspeaker to the rear of the listener and the directional microphone noise reduction system was activated. Subjectively, the Baha Divino was rated statistically significantly better in terms of overall sound quality.

  8. Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas...

  9. Cyclical Variation of the Quiet Corona and Coronal Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent advances in the understanding of the quiet corona and coronal holes are reviewed. The review is based on long-term accumulation of data from eclipse observations, coronagraph observations, helium 10830 Å spectroheliograms, and X-ray observations.

  10. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  12. Refining the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivery, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    We present a coherent marine magnetic reversal record from the Pacific to refine the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Our definitive magnetic anomaly record consists of high-resolution sea surface, mid-water (3-km level deep-towed), and near-bottom profiles (0.1-km to the seafloor) with the magnetic source layer constrained by gravity anomaly data and reflection and refraction seismics, all of which are newly collected during TN272 and SKQ2014S2 cruises. All magnetic anomaly data were corrected diurnal variations and the present-day ambient geomagnetic field. In comparing our three-level JQZ magnetic anomaly profiles with previous work in the Japanese lineations, we confirm a globally coherent anomaly sequence in the JQZ from M29 to M42, including the distinctive amplitude envelope decreasing back in time from M19 to M38, with a minimum at M41, and then increasing back in time. A strong similarity in the M37/M38 polarity attributes found both in magnetostratigraphic and marine magnetic records suggest that rapid magnetic reversals were occurring during the M38 time in the JQZ. Seismic and gravity profiles from the Hawaiian JQZ seafloor show late-stage Cretaceous volcanism thickening crust by up to 150% with extra melt emplaced at the Moho, and numerous sills and volcanic cones in the sediment and on the seafloor. The region of thickest crust in the Hawaiian lineation corridor coincides with the region of the lowest JQZ anomaly amplitudes, very similar to the Low Amplitude Zone of Japanese lineation sequence, suggesting that the JQZ anomaly character can represent changes in geomagnetic field intensity over time but is free of the effects of Cretaceous volcanic overprint. We conducted inversion modeling to establish polarity block models and to estimate reversal rates. Reversal rates are the highest during periods with the lowest anomaly amplitudes, indicating a unique period of geomagnetic field behavior in the Earth's history.

  13. Non-Gaussian center-of-pressure velocity distribution during quiet stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E. S. D.; Picoli, S.; Deprá, P. P.; Mendes, R. S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigate patterns in the postural sway that characterize the static balance in human beings. To measure the postural sway, sixteen healthy young subjects performed quiet stance tasks providing the center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories. From these trajectories, we obtained the COP velocities. We verified that the velocity distributions exhibit non-normal behavior and can be approximated by generalized Gaussians with fat tails. We also discuss possible implications of modeling COP velocity by using generalized Fokker-Planck equations related to Tsallis statistics and Richardson anomalous diffusion.

  14. Search for photospheric footpoints of quiet Sun transition region loops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Teriaca, L.; Sütterlin, P.; Sparado, D.; Schühle, U.; Rutten, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Context. The footpoints of quiet Sun Transition Region (TR) loops do not seem to coincide with the photospheric magnetic structures appearing in traditional low-sensitivity magnetograms. Aims. We look for the so-far unidentified photospheric footpoints of TR loops using G-band bright points (BPs) as

  15. Quiet Students in Geography Classrooms: Some Strategies for Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Argues that female students remain disproportionately quiet in geography classes because of male bias forms of instruction. Maintains that girls' interest and responses increased when examples and issues involving women were introduced. Includes tabulation and classification of responses by gender, and comments from female students. (MJP)

  16. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the'Quiet'Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/joaa/021/03-04/0237-0240. Keywords. Sun; corona; radio observations; streamers; scattering. Abstract. We present observations of the 'quiet' Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our main conclusion is ...

  17. On the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Gudiksen, B.V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We aim to provide an estimate of the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere. Methods. We perform a 2D radiation-MHD simulation spanning the upper convection zone to the lower corona. The simulation includes non-LTE radiative transfer and an equation-of-state that includes

  18. Modeling the Quiet Time Outflow Solution in the Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum, The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O(+), H(+), and He(+) along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. [2011] of electron density, which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites (Kitamura et al. [2011]). The data and model agree reasonably well. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide validation of the PWOM's ability to model the quiet time ((background" solution.

  19. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. The Maximum Entropy Limit of Small-scale Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, A. Y.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; van Noort, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we continue studies of the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying either on the concept of magnetic features or on subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. We propose a data analysis method to quantify fluctuations of the line-of-sight magnetic field by means of reducing the temporal field’s evolution to the regular Markov process. We build a representative model of fluctuations converging to the unique stationary (equilibrium) distribution in the long time limit with maximum entropy. We obtained different rates of convergence to the equilibrium at fixed noise cutoff for two sets of data. This indicates a strong influence of the data spatial resolution and mixing-polarity fluctuations on the relaxation process. The analysis is applied to observations of magnetic fields of the relatively quiet areas around an active region carried out during the second flight of the Sunrise/IMaX and quiet Sun areas at the disk center from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite.

  1. Transient effect of core stability exercises on postural sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Ayuko; Sasagawa, Shun; Kubo, Takahiro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the transient effect of core stability exercises on the motion of the center of pressure (COP) during quiet standing. Seventeen healthy young adults (7 women and 10 men) were required to perform elbow-toe and hand-heel exercises for 30 seconds in both cases. Before and 1 minute after the execution of the 2 exercises, the subjects repeated 30 seconds of quiet standing with eyes closed 3 times on a force platform with intervals of 10 seconds between trials. The intervention of the 2 exercises induced significant decreases in the maximal range of mediolateral sway (34.7 +/- 7.0 mm to 30.2 +/- 6.1 mm, p = 0.0001), standard deviation of mediolateral sway (6.4 +/- 1.2 mm to 5.8 +/- 1.0 mm, p = 0.0006), the mean speed of anteroposterior sway (14.1 +/- 2.5 mm per second to 13.2 +/- 2.3 mm per second, p = 0.004), mean speed of mediolateral sway (22.8 +/- 2.8 mm per second to 20.9 +/- 2.3 mm per second, p = 0.004), sway speed (29.3 +/- 3.9 mm per second to 27.0 +/- 3.2 mm per second, p = 0.002), and sweep speed (73.2 +/- 23.4 mm per second to 62.0 +/- 19.7 mm per second, p = 0.005) of the COP trajectory, calculated from the force platform data. This result indicates that the practice of core stability exercises transiently decreases the area of the COP trajectory and its mediolateral and total excursions during quiet standing with the eyes closed. Performing core stability exercises as part of warm-up programs may be useful for temporarily improving postural control during standing in main exercise programs.

  2. Quiet comfort: noise, otherness, and the mobile production of personal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Mack

    2011-01-01

    Marketing, news reports, and reviews of Bose QuietComfort noise-canceling headphones position them as essential gear for the mobile rational actor of the neoliberal market—the business traveler. This article concerns noise-canceling headphones’ utility as soundscaping devices, which render a sense of personal space by mediating sound. The airplane and airport are paradoxical spaces in which the pursuit of freedom impedes its own enjoyment. Rather than fight the discomforts of air travel as a systemic problem, travelers use the tactic of soundscaping to suppress the perceived presence of others. Attention to soundscaping enables the scholar to explore relationships between media, space, freedom, otherness, and selfhood in an era characterized by neoliberalism and increased mobility. Air travel is a moment in which people with diverse backgrounds, beliefs, and bodies crowd together in unusually close proximity. Noise is the sound of individualism and difference in conflict. Noise is othered sound, and like any type of othering, the perception of noise is socially constructed and situated in hierarchies of race, class, age, and gender. The normative QuietComfort user in media representations is white, male, rational, monied, and mobile; women, children, and “chatty” passengers are cast as noisemakers. Moreover, in putting on noise-canceling headphones, diverse selves put on the historically Western subjectivity that has been built into their technology, one that suppresses the noise of difference in favor of the smooth circulation of people, information, and commodities.

  3. Quantitative Global Heat Transfer in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, Steven P.; Liu, Tianshu; Rubal, Justin; Ward, Chris; Dussling, Joseph; Rice, Cody; Foley, Ryan; Cai, Zeimin; Wang, Bo; hide

    2012-01-01

    This project developed quantitative methods for obtaining heat transfer from temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue, which is a Ludwieg tube with a downstream valve, moderately-short flow duration and low levels of heat transfer. Previous difficulties with inferring heat transfer from TSP in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel were traced to (1) the large transient heat transfer that occurs during the unusually long tunnel startup and shutdown, (2) the non-uniform thickness of the insulating coating, (3) inconsistencies and imperfections in the painting process and (4) the low levels of heat transfer observed on slender models at typical stagnation temperatures near 430K. Repeated measurements were conducted on 7 degree-half-angle sharp circular cones at zero angle of attack in order to evaluate the techniques, isolate the problems and identify solutions. An attempt at developing a two-color TSP method is also summarized.

  4. Hearing without listening: attending to a quiet audiobook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Hettie; Guo, Kun; Bourke, Patrick

    2017-06-25

    Careful systematic tests of hearing ability may miss the cognitive consequences of sub-optimal hearing when listening in the real world. In Experiment One, sub-optimal hearing is simulated by presenting an audiobook at a quiet but discriminable level over 50 minutes. Recall of facts, words and inferences are assessed and performance compared to another group at a comfortable listening volume. At the quiet intensity, participants are able to detect, discriminate and identify spoken words but do so at a cost to sequential accuracy and fact recall when attention must be sustained over time. To exclude other interpretations, the effects are studied in Experiment Two by comparing recall to the same sentences presented in isolation. Here, the differences disappear. The results demonstrate that the cognitive consequences of listening at low volume arise when sustained attention is demanded over time.

  5. Modular trigger processing The GCT muon and quiet bit system

    CERN Document Server

    Stettler, Matthew; Hansen, Magnus; Iles, Gregory; Jones, John; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system's HCAL Muon and Quiet bit reformatting function is being implemented with a novel processing architecture. This architecture utilizes micro TCA, a modern modular communications standard based on high speed serial links, to implement a processing matrix. This matrix is configurable in both logical functionality and data flow, allowing far greater flexibility than current trigger processing systems. In addition, the modular nature of this architecture allows flexibility in scale unmatched by traditional approaches. The Muon and Quiet bit system consists of two major components, a custom micro TCA backplane and processing module. These components are based on Xilinx Virtex5 and Mindspeed crosspoint switch devices, bringing together state of the art FPGA based processing and Telcom switching technologies.

  6. Quiet Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) technology study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an engine which satisfies the requirements of a quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) engine is described. Also an experimental program to demonstrate performance is suggested. The T700 QCGAT engine preliminary design indicates that it will radiate noise at the same level as an aircraft without engine noise, have exhaust emissions within the EPA 1981 Standards, have lower fuel consumption than is available in comparable size engines, and have sufficient life for five years between overhauls.

  7. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource. So are Quiet Skies!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Heatherly, S.

    2008-05-01

    You've just purchased your first telescope. But where to set it up? Certainly not a WalMart parking lot. Too much light pollution! In the same way that man-made light obscures our night sky and blinds ground-based optical telescopes, man-made radio signals blind radio telescopes as well. NRAO developed the Quiet Skies project to increase awareness of radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy in general by engaging students in local studies of RFI. To do that we created a sensitive detector which measures RFI. We produced 20 of these, and assembled kits containing detectors and supplementary materials for loan to schools. Students conduct experiments to measure the properties of RFI in their area, and input their measurements into a web-based data base. The Quiet Skies project is a perfect complement to the IYA Dark Skies Awareness initiative. We hope to place 500 Quiet Skies detectors into the field through outreach to museums and schools around the world. Should we be successful, we will sustain this global initiative via a continuing loan program. One day we hope to have a publicly generated image of the Earth which shows RFI much as the Earth at Night image illustrates light pollution. The poster will present the components of the project in detail, including our plans for IYA, and various low-cost alternative strategies for introducing RFI and radio astronomy to the public. We will share the results of some of the experiments already being performed by high school students. Development of the Quiet Skies project was funded by a NASA IDEAS grant. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Energy Input Flux in the Global Quiet-Sun Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Cormack, Cecilia; Vásquez, Alberto M.; López Fuentes, Marcelo; Nuevo, Federico A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, CC 67—Suc 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering (CLaSP), University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present first results of a novel technique that provides, for the first time, constraints on the energy input flux at the coronal base ( r ∼ 1.025 R {sub ⊙}) of the quiet Sun at a global scale. By combining differential emission measure tomography of EUV images, with global models of the coronal magnetic field, we estimate the energy input flux at the coronal base that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. The technique is described in detail and first applied to data provided by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument, on board the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, for two solar rotations with different levels of activity. Our analysis indicates that the typical energy input flux at the coronal base of magnetic loops in the quiet Sun is in the range ∼0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 5} (erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), depending on the structure size and level of activity. A large fraction of this energy input, or even its totality, could be accounted for by Alfvén waves, as shown by recent independent observational estimates derived from determinations of the non-thermal broadening of spectral lines in the coronal base of quiet-Sun regions. This new tomography product will be useful for the validation of coronal heating models in magnetohydrodinamic simulations of the global corona.

  9. Moon and quiet Sun detection with Fermi-LAT observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigida, M., E-mail: monica.brigida@ba.infn.i [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' , dell' Universita degli Studi e del Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-02-21

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope is an international mission supporting two science instruments, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), covering the energy range from few keV to 30 MeV, and the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a pair-conversion detector operating at energies from 30 MeV to 300 GeV. The Fermi telescope was successfully launched on June 11, 2008 and has been surveying the sky in gamma rays since August 2008. During the first months of the mission, Fermi has detected high-energy gamma rays from the Moon and quiet Sun since the first weeks of data taking. This emission is produced by interactions of cosmic rays; by nucleons with the solar and lunar surface (albedo), and electrons with solar photons in the heliosphere. The heliospheric emission is produced by inverse-Compton scattering and is predicted to be extended. Both Moon and the quiet Sun was detecte d by EGRET on CGRO with low statistics, but Fermi is the only gamma-ray mission capable of detecting the Moon and the quiet Sun and monitoring it over the full 24th solar cycle. Here we present the analysis relative to the first months including the observation of the Moon and the Sun, the spectral analysis, the fluxes measurements and finally a comparison with models and previous detections.

  10. Quality of Visual Cue Affects Visual Reweighting in Quiet Standing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Moraes

    Full Text Available Sensory reweighting is a characteristic of postural control functioning adopted to accommodate environmental changes. The use of mono or binocular cues induces visual reduction/increment of moving room influences on postural sway, suggesting a visual reweighting due to the quality of available sensory cues. Because in our previous study visual conditions were set before each trial, participants could adjust the weight of the different sensory systems in an anticipatory manner based upon the reduction in quality of the visual information. Nevertheless, in daily situations this adjustment is a dynamical process and occurs during ongoing movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual transitions in the coupling between visual information and body sway in two different distances from the front wall of a moving room. Eleven young adults stood upright inside of a moving room in two distances (75 and 150 cm wearing a liquid crystal lenses goggles, which allow individual lenses transition from opaque to transparent and vice-versa. Participants stood still during five minutes for each trial and the lenses status changed every one minute (no vision to binocular vision, no vision to monocular vision, binocular vision to monocular vision, and vice-versa. Results showed that farther distance and monocular vision reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway. The effect of visual transition was condition dependent, with a stronger effect when transitions involved binocular vision than monocular vision. Based upon these results, we conclude that the increased distance from the front wall of the room reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway and that sensory reweighting is stimulus quality dependent, with binocular vision producing a much stronger down/up-weighting than monocular vision.

  11. Adaptive behaviour of the spinal cord in the transition from quiet stance to walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrao Mariano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR excitability was evaluated during gait initiation in 10 healthy subjects to investigate how load- and movement-related joint inputs activate lower spinal centres in the transition from quiet stance to walking. A motion analysis system integrated with a surface EMG device was used to acquire kinematic, kinetic and EMG variables. Starting from a quiet stance, subjects were asked to walk forward, at their natural speed. The sural nerve was stimulated and EMG responses were recorded from major hip, knee and ankle muscles. Gait initiation was divided into four subphases based on centre of pressure and centre of mass behaviours, while joint displacements were used to categorise joint motion as flexion or extension. The reflex parameters were measured and compared between subphases and in relation to the joint kinematics. Results The NWR was found to be subphase-dependent. NWR excitability was increased in the hip and knee flexor muscles of the starting leg, just prior to the occurrence of any movement, and in the knee flexor muscles of the same leg as soon as it was unloaded. The NWR was hip joint kinematics-dependent in a crossed manner. The excitability of the reflex was enhanced in the extensor muscles of the standing leg during the hip flexion of the starting leg, and in the hip flexors of the standing leg during the hip extension of the starting leg. No notable reflex modulation was observed in the ankle muscles. Conclusions Our findings show that the NWR is modulated during the gait initiation phase. Leg unloading and hip joint motion are the main sources of the observed modulation and work in concert to prepare and assist the starting leg in the first step while supporting the contralateral leg, thereby possibly predisposing the lower limbs to the cyclical pattern of walking.

  12. Energy distribution of nanoflares in the quiet solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of flare-like events in low layer of solar corona detected with TESIS instrument onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite in 171 {Å} during high-cadence (5 sec) time-series. The estimated thermal energies of these small events amount to 10^{23} - 10^{26} erg. According to modern classification flare-like events with such energies are usually referred to as nanoflares. The big number of registered events (above 2000) allowed us to obtain precise distributions of geometric and physical parameters of nanoflares, the most intriguing being energy distribution. Following Aschwanden et al. (2000) and other authors we approximated the calculated energy distribution with a single power law slope: N(E)dE ˜ N^{-α}dE. The power law index was derived to be α = 2.4 ± 0.2, which is very close to the value reported by Krucker & Benz (1998): α ≈ 2.3 - 2.4. The total energy input from registered events constitute about 10^4 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}, which is well beyond net losses in quiet corona (3 \\cdot 10^5 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}). However, the value of α > 2 indicates that nanoflares with lower energies dominate over nanoflares with bigger energies and could contribute considerably to quiet corona heating.

  13. Retention of quiet eye in older skilled basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lennart; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Tirp, Judith; Baker, Joseph; Strauss, Bernd; Schorer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting research to suggest that cognitive and motor expertise is more resistant to age-related decline than more general capacities. The authors investigated the retention of skills in medium-aged skilled (n = 14) and older-aged skilled (n = 7) athletes by comparing them with medium-aged less skilled (n = 15) and older-aged less skilled (n = 15) participants. Participants performed basketball free throws and dart throws as a transfer task under standardized conditions. Motor performance (accuracy) and perceptual performance (quiet eye) were examined across the four groups. There were significant differences between skill groups and age groups in throwing accuracy on both throwing tasks. Skilled players outperformed less skilled and medium-aged players outperformed older-aged players in basketball and dart throws. There were no significant differences in quiet eye duration across the skill or age groups in either task. These results indicate expertise in a perceptual motor task such as the basketball free throw can be retained in older athletes and that present models of skill maintenance should be re-evaluated to consider the issue of transfer.

  14. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  15. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  16. Quiet living. Challenges of citizen participation in digitized society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    Quiet living. Challenges of citizen participation in digitized society The aim of this paper is to present and address challenges that citizens may encounter in the intersecting questions of democracy, digitization, and participation. Empirically, the paper draws on findings from an extensive study...... of media competences and media literacy in a Danish context, conducted in the fall 2014 (Stald, Hjelholt & Høvsgaard 2015). The findings from this study are supported by new quantitative data on digital media use, news media and democracy and by on two pilot studies on marginalized groups, digitization...... the most digitally integrated countries around the globe, and that digitization already increasingly been adopted over the past decades by the societal systems, and by groups and individual persons. The vast majority of Danes own multiple, digital communication devices and have long experience with digital...

  17. The Quiet HMXB Candidates HD 14633 and HD 15137

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, M. Virginia; Roberts, M. S. E.; Boyajian, T. S.; De Becker, M.; Marsh, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The runaway O-type binaries HD 14633 and HD 15137 were likely ejected from the cluster of their birth by supernovae explosions in close binaries. Neither star is a known X-ray source, but they likely contain neutron stars and may be weak stellar wind accretion systems. Hence the two binaries have been classified as "quiet HMXBs". Here we present new optical spectra of these spectroscopic binaries and reassess their orbits. We also present preliminary results from recent XMM-Newton observations, intended to detect the hard power-law spectrum from accreting or quiescent neutron star companions and reveal the evolutionary history of these intriguing runaways. This work is based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA and Lehigh University.

  18. Quiet eye training improves accuracy in basketball field goal shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Joan N; Vandervies, Ben; Kohut, Christie; Ryley, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    University students (N = 240) were randomly assigned to a quiet eye training (QET) or technical training (TT) group, and their shooting accuracy (%) determined during a pre-, post-, and transfer test in basketball field shooting. Both groups first received lectures on visuomotor processing and the quiet eye (QE), followed by a laboratory in which participants in the QET group were taught how to adopt the QE characteristics of elite free-throw shooters, which stresses optimal gaze control and focus relative to a single target location, while the TT participants were taught elite biomechanics which stresses optimal control of the shooting stance, arms, and hands. Overall, the QET group's accuracy was significantly higher than the TT group, but differences were found due to skill level and defensive pressure. From pre to post, the accuracy of the QET novices increased significantly compared to the TT novices, but declined during transfer. Both the QET and TT intermediates had relatively high accuracy scores during the pre- and posttests, which then declined, as expected, during the transfer test against defensive pressure. However, during transfer the QET group's accuracy remained higher than the TT group and was surprisingly similar to that found in elite competition. It is recommended that novice and intermediate basketball players be taught how to adopt the QE of elite players, rather than learning only the technical/mechanical aspects of shooting. Theoretically, the study is placed within the context of top-down "cognitive control," as proposed by Cavanagh and Frank (2014), and QET studies which show that when learners are taught how to adopt the QE of elite performers, this appears to contribute to a more optimal organization of the neural networks underlying control of the task which, in turn, leads to improved shooting performance. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Posture-cognition interaction during quiet standing in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Karimi, Mehrnoosh; Goharpey, Shahin; Mehravar, Mohammad; Namnik, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cognitive task (silent backward counting) on postural control in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) (n = 25) as compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 25). Static postural control during quiet standing was assessed under different conditions including: (1) rigid surface-open eyes; (2) rigid surface-closed eyes; (3) foam surface-open eyes; and (4) foam surface-closed eyes. Dependent variables were center of pressure (COP) parameters and cognitive score. The results of this study showed that for most COP parameters, the patients with knee OA had greater postural sway than asymptomatic control subjects. Moreover, while cognitive loading affects postural sway in dual-task compared to single-task conditions, the pattern of change was not different between the two groups. Cognitive loading caused decreased postural sway in both groups. Future studies should select patients with more disability, choose more attention demanding cognitive tasks, and expose the subjects to dynamic balance situations to further explore the effect of cognitive loading on postural performance in this specific patient population.

  20. Effects of a quiet time protocol on the sleep quality of patients admitted in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Chamanzari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep disorders are one of the major challenges in intensive care units (ICUs. Psychological, physical and environmental factors are involved in the development of sleep disorders. Therefore, proper adjustment of these factors is of paramount importance. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a quiet time protocol on the sleep quality of patients admitted in the ICU. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients admitted in the surgical ICU of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Patients were selected via convenience sampling and randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Quiet time protocol was implemented in the intervention group for three consecutive nights (7 pm-5 am. Data were collected using researcher-made questionnaires of subjective sleep quality on the first, second and third night. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 21 using Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, independent T-test, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: In the intervention group, mean score of sleep quality in the domain of sleep effectiveness was higher compared to the control group during all three nights (P<0.001. Moreover, mean score of sleep disorders domain significantly reduced after the intervention in the experimental group on the first (P=0.002, second and third night (P<0.001 compared to the control group. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, implementation of a quiet time protocol is effective in improving the sleep quality of patients admitted in surgical ICUs. Therefore, it is recommended that nurses apply this protocol to enhance the quality of sleep in critical patients.

  1. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim N. Dirks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas.

  2. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  3. Quieting of Portland cement concrete highway surfaces with texture modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, various types of asphalt surfaces have become identified as ``quiet pavements'' due to their ability to reduce tire/pavement noise and, ultimately, traffic noise. Often lost in this perception is the fact that substantial reductions in tire/pavement noise can also be made by texture modifications to existing Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) or by novel constructions. PCC surfaces have been found to span a range of as much as 16 dB. As a result, there is the potential to achieve large noise reductions depending on the existing and final surfaces. In California, grinding of bridge decks and elevated structures has been found to reduce tire/pavement source levels 3 to 10 dB with comparable reductions in wayside measurements. In Arizona, grinding of PCC has reduced source levels up to 9 dB relative to some transversely tined surfaces. Measurements conducted in Europe using the same measurement methodology indicated a range of 11 dB including more novel porous PCC surfaces. In this paper, measurement results and case histories are reviewed for situations where PCC modifications were successful and unsuccessful in producing quieter pavement.

  4. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The quiet revolution in Asia's rice value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das

    2014-12-01

    There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Quiet-eye training for soccer penalty kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Greg; Wilson, Mark R

    2011-08-01

    Anxiety has been shown to disrupt visual attention, visuomotor control and subsequent shot location in soccer penalty kicks. However, optimal visual attention has been trained in other far aiming skills, improving performance and resistance to pressure. We therefore asked a team of ten university soccer players to follow a quiet eye (QE; Vickers 1996) training program, designed to align gaze with aiming intention to optimal scoring zones, over a 7-week period. Performance and gaze parameters were compared to a placebo group (ten players) who received no instruction, but practiced the same number of penalty kicks over the same time frame. Results from a retention test indicated that the QE-trained group had more effective visual attentional control, were significantly more accurate, and had 50% fewer shots saved by the goalkeeper than the placebo group. Both groups then competed in a penalty shootout to explore the influence of anxiety on attentional control and shooting accuracy. Under the pressure of the shootout, the QE-trained group failed to maintain their accuracy advantage, despite maintaining more distal aiming fixations of longer duration. The results therefore provide only partial support for the effectiveness of brief QE training interventions for experienced performers.

  7. SELF-CANCELLATION OF EPHEMERAL REGIONS IN THE QUIET SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    With the observations from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we statistically investigate the ephemeral regions (ERs) in the quiet Sun. We find that there are two types of ERs: normal ERs (NERs) and self-canceled ERs (SERs). Each NER emerges and grows with separation of its opposite polarity patches which will cancel or coalesce with other surrounding magnetic flux. Each SER also emerges and grows and its dipolar patches separate at first, but a part of the magnetic flux of the SER will move together and cancel gradually, which is described with the term 'self-cancellation' by us. We identify 2988 ERs, among which there are 190 SERs, about 6.4% of the ERs. The mean value of self-cancellation fraction of SERs is 62.5%, and the total self-canceled flux of SERs is 9.8% of the total ER flux. Our results also reveal that the higher the ER magnetic flux is, (1) the easier the performance of ER self-cancellation is, (2) the smaller the self-cancellation fraction is, and (3) the more the self-canceled flux is. We think that the self-cancellation of SERs is caused by the submergence of magnetic loops connecting the dipolar patches, without magnetic energy release.

  8. Quiet transcranial magnetic stimulation: Status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Murphy, David L K; Goetz, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    A significant limitation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is that the magnetic pulse delivery is associated with a loud clicking sound as high as 140 dB resulting from electromagnetic forces. The loud noise significantly impedes both basic research and clinical applications of TMS. It effectively makes TMS less focal since every click activates auditory cortex, brainstem, and other connected regions, synchronously with the magnetic pulse. The repetitive clicking sound can induce neuromodulation that can interfere with and confound the intended effects at the TMS target. As well, there are known concerns regarding blinding of TMS studies, hearing loss, induction of tinnitus, as well as tolerability. Addressing this need, we are developing a quiet TMS (qTMS) device that incorporates two key concepts: First, the dominant frequency components of the TMS pulse sound (typically 2-5 kHz) are shifted to higher frequencies that are above the human hearing upper threshold of about 20 kHz. Second, the TMS coil is designed electrically and mechanically to generate suprathreshold electric field pulses while minimizing the sound emitted at audible frequencies (sound reduction and suprathreshold pulse amplitudes.

  9. Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel quiet engine air-brake is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for concepts for active and passive control of noise sources for conventional and...

  10. Development of an Engine Air-Brake for Quiet Drag Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel quiet engine air-brake (EAB) is proposed in response to NASA's solicitation for active and passive noise control concepts for conventional and advanced...

  11. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    ...-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics...

  12. The quiet time structure of energetic /35-560 keV/ radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Williams, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed Explorer 45 observations of quiet time pitch angle distributions and equatorial radial profiles of energetic radiation belt electrons are presented. The observed pitch angle distributions in the slot region and the outer regions of the plasmasphere are found to agree with the values expected from resonant interactions with the plasmaspheric whistler mode wave band, and Coulomb collisions are found to be the dominant electron loss mechanism in the inner zone. The overall structure of quiet time radial profiles is shown to agree with the equilibrium structure expected to result from a balance between pitch angle scattering losses and radial diffusion from an outer zone source, and this agreement suggests that the dominant quiet time source and loss mechanisms have been correctly identified. Electron fluxes in the inner plasmasphere are found to remain nearly constant during the quiet periods due to their decoupling from magnetic activity variations in the outer plasmasphere.

  13. Controlling Posture and Vergence Eye Movements in Quiet Stance: Effects of Thin Plantar Inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foisy, A; Gaertner, C; Matheron, E; Kapoula, Z

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess properties of vergence and saccade eye movements as well as posture in quiet stance, and the effects of thin plantar inserts upon postural and oculomotor control. The performances of 36 young healthy subjects were recorded by a force platform and an eye tracker in three testing conditions: without plantar stimulation, with a 3 millimetre-thick plantar insert, either a Medial or a Lateral Arch Support (MAS/LAS). The results showed a decrease of the Surface and Variance of Speed and a more posterior position of the CoP with either stimulation compared with the control condition. The fractal analysis showed a decrease with MAS. Wavelet analysis in the time-frequency domain revealed an increase in the Cancelling Time of the low frequency band with MAS. These results suggest a better stability for a lower energy cost. Concerning eye movements, the inserts influenced only vergence (not saccades): MAS caused an increase of the phasic amplitude of divergence, and conversely a decrease of the tonic amplitude. In contrast, LAS caused an increase of the tonic amplitude of convergence. Thus, MAS renders divergence less visually driven, while LAS renders convergence more visually driven. We conclude that the CNS uses the podal signal for both postural and vergence control via specific mechanisms. Plantar inserts have an influence upon posture and vergence movements in a different way according to the part of the foot sole being stimulated. These results can be useful to clinicians interested in foot or eye.

  14. Fractal properties of SYM-H during quiet and active times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanliss, James

    2005-03-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis was applied to the magnetic storm index SYM-H for the epoch 1981-2002. The objective was to determine the characteristic fractal statistical differences, if any, between a quiet and active magnetosphere. The entire data set comprises over 11 million points that include numerous intervals that can be classified as quiet or active. For quiet intervals we required Kp ≤ 1 for 10,000 consecutive minutes. Similarly, to qualify as an active interval required Kp ≥ 4 for 10,000 consecutive minutes. All active intervals included magnetic storms. Detrended fluctuation analysis was applied to each of these intervals to obtain local scaling exponents. A clear difference in statistical behavior during quiet and active intervals is implied through analysis of the scaling exponents for the quiet and active intervals; active intervals generally have larger values of scaling exponents. This implies that although SYM-H appears monofractal on shorter timescales, it is more properly described as a multifractional Brownian motion. An overall trend toward higher scaling exponents was also discovered for increasing magnetospheric activity, possibly implying an increase in organization with magnetospheric activity. The overall distribution of the scaling exponents for active intervals was Gaussian. For quiet intervals, however, it was bi-Gaussian, perhaps indicative of different internal (magnetospheric) and external (solar wind) nonlinear forcings.

  15. Quiet eye predicts goaltender success in deflected ice hockey shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, Derek; Vickers, Joan N; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-02-01

    In interceptive timing tasks, long quiet eye (QE) durations at the release point, along with early tracking on the object, allow performers to couple their actions to the kinematics of their opponent and regulate their movements based on emergent information from the object's trajectory. We used a mobile eye tracker to record the QE of eight university-level ice hockey goaltenders of an equivalent skill level as they responded to shots that deflected off a board placed to their left or right, resulting in a trajectory with low predictability. QE behaviour was assessed using logistic regression and magnitude-based inference. We found that when QE onset occurred later in the shot (950 ± 580 ms, mean ± SD) there was an increase in the proportion of goals allowed (41% vs. 22%) compared to when QE onset occurred earlier. A shorter QE duration (1260 ± 630 ms) predicted a large increase in the proportion of goals scored (38% vs. 14%). More saves occurred when QE duration (2074 ± 47 ms) was longer. An earlier QE offset (2004 ± 66 ms) also resulted in a large increase in the number of goals allowed (37% vs. 11%) compared to a later offset (2132 ± 41 ms). Since an early, sustained QE duration contributed to a higher percentage of saves, it is important that coaches develop practice activities that challenge the goaltender's ability to fixate the puck early, as well as sustain a long QE fixation on the puck until after it is released from the stick.

  16. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    SOHO's scientists are impressed by the vigorous action that they see going on every day, because the Sun is in the very quietest phase of its eleven-year cycle of activity. To ground-based observatories it appears extremely calm just now. The early indications of SOHO's performance amply justify the creation of a sungazing spacecraft capable of observing ultraviolet emissions that are blotted out by the Earth's atmosphere. Apart from the imager, two ultraviolet spectrometers and an ultraviolet coronagraph (an imager for the outer atmosphere) are busy analysing the violent processes at a wide range of wavelengths. Between them, these instruments should cure long-lasting ignorance concerning the Sun, especially about why the atmosphere is so hot and what drives the solar wind that blows non-stop into the Solar System. Scientists from other experimental teams use SOHO to explore the Sun from its deep interior to the far reaches of the solar wind. They have watched the supposedly quiet Sun belching huge masses of gas into space. They have mapped a hole burnt by the solar wind in a breeze of gas coming from the stars. And they have detected currents of gas flowing just below the visible surface. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO on 2 December 1995, and also provides the ground stations and an operations centre near Washington. The first results are the more remarkable because SOHO arrived at its vantage point 1,500,000 kilometres out in space only in February, and formally completed its commissioning on 16 April. It has a long life ahead of it. All scientific instruments are working well. The luminosity oscillation imager belonging to the VIRGO experiment had trouble with its lens cover. When opened, the cover rebounded on its hinges and closed again. Commands were devised that gave a shorter impulse

  17. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Controlling Posture and Vergence Eye Movements in Quiet Stance: Effects of Thin Plantar Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foisy, A.; Gaertner, C.; Matheron, E.; Kapoula, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess properties of vergence and saccade eye movements as well as posture in quiet stance, and the effects of thin plantar inserts upon postural and oculomotor control. The performances of 36 young healthy subjects were recorded by a force platform and an eye tracker in three testing conditions: without plantar stimulation, with a 3 millimetre-thick plantar insert, either a Medial or a Lateral Arch Support (MAS / LAS). The results showed a decrease of the Surface and Variance of Speed and a more posterior position of the CoP with either stimulation compared with the control condition. The fractal analysis showed a decrease with MAS. Wavelet analysis in the time-frequency domain revealed an increase in the Cancelling Time of the low frequency band with MAS. These results suggest a better stability for a lower energy cost. Concerning eye movements, the inserts influenced only vergence (not saccades): MAS caused an increase of the phasic amplitude of divergence, and conversely a decrease of the tonic amplitude. In contrast, LAS caused an increase of the tonic amplitude of convergence. Thus, MAS renders divergence less visually driven, while LAS renders convergence more visually driven. We conclude that the CNS uses the podal signal for both postural and vergence control via specific mechanisms. Plantar inserts have an influence upon posture and vergence movements in a different way according to the part of the foot sole being stimulated. These results can be useful to clinicians interested in foot or eye. PMID:26637132

  19. Postural stability of canoeing and kayaking young male athletes during quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolieva, Katerina; Diafas, Vassilis; Bachev, Vichren; Christova, Lilia; Gatev, Plamen

    2012-05-01

    We studied the postural stability of 23 canoeing and kayaking young athletes and 15 healthy untrained age matched subjects during quiet and sensory conflicted stance (standing on stable and foam support with open and closed eyes). We measured with a force platform the center of pressure excursions and applied mean sway amplitude (MA), mean sway velocity (SV) and their Romberg ratios, and sway dispersion index to evaluate standing balance. During standing with eyes open, the athletes in comparison to non-athletes showed in sagittal and frontal plane greater MA and SV when the support was stable and smaller MA and SV when it was unstable. During standing with eyes closed, there were no differences between groups when the support was stable, however, the athletes sway faster and have smaller MA than controls while standing on the foam support. During standing on stable support, Romberg ratios for MA and SV revealed that unlike non-athletes the athletes' MA and SV were vision independent. However, while standing on unstable support the athletes' MA and SV became vision dependent and even greater for the medio-lateral sway. Canoeists' SV vision dependency in both planes was greater than for other groups. These results are in line with our hypothesis that young kayaking and canoeing athletes have a different from non-athletes model of sensory integration due to their specific sporting activity. One possible mechanism of this model may be a subtle re-adaptation deficit after disembarking to stable ground with diminished sensitivity of vision and vestibular apparatus.

  20. Controlling Posture and Vergence Eye Movements in Quiet Stance: Effects of Thin Plantar Inserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Foisy

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess properties of vergence and saccade eye movements as well as posture in quiet stance, and the effects of thin plantar inserts upon postural and oculomotor control. The performances of 36 young healthy subjects were recorded by a force platform and an eye tracker in three testing conditions: without plantar stimulation, with a 3 millimetre-thick plantar insert, either a Medial or a Lateral Arch Support (MAS/LAS. The results showed a decrease of the Surface and Variance of Speed and a more posterior position of the CoP with either stimulation compared with the control condition. The fractal analysis showed a decrease with MAS. Wavelet analysis in the time-frequency domain revealed an increase in the Cancelling Time of the low frequency band with MAS. These results suggest a better stability for a lower energy cost. Concerning eye movements, the inserts influenced only vergence (not saccades: MAS caused an increase of the phasic amplitude of divergence, and conversely a decrease of the tonic amplitude. In contrast, LAS caused an increase of the tonic amplitude of convergence. Thus, MAS renders divergence less visually driven, while LAS renders convergence more visually driven. We conclude that the CNS uses the podal signal for both postural and vergence control via specific mechanisms. Plantar inserts have an influence upon posture and vergence movements in a different way according to the part of the foot sole being stimulated. These results can be useful to clinicians interested in foot or eye.

  1. Automatic quiet sleep detection based on multifractality in preterm neonates: Effects of maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanga, M; De Wel, O; Caicedo, A; Heremans, E; Jansen, K; Dereymaeker, A; Naulaers, G; Van Huffel, S

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the multifractal formalism framework for quiet sleep detection in preterm babies. EEG recordings from 25 healthy preterm infants were used in order to evaluate the performance of multifractal measures for the detection of quiet sleep. Results indicate that multifractal analysis based on wavelet leaders is able to identify quiet sleep epochs, but the classifier performances seem to be highly affected by the infant's age. In particular, from the developed classifiers, the lowest area under the curve (AUC) has been obtained for EEG recordings at very young age (≤ 31 weeks post-menstrual age), and the maximum at full-term age (≥ 37 weeks post-menstrual age). The improvement in classification performances can be due to a change in the multifractality properties of neonatal EEG during the maturation of the infant, which makes the EEG sleep stages more distinguishable.

  2. Magnetic signatures of ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems during geomagnetic quiet conditions - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionosphericand magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions. Of partic......High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionosphericand magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions....... Of particular importance for this endeavour are multipoint observationsin space, such as provided by the Swarm satellite constellation mission, inorder to better characterize the space-time-structure of the current systems. Focusing on geomagnetic quiet conditions, we provide an overview of ionospheric...... and magnetospheric sources and illustrate their magnetic signatureswith Swarm satellite observations....

  3. Effects of sound on postural stability during quiet standing

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sung; Lee Kichol; Lockhart Thurmon; Kim Sukwon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length ...

  4. Accuracy of Mobile-Based Audiometry in the Evaluation of Hearing Loss in Quiet and Noisy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Joe; Al-Reefi, Mahmoud; Carriere, Junie S; Verma, Neil; Provencal, Christiane; Rappaport, Jamie M

    2017-04-01

    Objectives (1) To compare the accuracy of 2 previously validated mobile-based hearing tests in determining pure tone thresholds and screening for hearing loss. (2) To determine the accuracy of mobile audiometry in noisy environments through noise reduction strategies. Study Design Prospective clinical study. Setting Tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods Thirty-three adults with or without hearing loss were tested (mean age, 49.7 years; women, 42.4%). Air conduction thresholds measured as pure tone average and at individual frequencies were assessed by conventional audiogram and by 2 audiometric applications (consumer and professional) on a tablet device. Mobile audiometry was performed in a quiet sound booth and in a noisy sound booth (50 dB of background noise) through active and passive noise reduction strategies. Results On average, 91.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 89.1%-93.2%) and 95.8% (95% CI, 93.5%-97.1%) of the threshold values obtained in a quiet sound booth with the consumer and professional applications, respectively, were within 10 dB of the corresponding audiogram thresholds, as compared with 86.5% (95% CI, 82.6%-88.5%) and 91.3% (95% CI, 88.5%-92.8%) in a noisy sound booth through noise cancellation. When screening for at least moderate hearing loss (pure tone average >40 dB HL), the consumer application showed a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 95.9%, respectively, and the professional application, 100% and 95.9%. Overall, patients preferred mobile audiometry over conventional audiograms. Conclusion Mobile audiometry can correctly estimate pure tone thresholds and screen for moderate hearing loss. Noise reduction strategies in mobile audiometry provide a portable effective solution for hearing assessments outside clinical settings.

  5. Prediction of IOI-HA Scores Using Speech Reception Thresholds and Speech Discrimination Scores in Quiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2014-01-01

    ), and speech discrimination scores (SDSs) in quiet or in noise are common assessments made prior to hearing aid (HA) fittings. It is not known whether SRT and SDS in quiet relate to HA outcome measured with the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). PURPOSE: The aim of the present study...... COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The psychometric properties were evaluated and compared to previous studies using the IOI-HA. The associations and differences between the outcome scores and a number of descriptive variables (age, gender, fitted monaurally/binaurally with HA, first-time/experienced HA users, years...

  6. Effect of tinnitus masker noise on speech discrimination in quiet and two noise backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, J B; Goldstein, B A; Salzbrenner, L G; Mueller, G

    1983-01-01

    Use of masking devices is achieving recognition as a means of providing tinnitus relief. While palliative results have been described, possible disruptive consequences have not yet received attention. The present study examined the effects of tinnitus masker noise on speech intelligibility. Twenty young normals listened to NU-6 word lists presented in sound field in quiet white noise, and cocktail party noise backgrounds (S/N = O dB) with and without a tinnitus masker. Although there was little impairment while wearing the masker in quiet, substantial discrimination loss was observed in the two noise backgrounds. The potential disruption in communication function while wearing a masking device is discussed.

  7. Quietly Does It: Questioning assumptions about class, sustainability and consumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, J.; Kostelecký, Tomáš; Jehlička, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 10 (2015), s. 223-232 ISSN 0016-7185 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Sustainability * Ethical consumption * Class Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.03.017

  8. Effects of sound on postural stability during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ha; Lee, Kichol; Lockhart, Thurmon; Kim, Sukwon

    2011-12-15

    Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length of postural sway path in anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) direction were evaluated. Subjective ratings of perceived disturbance at each experimental condition were also obtained using a 7-point rating scale. Results showed that the length of sway path and the position variability of COP increased as the frequency of sound increased in posterior-anterior axis. The effect of sound pressure level, however, was not significant on both the postural sway length and the position variability of COP. These results suggested substantial disturbance of standing balance system among subjects exposed to high frequency noise. The results implied that physical workers should be alerted that their abilities of postural balance could be degraded significantly as disturbance caused by a sound existed.

  9. Effects of Sound on Postural Stability during Quiet Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length of postural sway path in anterior-posterior (AP and medio-lateral (ML direction were evaluated. Subjective ratings of perceived disturbance at each experimental condition were also obtained using a 7-point rating scale. Results showed that the length of sway path and the position variability of COP increased as the frequency of sound increased in posterior-anterior axis. The effect of sound pressure level, however, was not significant on both the postural sway length and the position variability of COP. These results suggested substantial disturbance of standing balance system among subjects exposed to high frequency noise. The results implied that physical workers should be alerted that their abilities of postural balance could be degraded significantly as disturbance caused by a sound existed.

  10. Inference of magnetic fields in the very quiet Sun

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Lagg, A.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados Vera, M.; Solanki, S.K.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Denker, C.; Dörr, H.P.; Feller, A.; Franz, M.; Gonzalez Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Kuckein, C.; Louis, R.E.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, Michal; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Verma, M.; Waldmann, T.A.; Volkmer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 596, December (2016), A5/1-A5/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * atmosphere * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  11. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...

  12. The effect of a carrier phrase on hearing aid amplification of single words in quiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versfeld, N.J.; Goverts, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A common method to assess the functional benefit of hearing aids is by measuring the performance-intensity curve of single words in quiet with and without hearing aids. Currently, virtually all hearing aids use signal processing, which may have a marked effect on gain as a function of

  13. Shhh… I Need Quiet! Children's Understanding of American, British, and Japanese-accented English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2018-02-01

    Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.

  14. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives.

  15. Participant Characteristics and the Effects of Two Types of Meditation versus Quiet Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fling, Sheila; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared restricted and expanded awareness types of meditation with quiet sitting, and controls. All groups except controls became less anxious, more intuitive, and more internal on locus of control. Found little evidence of differential change across groups. Those practicing more showed more anxiety reduction. (JAC)

  16. Prosodic Differences in Mothers' Speech to Toddlers in Quiet and Noisy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-01-01

    Examined mothers' speech to 2-year-old children in both quiet and moderately noisy conditions. Mothers were recorded while teaching their children two words, one of which occurred in the context of other people speaking. Parents used characteristics of infant-directed speech (IDS) to these older children. In addition, many of the prosodic changes…

  17. Effect of Minimal Hearing Loss on Children's Ability to Multitask in Quiet and in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brittany; Pittman, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of minimal hearing loss (HL) on children's ability to perform simultaneous tasks in quiet and in noise. Method: Ten children with minimal HL and 11 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Both groups ranged in age from 8 to 12 years. The children categorized common words…

  18. Organization of Functional Postural Responses Following Perturbations in Multiple Directions in Elderly Fallers Standing Quietly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjacic, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevic, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis…

  19. First NuSTAR Limits on Quiet Sun Hard X-Ray Transient Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Andrew J.; Smith, David M.; Glesener, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of a search for transient hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the quiet solar corona with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite. While NuSTAR was designed as an astrophysics mission, it can observe the Sun above 2 keV with unprecedented sensitivity due...... to its pioneering use of focusing optics. NuSTAR first observed quiet-Sun regions on 2014 November 1, although out-of-view active regions contributed a notable amount of background in the form of single-bounce (unfocused) X-rays. We conducted a search for quiet-Sun transient brightenings on timescales...... as model-independent photon fluxes. The limits in both bands are well below previous HXR microflare detections, though not low enough to detect events of equivalent T and EM as quiet-Sun brightenings seen in soft X-ray observations. We expect future observations during solar minimum to increase the Nu...

  20. First NuSTAR Limits on Quiet Sun Hard X-Ray Transient Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Andrew J.; Smith, David M.; Glesener, Lindsay; Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Caspi, Amir; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Madsen, Kristin K.; White, Stephen M.; Kuhar, Matej; Wright, Paul J.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2017-11-01

    We present the first results of a search for transient hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the quiet solar corona with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite. While NuSTAR was designed as an astrophysics mission, it can observe the Sun above 2 keV with unprecedented sensitivity due to its pioneering use of focusing optics. NuSTAR first observed quiet-Sun regions on 2014 November 1, although out-of-view active regions contributed a notable amount of background in the form of single-bounce (unfocused) X-rays. We conducted a search for quiet-Sun transient brightenings on timescales of 100 s and set upper limits on emission in two energy bands. We set 2.5-4 keV limits on brightenings with timescales of 100 s, expressed as the temperature T and emission measure EM of a thermal plasma. We also set 10-20 keV limits on brightenings with timescales of 30, 60, and 100 s, expressed as model-independent photon fluxes. The limits in both bands are well below previous HXR microflare detections, though not low enough to detect events of equivalent T and EM as quiet-Sun brightenings seen in soft X-ray observations. We expect future observations during solar minimum to increase the NuSTAR sensitivity by over two orders of magnitude due to higher instrument livetime and reduced solar background.

  1. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A. Wayment

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student’s compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32 in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive goals in the first two weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC, QEC with virtual reality headset (QEC-VR, and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-minute exercise in a 30-day period. The 15-minute Quiet Ego Contemplation (QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives.

  2. Phase plane analysis of stability in quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, P O; Benda, B J; Gill-Body, K M; Krebs, D E

    1995-10-01

    We analyzed the standing balance control of 11 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) using phase plane (velocity versus displacement) plots. We hypothesized that maintaining postural stability requires control of both the position and momentum of the center of gravity (CG) and infer that it is advantageous to use both velocity and displacement data to characterize balance control. Phase plane plots provide insight into this dynamic aspect of balance control. We evaluated phase plane plots based on whole body CG and center of pressure (CoP). We varied stability by altering the base of support and visual information. Three different foot placements were used: feet wide apart, feet together, and semitandem stance. Feet together standing was performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. The phase plane plots show changes in stability as base of support is altered or visual input is removed and reveal stability differences between the control and BVH groups. The root mean square variance of velocity and displacement was used to quantify the phase plane information. This parameter showed significant differences between activities and between groups. We conclude that phase plane plots that combine displacement and velocity information are more useful in characterizing balance control than displacement or velocity alone.

  3. Effect of a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid on speech recognition performance: subjective and objective measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Beom; Chung, Won-Ho; Choi, Jeesun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Gyuseok; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-06-01

    The object was to evaluate speech perception improvement through Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids in hearing-impaired adults. Thirty subjects with bilateral symmetric moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. A Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid was fitted unilaterally in all study subjects. Objective speech recognition score and subjective satisfaction were measured with a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid to replace the acoustic connection from either a cellular phone or a loudspeaker system. In each system, participants were assigned to 4 conditions: wireless speech signal transmission into hearing aid (wireless mode) in quiet or noisy environment and conventional speech signal transmission using external microphone of hearing aid (conventional mode) in quiet or noisy environment. Also, participants completed questionnaires to investigate subjective satisfaction. Both cellular phone and loudspeaker system situation, participants showed improvements in sentence and word recognition scores with wireless mode compared to conventional mode in both quiet and noise conditions (P Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids helped to improve subjective and objective speech recognition performances in quiet and noisy environments during the use of electronic audio devices.

  4. Reliability and Validity Measurement of Sagittal Lumbosacral Quiet Standing Posture with a Smartphone Application in a Mixed Population of 183 College Students and Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Koumantakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate recording of spinal posture with simple and accessible measurement devices in clinical practice may lead to spinal loading optimization in occupations related to prolonged sitting and standing postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the level of reliability of sagittal lumbosacral posture in quiet standing and the validity of the method in differentiating between male and female subjects, establishing in parallel a normative database. 183 participants (83 males and 100 females, with no current low back or pelvic pain, were assessed using the “iHandy Level” smartphone application. Intrarater reliability (3 same-day sequential measurements was high for both the lumbar curve (ICC2,1: 0.96, SEM: 2.13°, and MDC95%: 5.9° and the sacral slope (ICC2,1: 0.97, SEM: 1.61°, and MDC95%: 4.46° sagittal alignment. Data analysis for each gender separately confirmed equally high reliability for both male and female participants. Correlation between lumbar curve and sacral slope was high (Pearson’s r=0.86, p<0.001. Between-gender comparisons confirmed the validity of the method to differentiate between male and female lumbar curve and sacral slope angles, with females generally demonstrating greater lumbosacral values (p<0.001. The “iHandy Level” application is a reliable and valid tool in the measurement of lumbosacral quiet standing spinal posture in the sagittal plane.

  5. Can implementing a quiet room reduce the use of mechanical restraints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bonde, SM; Johansen, L

    BackgroundIn order to reduce the use of mechanical restraints, this project aimed to implement a Quiet Room in a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Previous studies has demonstrated that quiet rooms, such ascomfort rooms (Cf. Cummings, Grandfield and Coldwell, 2010) and sensory rooms......(Cf. Bjôrkdahl 2015), contributed to higher patient satisfaction and lower rates of violence, seclusion and restraints. This poster describes the preliminary results and the implementations process.AimThe study aim was to 1) reduce the use of coercive measures such as mechanical restraints, 2) redirect...... used the room between 1 and 5 times. Staff and patients report that coercive measures were avoided, however, we were not able to identify any changes within the registered use of mechanical restraints. Generally, patients experienced great benefits and reported that they appreciated the opportunity...

  6. Review: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ (2008 Buchbesprechung: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Bernd Zöllner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, ISBN 978 87 7694 017 1, 191 pages Besprechung der Monographie: Donald Seekins: Burma and Japan since 1940. From ‘Co-Prosperity’ to ‘Quiet Dialogue’ Kopenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, ISBN 978 87 7694 017 1, 191 Seiten

  7. The Soundscape of the Southern Ocean – How Quiet and how Loud can Nature be?

    OpenAIRE

    Kindermann, Lars; Boebel, Olaf; van Opzeeland, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    The Southern Ocean around the Antarctic continent provides some of the most extreme environmental conditions on earth which shape also the unique underwater soundscape. The area probably contains the most quiet locations within the world's oceans but is also stage for some of the loudest natural events. It is still relatively void of anthropogenic noise and is one of the most important feeding grounds for great whales. However, comparatively little acoustic data exists from this region so far...

  8. Moths produce extremely quiet ultrasonic courtship songs by rubbing specialized scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    Insects have evolved a marked diversity of mechanisms to produce loud conspicuous sounds for efficient communication. However, the risk of eavesdropping by competitors and predators is high. Here, we describe a mechanism for producing extremely low-intensity ultrasonic songs (46 dB sound pressure....... The male's song suppresses the escape behavior of the female, thereby increasing his mating success. Our discovery of extremely low-intensity ultrasonic communication may point to a whole undiscovered world of private communication, using "quiet" ultrasound....

  9. High-latitude ionospheric currents during very quiet times: their characteristics and predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAMP passes the geographic poles at a distance of 2.7° in latitude, thus providing a large number of magnetic readings of the dynamic auroral regions. The data of these numerous overflights were used for a detailed statistical study on the level of activity. A large number of tracks with very low rms of the residuals between the scalar field measurements and a high degree field model were singled out over both the northern and southern polar regions, independently. Low rms values indicate best model fits and are therefore regarded as a measure of low activity, although we are aware that this indicator also has its limitations. The occurrence of quiet periods is strongly controlled by the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, indicating the importance of the ionospheric conductivity. During the dark polar season, about 30% of the passes can be qualified as quiet. The commonly used magnetic activity indices turn out not to be a reliable measure for the activity state in the polar region. Least suitable is the Dst index, followed by the Kp. Slightly better results are obtained with the PC and the IMAGE-AE indices. The latter is rather effective within a time sector of ±4 hours of magnetic local time around the IMAGE array. The orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is an important controlling factor for the activity. This is also supported by the prevailing FAC distribution during quiet times, which resembles the typical NBZ (northward Bz pattern. In a superposed epoch analysis we show that the merging electric field is a suitable geoeffective solar wind parameter. Based on the size of this electric field and the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, a prediction method for quiet auroral region periods is proposed. This may, among others, be useful for the data selection in main field modelling approaches.

  10. Quiet areas:outer experiences and inner sensations – a qualitative approach using film and drones

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze...

  11. Graham Greene’s The Quiet American. A Sartrian Existentialist Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Daniela SABAU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the influence of the French existentialist philosopher Sartre on Greene. Along with the publication of his late novels, Graham Greene’ writing has been tinged with Existentialism which portrays his universe with absurd and comical stances. Therefore, we hold that the typical Greene character from his post-war writings (for example Fowler in The Quiet American has an existentialist emotional make-up because he rejects established social and religious norms.

  12. Romberg ratio in quiet stance posturography-Test to retest reliability.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjernström, Fredrik; Björklund, Måns; Malmström, Eva-Maj

    2015-01-01

    We investigated test to retest reliability and intraindividual variability of Romberg ratios in quiet stance posturography. Thirty-six healthy young adults (17 males, 19 females aged 15-38 years) were divided into 3 groups with different time-intervals between consecutive trials (20min, 3h and 24h respectively). Each group performed 5 posturography recordings in a randomized order of eyes open (EO) or closed (EC)+once after 3 months. We measured the torque variance in posturography and calcul...

  13. Detection of auditory signals in quiet and noisy backgrounds while performing a visuo-spatial task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha W Rawool

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ability to detect important auditory signals while performing visual tasks may be further compounded by background chatter. Thus, it is important to know how task performance may interact with background chatter to hinder signal detection. Aim: To examine any interactive effects of speech spectrum noise and task performance on the ability to detect signals. Settings and Design: The setting was a sound-treated booth. A repeated measures design was used. Materials and Methods: Auditory thresholds of 20 normal adults were determined at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz in the following conditions presented in a random order: (1 quiet with attention; (2 quiet with a visuo-spatial task or puzzle (distraction; (3 noise with attention and (4 noise with task. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA with three repeated factors (quiet versus noise, visuo-spatial task versus no task, signal frequency. Results: MANOVA revealed significant main effects for noise and signal frequency and significant noise–frequency and task–frequency interactions. Distraction caused by performing the task worsened the thresholds for tones presented at the beginning of the experiment and had no effect on tones presented in the middle. At the end of the experiment, thresholds (4 kHz were better while performing the task than those obtained without performing the task. These effects were similar across the quiet and noise conditions. Conclusion: Detection of auditory signals is difficult at the beginning of a distracting visuo-spatial task but over time, task learning and auditory training effects can nullify the effect of distraction and may improve detection of high frequency sounds.

  14. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa N. Obiekezie; Okeke, Francisca N.

    2013-01-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January–December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method....

  15. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  16. Quiet Zone Enhancement for a Target Location Using an Improved Virtual Sensing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Mu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Generating a quiet zone at a target location is the ultimate goal of active noise control (ANC. Generally, the best noise cancellation is achieved at the locations of error sensors. However, the distribution of physical error sensors at a given location is not always convenient or feasible. To overcome this challenge, a number of virtual sensing algorithms for ANC have been researched. Using the physical error signals and knowledge of the system, the adaptive least mean square (LMS virtual sensing algorithm estimates the error signal at a location that is remote from the physical error sensor, referred to as the virtual location. It achieves excellent performance under the assumption that the unknown primary path is fixed, but its performance decreases significantly if the path is constantly changing. This paper presents a real-time ANC system with an improved virtual sensing algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed system was tested to enhance the quiet zone in a constantly changing environment; an enhanced quiet zone was created, and the noise cancellation, especially at the target location, obviously improved.

  17. "Quiet flows the Don" by M.A. Sholokhov: evolution of interpretation by Chinese critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsytsenko Irina Ivanovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze and give a general idea about the main approaches to the study of “Quiet Flows the Don” in China from 1949 to the 2000s, which is essential for the reconstruction and the description of the international reception of Mikhail Sholokhov’s creativity in general, and also allows to see the dynamics of the perception process of the individual specific cultural dialogue between Russia and China in the XX century, due to the political, historical, aesthetic and linguistic factors. The development of “Quiet Flows the Don” in Chinese literary criticism has two main stages: 1949-1985s (one-sided interpretation of “Quiet Flows the Don” in the context of political culture and the 1985-2000s (a scientific approach in the context of a non-political culture. Each of these stages considers separate periods marking the specifics of the study related to the specific feature of China’s historical and cultural situation, analyzes the most interesting point of view of Chinese researchers. Great attention is given to the issues that were discussed in the Chinese literary criticism and topical issues that reflect the experience of revolution and civil war, the question about the main character of the epic novel and the origins of the tragedy and artistic skill of Sholokhov. Key words: reception, art world, paradigm of socio-cultural factors, ideological and artistic humanism, concept of the character.

  18. Thermospheric/ionospheric disturbances under quiet and magneto-perturbed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Ivan G.; Mozgovaya, O. L.

    2003-04-01

    The basic mechanisms of ionospheric storms (IS) are investigated sufficiently full. Despite of it a quantitative forecast of ionospheric disturbance is not always satisfactory. One of the possible causes can be related to the insufficient account of a background ionospheric. In particualr using electron concentration Ne in the peak of F2-region and total electron content are shown, that the amplitude of a IS positive phase for similar magnetic storms can differ by ~1,5 times. Hence a cause of distinction can be variations in the thermosphere conditions, not reflected by known activity indices. For further research we used the incoherent scatter radar data of the Institute of ionosphere in height range 200-1000 km in the very quiet periods coming to the geomagnetic disturbance. A steady periodic disturbance in Ne during quiet conditions in all heights is established, which can be identified as tidal moda m=6. The amplitude of wave is ~15%, the phase changes with a height. The storm onset leads to an increase of the amplitudes approximately twice without a change in the phase. An ionospheric disturbance in very quiet conditions can lead to additional complicating an ionosphere reaction to magnetic storm.

  19. Numerical simulations of quiet Sun magnetic fields seeded by the Biermann battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomenko, E.; Vitas, N.; Collados, M.; de Vicente, A.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic fields of the quiet Sun cover at any time more than 90% of its surface and their magnetic energy budget is crucial to explain the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere. One of the possible origins of these fields is the action of the local dynamo in the upper convection zone of the Sun. Existing simulations of the local solar dynamo require an initial seed field and sufficiently high spatial resolution in order to achieve the amplification of the seed field to the observed values in the quiet Sun. Here we report an alternative model of seeding based on the action of the Bierman battery effect. This effect generates a magnetic field due to the local imbalances in electron pressure in the partially ionized solar plasma. We show that the battery effect self-consistently creates from zero an initial seed field of a strength of the order of micro G, and together with dynamo amplification allows the generation of quiet Sun magnetic fields of a similar strength to those from solar observations.

  20. An environmental index of noise and light pollution at EU by spatial correlation of quiet and unlit areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Pantis, Ioannis D

    2017-02-01

    Quietness exists in places without human induced noise sources and could offer multiple benefits to citizens. Unlit areas are sites free of human intense interference at night time. The aim of this research is to develop an integrated environmental index of noise and light pollution. In order to achieve this goal the spatial pattern of quietness and darkness of Europe was identified, as well as their overlap. The environmental index revealed that the spatial patterns of Quiet and Unlit Areas differ to a great extent highlighting the importance of preserving quietness as well as darkness in EU. The spatial overlap of these two environmental characteristics covers 32.06% of EU surface area, which could be considered a feasible threshold for protection. This diurnal and nocturnal metric of environmental quality accompanied with all direct and indirect benefits to human well-being could indicate a target for environmental protection in the EU policy and practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relation between postural stability and weight distribution in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, L.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nes, I.J.W. van; Nienhuis, B.; Straatman, H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of leg-loading asymmetry on postural control and control asymmetry during quiet upright standing in healthy young and middle-aged subjects is necessary before these relationships in patients with lateralized disorders can be assessed and understood. A posturographic

  2. Investigation of the effect of cochlear implant electrode length on speech comprehension in quiet and noise compared with the results with users of electro-acoustic-stimulation, a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Andreas; Illg, Angelika; Majdani, Omid; Lenarz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effect of cochlear implant (CI) electrode length on speech comprehension in quiet and noise and compare the results with those of EAS users. 91 adults with some degree of residual hearing were implanted with a FLEX20, FLEX24, or FLEX28 electrode. Some subjects were postoperative electric-acoustic-stimulation (EAS) users; the other subjects were in the groups of electric stimulation-only (ES-only). Speech perception was tested in quiet and noise at 3 and 6 months of ES or EAS use. Speech comprehension results were analyzed and correlated to electrode length. While the FLEX20 ES and FLEX24 ES groups were still in their learning phase between the 3 to 6 months interval, the FLEX28 ES group was already reaching a performance plateau at the three months appointment yielding remarkably high test scores. EAS subjects using FLEX20 or FLEX24 electrodes outscored ES-only subjects with the same short electrodes on all 3 tests at each interval, reaching significance with FLEX20 ES and FLEX24 ES subjects on all 3 tests at the 3-months interval and on 2 tests at the 6- months interval. Amongst ES-only subjects at the 3- months interval, FLEX28 ES subjects significantly outscored FLEX20 ES subjects on all 3 tests and the FLEX24 ES subjects on 2 tests. At the-6 months interval, FLEX28 ES subjects still exceeded the other ES-only subjects although the difference did not reach significance. Among ES-only users, the FLEX28 ES users had the best speech comprehension scores, at the 3- months appointment and tendentially at the 6 months appointment. EAS users showed significantly better speech comprehension results compared to ES-only users with the same short electrodes.

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. Effect of implementation of Quiet Time Protocol on sleep quality of patients in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamanzari Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sleep disorder is considered as one of the major challenges in the Intensive Care Unit. Psychological and physical factors of environment are involved in its development. The adjustment of these factors to meet this need is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of implementation of  Quiet Time Protocol on sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial study, study population was the hospitalized patients in surgical intensive care unit of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad in 2013. 60 patients were selected by convenience sampling and then were assigned into intervention and control groups.  The quiet time protocol was implemented in intervention group for 3 consecutive nights from 7pm to 5 am. The data were gathered through made-researcher questionnaire about sleep quality in the first, second and third nights. Data analysis was done through Fisher's exact test, chi-square, independent T-test, repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS21. Results: The mean score of sleep quality in effectiveness aspect in intervention group was higher than the control group in all three nights (p<0.001. This mean in sleep disorders aspect after the intervention in intervention group was significantly reduced in the first (p=0.002 the second and third nights (p<0.001 in compare with control group. Conclusion: According to the results, implementation of quiet time protocol is effective on improving the sleep quality of patients in surgical intensive care unit. Nurses can use this protocol to improve the quality of sleep in patients.

  5. IRIS Burst Spectra Co-spatial to a Quiet-Sun Ellerman-like Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. J.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Freij, N.; Oliver, R. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M., E-mail: c.j.nelson@sheffield.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC), School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-10

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied over the past two decades; however, only recently have the counterparts of these events been observed in the quiet-Sun. The aim of this article is to further understand small-scale quiet-Sun Ellerman-like brightenings (QSEBs) through research into their spectral signatures, including investigating whether the hot signatures associated with some EBs are also visible co-spatial to any QSEBs. We combine H α and Ca ii 8542 Å line scans at the solar limb with spectral and imaging data sampled by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ). Twenty-one QSEBs were identified with average lifetimes, lengths, and widths measured to be around 120 s, 0.″63, and 0.″35, respectively. Three of these QSEBs displayed clear repetitive flaring through their lifetimes, comparable to the behavior of EBs in active regions. Two QSEBs in this sample occurred co-spatial to increased emission in SDO /AIA 1600 Å and IRIS slit-jaw imager 1400 Å data; however, these intensity increases were smaller than those reported co-spatially with EBs. One QSEB was also sampled by the IRIS slit during its lifetime, displaying increases in intensity in the Si iv 1393 Å and Si iv 1403 Å cores, as well as the C ii and Mg ii line wings, analogous to IRIS bursts (IBs). Using RADYN simulations, we are unable to reproduce the observed QSEB H α and Ca ii 8542 Å line profiles, leaving the question of the temperature stratification of QSEBs open. Our results imply that some QSEBs could be heated to transition region temperatures, suggesting that IB profiles should be observed throughout the quiet-Sun.

  6. The quiet organization - why a common language does not always create a linguistic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Tange

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Imagine an office environment in an international company in Denmark. Around you employees are going about their daily routines. They write e-mails while chatting to their neighbours, exchange a few comments on their way to the photocopier, and gather in the break to discuss their boss, holiday plans or news on a joint project.  Try then to imagine the same space, only without the noise: A work environment where employees perform their duties quietly and most of the chit-chat has disappeared. This is the situation in many organizations that have adopted English as their corporate language.

  7. High-latitude ionospheric currents during very quiet times: their characteristics and predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAMP passes the geographic poles at a distance of 2.7° in latitude, thus providing a large number of magnetic readings of the dynamic auroral regions. The data of these numerous overflights were used for a detailed statistical study on the level of activity. A large number of tracks with very low rms of the residuals between the scalar field measurements and a high degree field model were singled out over both the northern and southern polar regions, independently. Low rms values indicate best model fits and are therefore regarded as a measure of low activity, although we are aware that this indicator also has its limitations. The occurrence of quiet periods is strongly controlled by the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, indicating the importance of the ionospheric conductivity. During the dark polar season, about 30% of the passes can be qualified as quiet. The commonly used magnetic activity indices turn out not to be a reliable measure for the activity state in the polar region. Least suitable is the Dst index, followed by the Kp. Slightly better results are obtained with the PC and the IMAGE-AE indices. The latter is rather effective within a time sector of ±4 hours of magnetic local time around the IMAGE array.

    The orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is an important controlling factor for the activity. This is also supported by the prevailing FAC distribution during quiet times, which resembles the typical NBZ (northward Bz pattern. In a superposed epoch analysis we show that the merging electric field is a suitable geoeffective solar wind parameter. Based on the size of this electric field and the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, a prediction method for quiet auroral region periods is proposed. This may, among others, be useful for the data selection in main field modelling approaches.

  8. Multi-epoch intranight optical monitoring of eight radio-quiet BL Lac candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Gopal-Krishna; Stalin, C. S.; Chand, H.; Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.

    2017-10-01

    For a new sample of eight weak-line quasars (WLQs) we report a sensitive search in 20 intranight monitoring sessions, for blazar-like optical flux variations on hour-like and longer time-scale (day/month/year-like). The sample consists exclusively of the WLQs that are not radio-loud and either have been classified as 'radio-weak probable BL Lac candidates' and/or are known to have exhibited at least one episode of large, blazar-like optical variability. Whereas only a hint of intranight variability is seen for two of these WLQs, J104833.5+620305.0 (z = 0.219) and J133219.6+622715.9 (z = 3.15), statistically significant internight variability at a few per cent level is detected for three of the sources, including the radio-intermediate WLQ J133219.6+622715.9 (z = 3.15) and the well-known bona fide radio-quiet WLQs J121221.5+534128.0 (z = 3.10) and WLQ J153259.9-003944.1 (z = 4.62). In the rest frame, this variability is intraday and in the far-ultraviolet band. On the time-scale of a decade, we find for three of the WLQs large brightness changes, amounting to 1.655 ± 0.009, 0.163 ± 0.010 and 0.144 ± 0.018 mag, for J104833.5+620305.0, J123743.1+630144.9 and J232428.4+144324.4, respectively. Whereas the latter two are confirmed radio-quiet WLQs, the extragalactic nature of J104833.5+620305.0 remains to be well established, thanks to the absence of any feature(s) in its available optical spectra. This study forms a part of our ongoing campaign of intranight optical monitoring of radio-quiet WLQs, in order to improve the understanding of this enigmatic class of active galactic nuclei and to look among them for a possible tiny, elusive population of radio-quiet BL Lacs.

  9. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa N. Obiekezie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Quiet (Sq day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January–December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year’s change in the source current system of Sq.

  10. Energetic ionized helium in the quiet time radiation belts - Theory and comparison with observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of helium ion distributions in the inner magnetosphere are compared to observations made by ATS-6 and Explorer-45. Coupled transport equations for equatorially mirroring singly and doubly ionized helium ions in the steady state limit with an outer boundary of L = 7 are solved. Radial profiles and energy spectra are computed at all lower L values. Theoretical quiet time predictions are compared to satellite observations of energetic helium ions in the lower MeV range. It is found that the theory adequately represents the principal characteristics of the radiation belt helium ion population.

  11. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  12. Quiet: The Power of Introvert in a World That Can’t Stop Talking

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Schat

    2012-01-01

    Do you pay attention to the differences between extroversion and introversion? It can be fascinating to consider who is and is not aware of  the distinction between the two, as well as the significant formative role they both play in daily perceptions and interactions.  In my experience, more often than not it is the introverts who recognize and appreciate the difference, while too many extroverts remain unaware. In  Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking(2012), Sus...

  13. First simultaneous SST/CRISP and IRIS observations of a small-scale quiet Sun vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.-H.; Tsiropoula, G.; Kontogiannis, I.; Tziotziou, K.; Scullion, E.; Doyle, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Ubiquitous small-scale vortices have recently been found in the lower atmosphere of the quiet Sun in state-of-the-art solar observations and in numerical simulations. Aims: We investigate the characteristics and temporal evolution of a granular-scale vortex and its associated upflows through the photosphere and chromosphere of a quiet Sun internetwork region. Methods: We analyzed high spatial and temporal resolution ground- and spaced-based observations of a quiet Sun region. The observations consist of high-cadence time series of wideband and narrowband images of both Hα 6563 Å and Ca II 8542 Å lines obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), as well as ultraviolet imaging and spectral data simultaneously obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Results: A small-scale vortex is observed for the first time simultaneously in Hα, Ca II 8542 Å, and Mg II k lines. During the evolution of the vortex, Hα narrowband images at -0.77 Å and Ca II 8542 Å narrowband images at -0.5 Å, and their corresponding Doppler signal maps, clearly show consecutive high-speed upflow events in the vortex region. These high-speed upflows with a size of 0.5-1 Mm appear in the shape of spiral arms and exhibit two distinctive apparent motions in the plane of sky for a few minutes: (1) a swirling motion with an average speed of 13 km s-1 and (2) an expanding motion at a rate of 4-6 km s-1. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of Mg II k and Mg II subordinate lines in the vortex region indicates an upward velocity of up to ~8 km s-1 along with a higher temperature compared to the nearby quiet Sun chromosphere. Conclusions: The consecutive small-scale vortex events can heat the upper chromosphere by driving continuous high-speed upflows through the lower atmosphere. Movies associated to Figs. 2 and 3 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  15. Design and Test of Fan/Nacelle Models Quiet High-Speed Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J. (Technical Monitor); Weir, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The Quiet High-Speed Fan program is a cooperative effort between Honeywell Engines & Systems (formerly AlliedSignal Engines & Systems) and the NASA Glenn Research Center. Engines & Systems has designed an advanced high-speed fan that will be tested on the Ultra High Bypass Propulsion Simulator in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel, currently scheduled for the second quarter of 2000. An Engines & Systems modern fan design will be used as a baseline. A nacelle model is provided that is characteristic of a typical, modern regional aircraft nacelle and meets all of the program test objectives.

  16. On an efficient shock wave generation mechanism in the quiet solar transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunin-Barkovskaya, O. V.; Somov, B. V.

    2017-08-01

    Two competing fundamental hypotheses are usually postulated in the solar coronal heating problem: heating by nanoflares and heating by waves. In the latter it is assumed that acoustic and magnetohydrodynamic disturbances whose amplitude grows as they propagate in a medium with a decreasing density come from the convection zone. The shock waves forming in the process heat up the corona. In this paper we draw attention to yet another very efficient shock wave generation process that can be realized under certain conditions typical for quiet regions on the Sun. In the approximation of stationary dissipative hydrodynamics we show that a shock wave can be generated in the quiet solar chromosphere-corona transition region by the fall of plasma from the corona into the chromosphere. This shock wave is directed upward, and its dissipation in the corona returns part of the kinetic energy of the falling plasma to the thermal energy of the corona. We discuss the prospects for developing a quantitative nonstationary model of the phenomenon.

  17. Ion transport and loss in the earth's quiet ring current. I - Data and standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, R. B.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the transport and loss of ions in the earth's quiet time ring current, in which the standard radial diffusion model developed for the high-energy radiation belt particles is compared with the measurements of the lower-energy ring current ions, is presented. The data set provides ionic composition information in an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current energy density, 1-300 keV/e. Protons are found to dominate the quiet time energy density at all altitudes, peaking near L of about 4 at 60 keV/cu cm, with much smaller contributions from O(+) (1-10 percent), He(+) (1-5 percent), and He(2+) (less than 1 percent). A minimization procedure is used to fit the amplitudes of the standard electric radial diffusion coefficient, yielding 5.8 x 10 exp -11 R(E-squared)/s. Fluctuation ionospheric electric fields are suggested as the source of the additional diffusion detected.

  18. English vowel identification in quiet and noise: effects of listeners' native language background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of listener's native language (L1) and the types of noise on English vowel identification in noise. Identification of 12 English vowels was measured in quiet and in long-term speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble (MTB) noise for English- (EN), Chinese- (CN) and Korean-native (KN) listeners at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Compared to non-native listeners, EN listeners performed significantly better in quiet and in noise. Vowel identification in long-term speech-shaped noise and in MTB noise was similar between CN and KN listeners. This is different from our previous study in which KN listeners performed better than CN listeners in English sentence recognition in MTB noise. RESULTS from the current study suggest that depending on speech materials, the effect of non-native listeners' L1 on speech perception in noise may be different. That is, in the perception of speech materials with little linguistic cues like isolated vowels, the characteristics of non-native listener's native language may not play a significant role. On the other hand, in the perception of running speech in which listeners need to use more linguistic cues (e.g., acoustic-phonetic, semantic, and prosodic cues), the non-native listener's native language background might result in a different masking effect.

  19. Pi2 Pulsations During Extremely Quiet Geomagnetic Condition: Van Allen Probe Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ghamry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A ultra low frequency (ULF wave, Pi2, has been reported to occur during periods of extremely quiet magnetospheric and solar wind conditions. And no statistical study on the Pi2 has been performed during extremely quiet conditions, using satellite observations to the author’s knowledge. Also Pi2 pulsations in the space fluxgate magnetometers near perigee failed to attract scientist’s attention previously. In this paper, Pi2 pulsations detected by the Van Allen probe satellites (VAP-A & VAP-B were investigated statistically. During the period from October 2012 to December 2014, ninety six Pi2 events were identified using VAP when Kp = 0 while using Kakioka (KAK, L = 1.23 as a reference ground station. Seventy five events had high coherence between VAP-Bz and H components at KAK station. As a result, it was found that 77 % of the events had power spectra between 5 and 12 mHz, which differs from the regular Pi2 band range of from 6.7 to 25 mHz. In addition, it was shown that it is possible to observe Pi2 pulsations from space fluxgate magnetometers near perigee. Twenty two clean Pi2 pulsations were found where L < 4 and four examples of Pi2 oscillations at different L shells are presented in this paper.

  20. The energy balance in coronal holes and average quiet-sun regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J. C.; Doyle, J. G.

    1981-07-01

    Emission measure curves are presented for average coronal hole and quiet-sun spectra taken during the Skylab mission by Vernazza and Reeves (1978), and the curves are used to discuss the energy balance in each region. Close-coupling calculations are used for the Be sequence, assuming a 10 level ion; for B sequence ions mainly distorted wave calculations in an 11 level ion are used, but close-coupling cross sections are used for some ions; for C and Mg sequence ions, distorted wave calculations are used with 15 and 10 level ions, respectively, and close-coupling results are used for Li-like ions with two levels. Results are presented and include the following: the coronal hole spectrum shows a smaller slope in the emission measure distribution, consistent with the expected outflow effects. It is concluded that the simple constant pressure models of static coronal loops of constant cross section are basically able to match the observed emission measure distribution of the average quiet sun between 1,000,000 and 10,000,000 K. However, the cell center and network distributions are respectively steeper and shallower than predicted by the detailed cooling curve.

  1. A study of high latitude current systems during quiet geomagnetic conditions using Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. R.; Hughes, T. J.; Wilson, M. D.

    Magsat has provided precise vector measurements of the geomagnetic field which have confirmed the large scale Birkeland current pattern observed earlier by higher altitude satellites such as TRIAD, and ISIS 2. In addition to detecting Birkeland currents, Magsat's lower orbit (approximately equalling 300-500 km) permits measurement of both ionospheric currents and crustal magnetic anomalies. The large scale Region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents, which are the dominant feature in the dawn and dusk sectors during moderate magnetic activity, tend to be replaced, during quiet magnetic periods, by structured, small scale current sheets throughout the polar region, and by correspondingly reduced ionospheric electrojets. Several Magsat orbits across the dark, winter polar cap are quantitatively modelled. Total electrojet current intensities ranging from 1.8 x 10 to the 4th A to 1.9 x 10 to the 5th A are inferred along with ratios of zonal to meridional current densities ranging from 0.8 to 1.7. The extension of these modelling procedures to more structured current systems during very quiet magnetic condition is considered, and a method of achieving better separation of crustal anomaly fields from external fields is proposed.

  2. Annoyance, Sleep and Concentration Problems due to Combined Traffic Noise and the Benefit of Quiet Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Theo; Björk, Jonas; Ardö, Jonas; Albin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to a quiet side in one’s dwelling is thought to compensate for higher noise levels at the most exposed façade. It has also been indicated that noise from combined traffic sources causes more noise annoyance than equal average levels from either road traffic or railway noise separately. Methods: 2612 persons in Malmö, Sweden, answered to a residential environment survey including questions on outdoor environment, noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, sleep quality and concentration problems. Road traffic and railway noise was modeled using Geographic Information System. Results: Access to a quiet side, i.e., at least one window facing yard, water or green space, was associated with reduced risk of annoyance OR (95%CI) 0.47 (0.38–0.59), and concentration problems 0.76 (0.61–0.95). Bedroom window facing the same environment was associated to reduced risk of reporting of poor sleep quality 0.78 (0.64–1.00). Railway noise was associated with reduced risk of annoyance below 55 dB(A) but not at higher levels of exposure. Conclusions: Having a window facing a yard, water or green space was associated to a substantially reduced risk of noise annoyance and concentration problems. If this window was the bedroom window, sleeping problems were less likely. PMID:25642690

  3. Characteristics of Relocated Quiet Zones Using Virtual Microphone Algorithm in an Active Headrest System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study displays theoretical and experimental investigation on the characteristics of the relocated zone of quiet by a virtual microphone (VM based filtered-x LMS (FxLMS algorithm which can be embedded in a real-time digital controller for an active headrest system. The attenuation changes at the relocated zones of quiet by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone are mainly examined. An active headrest system was implemented for the control experiment at a chair and consists of two (left and right secondary loudspeakers, two error microphones, two observer microphones at ear positions in a HATS, and other electronics including a dSPACE 1401 controller. The VM based FxLMS algorithm achieved an attenuation of about 22 dB in the control experiment against a narrowband primary noise by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone. The important factors for the algorithm are discussed as well.

  4. From the ‘Quiet Revolution’ to ‘Crisis’ in Australian Indigenous Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Watson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the space of one year the Australian federal political leadership transformed its own account of its achievements in Indigenous affairs from that of a ‘quiet revolution’ to a state of ‘crisis’. This article takes this idea that there is a ‘crisis’ taking place across remote Aboriginal communities as its starting point. However, in contrast to most assessments of this ‘crisis’ I argue that claims about ‘crisis’ do not derive naturally from accounts of the critical circumstances of daily life in remote indigenous communities. Rather, the idea of crisis can be understood as a process of narration, one that the federal political leadership has brought into existence through narrative and discourse. As I show, this narrative of crisis has had a very particular strategic effect. It has enabled the federal government to transform its failure to change the fundamentals of indigenous welfare (its ‘quiet revolution’ into a widespread, general crisis. In this way, this narrative of crisis thus marks a turning point: one at which the discourse of government responsibility for citizens has been overtaken and replaced by that of citizen responsibility to government – namely that indigenous people and communities themselves must now be held responsible for (governmental failure in indigenous affairs. Seen in these terms, the critical circumstances of daily life in many remote Indigenous communities far from providing testimony of governmental failure provide something of an alibi, making the idea of crisis seems utterly feasible.

  5. Effect of minimal hearing loss on children's ability to multitask in quiet and in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brittany; Pittman, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of minimal hearing loss (HL) on children's ability to perform simultaneous tasks in quiet and in noise. Ten children with minimal HL and 11 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Both groups ranged in age from 8 to 12 years. The children categorized common words (primary task) while completing dot-to-dot games (secondary task) in quiet as well as in noise presented at 0 dB and +6 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It was hypothesized that the children's progression through the dot-to-dot games would slow as they encountered more difficult listening environments. This hypothesis was based on the theory that listeners have limited cognitive resources to allocate to any combination of tasks. The dot rate of both groups decreased similarly in the multitasking conditions relative to baseline. However, no other differences between groups or listening conditions were revealed. Significantly poorer word categorization was observed for the children with minimal HL in noise. These data suggest that children with minimal HL may be unable to respond to a difficult listening task by drawing resources from other tasks to compensate.

  6. Redefining the Poet as Healer: Valerie Gillies's Collaborative Role in the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the poetic contribution of Valerie Gillies, Edinburgh Makar (or poet of the city) from 2005-2008, to the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room, a new contemplation space for patients, families, and staff. In collaboration with others, Gillies created a transitional space for the Quiet Room, centered on the display of her sonnet, "A Place Apart." This space functions to comfort visitors to the Quiet Room by relocating them in their surroundings and offering the solace provided by nature and history. With this project, her first as Edinburgh Makar, Gillies redefines the role of the poet as healer and advocates for newer forms of palliative care that focus on patients' spiritual and emotional, as well as physical, wellbeing.

  7. Blind search for radio-quiet and radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars with Fermi-LAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, G. I.; Sokolova, E. V.

    2015-02-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed more than a hundred of gamma-ray pulsars, about one third of which are radio-quiet, i.e., not detected at radio frequencies. The most of radio-loud pulsars are detected by Fermi LAT by using the radio timing models, while the radio-quiet ones are discovered in a blind search. The difference in the techniques introduces an observational selection bias and, consequently, the direct comparison of populations is complicated. In order to produce an unbiased sample, we perform a blind search of gamma-ray pulsations using Fermi-LAT data alone. No radio data or observations at optical or X-ray frequencies are involved in the search process. We produce a gamma-ray selected catalog of 25 non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars found in a blind search, including 16 radio-quiet and 9 radio-loud pulsars. This results in the direct measurement of the fraction of radio-quiet pulsars ɛRQ = 64 ± 10%, which is in agreement with the existing estimates from the population modeling in the outer magnetosphere model. The Polar cap models are disfavored due to a lower expected fraction and the prediction of age dependence. The age, gamma-ray energy flux, spin-down luminosity and sky location distributions of the radio-loud and radio-quiet pulsars from the catalog do not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. The results indicate that the radio-quiet and radio-loud pulsars belong to one and the same population. The catalog shows no evidence for the radio beam evolution.

  8. The magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing with vision depends on the eye-visual target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Burdet, Cyril; Isableu, Brice; Demetz, Sylvain

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether, with vision, the magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing depends on the eye-visual target distance. Twelve young university students were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible in three visual conditions (No vision, Vision 1m and Vision 4m) executed in two conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of the calf muscles. Centre of foot pressure displacements were recorded using a force platform. Similar increased variances of the centre of foot pressure displacements were observed in the fatigue relative to the No fatigue condition for both the No vision and Vision 4m conditions. Interestingly, in the vision 1m condition, fatigue yielded: (1) a similar increased variance of the centre of foot pressure displacements to those observed in the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the medio-lateral axis and (2) a weaker destabilising effect relative to the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the antero-posterior axis. These results evidence that the ability to use visual information for postural control during bipedal quiet standing following calf muscles fatigue is dependent on the eye-visual target distance. More largely, in the context of the multisensory control of balance, the present findings suggest that the efficiency of the sensory reweighting of visual sensory cues as the neuro-muscular constraints acting on the subject change is critically linked with the quality of the information the visual system obtains.

  9. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex...... and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles was determined during the quiet awake state (QW) and quiet sleep (QS) in monkeys (n = 4). Measurements and Results: During QS sleep, compared to QW periods, both tongue stimulation-evoked jaw-opening reflex peak and root mean square amplitudes were significantly......-evoked activity in the jaw motor system is depressed during QS....

  10. Signal to Noise Ratio Maximization in Quiet Zone Acquisitions for Range Assessment at Sub-millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz-Acevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a quiet zone probing approach which deals with low dynamic range quiet zone acquisitions. Lack of dynamic range is a feature of millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength technologies. It is consequence of the gradually smaller power generated by the instrumentation, that follows a f^α law with frequency, being α≥1 variable depending on the signal source’s technology. The proposed approach is based on an optimal data reduction scenario which redounds in a maximum signal to noise ratio increase for the signal pattern, with minimum information losses. After theoretical formulation, practical applications of the technique are proposed.

  11. A comparative study on chaoticity of equatorial/low latitude ionosphere over Indian subcontinent during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the latitudinal aspect of chaotic behaviour of ionosphere during quiet and storm periods are analyzed and compared by using GPS TEC time series measured at equatorial trough, crest and outside crest stations over Indian subcontinent, by employing the chaotic quantifiers like Lyapunov exponent (LE, correlation dimension (CD, entropy and nonlinear prediction error (NPE. It is observed that the values of LE are low for storm periods compared to those of quiet periods for all the stations considered here. The lowest value of LE is observed at the trough station, Agatti (2.38° N, Geomagnetically, and highest at crest station, Mumbai (10.09° N, Geomagnetically for both quiet and storm periods. The values of correlation dimension computed for TEC time series are in the range 2.23–2.74 for quiet period, which indicate that equatorial ionosphere may be described with three variables during quiet period. But the crest station Mumbai shows a higher value of CD (3.373 during storm time, which asserts that four variables are necessary to describe the system during storm period. The values of non linear prediction error (NPE are lower for Agatti (2.38° N, Geomagnetically and Jodhpur (18.3° N, Geomagnetically, during storm period, compared to those of quiet period, mainly because of the predominance of non linear aspects during storm periods The surrogate data test is carried out and on the basis of the significance of difference of the original data and surrogates for various aspects, the surrogate data test rejects the null hypothesis that the time series of TEC during storm and quiet times represent a linear stochastic process. It is also observed that using state space model, detrended TEC can be predicted, which reasonably reproduces the observed data. Based on the values of the above quantifiers, the features of chaotic behaviour of equatorial trough crest and outside the crest regions of ionosphere during geomagnetically

  12. The influence of vision and support base on balance during quiet standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis before and after posterior spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, Hildemberg A R; Reis, Júlia G; Gomes, Matheus M; da Silva Herrero, Carlos F P; Defino, Helton L A; de Abreu, Daniela C C

    2013-11-01

    Scoliosis is the most common postural alteration in adolescence and is characterized by deviations of the spine in three planes. Surgical treatment based on arthrodesis has been developed, but the effects of such restructuring on the systems involved in postural control need to be better understood. To assess the influence of vision and the support base on balance in the quiet standing position in adolescents awaiting surgical treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. Longitudinal study/Ribeirão Preto Clinics Hospital (HC-FMRP-USP) and Laboratory of Assessment and Rehabilitation of Equilibrium at the FMRP-USP. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and controls. Center of pressure (CoP) sway area of the 95% confidence ellipse. Thirty female adolescents were divided into two groups according to their spinal alignment: control (n=15) and scoliosis groups (SGs) (n=15). The subjects with scoliosis were evaluated before and 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after surgery; the controls were evaluated once. The area of CoP oscillation was measured with the eyes open and closed and with two different support bases (feet apart or together). The force platform was purchased with funding support (US $8,375.00) provided by the Research Foundation of São Paulo (FAPESP). The study sponsors had no involvement in the study. Data were collected from the force platform and then statistically assessed through a linear model analysis of mixed effects. Data reveal that subjects in the SG oscillated more than controls, and postsurgery subjects had more oscillation than presurgery subjects. The results also indicated that both groups (control and scoliosis) showed more oscillation among those subjects with feet apart and eyes closed, but subjects with scoliosis were more affected by vision deprivation than by a reduced support base. Our results indicate that adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis are more dependent on visual information and that surgical correction does not change this relationship

  13. Quiet solar wind interaction with Mars over the entire solar cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andrey; Modolo, Ronan; Jarvinen, Riku; Barabash, Stas

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a massive statistical analysis of the ion flows in the Martian induced magnetosphere over the one solar cycle. We performed this analysis using Mars Express ion mass spectrometer data taken during 2008 - 2014 time interval. This data allows to make an enhanced study of the induced magnetosphere variations as a response of the solar activity level. Since Mars Express has no onboard magnetometer, we used the hybrid models of the Martian plasma environment to get a proper frame to make an adequate statistics of the magnetospheric response. We found that the planetary ions escape rate for the quiet solar wind time intervals do not depend on the solar activity. However the induced magnetosphere structure depends very much on the low/high solar cycle season.

  14. Study of the human postural control system during quiet standing using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2009-05-01

    The detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behavior of different time series obtained from the trajectory of the center of pressure, the output of the activity of the human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present two different regimes in their scaling properties: persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to antipersistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviors. The similitude between the results obtained for the measurements, done with both eyes open and eyes closed, indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system while maintaining the quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with the type of analysis performed here.

  15. Examining the response programming function of the Quiet Eye: Do tougher shots need a quieter eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters-Symons, Rosanna; Wilson, Mark; Klostermann, Andre; Vine, Samuel

    2017-10-23

    Support for the proposition that the Quiet Eye (QE) duration reflects a period of response programming (including task parameterisation) has come from research showing that an increase in task difficulty is associated with increases in QE duration. Here, we build on previous research by manipulating three elements of task difficulty that correspond with different parameters of golf-putting performance; force production, impact quality and target line. Longer QE durations were found for more complex iterations of the task and furthermore, more sensitive analyses of the QE duration suggest that the early QE proportion (prior to movement initiation) is closely related to force production and impact quality. However, these increases in QE do not seem functional in terms of supporting improved performance. Further research is needed to explore QE's relationship with performance under conditions of increased difficulty.

  16. The quiet revolution: breastfeeding transformed with the use of breast pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2011-08-01

    A quiet revolution has been taking place in the feeding of US infants in the form of women using electric breast pumps. This revolution in milk expression may be a boon for both mothers and infants if more infants are fed human milk or if they receive human milk for a longer period. Milk expression may also be problematic for mothers, and it may be particularly problematic for infants if they are fed too much, fed milk of an inappropriate composition, or fed milk that is contaminated. As a result, the time has come to determine the prevalence of exclusive and periodic breast milk expression and the consequences of these behaviors for the health of mothers and their infants.

  17. Effects of voluntary and automatic control of center of pressure sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Kozo; Okada, Yohei; Nakano, Hideki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of voluntary and automatic control on the spatial variables (envelope area, maximal amplitude, and root mean square [RMS]) of center of pressure (COP) displacement during quiet standing and identified differences in their postural control strategies (mean velocity [MV], mean power frequency [MPF], and power density). COP data were recorded under relaxed (experimental control), still (voluntary control), and dual (automatic control) conditions. RMS was significantly lower in the still and dual conditions than in the relaxed condition. MV, MPF, and power density were significantly higher in the still condition than in the dual condition. These results indicate that both voluntary and automatic control decrease the spatial variables of COP displacement; however, their postural control strategies are different.

  18. Time-causal decomposition of geomagnetic time series into secular variation, solar quiet, and disturbance signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, E. Joshua

    2017-04-26

    A theoretical basis and prototype numerical algorithm are provided that decompose regular time series of geomagnetic observations into three components: secular variation; solar quiet, and disturbance. Respectively, these three components correspond roughly to slow changes in the Earth’s internal magnetic field, periodic daily variations caused by quasi-stationary (with respect to the sun) electrical current systems in the Earth’s magnetosphere, and episodic perturbations to the geomagnetic baseline that are typically driven by fluctuations in a solar wind that interacts electromagnetically with the Earth’s magnetosphere. In contrast to similar algorithms applied to geomagnetic data in the past, this one addresses the issue of real time data acquisition directly by applying a time-causal, exponential smoother with “seasonal corrections” to the data as soon as they become available.

  19. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engines /QCSEE/ - A technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's QCSEE Program (Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine) performed by the General Electric Company covers a wide range of advanced propulsion technology features applicable to future subsonic engine concepts. These technology features are combined into two engine and nacelle configurations for demonstration of program goals. This paper presents descriptions of two engine/nacelle configurations and shows the flow of technology developed in component programs into the configurations. The under-the-wing (UTW) configuration, featuring major innovative and advanced components, such as a large variable pitch fan and a composite material integrated engine and nacelle structure, has been tested at General Electric's Peebles, Ohio test facility. The key characteristics of the engine as observed from the initial test series are presented.

  20. Absolute redshifts in the CIV 1548 A line in the transition region of the quiet sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, William; Engvold, Oddbjorn

    1992-01-01

    Observations with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument on the SMM spacecraft were made at the polar limb and disk center for the accurate determination of Doppler shifts of the CIV 1548 A emission line formed at 10 exp -5 K in the transition region of the quiet sun. Individual data points representing 3 arcsec square pixels yield both redshifts and blueshifts, but the mean values from four different days of observations are toward the red. The mean redshifts are in the range 4-8 km/s and are produced by nearly vertically directed flows; the uncertainty associated with the mean values corresponds to +/- 0.5 km/s. The redshift increases with brightness of the CIV line.

  1. The role of the antigravity musculature during quiet standing in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soames, R W; Atha, J

    1981-01-01

    The view that postural regulation is achieved by controlling the destabilising effects of gravity through myotatic reflex activity was examined using surface electromyography. Forty seconds of recordings were made of myograms from eighteen muscles in each of a sample of nine young adults. It was observed that antigravity muscular activity in standing is generally low and often absent, and that the myograms from the muscles of the right and left sides of the body differed appreciably, the two sides rarely working together. Some sudden and united bursts of antigravity muscle activity could be observed. These might well have been stretch reflex induced, but they were transient and rare. It is concluded that the view that postural control in quiet standing is continuously mediated in a simple way by stretch reflex mechanisms is probably not valid, and that other mechanisms for controlling posture remain to be identified.

  2. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times.

  3. Observations of Magnetic Evolution and Network Flares Driven by Photospheric Flows in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attie, Raphael; Thompson, Barbara J.

    2017-08-01

    The quiet Sun may be the biggest laboratory to study physical elementary processes of fundamental importance to space plasma. The advantage is the continuous availability of small-scale events, carrying the hidden microphysics that is responsible for larger-scale phenomena. By small-scale events, we mean spatial dimensions of a few Mm at most, and durations of less than an hour. I present here an attempt to describe and understand the coupling between the photospheric flows, the photospheric magnetic flux, and small-scale energetic transient events. By adapting and improving the highly efficient Balltracking technique for Hinode/SOT data, we relate the fine structures of the supergranular flow fields with the magnetic flux evolution. For studying the dynamics of the latter, and more precisely, the magnetic flux cancellation at sites of energy releases, we applied a new feature tracking algorithm called "Magnetic Balltracking" -- which tracks photospheric magnetic elements -- to high-resolution magnetograms from Hinode/SOT.Using observations of the low corona in soft X-rays with Hinode/XRT, we analyse the triggering mechanism of small-scale network flares. By tracking both the flow fields on the one hand, and the magnetic motions on the other hand, we relate the flows with cancelling magnetic flux. We identify two patterns of horizontal flows that act as catalysts for efficient magnetic reconnection: (i) Funnel-shaped streamlines in which the magnetic flux is carried, and (ii) large-scale vortices (~10 Mm and above) at the network intersections, in which distant magnetic features of opposite polarities seem to be sucked in and ultimately vanish. The excess energy stored in the stressed magnetic field of the vortices is sufficient to power network flares.Prospects for determining the magnetic energy budget in the quiet sun are discussed.

  4. Romberg ratio in quiet stance posturography--Test to retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernström, Fredrik; Björklund, Måns; Malmström, Eva-Maj

    2015-06-01

    We investigated test to retest reliability and intraindividual variability of Romberg ratios in quiet stance posturography. Thirty-six healthy young adults (17 males, 19 females aged 15-38 years) were divided into 3 groups with different time-intervals between consecutive trials (20 min, 3h and 24h respectively). Each group performed 5 posturography recordings in a randomized order of eyes open (EO) or closed (EC)+once after 3 months. We measured the torque variance in posturography and calculated Romberg ratios. Total postural sway as well as sway above and below 0.1Hz was analyzed. Test to retest reliability was found to be poor for Romberg ratios (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) 0.1Hz the Romberg ratios were found to be more consistent (fair to good, ICC 0.49-0.71). The variation between two consecutive tests (absolute difference (%)) was high when using the traditional Romberg ratio (EC/EO), but became less varied if an alternate formula that includes the total postural sway was used ((EC-EO)/(EC+EO)×100). In healthy young adults the evaluation of ratios from repeated quiet stance posturography show great intraindividual inconsistency. This questions the Romberg ratio as being a reliable tool for evaluation of postural performance and determination of sensory preference in postural control, at least in healthy controls. Whether test-retest reliability is acceptable in patient cohorts needs to be evaluated for proper validity of intervention and outcome studies and for detection of clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure Computation of Quiet Spike[Trademark] Flight-Test Data During Envelope Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2008-01-01

    System identification or mathematical modeling is used in the aerospace community for development of simulation models for robust control law design. These models are often described as linear time-invariant processes. Nevertheless, it is well known that the underlying process is often nonlinear. The reason for using a linear approach has been due to the lack of a proper set of tools for the identification of nonlinear systems. Over the past several decades, the controls and biomedical communities have made great advances in developing tools for the identification of nonlinear systems. These approaches are robust and readily applicable to aerospace systems. In this paper, we show the application of one such nonlinear system identification technique, structure detection, for the analysis of F-15B Quiet Spike(TradeMark) aeroservoelastic flight-test data. Structure detection is concerned with the selection of a subset of candidate terms that best describe the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description that may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modeling may be of critical importance for the development of robust parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion, which may save significant development time and costs. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate via analysis of F-15B Quiet Spike aeroservoelastic flight-test data for several flight conditions that 1) linear models are inefficient for modeling aeroservoelastic data, 2) nonlinear identification provides a parsimonious model description while providing a high percent fit for cross-validated data, and 3) the model structure and parameters vary as the flight condition is altered.

  6. The Quiet Classroom Game: A Class-Wide Intervention to Increase Academic Engagement and Reduce Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Dart, Evan H.; O'Handley, Roderick D.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of the Quiet Classroom Game, an interdependent group contingency using an iPad loaded with a decibel meter app, for increasing academically engaged behavior. Three first-grade classrooms in the southeastern United States, identified as displaying high levels of noise and disruptive behavior, were…

  7. Intelligibility of American English Vowels of Native and Non-Native Speakers in Quiet and Speech-Shaped Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined intelligibility of twelve American English vowels produced by English, Chinese, and Korean native speakers in quiet and speech-shaped noise in which vowels were presented at six sensation levels from 0 dB to 10 dB. The slopes of vowel intelligibility functions and the processing time for listeners to identify vowels were…

  8. Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars : Are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A.; van Wee, G. P.; Commandeur, J. J.F.; Hagenzieker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe

  9. Compassionate Values as a Resource during the Transition to College: Quiet Ego, Compassionate Goals, and Self-Compassion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A.; West, Taylor N.; Craddock, Emily B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the unique contributions of compassion-related values and skills on stress and life satisfaction in two samples of first-year college students. Quiet ego, a measure of a compassionate self-identity, was associated with using relatively more compassionate interpersonal goals relative to self-image goals. Self-compassion and, to…

  10. Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars : are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Wee, G.P. van Commandeur, J.J.F. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe

  11. Quiet sun observations by uran-2 and uran-3 decameter radio telescopes during the solar eclipse of august 1, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, O. O.; Koshovyy, V. V.; Lozynskyy, A. B.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Shepelev, V. A.; Ivantyshyn, O. L.; Kharchenko, B. S.; Lozynskyy, R. A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Abranin, E. P.; Koval, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Results of observations of the solar eclipse on August 1, 2008 using the decameter radio telescopes URAN-2 and URAN-3 are presented. The observations were made using a technique of scanning the passing source by a fixed beam antenna pattern. The decrease of the quiet Sun integral flux corresponds to theoretical estimates at decameter wavelengths.

  12. Creating a therapeutic environment: a non-randomised controlled trial of a quiet time intervention for patients in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Glenn; Collins, Christine; Osborne, Sonya; Henderson, Amanda; Eastwood, Misha

    2009-06-01

    Noise is a significant barrier to sleep for acute care hospital patients, and sleep has been shown to be therapeutic for health, healing and recovery. Scheduled quiet time interventions to promote inpatient rest and sleep have been successfully trialled in critical care but not in acute care settings. The study aim was to evaluate a scheduled quiet time intervention in an acute care setting. The study measured the effect of a scheduled quiet time on noise levels, inpatients' rest and sleep behaviour, and wellbeing. The study also examined the impact of the intervention on patients', visitors' and health professionals' satisfaction, and organisational functioning. The study was a multi-centred non-randomised parallel group trial. The research was conducted in the acute orthopaedic wards of two major urban public hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. All patients admitted to the two wards in the 5-month period of the study were invited to participate, with a final sample of 299 participants recruited. This sample produced an effect size of 0.89 for an increase in the number of patients asleep during the quiet time. Demographic data were collected to enable comparison between groups. Data for noise level, sleep status, sleepiness and wellbeing were collected using previously validated instruments: a Castle Model((c)) 824 digital sound level indicator; a three point sleep status scale; the Epworth Sleepiness Scale; and the SF12 V2 questionnaire. The staff, patient and visitor surveys on the experimental ward were adapted from published instruments. Significant differences were found between the two groups in mean decibel level and numbers of patients awake and asleep. The difference in mean measured noise levels between the two environments corresponded to a 'perceived' difference of 2 to 1. There were significant correlations between average decibel level and number of patients awake and asleep in the experimental group, and between average decibel level and number of

  13. Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: an upright, weightbearing MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Saikat; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, p patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and 2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics. PMID:23165335

  14. Dynamics of quiet human stance: computer simulations of a triple inverted pendulum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Michael; Wagner, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the biomechanical description of quiet human stance has been dominated by the single inverted pendulum (SIP) paradigm. However, in the past few years, the SIP model family has been falsified as an explanatory approach. Double inverted pendulum models have recently proven to be inappropriate. Human topology with three major leg joints suggests in a natural way to examine triple inverted pendulum (TIP) models as an appropriate approach. In this study, we focused on formulating a TIP model that can synthesise stable balancing attractors based on minimalistic sensor information and actuation complexity. The simulated TIP oscillation amplitudes are realistic in vertical direction. Along with the horizontal ankle, knee and hip positions, though, all simulated joint angle amplitudes still exceed the measured ones about threefold. It is likely that they could be eventually brought down to the physiological range by using more sensor information. The TIP systems' eigenfrequency spectra come out as another major result. The eigenfrequencies spread across about 0.1 Hz...20 Hz. Our main result is that joint stiffnesses can be reduced even below statically required values by using an active hip torque balancing strategy. When reducing mono- and bi-articular stiffnesses further down to levels threatening dynamic stability, the spectra indicate a change from torus-like (stable) to strange (chaotic) attractors. Spectra of measured ground reaction forces appear to be strange-attractor-like. We would conclude that TIP models are a suitable starting point to examine more deeply the dynamic character of and the essential structural properties behind quiet human stance. Abbreviations and technical terms Inverted pendulum body exposed to gravity and pivoting in a joint around position of unstable equilibrium (operating point) SIP single inverted pendulum: one rigid body pivoting around fixation to the ground (external joint) DIP double inverted pendulum: two bodies

  15. Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 15 (QUIET-15): Intervening after recurrent seizures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Martin, Roy C; Faught, Edward; Funkhouser, Ellen; Richman, Joshua; Piper, Kendra; Juarez, Lucia; Dai, Chen; Pisu, Maria

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we examined the provision of care to older adults with epilepsy and compliance with the "Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 15" (QUIET-15) measure. We analyzed 2008-2010, 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries augmented with data from all beneficiaries who identified as a minority with claims related to seizures (780.3x) or epilepsy (345.xx). Of 36,912 identified epilepsy cases, 12.6% had ≥1 emergency room (ER) visit for seizure(s). For those who presented to ER, among those taking anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), AED was changed in 15.4%, dose adjusted in 19.7%, and stopped in 14.9%; among those not taking AED, therapy was initiated in 68.5%. In adjusted logistic regressions, African-Americans were more likely to have recurrent seizures than Whites (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.27-1.56), while Asians were less likely to have recurrent seizures (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.57-0.89). There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in the likelihood of a post-seizure intervention. The chance of seizure recurrence leading to ER visit decreased with age and increased with the number of comorbidities. Patients with seizure recurrence were more likely to be taking an enzyme-inducing AED (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.57-1.82) and receiving Part D Low Income Subsidy (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.22-1.51). The probability of AED change after a seizure was higher for patients with ≥4 comorbidities (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.25-2.27), patients who saw a neurologist (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.30-1.70), and patients who were taking an enzyme-inducing AED (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.27-1.71). Overall, a minority of Medicare beneficiaries experienced seizure recurrence that resulted in an ER visit. However, only half of them received treatment concordant with QUIET-15. Though racial differences were observed in occurrence of seizures, none were noted in the provision of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical evolution of quiet-Sun small-scale magnetic features using Sunrise observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, L. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of small magnetic features in quiet regions of the Sun provides a unique window for probing solar magneto-convection. Here we analyze small-scale magnetic features in the quiet Sun, using the high resolution, seeing-free observations from the Sunrise balloon borne solar observatory. Our aim is to understand the contribution of different physical processes, such as splitting, merging, emergence and cancellation of magnetic fields to the rearrangement, addition and removal of magnetic flux in the photosphere. We have employed a statistical approach for the analysis and the evolution studies are carried out using a feature-tracking technique. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the feature-tracking algorithm that we have newly developed and we present the results of a statistical study of several physical quantities. The results on the fractions of the flux in the emergence, appearance, splitting, merging, disappearance and cancellation qualitatively agrees with other recent studies. To summarize, the total flux gained in unipolar appearance is an order of magnitude larger than the total flux gained in emergence. On the other hand, the bipolar cancellation contributes nearly an equal amount to the loss of magnetic flux as unipolar disappearance. The total flux lost in cancellation is nearly six to eight times larger than the total flux gained in emergence. One big difference between our study and previous similar studies is that, thanks to the higher spatial resolution of Sunrise, we can track features with fluxes as low as 9 × 1014 Mx. This flux is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the smallest fluxes of the features tracked in the highest resolution previous studies based on Hinode data. The area and flux of the magnetic features follow power-law type distribution, while the lifetimes show either power-law or exponential type distribution depending on the exact definitions used to define various birth and death events. We have

  17. Field Line Resonances in Quiet and Disturbed Time Three-dimensional Magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Chi Zhu Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Numerical solutions for field line resonances (FLR) in the magnetosphere are presented for three-dimensional equilibrium magnetic fields represented by two Euler potentials as B = -j Y -a, where j is the poloidal flux and a is a toroidal angle-like variable. The linearized ideal-MHD equations for FLR harmonics of shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are solved for plasmas with the pressure assumed to be isotropic and constant along a field line. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the slow magnetosonic waves is via the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations are obtained for a quiet time magnetosphere as well as a disturbed time magnetosphere with a thin current sheet in the near-Earth region. The FLR frequency spectra in the equatorial plane as well as in the auroral latitude are presented. The field line length, magnetic field intensity, plasma beta, geodesic curvature and pressure gradient in the poloidal flux...

  18. The effect of vision elimination during quiet stance tasks with different feet positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej; Loefler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut

    2013-09-01

    Literature confirms the effects of vision and stance on body sway and indicates possible interactions between the two. However, no attempts have been made to systematically compare the effect of vision on the different types of stance which are frequently used in clinical and research practice. The biomechanical changes that occur after changing shape and size of the support surface suggest possible sensory re-weighting might take place. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vision on body sway in relation to different stance configurations and width. Thirty-eight volunteers performed four quiet stance configurations (parallel, semi-tandem, tandem and single leg), repeating them with open and closed eyes. Traditional parameters, recurrence quantification analysis and sample entropy were analyzed from the CoP trajectory signal. Traditional and recurrence quantification analysis parameters were affected by vision removal and stance type. Exceptions were frequency of oscillation, entropy and trapping time. The most prominent effect of vision elimination on traditional parameters was observed for narrower stances. A significant interaction effect between vision removal and stance type was present for most of the parameters observed (pvision removal on the body sway. However, for the medio-lateral traditional parameters, the effects did not increase linearly with the change in width and stance type. This suggests that removal of vision could be more effectively compensated by other sensory systems in semi-tandem stance, tandem and single legged stance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quiet: The Power of Introvert in a World That Can’t Stop Talking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Schat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Do you pay attention to the differences between extroversion and introversion? It can be fascinating to consider who is and is not aware of  the distinction between the two, as well as the significant formative role they both play in daily perceptions and interactions.  In my experience, more often than not it is the introverts who recognize and appreciate the difference, while too many extroverts remain unaware. In  Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking(2012, Susan Cain reminds us of the potency and power of the gift of introversion.  She challenges her readers to recognize and celebrate the unique insights and contributions that may be latent in communities and organizations—present, but hidden from view, and likely to remain so unless given the space to flourish and to find a voice. She also suggests that creating a space for the introvert voice may bring unforeseen blessings to an organization or community.

  20. Testing the magnetotail configuration based on observations of low-altitude isotropic boundaries during quiet times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, R.; Ganushkina, N.; Toth, G.; Dubyagin, S.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the configuration of the geomagnetic field on the nightside magnetosphere during a quiet time interval based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Polar Orbiting Environment Satellites Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (NOAA/POES MEPED) measurements in combination with numerical simulations of the global terrestrial magnetosphere using the Space Weather Modeling Framework. Measurements from the NOAA/POES MEPED low-altitude data sets provide the locations of isotropic boundaries; those are used to extract information regarding the field structure in the source regions in the magnetosphere. In order to evaluate adiabaticity and mapping accuracy, which is mainly controlled by the ratio between the radius of curvature and the particle's Larmor radius, we tested the threshold condition for strong pitch angle scattering based on the MHD magnetic field solution. The magnetic field configuration is represented by the model with high accuracy, as suggested by the high correlation coefficients and very low normalized root-mean-square errors between the observed and the modeled magnetic field. The scattering criterion, based on the values of k=Rcρ ratio at the crossings of magnetic field lines, associated with isotropic boundaries, with the minimum B surface, predicts a critical value of kCR˜33. This means that, in the absence of other scattering mechanisms, the strong pitch angle scattering takes place whenever the Larmor radius is ˜33 times smaller than the radius of curvature of the magnetic field, as predicted by the Space Weather Modeling Framework.

  1. Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the observed behavior of the F region ionosphere over Millstone Hill with calculations from the IZMIRAN model for solar minimum for the geomagnetically quiet period 23-25 June 1986, when anomalously low values of hmF2(<200 km were observed. We found that these low values of hmF2 (seen as a G condition on ionograms exist in the ionosphere due to a decrease of production rates of oxygen ions resulting from low values of atomic oxygen density. Results show that determination of a G condition using incoherent scatter radar data is sensitive both to the true concentration of O+ relative to the molecular ions, and to the ion composition model assumed in the data reduction process. The increase in the O++ N 2 loss rate due to vibrationally excited N2 produces a reduction in NmF2 of typically 5-10% , but as large as 15% , bringing the model and data into better agreement. The effect of vibrationally excited NO+ ions on electron densities is negligible.Key words. Ionosphere (Ion chemistry and composition; Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude ionosphere.

  2. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs: III - Location and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval approx.0.0003-0.03pc (approx.10(exp 2)-10(exp 4)tau(sub s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between approx.0.01- 1 Stellar Mass/y, corresponding to approx. or >5-10% of the accretion rates. The average lower-upper limits on the mechanical power are logE(sub K) approx. or = 42.6-44.6 erg/s. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN r.osmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyferts galaxies .

  3. 3D Realistic Modeling of the Interaction of Quiet-Sun Magnetic Fields with the Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution observations and 3D simulations suggest that a local dynamo operates near the surface and produces ubiquitous small-scale magnetic elements, thus contributing to the magnetic carpet in the photosphere and to the magnetic structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. It appears that the traditional mechanisms of chromospheric energy and mass transport by acoustic waves and shocks are likely to play a secondary role; instead, the primary drivers in the energetics and dynamics of the chromosphere and transition region are small-scale, previously unresolved, quiet-Sun magnetic fields. These fields appear as ubiquitous, rapidly changing (on the scale of a few seconds), tiny magnetic loops and magnetized vortex tubes. Questions then arise about their origin and dynamics in the chromosphere, their links to magnetic fields in the photosphere, and their role in the energy storage and exchange between subsurface layers and the chromosphere. In the talk we will present results of 3D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the StellarBox code and discuss the energetics and dynamical interlinks between the subphotospheric layers and low chromosphere, their effects on the structure of the chromosphere, and signatures of the fine-scale magnetic features in high-resolution spectro-polarimetric observations.

  4. The Far-Infrared Emission of Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polletta, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Wilkes, B. J.; Hooper, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Continuum observations at radio, millimeter, infrared and soft X-ray energies are presented for a sample of 22 quasars, consisting of flat and steep spectrum radio loud, radio intermediate and radio quiet objects. The primary observational distinctions, among the different kinds of quasars in the radio and IR energy domains are studied using large observational datasets provided by ISOPHOT on board the Infrared Space Observatory, by the IRAM interferometer, by the sub-millimetre array SCUBA on JCMT, and by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) facilities IRAC1 on the 2.2 m telescope and SEST. The spectral energy distributions of all quasars from radio to IR energies are analyzed and modeled with non-thermal and thermal spectral components. The dominant mechanism emitting in the far/mid-IR is thermal dust emission in all quasars, with the exception of flat spectrum radio loud quasars for which the presence of thermal IR emission remains rather uncertain, since it is difficult to separate it from the bright non-thermal component. The dust is predominantly heated by the optical/ultraviolet radiation emitted from the external components of the AGN. A starburst contributes to the IR emission at different levels, but always less than the AGN (<= 27%). The distribution of temperatures, sizes, masses, and luminosities of the emitting dust are independent of the quasar type.

  5. Contributions of cretaceus quiet zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do hagve tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

  6. Quieting Weinberg 5C: a case study in hospital noise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Mark; Dunn, Jeffrey; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J; West, James E; Reedy, Anita

    2007-06-01

    Weinberg 5C of Johns Hopkins Hospital is a very noisy hematological cancer unit in a relatively new building of a large medical campus. Because of the requirements for dealing with immuno-suppressed patients, options for introducing sound absorbing materials are limited. In this article, a case study of noise control in a hospital, the sound environment in the unit before treatment is described, the chosen noise control approach of adding custom-made sound absorbing panels is presented, and the impact of the noise control installation is discussed. The treatment of Weinberg 5C involved creating sound absorbing panels of 2-in.-thick fiberglass wrapped in an anti-bacterial fabric. Wallpaper paste was used to hold the fabric to the backing of the fiberglass. Installation of these panels on the ceiling and high on corridor walls had a dramatic effect. The noise on the unit (as measured by the equivalent sound pressure level) was immediately reduced by 5 dB(A) and the reverberation time dropped by a factor of over 2. Further, this drop in background noise and reverberation time understates the dramatic impact of the change. Surveys of staff and patients before and after the treatment indicated a change from viewing the unit as very noisy to a view of the unit as relatively quiet.

  7. How a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback modifies postural control mechanisms during quiet standing

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Boisgontier, Matthieu; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback on postural control mechanisms during quiet standing. To this aim, sixteen young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible with their eyes closed in two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeedback. Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements, recorded using a force platform, were used to compute the horizontal displacements of the vertical projection the centre of gravity (CoGh) and those of the difference between the CoP and the vertical projection of the CoG (CoP-CoGv). Altogether, the present findings suggest that the main way the plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback improves postural control during quiet standing is via both a reduction of the correction thresholds and an increased efficiency of the corrective mechanism involving the CoGh displacements.

  8. Differences between Radio-loud and Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars as Revealed by Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu; Takata, J.; Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the properties of non-recycled radio-loud γ-ray pulsars and radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars, we have searched for the differences between these two populations. We found that the γ-ray spectral curvature of radio-quiet pulsars can be larger than that of radio-loud pulsars. Based on the full sample of non-recycled γ-ray pulsars, their distributions of the magnetic field strength at the light cylinder are also found to be different. We note that this might result from an observational bias. By reexamining the previously reported difference of γ-ray-to-X-ray flux ratios, we found that the significance can be hampered by their statistical uncertainties. In the context of the outer gap model, we discuss the expected properties of these two populations and compare with the possible differences that are identified in our analysis.

  9. Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars: Are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling-Konczak, A; van Wee, G P; Commandeur, J J F; Hagenzieker, M

    2017-09-01

    Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe cycling. Furthermore, the study investigated the potential safety implications of limited auditory information caused by quiet (electric) cars and by cyclists listening to music or talking on the phone. An Internet survey among 2249 cyclists in three age groups (16-18, 30-40 and 65-70year old) was carried out to collect information on the following aspects: 1) the auditory perception of traffic sounds, including the sounds of quiet (electric) cars; 2) the possible compensatory behaviours of cyclists who listen to music or talk on their mobile phones; 3) the possible contribution of listening to music and talking on the phone to cycling crashes and incidents. Age differences with respect to those three aspects were analysed. Results show that listening to music and talking on the phone negatively affects perception of sounds crucial for safe cycling. However, taking into account the influence of confounding variables, no relationship was found between the frequency of listening to music or talking on the phone and the frequency of incidents among teenage cyclists. This may be due to cyclists' compensating for the use of portable devices. Listening to music or talking on the phone whilst cycling may still pose a risk in the absence of compensatory behaviour or in a traffic environment with less extensive and less safe cycling infrastructure than the Dutch setting. With the increasing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road, cyclists in the future may also need to compensate for the limited auditory input of these cars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Density and magnetic field fluctuations observed by ISEE 1-2 in the quiet magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe

    Full Text Available We analyse the fluctuations of the electron density and of the magnetic field in the Earth's magnetosheath to identify the waves observed below the proton gyrofrequency. We consider two quiet magnetosheath crossings i.e. 2 days characterized by small-amplitude waves, for which the solar wind dynamic pressure was low. On 2 August 1978 the spacecraft were in the outer magnetosheath. We compare the properties of the observed narrow-band waves with those of the unstable linear wave modes calculated for an homogeneous plasma with Maxwellian electron and bi-Maxwellian (anisotropic proton and alpha particle distributions. The Alfvén ion cyclotron (AIC mode appears to be dominant in the data, but there are also density fluctuations nearly in phase with the magnetic fluctuations parallel to the magnetic field. Such a phase relation can be explained neither by the presence of a proton or helium AIC mode nor by the presence of a fast mode in a bi-Maxwellian plasma. We invoke the presence of the helium cut-off mode which is marginally stable in a bi-Maxwellian plasma with α particles: the observed phase relation could be due to a hybrid mode (proton AIC+helium cut-off generated by a non-Maxwellian or a non-gyrotropic part of the ion distribution functions in the upstream magnetosheath. On 2 September 1981 the properties of the fluctuations observed in the middle of the magnetosheath can be explained by pure AIC waves generated by protons which have reached a bi-Maxwellian equilibrium. For a given wave mode, the phase difference between BVert and the density is sensitive to the shape of the ion and electron distribution functions: it can be a diagnosis tool for natural and simulated plasmas.

  11. Density and magnetic field fluctuations observed by ISEE 1-2 in the quiet magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the fluctuations of the electron density and of the magnetic field in the Earth's magnetosheath to identify the waves observed below the proton gyrofrequency. We consider two quiet magnetosheath crossings i.e. 2 days characterized by small-amplitude waves, for which the solar wind dynamic pressure was low. On 2 August 1978 the spacecraft were in the outer magnetosheath. We compare the properties of the observed narrow-band waves with those of the unstable linear wave modes calculated for an homogeneous plasma with Maxwellian electron and bi-Maxwellian (anisotropic proton and alpha particle distributions. The Alfvén ion cyclotron (AIC mode appears to be dominant in the data, but there are also density fluctuations nearly in phase with the magnetic fluctuations parallel to the magnetic field. Such a phase relation can be explained neither by the presence of a proton or helium AIC mode nor by the presence of a fast mode in a bi-Maxwellian plasma. We invoke the presence of the helium cut-off mode which is marginally stable in a bi-Maxwellian plasma with α particles: the observed phase relation could be due to a hybrid mode (proton AIC+helium cut-off generated by a non-Maxwellian or a non-gyrotropic part of the ion distribution functions in the upstream magnetosheath. On 2 September 1981 the properties of the fluctuations observed in the middle of the magnetosheath can be explained by pure AIC waves generated by protons which have reached a bi-Maxwellian equilibrium. For a given wave mode, the phase difference between B\\Vert and the density is sensitive to the shape of the ion and electron distribution functions: it can be a diagnosis tool for natural and simulated plasmas.

  12. Regularity of Center of Pressure Trajectories in Expert Gymnasts during Bipedal Closed-Eyes Quiet Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Isableu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G to that of non-gymnasts (NG during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories. Three dependent variables were computed to describe the subject’s postural behavior: the variability of COP displacements (ACoP, the variability of the COP velocities (VCoP and the sample entropy of COP (SEnCoP to quantify COP regularity (i.e., predictability. Conventional analysis of COP trajectories showed that NG and G exhibited similar amount and control of postural sway, as indicated by similar ACoP and VCoP values observed in NG and G, respectively. These results suggest that the specialized balance training received by G may not transfer to less challenging balance conditions such as the bipedal eyes-closed stance condition used in the present experiment. Interestingly, nonlinear dynamical analysis of COP trajectories regarding COP regularity showed that G exhibited more irregular COP fluctuations relative to NG, as indicated by the higher SEnCoP values observed for the G than for the NG. The present results showed that a finer-grained analysis of the dynamic patterns of the COP displacements is required to uncover an effect of gymnastic expertise on postural control in nondemanding postural stance. The present findings shed light on the surplus value in the nonlinear dynamical analysis of COP trajectories to gain further insight into the mechanisms involved in the control of bipedal posture.

  13. Quadratic Phase Couplings in the EEG of Premature and Full-term Newborn during Quiet Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiecke, K; Eiselt, M; Schlattmann, P; Witte, H

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Neural Signals and Images". The aim of this study was to compare rhythmicities in the quadratic phase coupling (QPC) in the tracé discontinue EEG patterns (TD) of premature newborns and the tracé alternant EEG patterns (TA) of full-term newborns by means of time-variant bispectral analysis. Both pattern occur during quiet sleep and are characterized by an ongoing sequence of interburst and burst patterns. The courses of time-variant bispectral measures during the EEG burst most likely indicate specific interrelations between cortical and thalamocortical brain structures. The EEG of a group of premature (n = 5) and of full-term (n = 5) newborns was analysed. Time-variant QPC was investigated by means of time-variant parametric bispectral analysis. The frequency plain [0.5 Hz, 1.5 Hz] x [3 Hz, 6 Hz] was used as the region-of-interest (ROI). QPC rhythms with a frequency of 0.1 Hz (8 - 11 s) were found in all full-term newborns at all electrodes. For the premature newborns the QPC rhythms were less stable and slower (< 0.1 Hz, 11 -  17 s) at all electrodes and showed a higher inter-individual variation than for the full-term newborns. Statistically, the adaptation of a linear mixed model revealed a difference of about 5 s between both groups of newborns. The comparison of the results of both groups of newborns indicates a development in the interaction between cortical, thalamocortical and neurovegetative structures in the neonatal brain.

  14. Trends of ionospheric irregularities over African low latitude region during quiet geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungufeni, Patrick; Habarulema, John Bosco; Jurua, Edward

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence patterns of ionospheric irregularities during quiet geomagnetic conditions over the African low latitude region were analysed. GNSS-derived Total Electron Content of the ionosphere data during the period 2001-2012 were used. The data were obtained from Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.68°E, geographic, 8.05°S, magnetic), Mbarara, Uganda (0.60°S, 30.74°E, geographic, 10.22°S, magnetic), and Malindi, Kenya (2.99°S, 40.19°E, geographic, 12.42°S, magnetic). The rate of change of total electron content index greater than 0.5 TECU/Min were considered as severe ionospheric irregularities. For most of the time, the strength of ionospheric irregularities in March equinox were greater than those during September equinox over East Africa and an opposite observation was made over West Africa. These asymmetries might be due to the direction of the meridional winds during equinoxes over the different stations. Severity of ionospheric irregularity reduced from west towards the east. This might have been related to the decreasing geomagnetic field strength from east towards the west. This is the first study that reveals the equinoctial asymmetry is different in the West and East African sectors. Moreover, the importance of this study lies in the fact that it has used extensive data to examine the isolated and un-explained earlier observations of equinoctial asymmetry and longitudinal variation of ionospheric irregularities over the African low latitude region.

  15. THE BRAKING INDEX OF A RADIO-QUIET GAMMA-RAY PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bock, O.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Nieder, L. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Wu, J.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Camilo, F. [SKA South Africa, Pinelands, 7405 (South Africa); Johnson, T. J. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Kerr, M., E-mail: colin.clark@aei.mpg.de [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2016-11-20

    We report the discovery and timing measurements of PSR J1208−6238, a young and highly magnetized gamma-ray pulsar, with a spin period of 440 ms. The pulsar was discovered in gamma-ray photon data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during a blind-search survey of unidentified LAT sources, running on the distributed volunteer computing system Einstein@Home . No radio pulsations were detected in dedicated follow-up searches with the Parkes radio telescope, with a flux density upper limit at 1369 MHz of 30 μ Jy. By timing this pulsar’s gamma-ray pulsations, we measure its braking index over five years of LAT observations to be n = 2.598 ± 0.001 ± 0.1, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second estimates the bias due to timing noise. Assuming its braking index has been similar since birth, the pulsar has an estimated age of around 2700 years, making it the youngest pulsar to be found in a blind search of gamma-ray data and the youngest known radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar. Despite its young age, the pulsar is not associated with any known supernova remnant or pulsar wind nebula. The pulsar’s inferred dipolar surface magnetic field strength is 3.8 × 10{sup 13} G, almost 90% of the quantum-critical level. We investigate some potential physical causes of the braking index deviating from the simple dipole model but find that LAT data covering a longer time interval will be necessary to distinguish between these.

  16. Persistence of motor-equivalent postural fluctuations during bipedal quiet standing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Verrel

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical work indicates that the central nervous system is able to stabilize motor performance by selectively suppressing task-relevant variability (TRV, while allowing task-equivalent variability (TEV to occur. During unperturbed bipedal standing, it has previously been observed that, for task variables such as the whole-body center of mass (CoM, TEV exceeds TRV in amplitude. However, selective control (and correction of TRV should also lead to different temporal characteristics, with TEV exhibiting higher temporal persistence compared to TRV. The present study was specifically designed to test this prediction. Kinematics of prolonged quiet standing (5 minutes was measured in fourteen healthy young participants, with eyes closed. Using the uncontrolled manifold analysis, postural variability in six sagittal joint angles was decomposed into TEV and TRV with respect to four task variables: (1 center of mass (CoM position, (2 head position, (3 trunk orientation and (4 head orientation. Persistence of fluctuations within the two variability components was quantified by the time-lagged auto-correlation, with eight time lags between 1 and 128 seconds. The pattern of results differed between task variables. For three of the four task variables (CoM position, head position, trunk orientation, TEV significantly exceeded TRV over the entire 300 s-period.The autocorrelation analysis confirmed our main hypothesis for CoM position and head position: at intermediate and longer time delays, TEV exhibited higher persistence than TRV. Trunk orientation showed a similar trend, while head orientation did not show a systematic difference between TEV and TRV persistence. The combination of temporal and task-equivalent analyses in the present study allow a refined characterization of the dynamic control processes underlying the stabilization of upright standing. The results confirm the prediction, derived from computational motor control, that task

  17. Attractive "Quiet" Courtyards: A Potential Modifier of Urban Residents' Responses to Road Traffic Noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gidlöf-Gunnarsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the influence of the physical environmental qualities of “quiet” courtyards (degree of naturalness and utilization on residents’ noise responses. A questionnaire study was conducted in urban residential areas with road-traffic noise exposure between LAeq,24h 58 to 68 dB at the most exposed façade. The dwellings had “quiet” indoor section/s and faced a “quiet” outdoor courtyard (LAeq,24h < 48 dB façade reflex included. Data were collected from 385 residents and four groups were formed based on sound-level categories (58–62 and 63–68 dB and classification of the “quiet” courtyards into groups with low and high physical environmental quality. At both sound-level categories, the results indicate that access to high-quality “quiet” courtyards is associated with less noise annoyance and noise-disturbed outdoor activities among the residents. Compared to low-quality “quiet” courtyards, high-quality courtyards can function as an attractive restorative environment providing residents with a positive soundscape, opportunities for rest, relaxation and play as well as social relations that potentially reduce the adverse effects of noise. However, access to quietness and a high-quality courtyard can only compensate partly for high sound levels at façades facing the streets, thus, 16% and 29% were still noise annoyed at 58–62 and 63–68 dB, respectively. Implications of the “quiet”-side concept are discussed.

  18. Listen to the Sound of the Quiet American: John Williams's Stoner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Clark

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Stoner' (1965, John Williams’s third novel, questions and complicates mythologised versions of modern American identity and way of life. The story moves through two World Wars, the Great Depression following the Wall Street crash, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New-Deal America, a prolonged time of social upheaval throughout the world. The book re-imagines stuff-of-dreams versions of the American cultural hero modelled on the image of the brash, risk-taking and economically-successful individual of the 1920s decade. The position mediated by the narrative is one of disillusionment with a nation more in step with passionate, impulsive actions associated with cultural heroism than with cool, astute consideration of possible destructive consequences. Confronted and brought into question is the presumption of silence as ineffectual resistance to the injustices that operate within public and private institutionalized power structures. At first glance, Williams’s eponymous hero, William Stoner’s, wont to quietly internalize, rather than loudly agitate against, conflict-driven social environments, appears to reaffirm this view. Portrayed as a decent man who thinks before he speaks, Stoner’s character proffers the idea that silence and care-full thought before acting can be constructive in the pursuit of a better, more balanced way of being in the world. This essay argues that Stoner’s habitual interiority functions as a political symbolic filter to challenge commonly-held impressions of heroism understood as a garrulous, action-based cultural code of behavior in the practice of everyday life.

  19. Evidence that the AGN dominates the radio emission in z ˜ 1 radio-quiet quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah V.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Kalfountzou, Eleni; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Verma, Aprajita; Cao Orjales, José M.; Stevens, Jason

    2017-06-01

    In order to understand the role of radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) in galaxy evolution, we must determine the relative levels of accretion and star-formation activity within these objects. Previous work at low radio flux densities has shown that accretion makes a significant contribution to the total radio emission, in contrast with other quasar studies that suggest star formation dominates. To investigate, we use 70 RQQs from the Spitzer-Herschel Active Galaxy Survey. These quasars are all at z ˜ 1, thereby minimizing evolutionary effects, and have been selected to span a factor of ˜100 in optical luminosity, so that the luminosity dependence of their properties can be studied. We have imaged the sample using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), whose high sensitivity results in 35 RQQs being detected above 2σ. This radio data set is combined with far-infrared luminosities derived from grey-body fitting to Herschel photometry. By exploiting the far-infrared-radio correlation observed for star-forming galaxies, and comparing two independent estimates of the star-formation rate, we show that star formation alone is not sufficient to explain the total radio emission. Considering RQQs above a 2σ detection level in both the radio and the far-infrared, 92 per cent are accretion dominated, and the accretion process accounts for 80 per cent of the radio luminosity when summed across the objects. The radio emission connected with accretion appears to be correlated with the optical luminosity of the RQQ, whilst a weaker luminosity dependence is evident for the radio emission connected with star formation.

  20. Reproducing the energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during quiet times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, J. F.; Reeves, G. D.; Santolik, O.; Cunningham, G.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Kurth, W. S.; Turner, D. L.; Kletzing, C.; Henderson, M. G.; Ukhorskiy, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present and discuss dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt "slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the 1 March storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally resolved whistler-mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. We will describe how the latter is generated from massively parallel computations of pitch angle diffusion at a scale never achieved in the past. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L shells (2-6) including (a) the strong energy dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L shells at lower energies and (c) an "S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in 15 days, although the "S shape" can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. But we will show that equilibrium states are usually not reachable as it requires very long times for most energy electrons and L-shells. The highest-energy electrons (E>300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L 4-5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structure in energy and L shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.

  1. Microflaring in Low-Lying Core Fields and Extended Coronal Heating in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jason G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported analyses of Yohkoh SXT data examining the relationship between the heating of extended coronal loops (both within and stemming from active regions) and microflaring in core fields lying along neutral lines near their footpoints (J. G. Porter, D. A. Falconer, and R. L. Moore 1998, in Solar Jets and Coronal Plumes, ed. T. Guyenne, ESA SP-421, and references therein). We found a surprisingly poor correlation of intensity variations in the extended loops with individual microflares in the compact heated areas at their feet, despite considerable circumstancial evidence linking the heating processes in these regions. Now, a study of Fe XII image sequences from SOHO EIT show that similar associations of core field structures with the footpoints of very extended coronal features can be found in the quiet Sun. The morphology is consistent with the finding of Wang et al. (1997, ApJ 484, L75) that polar plumes are rooted at sites of mixed polarity in the magnetic network. We find that the upstairs/downstairs intensity variations often follow the trend, identified in the active region observations, of a weak correspondence. Apparently much of the coronal heating in the extended loops is driven by a type of core field magnetic activity that is "cooler" than the events having the coronal signature of microflares, i.e., activity that results in little heating within the core fields themselves. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's Office of Space Science through the SR&T Program and the SEC Guest Investigator Program.

  2. New View on Quiet-Sun Photospheric Dynamics Offered by NST Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, V.; Goode, P. R.

    2011-05-01

    Recent observations of the quiet sun photosphere obtained with the 1.6 meter New Solar telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar observatory (BBSO) delivered new information about photospheric fine structures and their dynamics, as well as posing new questions. The 2-hour uninterrupted data set of solar granulation obtained under excellent seeing conditions on August 3, 2010 (with cadence of 10 sec) was the basis for the study. Statistical analysis of automatically detected and tracked magnetic bright points (MBPs) showed that the MBPs population monotonically increases as their size decreases, down to 60-70 km. Our analysis shows that if the smallest magnetic flux tubes exist, their size is still smaller that 60-70 km, which impose strong restrictions on the modeling of these structures. We also found that the distributions of the MBP's size and lifetime do not follow a traditional Gaussian distribution, typical for random processes. Instead, it follows a log-normal distribution, typical for avalanches, catastrophes, stock market data, etc. Our data set also demonstrated that a majority (98.6 %) of MBPs are short live (<2 min). This remarkable fact was not obvious from previous studies because an extremely high time cadence was required. The fact indicates that the majority of MBPs appear for a very short time (tens of seconds), similar to other transient features, for example, chromospheric jets. The most important point here is that these small and short living MBPs significantly increase dynamics (flux emergence, collapse into MBPs, and magnetic flux recycling) of the solar surface magnetic fields.

  3. Characteristics of Seasonal Variation and Solar Activity Dependence of the Geomagnetic Solar Quiet Daily Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nosé, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi

    2017-10-01

    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X and Y components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memambetsu in midlatitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1 h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. The monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y) shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and the Sq-X and Sq-Y shows an almost linear relationship, but the slope of the linear fitted line varies as a function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The pattern of the local time and seasonal variations of Sq-Y at Guam shows good agreement with that of a magnetic field produced by interhemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs), which flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in the prenoon to afternoon sectors. The direction of the interhemispheric FAC in the dusk sector is opposite to the concept of Fukushima's model.

  4. Speech perception performance of subjects with type I diabetes mellitus in noise

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    Bárbara Cristiane Sordi Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder of various origins that occurs when the pancreas fails to produce insulin in sufficient quantities or when the organism fails to respond to this hormone in an efficient manner. Objective: To evaluate the speech recognition in subjects with type I diabetes mellitus (DMI in quiet and in competitive noise. Methods: It was a descriptive, observational and cross-section study. We included 40 participants of both genders aged 18-30 years, divided into a control group (CG of 20 healthy subjects with no complaints or auditory changes, paired for age and gender with the study group, consisting of 20 subjects with a diagnosis of DMI. First, we applied basic audiological evaluations (pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and immittance audiometry for all subjects; after these evaluations, we applied Sentence Recognition Threshold in Quiet (SRTQ and Sentence Recognition Threshold in Noise (SRTN in free field, using the List of Sentences in Portuguese test. Results: All subjects showed normal bilateral pure tone threshold, compatible speech audiometry and "A" tympanometry curve. Group comparison revealed a statistically significant difference for SRTQ (p = 0.0001, SRTN (p < 0.0001 and the signal-to-noise ratio (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The performance of DMI subjects in SRTQ and SRTN was worse compared to the subjects without diabetes.

  5. Quiet-time 0.04 - 2 MeV/nucleon Ions at 1 AU in Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldovich, M. A.; Logachev, Y. I.; Kecskeméty, K.

    2018-01-01

    The fluxes of 3He, 4He, C, O, and Fe ions at low energies (about 0.04 - 2 MeV/nucleon) are studied during quiet periods in Solar Cycles (SC) 23 and 24 using data from the ULEIS/ACE instrument. In selecting quiet periods (the definition is given in Section 2.1), additional data from EPHIN/SOHO and EPAM/ACE were also used. The analysis of the ion energy spectra and their relative abundances shows that their behavior is governed by their first-ionization potential. Substantial differences in the ion energy spectra in two consecutive solar cycles are observed during the quiet periods selected. Quiet-time fluxes are divided into three distinct types according to the {˜} 80 - 320 keV/nucleon Fe/O ratio. Our results confirm the earlier observation that these types of suprathermal particles have different origins, that is, they represent different seed populations that are accelerated by different processes. Except for the solar activity minimum, the Fe/O ratio during quiet-time periods correspond either to the abundances of ions in particle fluxes accelerated in impulsive solar flares or to the mean abundances of elements in the solar corona. At the activity minimum, this ratio takes on values that are characteristic for the solar wind. These results indicate that the background fluxes of low-energy particles in the ascending, maximum, and decay phases of the solar cycle include significant contributions from both coronal particles accelerated to suprathermal energies and ions accelerated in small impulsive solar flares rich in Fe, while the contribution of remnants from earlier SEP events cannot be excluded. The comparison of suprathermal ion abundances during the first five years of SC 23 and SC 24 suggests that the quiet-time and non-quiet fluxes of Fe and 3He were lower in SC 24.

  6. Earthquake aftereffects in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly region under geomagnetic quiet and storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Stanislawska, I.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to multi-scale spatio-temporal trends that shape the ionosphere variability, the ionosphere responds to the disturbances that are solar, geomagnetic and seismic in origin. In this study, post-seismic ionospheric disturbances are investigated retrospectively from 1999 to 2015 using two different sets of ionospheric maps of the F2 layer critical frequency, foF2. One set of foF2 maps is obtained by assimilating Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) of Total Electron Content (TEC) into IRI-Plas model (IRI-Plas-foF2). Another set of hourly foF2 maps is obtained using PRIME-251 mapping technique (PRIME-foF2) by the assimilation of ionosonde foF2 data into IRI-CCIR model. The geomagnetic storms affecting the ionosphere are determined with relevant thresholds of geomagnetic AE, aa, ap, ap(τ) and Dst indices. It is observed that more than 60% of the earthquakes occur in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) region within the belt of geomagnetic latitudes ±40° N and geographic longitudes 90-190° E. The co-seismic foF2 disturbances, DfoF2, are identified for the cells of the map if an instant foF2 value is outside of pre-defined bounds of foF2 median (μ) and standard deviation (σ), μ ± 1σ, in the map fragment of 1000 km radius around the earthquake hypocenter. The results of positive ionospheric disturbances, DfoF2p, and negative disturbances, DfoF2n, in the EIA region during the 12 h after earthquake differ with respect to geomagnetic quiet and storm conditions, nighttime and daytime, magnitude and depth of the earthquake. The maximum spatial variability (for more than 50% of map cells in the vicinity of hypocenter) is observed with positive disturbances (DfoF2p) for the earthquakes that occurred during daytime at a depth of 70-300 km.

  7. Greening Capitalism, Quietly: Seven Types of Organizations Driving the “Necessary Revolution”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, MIT’s Peter Senge et al. wrote that the Industrial Age bubble was ending and that, especially due to climate change, a “Necessary Revolution” was needed to create a sustainable flourishing world in the decades ahead. Since then, many business organizations have moved toward sustainability to some degree, and many other organizations have emerged, mostly non-profits, to help business and/or prod them to pursue ethical strategies. This report explains how the revolution is unfolding, by briefly mapping some 150 organizations that are driving the greening of capitalism, and grouping them in several meaningful categories: Business-Led Groups, Ethical Groups, Broadened Accounting Groups, Certifying Organizations, Green Investing Groups, Sustainability Consultants, and Green Business Publishing. Each of these groups is important in facilitating the revolution, especially those promoting corporate social responsibility, broader accounting practices, certification, and green investing. Among groups that list their beginning, the median start-up date was 2003—thus a doubling in 13 years. This revolution certainly appears to be well underway, leading to a contest between 21st Century Green (or Sustainable Capitalism, valuing the triple bottom line of People/Planet/Profit to some degree vs. 20th Century Industrial Era Capitalism that adheres to a single bottom line and narrow accounting measures. But the revolution is a quiet one that is underappreciated, due to fragmentation and lack of leadership. Hopefully, if well-publicized and widely discussed, the January 2017 Better Business, Better World report of the Business and Sustainable Development Commission, making a strong all-win business case for pursuing the UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals, could provide a large boost to the necessary revolution. In turn, this could energize the larger system of more than 1500 sustainability-related organizations that are identified in the 329

  8. On parameters identification of computational models of vibrations during quiet standing of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barauskas, R.; Krušinskienė, R.

    2007-12-01

    Vibration of the center of pressure (COP) of human body on the base of support during quiet standing is a very popular clinical research, which provides useful information about the physical and health condition of an individual. In this work, vibrations of COP of a human body in forward-backward direction during still standing are generated using controlled inverted pendulum (CIP) model with a single degree of freedom (dof) supplied with proportional, integral and differential (PID) controller, which represents the behavior of the central neural system of a human body and excited by cumulative disturbance vibration, generated within the body due to breathing or any other physical condition. The identification of the model and disturbance parameters is an important stage while creating a close-to-reality computational model able to evaluate features of disturbance. The aim of this study is to present the CIP model parameters identification approach based on the information captured by time series of the COP signal. The identification procedure is based on an error function minimization. Error function is formulated in terms of time laws of computed and experimentally measured COP vibrations. As an alternative, error function is formulated in terms of the stabilogram diffusion function (SDF). The minimization of error functions is carried out by employing methods based on sensitivity functions of the error with respect to model and excitation parameters. The sensitivity functions are obtained by using the variational techniques. The inverse dynamic problem approach has been employed in order to establish the properties of the disturbance time laws ensuring the satisfactory coincidence of measured and computed COP vibration laws. The main difficulty of the investigated problem is encountered during the model validation stage. Generally, neither the PID controller parameter set nor the disturbance time law are known in advance. In this work, an error function

  9. SECOND SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT 95 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, D.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L. [Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Cleary, K.; Reeves, R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd M/C 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Monsalve, R.; Bustos, R. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wehus, I. K. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bronfman, L. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Church, S. E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Varian Physics Building, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dickinson, C. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gaier, T., E-mail: ibuder@uchicago.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx}1000 deg{sup 2} with an effective angular resolution of 12.'8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C {sub l} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  10. HATS-7b: A Hot Super Neptune Transiting a Quiet K Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Brahm, R.; Mancini, L.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Jordán, A.; Rabus, M.; Espinoza, N.; Csubry, Z.; Howard, A. W.; Fulton, B. J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Isaacson, H.; Noyes, R. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Suc, V.; Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth network of HATS-7b, a transiting Super-Neptune with a mass of 0.120 ± 0.012 {M}{{J}}, a radius of {0.563}-0.034+0.046 {R}{{J}}, and an orbital period of 3.1853 days. The host star is a moderately bright (V=13.340\\+/- 0.010 mag, {K}S=10.976\\+/- 0.026 mag) K dwarf star with a mass of 0.849 ± 0.027 {M}⊙ , a radius of {0.815}-0.035+0.049 {R}⊙ , and a metallicity of [{Fe}/{{H}}] =+0.250\\+/- 0.080. The star is photometrically quiet to within the precision of the HATSouth measurements, has low RV jitter, and shows no evidence for chromospheric activity in its spectrum. HATS-7b is the second smallest radius planet discovered by a wide-field ground-based transit survey, and one of only a handful of Neptune-size planets with mass and radius determined to 10% precision. Theoretical modeling of HATS-7b yields a hydrogen-helium fraction of 18 ± 4% (rock-iron core and H2-He envelope), or 9 ± 4% (ice core and H2-He envelope), i.e., it has a composition broadly similar to that of Uranus and Neptune, and very different from that of Saturn, which has 75% of its mass in H2-He. Based on a sample of transiting exoplanets with accurately (Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. This paper includes data gathered with the 10 m Keck-I telescope at Mauna Kea, the MPG 2.2 m and ESO 3.6 m telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper uses observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope.

  11. Spectral differences between the jets in `radio-loud' and `radio-quiet' hard-state black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinasse, M.; Fender, R.

    2018-01-01

    We have compiled from the available literature a large set of radio measurements of black hole binaries in the hard X-ray state for which measurements of the gigahertz frequency radio spectral index are possible. We separate the sample into 'radio-loud' and 'radio-quiet' subsets based upon their distribution in the radio-X-ray plane and investigate the distribution of radio spectral indices within each subset. The distribution of spectral indices of the 'radio-loud' subset is well described by a Gaussian distribution with mean spectral index α = +0.2 and standard deviation 0.2 (here spectral index is defined such that a positive spectral index means more flux at higher frequencies). The sparser sample for the 'radio-quiet' subset can be approximated, less well, by a Gaussian with mean α = -0.2 and standard deviation 0.3; alternatively, the simple mean of the distribution of the radio-quiet subset is -0.3. The two spectral index distributions are different at high statistical significance. Confirming previous work in the literature, we test to see if the differences in observed spectra could result from different distributions of jet viewing angles, but find no evidence for this. We conclude therefore that the jets in the two groups are physically different in some way, and briefly discuss possible origins and further possible diagnostics. Finally, we note that extrapolating to lower frequencies the two subsets move closer together in the radio-X-ray plane, and approximately merge into a single distribution at around 400 MHz.

  12. Search for magnetically quiet CHAMP polar passes and the characteristics of ionospheric currents during the dark season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic activity at auroral latitudes is strongly dependent on season. During the dark season, when the solar zenith angle in the polar region is larger than 100° at all local times, the ionospheric conductivity is much reduced, and generally low activity is encountered. These time intervals are of special interest for the main field modelling, because then the geomagnetic field readings, in particular the field magnitude, are only slightly affected by ionospheric currents. Based on CHAMP data, this study examines how these quiet periods are reflected in the different magnetic field components. The peak FAC density is used as a possible proxy for the deviation of the total field. As a second option, the transverse field component, which is aligned with the auroral oval, is investigated, because it presents a measure for the FAC total current. Correlation analyses with the scalar residuals are performed and both proxies are tested for their suitability of predicting the intensity of the auroral electrojet during the dark polar seasons. The indicators based on the local FAC strength or on the amplitude of the transverse component show a reasonable correlation with the electrojet intensity for these periods, but fail when limited to small amplitudes. The predictability improves considerably if the time sector is limited to dayside hours (08:00–16:00 MLT. As the activity at high latitudes is strongly controlled by the solar wind input, we also consider IMF quantities which may support very quiet conditions. Correlations of the magnetic field scalar residuals with the merging electric field are strongest if only passes in the dayside sector are considered. Best selection results for quiet passes are obtained by combining four conditions: dark season, small average merging electric field, Em<0.8 mV/m, absence of peak values of Em>1.2 mV/m during a time interval of 40 min centred at the polar crossing, and

  13. Search for magnetically quiet CHAMP polar passes and the characteristics of ionospheric currents during the dark season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic activity at auroral latitudes is strongly dependent on season. During the dark season, when the solar zenith angle in the polar region is larger than 100° at all local times, the ionospheric conductivity is much reduced, and generally low activity is encountered. These time intervals are of special interest for the main field modelling, because then the geomagnetic field readings, in particular the field magnitude, are only slightly affected by ionospheric currents. Based on CHAMP data, this study examines how these quiet periods are reflected in the different magnetic field components. The peak FAC density is used as a possible proxy for the deviation of the total field. As a second option, the transverse field component, which is aligned with the auroral oval, is investigated, because it presents a measure for the FAC total current. Correlation analyses with the scalar residuals are performed and both proxies are tested for their suitability of predicting the intensity of the auroral electrojet during the dark polar seasons. The indicators based on the local FAC strength or on the amplitude of the transverse component show a reasonable correlation with the electrojet intensity for these periods, but fail when limited to small amplitudes. The predictability improves considerably if the time sector is limited to dayside hours (08:00–16:00 MLT. As the activity at high latitudes is strongly controlled by the solar wind input, we also consider IMF quantities which may support very quiet conditions. Correlations of the magnetic field scalar residuals with the merging electric field are strongest if only passes in the dayside sector are considered. Best selection results for quiet passes are obtained by combining four conditions: dark season, small average merging electric field, EmEm>1.2 mV/m during a time interval of 40 min centred at the polar crossing, and limitation to the dayside sector (08:00–16:00 MLT. The set of quiet polar

  14. Acute cardiovascular effects of bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) consumed alone and in combination with caffeine in human subjects: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Bush, Jill A; Stohs, Sidney J; Ellis, Nicole L; Vought, Ira T; O'Grady, Elizabeth A; Kuper, Jeremy D; Hasan, Saif B; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2018-01-01

    The purpose was to examine cardiovascular responses to supplementation with p-synephrine alone and in combination with caffeine during quiet sitting. Sixteen subjects were given (in double-blind manner) either 103 mg of p-synephrine (S), 233 mg of caffeine +104 mg of p-synephrine (LC + S), 240 mg of caffeine (LC), 337 mg of caffeine +46 mg of p-synephrine (HC + S), 325 mg of caffeine (HC), or a placebo. The subjects sat quietly for 3 hr while heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured. Only HC + S and HC significantly increased mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) during the second hour and tended to increase mean SBP during the third hour. Mean diastolic blood pressure in S was significantly lower than the other trials during the first and second hours, and mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in S compared to the LC, LC + S, HC, and HC + S trials. No differences were observed in HR. Consumption of p-synephrine may acutely reduce diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure and not affect SBP or HR during quiet sitting. The addition of p-synephrine to caffeine did not augment SBP or HR indicating that consumption of up to 104 mg of p-synephrine does not induce cardiovascular stress during quiet sitting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Clinical Validation of a Sound Processor Upgrade in Direct Acoustic Cochlear Implant Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludt, Eugen; D'hondt, Christiane; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of the investigation were to evaluate the effect of a sound processor upgrade on the speech reception threshold in noise and to collect long-term safety and efficacy data after 2½ to 5 years of device use of direct acoustic cochlear implant (DACI) recipients. The study was designed as a mono-centric, prospective clinical trial. Tertiary referral center. Fifteen patients implanted with a direct acoustic cochlear implant. Upgrade with a newer generation of sound processor. Speech recognition test in quiet and in noise, pure tone thresholds, subject-reported outcome measures. The speech recognition in quiet and in noise is superior after the sound processor upgrade and stable after long-term use of the direct acoustic cochlear implant. The bone conduction thresholds did not decrease significantly after long-term high level stimulation. The new sound processor for the DACI system provides significant benefits for DACI users for speech recognition in both quiet and noise. Especially the noise program with the use of directional microphones (Zoom) allows DACI patients to have much less difficulty when having conversations in noisy environments. Furthermore, the study confirms that the benefits of the sound processor upgrade are available to the DACI recipients even after several years of experience with a legacy sound processor. Finally, our study demonstrates that the DACI system is a safe and effective long-term therapy.

  16. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  17. Flight Test Results on the Stability and Control of the F-15 Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Cheng M.; McWherter, Shaun C.; Cox, Timothy H.; Gera, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The Quiet Spike F-15B flight research program investigated supersonic shock reduction using a 24-ft sub-scale telescoping nose boom on an F-15B airplane. The program primary flight test objective was to collect flight data for aerodynamic and structural models validation up to 1.8 Mach. Other objectives were to validate the mechanical feasibility of a morphing fuselage at the operational conditions and determine the near-field shock wave characterization. The stability and controls objectives were to assess the effect of the spike on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the aircraft and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire research flight envelop. The two main stability and controls issues were the effects of the telescoping nose boom influenced aerodynamics on the F-15B aircraft flight dynamics and air data and angle of attack sensors. This paper reports on the stability and controls flight envelope clearance methods and flight test analysis of the F-15B Quiet Spike. Brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks, approach and landing, refueling task, and air data sensitivity to the flight control system are also discussed in this report.

  18. Measurement with verification of stationary signals and noise in extremely quiet environments: Measuring below the noise floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Roger M.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Bock, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    It can be problematic to measure stationary acoustic sound pressure level in any environment when the target level approaches or lies below the minimum measureable sound pressure level of the measurement system itself. This minimum measureable level, referred to as the inherent measurement system noise floor, is generally established by noise emission characteristics of measurement system components such as microphones, preamplifiers, and other system circuitry. In this paper, methods are presented and shown accurate measuring stationary levels within 20 dB above and below this system noise floor. Methodology includes (1) measuring inherent measurement system noise, (2) subtractive energy based, inherent noise adjustment of levels affected by system noise floor, and (3) verifying accuracy of inherent noise adjustment technique. While generalizable to other purposes, the techniques presented here were specifically developed to quantify ambient noise levels in very quiet rooms used to evaluate free-field human hearing thresholds. Results obtained applying the methods to objectively measure and verify the ambient noise level in an extremely quiet room, using various measurement system noise floors and analysis bandwidths, are presented and discussed. The verified results demonstrate the adjustment method can accurately extend measurement range to 20 dB below the measurement system noise floor, and how measurement system frequency bandwidth can affect accuracy of reported noise levels. PMID:25786932

  19. Joint coordination in young and older adults during quiet stance: effect of visual feedback of the center of pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Duarte, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    How aging affects body sway and joint coordination during quiet standing was investigated under two visual feedback conditions provided on a monitor screen: fixed and moving cursor representing the center of pressure (COP) position measured by a platform. The across-time joint motion variance of ankle, knee, hip, mid-trunk, and cervical spine leading to COP displacement was analyzed using the uncontrolled manifold approach. The body sway was assessed by the COP displacement. Young and older adults showed greater ankle joint contribution to COP displacement than the other joints. However, older adults showed larger variability of knee and mid-trunk joint motions than young adults. During the moving condition, the ankle joint contribution decreased and hip joint contribution increased for both groups, but the COP displacement increased only for the older adults. We conclude that joint coordination and body sway during quiet standing can be modified by providing COP visual feedback and that joint coordination is affected by aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-27

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona.

  1. A New Observation of the Quiet Sun Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Stone, Jordan

    2013-03-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable with solar activity. While this is particularly true during solar flares, when emission can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude up to gamma-ray energies, even the so-called "quiet Sun" is bright in soft X-rays (SXRs), as the 1-2 MK ambient plasma of the corona emits significant thermal bremsstrahlung up to 5 keV. However, the actual solar SXR (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include ultra-high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystral spectrometers (e.g. Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g. GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with fair energy resolution ( 0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and XRS on MESSENGER, although they did not extend below 1 keV. We present observations of the quiet Sun SXR emission obtained using a new SXR spectrometer flown on the third SDO/EVE underflight calibration rocket (NASA 36.286). The commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123 silicon drift detector, with an 8-micron Be window and custom aperture, measured the solar SXR emission from 0.5 to >10 keV with 0.15 keV FWHM resolution (though, due to hardware limitations, with only 0.12 keV binning) and 2-sec cadence over 5 minutes on 23 June 2012. Despite the rising solar cycle, activity on 23 June 2012 was abnormally low, with no visible active regions and GOES XRS emission near 2010 levels; we measured no solar counts above 4 keV during the observation period. We compare our X123 measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including the SphinX observations during the deep solar minimum of 2009, and with upper limits of >3 keV quiet Sun emission

  2. Search for Differences between Radio-loud and Radio-quiet Gamma-Ray Pulsar Populations with Fermi-LAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2016-12-01

    Observations by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) have enabled us to explore the population of non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars with a set of 112 objects. It was recently noted that there are apparent differences in the properties of radio-quiet and radio-loud subsets. In particular, the average observed radio-loud pulsar is younger than the average radio-quiet one and is located at lower Galactic latitude. Even so, the analysis based on the full list of pulsars may suffer from selection effects. Namely, most radio-loud pulsars are first discovered in the radio band, while radio-quiet ones are found using the gamma-ray data. In this work we perform a blind search for gamma-ray pulsars using the Fermi-LAT data alone, using all point sources from the 3FGL catalog as the candidates. Unlike our previous work, the present catalog is constructed with a semi-coherent method based on the time-differencing technique and covers the full range of characteristic ages down to 1 kyr. The search resulted in a catalog of 40 non-recycled pulsars, 25 of which are radio-quiet. All pulsars found in the search were previously known gamma-ray pulsars. We find no statistically significant differences in age or in distributions in Galactic latitude for the radio-loud and radio-quiet pulsars, while the distributions in rotation period are marginally different with a statistical probability of 4× {10}-3. The fraction of radio-quiet pulsars is estimated as {ɛ }{RQ}=(63+/- 8) % . The results are in agreement with the predictions of the outer magnetosphere models, while the polar cap models are disfavored.

  3. A wearable vibrotactile biofeedback system improves balance control of healthy young adults following perturbations from quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christina Zong-Hao; Lee, Winson Chiu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining postural equilibrium requires fast reactions and constant adjustments of the center of mass (CoM) position to prevent falls, especially when there is a sudden perturbation of the support surface. During this study, a newly developed wearable feedback system provided immediate vibrotactile clues to users based on plantar force measurement, in an attempt to reduce reaction time and CoM displacement in response to a perturbation of the floor. Ten healthy young adults participated in this study. They stood on a support surface, which suddenly moved in one of four horizontal directions (forward, backward, left and right), with the biofeedback system turned on or off. The testing sequence of the four perturbation directions and the two system conditions (turned on or off) was randomized. The resulting reaction time and CoM displacement were analysed. Results showed that the vibrotactile feedback system significantly improved balance control during translational perturbations. The positive results of this preliminary study highlight the potential of a plantar force measurement based biofeedback system in improving balance under perturbations of the support surface. Future system optimizations could facilitate its application in fall prevention in real life conditions, such as standing in buses or trains that suddenly decelerate or accelerate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Deep band modulated phrase perception in quiet and noise in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Narayan Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Deep band modulation (DBM improves speech perception in individuals with learning disability and older adults, who had temporal impairment in them. However, it is unclear on perception of DBM phrases at quiet and noise conditions in individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL, as these individuals suffer from temporal impairment. Aim: The aim is to study the effect of DBM and noise on phrase perception in individuals with normal hearing, SNHL, and ANSD. Settings and Design: A factorial design was used to study deep-band-modulated phrase perception in quiet and at noise. Materials and Methods: Twenty participants in each group (normal, SNHL, and ANSD were included to assess phrase perception on four lists of each unprocessed (UP and DBM phrases at different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs (−1, −3, and −5 dB SNR, which were presented at most comfortable level. In addition, a temporal processing was determined by gap detection threshold test. Statistical Analysis: A mixed analysis of variance was used to investigate main and interaction effects of conditions, noise, and groups. Further, a Pearson product moment correlation was used to document relationship between phrase perception and temporal processing among study participants in each experimental condition. Results: In each group, a significant improvement was observed in DBM phrase perception over UP phrase recognition in quiet and noise conditions. Although a significant improvement was observed, the benefit of recognition from DBM over UP is negligible at −5 dB SNR in both SNHL and ANSD groups. In addition, as expected, a significant improvement in phrase perception in each condition was found in normal hearing than SNHL followed by ANSD. Further, in both atypical groups, a strong negative correlation was found between phrase perception and gap detection threshold in each of the experimental condition. Conclusion: This

  5. Comparison of user volume control settings for portable music players with three earphone configurations in quiet and noisy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula; Foots, Ashley

    2012-03-01

    Listening to music is one of the most common forms of recreational noise exposure. Previous investigators have demonstrated that maximum output levels from headphones can exceed safe levels. Although preferred listening levels (PLL) in quiet environments may be at acceptable levels, the addition of background noise will add to the overall noise exposure of a listener. Use of listening devices that block out some of the background noise would potentially allow listeners to select lower PLLs for their music. Although one solution is in-the-ear earphones, an alternative solution is the use of earmuffs in conjunction with earbuds. There were two objectives to this experiment. The first was to determine if an alternative to in-the-ear earphones for noise attenuation (the addition of earmuffs to earbuds) would allow for lower PLLs through a portable media player (PMP) than earbuds. The second was to determine if a surrounding background noise would yield different PLLs than a directional noise source. This was an experimental study. Twenty-four adults with normal hearing. PLLs were measured for three earphone configurations in three listening conditions. The earphone configurations included earbuds, canal earphones, and earbuds in combination with hearing protection devices (HPDs). The listening conditions included quiet, noise from one loudspeaker, and noise from four surrounding loudspeakers. Participants listened in each noise and earphone combination for as long as they needed to determine their PLL for that condition. Once the participant determined their PLL, investigators made a 5 sec recording of the music through a probe tube microphone. The average PLLs in each noise and earphone combination were used as the dependent variable. Ear canal level PLLs were converted to free-field equivalents to compare to noise exposure standards and previously published data. The average PLL as measured in the ear canal was 74 dBA in the quiet conditions and 84 dBA in the noise

  6. On the Probable Existence of an Abrupt Magnetization in the Upper Chromosphere of the Quiet Sun

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 711, č. 2 (2010), L133-L137 ISSN 2041-8205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : magnetic fields * polarization * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2010

  7. Probing deep photospheric layers of the quiet Sun with high magnetic sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S.K.; Dörr, H.P.; Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Riethmüller, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Franz, M.; Feller, A.; Kuckein, C.; Schmidt, W.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Pastor Yabar, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Volkmer, R.; Staude, J.; Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K.G.; Kneer, F.; Waldmann, T.A.; Borrero, J.M.; Sobotka, Michal; Verma, M.; Louis, R.E.; Rezaei, R.; Soltau, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Sigwarth, M.; Schmidt, D.; Kiess, C.; Nicklas, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 596, December (2016), A6/1-A6/13 ISSN 0004-6361 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLARNET Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * photosphere * granulation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  8. On induction effects of geomagnetic daily variations from equatorial electrojet and solar quiet sources at low and middle latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Manoj, C; Olsen, Nils

    2007-01-01

    local times. At CHAMP altitude (400 km) the magnetic signal induced by EEJ above the oceans does not exceed 2–5% of the external field during local noon. This, in particular, means that considering the induction effects is not necessary when modeling the EEJ current strength from inland surface magnetic......We investigate the spatiotemporal behavior of the magnetic vertical component, Z, of the daily ionospheric current systems: the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and solar quiet (Sq)variations, considering induction in the mantle and oceans. The inducing EEJ and Sq current systems are provided...... by the comprehensive model of Sabaka et al.(2004). The three-dimensional (3-D) conductivity model of the Earth includes oceans of laterally variable conductance and a spherical conductor (1-D) underneath. Our model studies demonstrate that induction effects in Z due to the EEJ are negligible everywhere inland for all...

  9. Validation of a method for ionospheric electron density reconstruction by means of vertical incidence data during quiet and storm periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Coïsson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary validation of the technique developed using the NeQuick ionospheric model and the «effective ionization parameter» Az, based on vertical total electron content data ingestion, was carried out in a previous study. The current study was performed to extend the analyzed conditions and confirm the results. The method to validate this technique is based on a comparison between hourly F2 peak values measured with Vertical Incidence (VI soundings and those calculated with the new technique. Data corresponding to different hours and seasons (equinox, summer solstice, and winter solstice during the period 2000-2003 (high and medium solar activity conditions were compared for all available ionosonde stations. The results show a good agreement between foF2 and hmF2 values obtained with the new technique and measurements from vertical incidence soundings during quiet and storms conditions.

  10. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during quiet and sub-storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandhi, Kishore Kumar; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Williams, Bifford P.; Stober, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    It is speculated that sufficiently large electric fields during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may decouple the meteor trail electron motions from the background neutral winds and leads to erroneous neutral wind estimation. As per our knowledge, the potential errors have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27oN,16.04oE) during intense sub storms in the declining phase of Jan 2005 solar proton event (21-22 Jan 2005). In total 14 hours of continuous measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal winds are averaged in meteor radar time and height bins. High cross correlations (˜0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in the light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the ionization impact on the meteor radar winds. For quiet hours, the observed meteor radar winds are quite consistent with lidar winds. While during the disturbed hours comparatively large differences are noticed at higher most altitudes. This might be due to ionization impact on meteor radar winds. At the present one event is not sufficient to make any consolidate conclusion. However, at least from this study we found some effect on the neutral wind measurements for the meteor radar. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test statistical significance of the result.

  11. How a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback modifies postural control mechanisms during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Pinsault, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Boisgontier, Matthieu; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback on postural control mechanisms during quiet standing. To this aim, 16 young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible with their eyes closed in two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeedback. Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements, recorded using a force platform, were used to compute the horizontal displacements of the vertical projection of the centre of gravity (CoG( v )) and those of the difference between the CoP and the vertical projection of the CoG (CoP-CoG( v )). Analysis of the CoP-CoG( v ) displacements showed larger root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequencies (MPF) in the Biofeedback than in the No-biofeedback condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis further showed a concomitant increased spatial and reduced temporal transition point co-ordinates at which the corrective processes were initiated and an increased persistent behaviour of the CoP-CoG( v ) displacements over the short-term region. Analysis of the CoG( v ) displacements showed decreased RMS and increased MPF in the Biofeedback relative to the No-biofeedback condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis further indicated that these effects mainly stem from reduced spatio-temporal transition point co-ordinates at which the corrective process involving CoG( v ) displacements is initiated and an increased anti-persistent behaviour of the CoG( v ) displacements over the long-term region. Altogether, the present findings suggest that the main way the plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback improves postural control during quiet standing is via both a reduction of the correction thresholds and an increased efficiency of the corrective mechanism involving the CoG( v ) displacements.

  12. Seasonal dependence of northern high-latitude upper thermospheric winds : A quiet time climatological study based on ground-based and space-based measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhadly, Manbharat; Emmert, John; Drob, Douglas; Conde, Mark; Doornbos, E.N.; Shepherd, Gordon; Makela, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Niciejewski, Rick; Ridley, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the large-scale seasonal dependence of geomagnetically quiet time, northern high-latitude F region thermospheric winds by combining extensive observations from eight ground-based (optical remote sensing) and three space-based (optical remote sensing and in situ)

  13. PKS 0347+05: a radio-loud/radio-quiet double active galactic nucleus system triggered in a major galaxy merger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadhunter, C. N.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Morganti, R.; Holt, J.; Rose, M.; Dicken, D.; Inskip, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, infrared (IR) and radio observations of the powerful Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio source PKS 0347+05 (z = 0.3390), and demonstrate that it is a rare example of a radio-loud/radio-quiet double active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, comprising a weak-line radio galaxy (WLRG)

  14. Objective and subjective outcome of a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberhard, Kristine Elisabeth; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Miyazaki, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    deafness. Main Outcome Measures: At half-year follow-up, aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated by 1) warble tone thresholds, 2) pure-Tone average (PTA4), 3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and 4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective outcome...... was evaluated by three questionnaires: 1) International Outcome Inventory for Hearing AIDS, 2) Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale 12, and 3) a questionnaire on frequency and duration of use. Results: No major complications occurred. The mean aided PTA4 was lowered by 23 dB. SDS was increased by 40...

  15. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  16. The essential role of optical flow in the peripheral visual field for stable quiet standing: Evidence from the use of a head-mounted display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Horiuchi

    Full Text Available It has long been thought that vision is the most essential factor in maintaining stable quiet standing compared to other sources (i.e., vestibular and somatosensory inputs of information. Specifically, several vision studies on postural control have shown evidence for the importance of the visual system, particularly peripheral vision rather than central vision, and optical flow. Nevertheless, to date, no study has manipulated both visual field and optical flow concurrently. In the present study, we experimentally manipulated both the visual field (the central and peripheral visual fields and the occurrence of optical flow during quiet standing, examining the effects of the visual field and optical flow on postural sway measured in terms of the center of pressure (CoP. Stationary random dot stimuli were presented exclusively in either the central or peripheral visual field, while the occurrence of optical flow was manipulated using a desktop (DTD or a head-mounted (HMD display. The optical flow that occurred while using the DTD was a function of the postural sway during quiet standing, while for the HMD, no optical flow occurred even when the body/head swayed during quiet standing. Our results show that the extent of postural sway (e.g., CoP area was smaller when visual stimuli were presented in the peripheral visual field than that in the central visual field; this was the case while using the DTD alone, with no effects of the peripheral vision on the extent of postural sway while using the HMD. It is therefore suggested that the optical flow occurring in the peripheral visual field is essential for stable quiet standing.

  17. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer, the mean amplitude values during weak storms and quiet nights are almost equal. But during equinox, the mean amplitude values for quiet nights are greater than those during weak storms. The mean half-amplitude duration is higher during weak storms as compared to that during quiet nights in summer. However, during winter and equinox, the durations are almost equal for both quiet and weak storm nights. For the mean half-amplitude duration, the quiet night values for all the seasons and equinoctial weak storm values increase with an increase in solar activity. The occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement during weak storms is greater than during quiet nights for all seasons. The mean amplitude, the mean half-amplitude duration and the occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement values are higher during major storms as compared to those during quiet nights. The above parameters have their highest values during pre-midnight hours. From the data analysed, this behaviour is true in the case of major storms also.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  18. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer, the mean amplitude values during weak storms and quiet nights are almost equal. But during equinox, the mean amplitude values for quiet nights are greater than those during weak storms. The mean half-amplitude duration is higher during weak storms as compared to that during quiet nights in summer. However, during winter and equinox, the durations are almost equal for both quiet and weak storm nights. For the mean half-amplitude duration, the quiet night values for all the seasons and equinoctial weak storm values increase with an increase in solar activity. The occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement during weak storms is greater than during quiet nights for all seasons. The mean amplitude, the mean half-amplitude duration and the occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement values are higher during major storms as compared to those during quiet nights. The above parameters have their highest values during pre-midnight hours. From the data analysed, this behaviour is true in the case of major storms also.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  19. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  20. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  1. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  2. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  3. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  4. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi eKapoula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus.Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40cm for 51s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40Hz for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions.Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx. This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusions: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus and attention.

  5. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  6. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  7. Children with developmental coordination disorder benefit from using vision in combination with touch information for quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Woei-Nan; Barela, José A; Whitall, Jill; Jeka, John J; Clark, Jane E

    2011-06-01

    In two experiments, the ability to use multisensory information (haptic information, provided by lightly touching a stationary surface, and vision) for quiet standing was examined in typically developing (TD) children, adults, and in seven-year-old children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Four sensory conditions (no touch/no vision, with touch/no vision, no touch/with vision, and with touch/with vision) were employed. In experiment 1, we tested four-, six- and eight-year-old TD children and adults to provide a developmental landscape for performance on this task. In experiment 2, we tested a group of seven-year-old children with DCD and their age-matched TD peers. For all groups, touch robustly attenuated standing sway suggesting that children as young as four years old use touch information similarly to adults. Touch was less effective in children with DCD compared to their TD peers, especially in attenuating their sway velocity. Children with DCD, unlike their TD peers, also benefited from using vision to reduce sway. The present results suggest that children with DCD benefit from using vision in combination with touch information for standing control possibly due to their less well developed internal models of body orientation and self-motion. Internal model deficits, combined with other known deficits such as postural muscles activation timing deficits, may exacerbate the balance impairment in children with DCD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A two dimensional finite difference time domain analysis of the quiet zone fields of an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Deirdre A.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Kunz, Karl S.; Steich, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of anechoic chamber performance is a difficult problem. Electromagnetic anechoic chambers exist for a wide range of frequencies but are typically very large when measured in wavelengths. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of anechoic chambers is possible with current computers but at frequencies lower than most chamber design frequencies. However, two dimensional FDTD (2D-FTD) modeling enables much greater detail at higher frequencies and offers significant insight into compact anechoic chamber design and performance. A major subsystem of an anechoic chamber for which computational electromagnetic analyses exist is the reflector. First, an analysis of the quiet zone fields of a low frequency anechoic chamber produced by a uniform source and a reflector in two dimensions using the FDTD method is presented. The 2D-FDTD results are compared with results from a three dimensional corrected physical optics calculation and show good agreement. Next, a directional source is substituted for the uniform radiator. Finally, a two dimensional anechoic chamber geometry, including absorbing materials, is considered, and the 2D-FDTD results for these geometries appear reasonable.

  9. MESSAGES FOR HUMANITY IN "BULA MALINO" (QUIET MOON (A POEM BY KAIMUDDIN IDRUS MUHAMMADAL-BUTHUNI IBNU BADARUDDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kamaluddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "Bula Malino" (Quiet Moon is a literary work found in Buton society and packaged in the form of poem. The manuscript is written in Wolio Language (Butonese main native language using an Arabic-Wolio script modification, commonly called "buri Wolio" (Wolio writing. This article is yielded to report findings of a qualitative study which analyzes the humanity messages revealed in the poem using a content analysis and structuralism genetic approach. This approach follows some gradual procedures such as examining intrinsic elements of poem, reviewing social life of author, and giving a reflection to history and social background of Buton society. The findings show that the poem reveals messages and values for humanity in terms of sobriety or calm mind/heart and soul clarity for being prepared for death. The poem also contains advice addressed to readers. It was noted that the author of the poem was born in the late 18th century AD. At the age of 40, he was inaugurated the 29th sultan of Buton. At this century, Buton social condition was more than enthusiastic in learning science. This was marked by the establishment of a school named "Zaawiah".

  10. Effect of narrowing the base of support on the gait, gaze and quiet eye of elite ballet dancers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, Derek; Vickers, Joan N

    2011-08-01

    We determined the gaze and stepping behaviours of elite ballet dancers and controls as they walked normally and along progressively narrower 3-m lines (l0.0, 2.5 cm). The ballet dancers delayed the first step and then stepped more quickly through the approach area and onto the lines, which they exited more slowly than the controls, which stepped immediately but then slowed their gait to navigate the line, which they exited faster. Contrary to predictions, the ballet group did not step more precisely, perhaps due to the unique anatomical requirements of ballet dance and/or due to releasing the degrees of freedom under their feet as they fixated ahead more than the controls. The ballet group used significantly fewer fixations of longer duration, and their final quiet eye (QE) duration prior to stepping on the line was significantly longer (2,353.39 ms) than the controls (1,327.64 ms). The control group favoured a proximal gaze strategy allocating 73.33% of their QE fixations to the line/off the line and 26.66% to the exit/visual straight ahead (VSA), while the ballet group favoured a 'look-ahead' strategy allocating 55.49% of their QE fixations to the exit/VSA and 44.51% on the line/off the line. The results are discussed in the light of the development of expertise and the enhanced role of fixations and visual attention when more tasks become more constrained.

  11. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  12. Dynamics of Trees of Fragmenting Granules in the Quiet Sun: Hinode/SOT Observations Compared to Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, J.-M.; Roudier, T.; Stein, R.; Frank, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We compare horizontal velocities, vertical magnetic fields, and the evolution of trees of fragmenting granules (TFG, also named families of granules) derived in the quiet Sun at disk center from observations at solar minimum and maximum of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT on board Hinode) and results of a recent 3D numerical simulation of the magneto-convection. We used 24-hour sequences of a 2D field of view (FOV) with high spatial and temporal resolution recorded by the SOT Broad band Filter Imager (BFI) and Narrow band Filter Imager (NFI). TFG were evidenced by segmentation and labeling of continuum intensities. Horizontal velocities were obtained from local correlation tracking (LCT) of proper motions of granules. Stokes V provided a proxy of the line-of-sight magnetic field (BLOS). The MHD simulation (performed independently) produced granulation intensities, velocity, and magnetic field vectors. We discovered that TFG also form in the simulation and show that it is able to reproduce the main properties of solar TFG: lifetime and size, associated horizontal motions, corks, and diffusive index are close to observations. The largest (but not numerous) families are related in both cases to the strongest flows and could play a major role in supergranule and magnetic network formation. We found that observations do not reveal any significant variation in TFG between solar minimum and maximum.

  13. RADIO-QUIET AND RADIO-LOUD PULSARS: SIMILAR IN GAMMA-RAYS BUT DIFFERENT IN X-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Salvetti, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Parkinson, P. M. Saz [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hartog, P. R. Den [Stanford University HEPL/KIPAC, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Wolff, M. T., E-mail: marelli@iasf-milano.inaf.it [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of eight radio-quiet (RQ) γ-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For all eight pulsars we identify the X-ray counterpart, based on the X-ray source localization and the best position obtained from γ-ray pulsar timing. For PSR J2030+4415 we found evidence for a ∼10″-long pulsar wind nebula. Our new results consolidate the work from Marelli et al. and confirm that, on average, the γ-ray-to-X-ray flux ratios (F{sub γ}/F{sub X}) of RQ pulsars are higher than for the radio-loud (RL) ones. Furthermore, while the F{sub γ}/F{sub X} distribution features a single peak for the RQ pulsars, the distribution is more dispersed for the RL ones, possibly showing two peaks. We discuss possible implications of these different distributions based on current models for pulsar X-ray emission.

  14. Atmospheric energy harvesting: use of Doppler Wind Lidars on UAVs to extend mission endurance and enable quiet operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, S.; Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Costello, M.

    2014-10-01

    The investigators are developing a system tool that utilizes both pre-flight information and continuous real-time knowledge and description of the state of the atmosphere and atmospheric energetics by an Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar (ADWL) to provide the autonomous guidance for detailed and adaptive flight path planning by UAS and small manned aircraft. This flight planning and control has the potential to reduce mission dependence upon preflight assumptions, extend flight duration and endurance, enable long periods of quiet operations and allow for the optimum self-routing of the aircraft. The ADWL wind data is used in real-time to detect atmospheric energy features such as thermals, waves, wind shear and others. These detected features are then used with an onboard, weather model driven flight control model to adaptively plan a flight path that optimizes energy harvesting with frequent updates on local changes in the opportunities and atmospheric flow characteristics. We have named this package AEORA for the Atmospheric Energy Opportunity Ranking Algorithm (AEORA).

  15. Comparison of the Scaling Properties of EUV Intensity Fluctuations in Coronal Holes to those in Regions of Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Ana Cristina; Lawrence, John K.; Jennings, Peter John

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of EUV intensity fluctuations seen in low-latitude coronal holes (CH) and in regions of Quiet Sun (QS), in signals obtained with the SDO/AIA instrument in the 193 Å waveband. Contemporaneous time series in the 171 and 211 Å wavebands are used for comparison among emissions at different heights in the transition region and low corona. Potential-field extrapolations of contemporaneous SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetic fields provide a context in the physical environment. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) shows that the variance of the fluctuations obeys a power-law as a function of temporal scales with periods in the range ~15-60 min. This scaling is characterized by a generalized Hurst exponent α. In QS regions, and in regions within CHs that include magnetic bipoles, the scaling exponent lies in the range 1.0 < α < 1.5, and it thus corresponds to anti-correlated, turbulent-like, dynamical processes. Regions inside the coronal holes primarily associated with magnetic field of a dominant single polarity, have a generalized exponent (0.5 < α < 1) corresponding to positively correlated (“persistent”) processes. The results indicate the influence of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of the emission.

  16. Observations of high-energy jets in the corona above the quiet sun, the heating of the corona, and the acceleration of the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, G. E.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.

    1983-01-01

    High spatial resolution observations of the ultraviolet solar spectrum which reveal high-energy events in the quiet sun are presented. The tandem Wadsworth spectrograph used to make the observations is described along with the observing techniques, and a brief description of the characteristics of high-resolution transition zone spectra is given. The sizes, velocities, line profiles, time behavior, temperature range, differential emission measures, densities, masses, energies, and birthrates of turbulent events and jets in the quiet sun are derived from the observations and discussed. Possible accelerating mechanisms for these events are discussed, and the consequences of these events for the heating of the solar corona are discussed. A cloud model of the solar wind is proposed and possible correlations between the high-energy events and other solar fine-structure features are discussed.

  17. Comparison of GPS-TEC variation during quiet and disturbed period using the Holt-Winter method and IRI-2012 model over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Ismail, Nouf Abd Emunim; Abdullah, Mardina; Hasbi, Alina Marie

    2016-07-01

    Total Electron Content (TEC) is the main parameter in the ionosphere that has significant effects on radio wave; it changes the speed and direction of the signal propagation, causing the delay of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Therefore, it is crucial to validate the performance of the ionospheric model to reveal the variety of ionospheric behaviour during quiet and disturbed period. This research presents the performance evaluation of the statistical Holt-Winter method and IRI-2012 model using three topside electron density options: IRI-2001, IRI01-corr and NeQuick with the observed GPS-TEC during quiet and disturbed period. The GPS-TEC data were derived from the dual frequency GPS receiver at JUPEM (Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia), from the UUMK station (north Peninsular Malaysia) at geographic coordinates of 6.46°N-100.50°E and geomagnetic coordinates of 3.32°S-172.99°E and TGPG station (south Peninsular Malaysia) at geographic coordinates of 1.36°N-104.10°E and geomagnetic coordinates of 8.43°S -176.53°E, during March of 2013. The maximum value of the GPS-TEC was at the post noon time at 17:00 LT and the minimum was in the early morning from 6:00-7:00 LT. During the quiet period, the maximum GPS-TEC at the UUMK station was 52 TECU while at the TGPG station, it was 60 TECU. During the disturbed period, when intense geomagnetic storm occurred on 17 March 2013, the maximum GPS-TEC recorded was 58 TECU and 65 TECU in UUMK and TGPG station, respectively. The diurnal hourly variation during the quiet period indicated that IRI-2001, IRI01-corr, and NeQuick had overestimation agreement during the day hours except for the time between 11:00-19:00 LT when IRI01-corr and NeQuick showed underestimation, while during 13:00-20:00 LT, IRI-2001 showed slight underestimation whereas the Holt-Winter method showed good agreement with GPS-TEC. During the disturbed period, IRI-2001 showed overestimation agreement for all hours, while the IRI01-corr

  18. SENSITIVITY OF BODY SWAY PARAMETERS DURING QUIET STANDING TO MANIPULATION OF SUPPORT SURFACE SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabon Nejc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The centre of pressure (COP movement during stance maintenance on a stable surface is commonly used to describe and evaluate static balance. The aim of our study was to test sensitivity of individual COP parameters to different stance positions which were used to address size specific changes in the support surface. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study. They carried out three 60-second repetitions of each of the five balance tasks (parallel stance, semi-tandem stance, tandem stance, contra-tandem stance, single leg stance. Using the force plate, the monitored parameters included the total COP distance, the distance covered in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, the maximum oscillation amplitude in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, the total frequency of oscillation, as well as the frequency of oscillation in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The parameters which describe the total COP distance were the most sensitive to changes in the balance task, whereas the frequency of oscillation proved to be sensitive to a slightly lesser extent. Reductions in the support surface size in each of the directions resulted in proportional changes of antero-posterior and medio- lateral directions. The frequency of oscillation did not increase evenly with the increase in the level of difficulty of the balance task, but reached a certain value, above which it did not increase. Our study revealed the monitored parameters of the COP to be sensitive to the support surface size manipulations. The results of the study provide an important source for clinical and research use of the body sway measurements.

  19. Usefulness of acoustic noise reduction in brain MRI using Quiet-T{sub 2}-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Jy [Dept. of Medical science Graduate school, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Keun [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Gwangju Health university, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Acoustic noise during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main source for patient discomfort. we report our preliminary experience with this technique in neuroimaging with regard to subjective and objective noise levels and image quality. 60 patients(29 males, 31 females, average age of 60.1) underwent routine brain MRI with 3.0 Tesla (MAGNETOM Tim Trio; Siemens, Germany) system and 12-channel head coil. Q-T{sub 2} and T{sub 2} sequence were performed. Measurement of sound pressure levels (SPL) and heart rate on Q-T{sub 2} and T{sub 2} was performed respectively. Quantitative analysis was carried out by measuring the SNR, CNR, and SIR values of Q-T{sub 2}, T{sub 2} and a statistical analysis was performed using independent sample T-test. Qualitative analysis was evaluated by the eyes for the overall quality image of Q-T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}. A 5-point evaluation scale was used, including excellent(5), good(4), fair(3), poor(2), and unacceptable(1). The average noise and peak noise decreased by 15dBA and 10dBA on T2 and Q-T2 test. Also, the average value of heartbeat rate was lower in Q-T2 for 120 seconds in each test, but there was no statistical significance. The quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between CNR and SIR, and there was a significant difference (p<0.05) as SNR had a lower average value on Q-T{sub 2}. According to the qualitative analysis, the overall quality image of 59 case T{sub 2} and Q-T{sub 2} was evaluated as excellent at 5 points, and 1 case was evaluated as good at 4 points due to a motion artifact. Q-T{sub 2} is a promising technique for acoustic noise reduction and improved patient comfort.

  20. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  1. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (Gd-MRA) of thoracic vasculature in an animal model using double-dose gadolinium and quiet breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Strouse, P.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor (United States); Londy, F.J. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wakefield, T.W. [Dept. of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Objective. To evaluate a gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (Gd-MRA) imaging protocol for the assessment of thoracic vessels using double-dose gadolinium and quiet breathing. An animal model was used to simulate imaging in infants and young children. Material and methods. Six baboons (Papio anubis), mean weight 5.7 kg, were sedated and intubated. After the injection of double-dose Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) through a peripheral vein, a coronal spoiled 3D gradient-echo volume acquisition was obtained during quiet breathing. Two radiologists reviewed the images for visualization of aortic arch, brachiocephalic vessel origins, pulmonary arteries (central, upper lobe and descending branches), and pulmonary veins (upper and lower). Results. Visualization was excellent for the aortic arch, brachiocephalic vessel origins, and pulmonary arteries, including the hilar branches. Visualization was excellent for the lower and right upper pulmonary veins and fair for the left upper pulmonary vein. There was excellent agreement between radiologists. Conclusion. Imaging of thoracic vessels with Gd-MRA using double gadolinium during quiet breathing was effective in our animal model. The advantages of this technique include a short imaging time and depiction of vascular segments - branches of pulmonary arteries and intraparenchymal segments of pulmonary veins - not optimally visualized with other non-invasive imaging techniques. (orig.)

  2. Daytime, low latitude, vertical ExB drift velocities, inferred from ground-based magnetometer observations in the Peruvian, Philippine and Indian longitude sectors under quiet and disturbed conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D; Chau, J; Yumoto, K; Bhattacharya, A; Alex, S

    2006-01-01

    Daytime, low latitude, vertical ExB drift velocities, inferred from ground-based magnetometer observations in the Peruvian, Philippine and Indian longitude sectors under quiet and disturbed conditions

  3. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    OpenAIRE

    K. Unnikrishnan; Balachandran Nair, R.; Venugopal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer...

  4. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  5. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  6. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  7. Regional TEC model under quiet geomagnetic conditions and low-to-moderate solar activity based on CODE GIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandi; Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Zhengtao; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Nie, Linjuan

    2017-08-01

    Global empirical total electron content (TEC) models based on TEC maps effectively describe the average behavior of the ionosphere. However, the accuracy of these global models for a certain region may not be ideal. Due to the number and distribution of the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, the accuracy of TEC maps is geographically different. The modeling database derived from the global TEC maps with different accuracy is likely one of the main reasons that limits the accuracy of the new models. Moreover, many anomalies in the ionosphere are geographic or geomagnetic dependent, and as such the accuracy of global models can deteriorate if these anomalies are not fully incorporated into the modeling approach. For regional models built in small areas, these influences on modeling are immensely weakened. Thus, the regional TEC models may better reflect the temporal and spatial variations of TEC. In our previous work (Feng et al., 2016), a regional TEC model TECM-NEC is proposed for northeast China. However, this model is only directed against the typical region of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) occurrence, which is meaningless in other regions without MSNA. Following the technique of TECM-NEC model, this study proposes another regional empirical TEC model for other regions in mid-latitudes. Taking a small area BeiJing-TianJin-Tangshan (JJT) region (37.5°-42.5° N, 115°-120° E) in China as an example, a regional empirical TEC model (TECM-JJT) is proposed using the TEC grid data from January 1, 1999 to June 30, 2015 provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) under quiet geomagnetic conditions. The TECM-JJT model fits the input CODE TEC data with a bias of 0.11TECU and a root mean square error of 3.26TECU. Result shows that the regional model TECM-JJT is consistent with CODE TEC data and GPS-TEC data.

  8. Trunk control impairment is responsible for postural instability during quiet sitting in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Matija; Masani, Kei; Kuipers, Meredith J; Rahouni, Hossein; Verrier, Mary C; McConville, Kristiina M V; Popovic, Milos R

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with cervical spinal cord injury usually sustain impairments to the trunk and upper and lower limbs, resulting in compromised sitting balance. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare postural control of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury and able-bodied individuals; and 2) investigate the effects of foot support and trunk fluctuations on postural control during sitting balance. Ten able-bodied individuals and six individuals with cervical spinal cord injury were asked to sit quietly during two 60s trials. The forces exerted on the seat and the foot support surfaces were measured separately using two force plates. The global centre of pressure sway was obtained from the measurements on the two force plates, and the sway for each force plate was calculated individually. Individuals with spinal cord injury had at least twice as large global and seat sways compared to able-bodied individuals, while foot support sway was not significantly different between the two groups. Comparison between global and seat sways showed that anterior-posterior velocity of global sway was larger compared to the seat sway in both groups. Postural control of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury was worse than that of able-bodied individuals. The trunk swayed more in individuals with spinal cord injury, while the stabilization effect of the feet did not differ between the groups. Foot support affected anterior-posterior fluctuations in both groups equally. Thus, trunk control is the dominant mechanism contributing to sitting balance in both able-bodied and spinal cord injury individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radial velocity variations of photometrically quiet, chromospherically inactive Kepler stars: A link between RV jitter and photometric flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wright, Jason T. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walkowicz, Lucianne M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We compare stellar photometric variability, as measured from Kepler light curves by Basri et al., with measurements of radial velocity (RV) rms variations of all California Planet Search overlap stars. We newly derive rotation periods from the Kepler light curves for all of the stars in our study sample. The RV variations reported herein range from less than 4 to 135 m s{sup –1}, yet the stars all have amplitudes of photometric variability less than 3 mmag, reflecting the preference of the RV program for chromospherically 'quiet' stars. Despite the small size of our sample, we find with high statistical significance that the RV rms manifests strongly in the Fourier power spectrum of the light curve: stars that are noisier in RV have a greater number of frequency components in the light curve. We also find that spot models of the observed light curves systematically underpredict the observed RV variations by factors of ∼2-1000, likely because the low-level photometric variations in our sample are driven by processes not included in simple spot models. The stars best fit by these models tend to have simpler light curves, dominated by a single relatively high-amplitude component of variability. Finally, we demonstrate that the RV rms behavior of our sample can be explained in the context of the photometric variability evolutionary diagram introduced by Bastien et al. We use this diagram to derive the surface gravities of the stars in our sample, revealing many of them to have moved off the main sequence. More generally, we find that the stars with the largest RV rms are those that have evolved onto the 'flicker floor' sequence in that diagram, characterized by relatively low amplitude but highly complex photometric variations which grow as the stars evolve to become subgiants.

  10. Assessment of scintillation proxy maps for a scintillation study during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions over Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is demonstrate the validity and usefulness of scintillation proxies derived from IGS data, through its comparison with data from dedicated scintillation monitors and its application to GNSS scintillation patterns. The paper presents scintillation patterns developed by using data from the dedicated scintillation monitors of the scintillation network decision aid (SCINDA) network, and proxy maps derived from IGS GPS data for 2011 and 2012 over low latitude stations in Uganda. The amplitude and phase scintillation indicies (S4 and σΦ) were obtained from the Novatel GSV4004B ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) monitor managed by SCINDA at Makerere (0.340N, 32.570E). The corresponding IGS GPS proxy data were obtained from the receivers at Entebbe (0.040N, 32.440E) and Mbarara (0.600S, 30.740E). The derived amplitude (S4p) and phase (sDPR) scintillation proxy maps were compared with maps of S4 and σΦ during geomagnetic storms (moderate and strong) and geomagnetically quiet conditions. The scintillation patterns using S4 and σΦ and their respective proxies revealed similar diurnal and seasonal patterns of strong scintillation occurrence. The peaks of scintillation occurrence with mean values in the range 0.3 irregularities over Uganda irrespective of the geomagnetic conditions. Therefore, the amplitude and phase scintillation proxies presented here can be used to fill gaps in low-latitude data where there are no data available from dedicated scintillation receivers, irrespective of the geomagnetic conditions.

  11. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  12. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  13. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  14. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  15. [Influence of hearing aids on monosyllabic test score and subjective everyday hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümmler, R; Liebscher, T; Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    Pure tone and speech audiometry are essential methods for examining the indication for hearing aids, as well as for hearing aid evaluation. Additionally, the subjective benefit of hearing aids has to be evaluated with appropriate questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between speech audiometry data and the results of a simple and user-friendly questionnaire, as well as to provide normative data for subjective benefit. Data from 136 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Pure tone thresholds and Freiburg monosyllabic speech perception in the binaural situation were measured at 65 dB in quiet and in noise (signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = +5 dB), with and without hearing aids. Additionally, subjective hearing in everyday life was recorded using the 12-item Oldenburg Inventory. Improvement of speech perception with hearing aids for the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet was 32.0 percentage points on average; in noise, there was an average improvement of 16.4 percentage points. There was a strong correlation between the results of pure tone and speech audiometry. With hearing aids, patients scored their everyday hearing using the Oldenburg Inventory on average 1.4 scale points better than without hearing aids. Results of the Oldenburg Inventory correlate with both pure tone and speech audiometry. Hearing aid evaluation should include both speech audiometry and systematic measurement of the subjective benefit using a suitable questionnaire. In combination, the Freiburg monosyllabic test and the Oldenburg Inventory allow for quick and comprehensive evaluation.

  16. Interactive effects of music tempi and intensities on grip strength and subjective affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Cheek, P; Simpson, S D; Bigliassi, M

    2018-03-01

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (M age  = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low-intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff.  = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pretask music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  18. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  19. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  20. Too Damned Quiet?

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    It is often suggested that extraterrestial life sufficiently advanced to be capable of interstellar travel or communication must be rare, since otherwise we would have seen evidence of it by now. This in turn is sometimes taken as indirect evidence for the improbability of life evolving at all in our universe. A couple of other possibilities seem worth considering. One is that life capable of evidencing itself on interstellar scales has evolved in many places but that evolutionary selection, acting on a cosmic scale, tends to extinguish species which conspicuously advertise themselves and their habitats. The other is that -- whatever the true situation -- intelligent species might reasonably worry about the possible dangers of self-advertisement and hence incline towards discretion. These possibilities are discussed here, and some counter-arguments and complicating factors are also considered.

  1. The Quiet Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole. "Since the masses and energies involved are smaller than in every known gamma-ray burst related supernova, we think that the collapse of the star gave rise to a weak jet, and that the presence of the Helium layer made it even more difficult for the jet to remain collimated, so that when it emerged from the stellar surface the signal was weak," says Massimo Della Valle, co-author. "The scenario we propose implies that gamma-ray burst-like inner engine activity exists in all supernovae that form a black hole," adds co-author Stefano Valenti. "As our X-ray and gamma-ray instruments become more advanced, we are slowly uncovering the very diverse properties of stellar explosions," explains Guido Chincarini, co-author and the Principal Investigator of the Italian research on gamma-ray bursts. "The bright gamma-ray bursts were the easiest to discover, and now we are seeing variations on a theme that link these special events to more normal ones." These are however very important discoveries, as they continue to paint a picture of how massive star end their lives, producing dense objects, and injecting new chemical elements back into the gas from which new stars will be formed.

  2. The boardroom's quiet revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Richard D; Feigen, Marc A

    2014-03-01

    In the past 10 years, under pressure from shareholders, stock exchanges, and state and federal governments, corporate boards have changed dramatically. For example, regulations require that a majority of directors be independent; independent directors regularly meet in executive sessions without the CEO; shareholders can review decisions by the compensation committee; and directors are required to attend meetings more often. But externally driven reforms have proved rather ineffectual when it comes to improving boards' managerial oversight. The authors interviewed two dozen directors from the boards they most admire and coupled the directors' insights with their own broad experience leading, serving on, and counseling boards. They present some striking innovations in four main categories: strategy and talent oversight, board composition, the quality of board discussions, and the board's relationship with the CEO. These innovations can help boards dramatically improve the governance of their enterprises.

  3. The Quiet Killer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-03

    Each year, nearly 500 die, while as many as 20,000 visit emergency rooms for exposure to carbon monoxide.  Created: 11/3/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 11/3/2008.

  4. The Quiet Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillue, Edith

    2000-01-01

    Using the story of George Orwell's experience with imperialism in Burma from the essay "Shooting the Elephant," one English-as-a-Second-Language teacher confronts her desire to "stand over" students in the language learning classroom as they try to negotiate meaning in English. (Author/VWL)

  5. Quiet engine nacelle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Reduction of fan noise emanating from turbofan engines by using acoustically treated nacelles is considered. Test performance prediction for an acoustically lined nacelle having a three ring inlet, a single ring fan duct, and external cowling expect a 15 PNdb fan noise reduction with 5 percent takeoff thrust loss and a 5.4 percent cruise specific fuel consumption increase.

  6. In Quiet Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandler McEntyre, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    Although the paintings of Jan Vermeer continue to be celebrated, very little is known about the painter himself - and even less about the women he painted. Who were they? What were their lives like? What thoughts, dreams, and desires might they yield up if we took the time to truly look at them?In

  7. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  8. The Hard X-Ray Spectrum as a Probe for Black Hole Growth in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Brandt, W. N.; Netzer, Hagai; Maiolino, Roberto; Kaspi, Shai

    2008-07-01

    We study the hard X-ray spectral properties of 10 highly luminous radio-quiet (RQ) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z = 1.3-3.2, including new XMM-Newton observations of four of these sources. We find a significant correlation between the normalized accretion rate (L/LEdd) and the hard X-ray photon index (Γ) for 35 moderate- to high-luminosity RQ AGNs, including our 10 highly luminous sources. Within the limits of our sample, we show that a measurement of Γ and LX can provide an estimate of L/LEdd and black hole mass (MBH) with a mean uncertainty of a factor of lesssim3 on the predicted values of these properties. This may provide a useful probe for tracing the history of BH growth in the universe, utilizing samples of X-ray-selected AGNs for which L/LEdd and MBH have not yet been determined systematically. It may prove to be a useful way to probe BH growth in distant Compton-thin type 2 AGNs. We also find that the optical-X-ray spectral slope (αox) depends primarily on optical-UV luminosity rather than on L/LEdd in a sample of RQ AGNs spanning 5 orders of magnitude in luminosity and over 2 orders of magnitude in L/LEdd. We detect a significant Compton-reflection continuum in two of our highly luminous sources, and in the stacked X-ray spectrum of seven other sources with similar luminosities, we obtain a mean relative Compton reflection of R = 0.9+ 0.6-0.5 and an upper limit on the rest-frame equivalent width of a neutral Fe Kα line of 105 eV. We do not detect a significant steepening of the X-ray power-law spectrum below rest-frame 2 keV in any of our highly luminous sources, suggesting that a soft-excess feature, commonly observed in local AGNs, either does not depend strongly on L/LEdd, or is not accessible at high redshifts using current X-ray detectors.

  9. A comparison between FUV remote sensing of magnetotail stretching and the T01 model during quiet conditions and growth phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Blockx

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, Blockx et al. (2005 showed that the SI12 camera on board the IMAGE spacecraft is an excellent tool to remotely determine the position of the isotropy boundary (IB in the ionosphere, and thus is able to provide a reasonable estimate of the amount of stretching of the magnetic field lines in the magetotail. By combining an empirical model of the magnetospheric configuration with Sergeev's criterion for non-adiabatic motion, it is also possible to obtain a theoretical position of IB in the ionosphere, for known conditions in the solar wind. Earlier studies have demonstrated the inadequacy of the Tsyganenko-1989 (T89 model to quantitatively reproduce the field line stretching, particularly during growth phases. In this study, we reexamine this question using the T01 model which considers the time history of the solar wind parameters. We compare the latitude of IB derived from SI12 global images near local midnight with that calculated from the T01 model and the Sergeev's criterion. Observational and theoretical results are found to frequently disagree. We use in situ measurements of the magnetic field with the GOES-8 satellite to discriminate which of the two components in the calculation of the theoretical position of the IB (the T01 model or Sergeev's criterion induces the discrepancy. For very quiet magnetic conditions, we find that statistically the T01 model approximately predicts the correct location of the maximum proton precipitation. However, large discrepancies are observed in individual cases, as demonstrated by the large scatter of predicted latitudes. For larger values of the AE index, the model fails to predict the observed latitude of the maximum proton intensity, as a consequence of the lack of consideration of the cross-tail current component which produces a more elongated field configuration at the location of the proton injection along the field lines. We show that it is possible to match the observed

  10. Paradoxical undersensing of atrial electrograms during atrial fibrillation due to repeated activation of the quiet timer blanking interval: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuro Morishima, MD, PhD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of paradoxical atrial undersensing by a dual-chamber pacemaker during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Undersensing of 5.6 mV atrial signals at a programmed sensitivity of 0.5 mV returned to normal sensing by decreasing atrial sensitivity to 1.0 mV. This uncommon phenomenon can be explained by a repeated activation of the quiet timer blanking interval. Knowledge of this phenomenon is important in the current pacemaker management to improve the accuracy of the diagnostic feature for atrial tachyarrhythmia burden and to avoid unnecessary lead revisions.

  11. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were...... (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4...... to a good benefit. In SSQ-12, “quality of hearing” scored especially high. Patients with a conductive and/or mixed hearing loss benefitted the most. This device demonstrates a significant subjective hearing benefit 8 month post surgery. In patients with conductive and/or mixed hearing losses, patient...

  12. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  13. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Angélica C; Mochizuki, Luis; Silva Luna, Natália Mariana; Ayama, Sérgio; Canonica, Alexandra Carolina; Greve, Júlia M D A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20-40 years old) participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density) and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway.

  14. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica C. Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. Methods. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20–40 years old participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. Results. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. Conclusion. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway.

  15. Transport of Thermal-energy Ionospheric Oxygen (O+) Ions between the Ionosphere and the Inner Magnetosphere at Quiet Times Preceding Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, A. W.; Howarth, A.; Peterson, W. K.; Abe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of energetic O+ ions in the ring current at the onset of a magnetic storm prompts the question of the possible role of "in-transit" ionospheric O+ ions between the ionosphere and the inner magnetosphere (plasma sheet and ring current) in the quiet periods immediately preceding the main phase of a magnetic storm. Thermal-energy O+ ions are often observed in the quiet-time high-altitude (>7000 km) polar ionosphere on Akebono, at temperatures of ˜0.2-0.3 eV and flow velocities of a few km/s. In this paper, we use single-particle trajectory simulation to study the transport of these ions in the periods preceding a number of large magnetic storms (Dst wind and other low-energy O+ ions reaches the plasma sheet during such periods; the actual percentage is a factor of ˜3 larger in the dusk sector on average compared with the dawn sector and dependent on the IMF and the O+ ion temperature. This provides a low but non-negligible flux of O+ ions between the ionosphere and the inner magnetosphere, which is believed to constitute a significant "in-transit" oxygen ion population over a period of a few (˜4) hours preceding a magnetic storm. Such a population could explain the presence of energetic O+ ions at the onset of the main phase of the storm, when the heavy ions could potentially modify the evolution of the ring current.

  16. Transport of thermal-energy ionospheric oxygen (O+) ions between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet and ring current at quiet times preceding magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; Peterson, W. K.; Abe, Takumi

    2012-07-01

    The presence of energetic O+ ions in the ring current at the onset of a magnetic storm prompts the question of the possible role of “in-transit” ionospheric O+ ions between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet and ring current in the quiet periods immediately preceding the main phase of a magnetic storm. Thermal-energy O+ ions are often observed in the quiet time high-altitude (>7000 km) polar ionosphere on Akebono, at temperatures of ˜0.2-0.3 eV and flow velocities of a few km/s. In this paper, we use single-particle trajectory simulation to study the transport of these ions in the periods preceding a number of large magnetic storms (Dst wind and other low-energy O+ ions reaches the plasma sheet during such periods; the actual percentage is a factor of ˜3 larger in the dusk sector on average compared with the dawn sector and dependent on the IMF and the O+ ion temperature. This provides a low but non-negligible flux of O+ ions between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet and ring current, which is believed to constitute a significant “in-transit” oxygen ion population over a period of a few (˜4) hours preceding a magnetic storm. Such a population could explain the presence of energetic O+ ions at the onset of the main phase of the storm, when the heavy ions could potentially modify the evolution of the ring current.

  17. The effects of receiver placement on probe microphone, performance, and subjective measures with open canal hearing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Lynzee N; Plyler, Patrick N; Reber, Monika Bertges; Johnstone, Patti M

    2010-04-01

    Open canal hearing instruments differ in method of sound delivery to the ear canal, distance between the microphone and the receiver, and physical size of the devices. Moreover, RITA (receiver in the aid) and RITE (receiver in the ear) hearing instruments may also differ in terms of retention and comfort as well as ease of use and care for certain individuals. What remains unclear, however, is if any or all of the abovementioned factors contribute to hearing aid outcome. To determine the effect of receiver location on performance and/or preference of listeners using open canal hearing instruments. An experimental study in which subjects were exposed to a repeated measures design. Twenty-five adult listeners with mild sloping to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 67 yr). Participants completed two six-week trial periods for each device type. Probe microphone, objective, and subjective measures (quiet, noise) were conducted unaided and aided at the end of each trial period. Occlusion effect results were not significantly different between the RITA and RITE instruments; however, frequency range was extended in the RITE instruments, resulting in significantly greater maximum gain for the RITE instruments than the RITA instruments at 4000 and 6000 Hz. Objective performance in quiet or in noise was unaffected by receiver location. Subjective measures revealed significantly greater satisfaction ratings for the RITE than for the RITA instruments. Similarly, preference in quiet and overall preference were significantly greater for the RITE than for the RITA instruments. Although no occlusion differences were noted between instruments, the RITE did demonstrate a significant difference in reserve gain before feedback at 4000 and 6000 Hz. Objectively; no positive benefit was noted between unaided and aided conditions on speech recognition tests. These results suggest that such testing may not be sensitive enough to determine aided benefit with open canal

  18. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  19. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  20. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  1. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  2. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  3. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  4. Never Has Russia Stood So High: "The New York Times'" Assessment, 1941-1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Donald O.

    In many respects the 18 months from June 1941 to December 1942--from the German assault on Soviet Russia to the conclusion of the first year of actual United States participation in World War II--was a brief interval of realism in the United States perception of the Soviet Union. The editorialists of "The New York Times" (probably the…

  5. Street Food Environment in Maputo (STOOD Map): a Cross-Sectional Study in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelormini, Marcello; Damasceno, Albertino; Lopes, Simão António; Maló, Sérgio; Chongole, Célia; Muholove, Paulino; Casal, Susana; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro; Padrão, Patrícia; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-08-05

    Street food represents a cultural, social, and economic phenomenon that is typical of urbanized areas, directly linked with a more sedentary lifestyle and providing a very accessible and inexpensive source of nutrition. Food advertising may contribute to shaping consumers' preferences and has the potential to drive the supply of specific foods. The purpose of this study is to characterize the street food offerings available to the urban population of Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique, and the billboard food advertising in the same setting. People selling ready-to-eat foods, beverages, or snacks from venues such as carts, trucks, stands, and a variety of improvised informal setups (eg, shopping carts, trunks of cars, sides of vans, blankets on the sidewalk, etc) will be identified in the district of KaMpfumu. We will gather information about the actual food being sold through direct observation and interviews to vendors, and from the billboard advertising in the same areas. A second phase of the research entails collecting food samples to be analyzed in a specialized laboratory. The street food environment will be characterized, overall and according to socioeconomic and physical characteristics of the neighborhood, using descriptive statistics and spatial analysis. The study protocol was approved by the National Committee for Bioethics for Health in Mozambique. Data collection, including the identification of street food vending sites and billboard advertising, started on October 20, 2014, and lasted for 1 month. The collection of food samples took place in December 2014, and the bromatological analyses are expected to be concluded in August 2015. The district of KaMpfumu is the wealthiest and most urbanized in Maputo, and it is the area with the highest concentration and variety of street food vendors. The expected results may yield important information to assess the nutritional environment and the characteristics of the foods to which a great majority of the urban population living or working in Maputo are exposed. Furthermore, this study protocol provides a framework for a stepwise standardized characterization of the street food environment, comprising 3 steps with increasing complexity and demand for human and technical resources: Step 1 consists of the evaluation of food advertising in the streets; Step 2 includes the identification of street food vendors and the characterization of the products available; and Step 3 requires the collection of food samples for bromatological analyses. This structured approach to the assessment of the street food environment may enable within-country and international comparisons as well as monitoring of temporal trends.

  6. Reduction of temporomandibular joint dislocation: an ancient technique that has stood the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, R J

    2015-07-01

    The first known recorded evidence for the reduction of a mandibular joint dislocation is documented in a papyrus dated to c. 1500 BC that originated from ancient Egypt. This same technique was later discussed by Hippocrates in Greece and the Hippocratic corpus is referred to in early Islamic writings. It is detailed in medieval European texts and eventually was incorporated into modern dental and medical practice. Today, mandibular joint dislocation is probably not that common but to be included in an important ancient Egyptian treatise, predominately concerned with trauma to the head and neck, could suggest it was a more frequent occurrence in antiquity. This could relate to the heavy tooth wear, frequent antemortem tooth loss and the related sequelae of severe malocclusion and overclosure evident in many surviving ancient Egyptian skulls.

  7. A Staged Reading of the Play: And the Sun Stood Still: A Play about Nicolaus Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Dava

    2013-04-01

    The aging Copernicus has shelved his wild idea of a Sun-centered cosmos, choosing instead to make peace with his bishop and concentrate on his private affairs. But a young stranger overturns those intentions when he arrives uninvited at Copernicus's door and pushes him to publish the dangerous theory.[4pt] Discussion of the play with the playwright after the staged reading.

  8. Influence of water vapour on the height distribution of positive ions, effective recombination coefficient and ionisation balance in the quiet lower ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barabash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesospheric water vapour concentration effects on the ion composition and electron density in the lower ionosphere under quiet geophysical conditions were examined. Water vapour is an important compound in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere that affects ion composition due to hydrogen radical production and consequently modifies the electron number density. Recent lower-ionosphere investigations have primarily concentrated on the geomagnetic disturbance periods. Meanwhile, studies on the electron density under quiet conditions are quite rare. The goal of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the ionospheric parameter responses to water vapour variability in the quiet lower ionosphere. By applying a numerical D region ion chemistry model, we evaluated efficiencies for the channels forming hydrated cluster ions from the NO+ and O2+ primary ions (i.e. NO+.H2O and O2+.H2O, respectively, and the channel forming H+(H2On proton hydrates from water clusters at different altitudes using profiles with low and high water vapour concentrations. Profiles for positive ions, effective recombination coefficients and electrons were modelled for three particular cases using electron density measurements obtained during rocket campaigns. It was found that the water vapour concentration variations in the mesosphere affect the position of both the Cl2+ proton hydrate layer upper border, comprising the NO+(H2On and O2+(H2On hydrated cluster ions, and the Cl1+ hydrate cluster layer lower border, comprising the H+(H2On pure proton hydrates, as well as the numerical cluster densities. The water variations caused large changes in the effective recombination coefficient and electron density between altitudes of 75 and 87 km. However, the effective recombination coefficient, αeff, and electron number density did not respond even to large water vapour concentration variations occurring at other altitudes in the mesosphere. We determined the water

  9. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs. 2; Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-Shell Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Clapp, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet AGNs. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000km/s and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blue shifted FeK absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. In the present paper we report a detailed curve of growth analysis and directly model the FeK absorbers with the Xstar photo-ionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35%. The outflow velocity distribution spans from \\sim10,000km/s (\\sim0.03c) up to \\siml00,000kmis (\\sim0.3c), with a peak and mean value of\\sim42,000km/s (\\sim0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log\\xi 3-6 erg s/cm, with a mean value of log\\xi 4.2 erg s/cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N_H\\siml0(exp 22)-10(exp 24)/sq cm, with a mean value of N_H\\siml0(exp23)/sq cm. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds and jets.

  10. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  11. Analysis of the interrelations between a low-frequency and a high-frequency signal component in human neonatal EEG during quiet sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, H; Putsche, P; Eiselt, M; Hoffmann, K; Schack, B; Arnold, M; Jäger, H

    1997-11-07

    It can be shown that dominant rhythmic signal components of neonatal EEG burst patterns (discontinuous EEG in quiet sleep) are characterised by a quadratic phase coupling (bispectral analysis). A so-called 'initial wave' (narrow band rhythm within a frequency range of 3-12 Hz) can be demonstrated within the first part of the burst pattern. The detection of this signal component and of the phase coupling is more successful in the frontal region. By means of amplitude demodulation of the 'initial wave' and a subsequent coherence analysis the phase coupling can be attributed to an amplitude modulation, i.e. the envelope curve of the 'initial wave' shows for a distinct period of time the same qualitative course as the signal trace of a 'lower' frequency component (0.75-3 Hz). The results were derived from six neonates (20 burst patterns for each neonate; 8 channel recordings).

  12. Speech perception scores in cochlear implant recipients: An analysis of ceiling effects in the CUNY sentence test (Quiet) in post-lingually deafened cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Madiseh, Azadeh; Eikelboom, Robert H; Jayakody, Dona Mp; Atlas, Marcus D

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of the City University of New York sentence test in a cohort of post-lingually deafened cochlear implants recipients over time. 117 post-lingually deafened, Australian English-speaking CI recipients aged between 23 and 98 years (M = 66 years; SD = 15.09) were recruited. CUNY sentence test scores in quiet were collated and analysed at two cut-offs, 95% and 100%, as ceiling scores. CUNY sentence scores ranged from 4% to 100% (M = 86.75; SD = 20.65), with 38.8% of participants scoring 95% and 16.5% of participants reaching the 100% scores. The percentage of participants reaching the 95% and 100% ceiling scores increased over time (6 and 12 months post-implantation). The distribution of all post-operative CUNY test scores skewed to the right with 82% of test scores reaching above 90%. This study demonstrates that the CUNY test cannot be used as a valid tool to measure the speech perception skills of post-lingually deafened CI recipients over time. This may be overcome by using adaptive test protocols or linguistically, cognitively or contextually demanding test materials. The high percentage of CI recipients achieving ceiling scores for the CUNY sentence test in quiet at 3 months post-implantation, questions the validity of using CUNY in CI assessment test battery and limits its application for use in longitudinal studies evaluating CI outcomes. Further studies are required to examine different methods to overcome this problem.

  13. STORM IN A {sup T}EACUP{sup :} A RADIO-QUIET QUASAR WITH ≈10 kpc RADIO-EMITTING BUBBLES AND EXTREME GAS KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, C. M.; Thomson, A. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Edge, A. C.; Hogan, M. T.; Swinbank, A. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifica Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mullaney, J. R., E-mail: c.m.harrison@mail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S7 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    We present multi-frequency (1-8 GHz) Very Large Array data, combined with VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph integral field unit data and Hubble Space Telescope imaging, of a z = 0.085 radio-quiet type 2 quasar (with L {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup –1} and L {sub AGN} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1}). Due to the morphology of its emission-line region, the target (J1430+1339) has been referred to as the ''Teacup'' active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the literature. We identify ''bubbles'' of radio emission that are extended ≈10-12 kpc to both the east and west of the nucleus. The edge of the brighter eastern bubble is co-spatial with an arc of luminous ionized gas. We also show that the ''Teacup'' AGN hosts a compact radio structure, located ≈0.8 kpc from the core position, at the base of the eastern bubble. This radio structure is co-spatial with an ionized outflow with an observed velocity of v = –740 km s{sup –1}. This is likely to correspond to a jet, or possibly a quasar wind, interacting with the interstellar medium at this position. The large-scale radio bubbles appear to be inflated by the central AGN, which indicates that the AGN can also interact with the gas on ≳ 10 kpc scales. Our study highlights that even when a quasar is formally ''radio-quiet'' the radio emission can be extremely effective for observing the effects of AGN feedback.

  14. THE PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTING RESEARCH ABOUT IFRS: A BIBLIOMETRIC REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ARTICLES ON THE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Iovine Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base platform the Web of Science (WoS of Citation Indexes from the Institute for Scientific Information – ISI – Citation Indexes. It was found 150 articles for the research lookout of “International Financial Reporting Standards” and 147 for “IFRS” found in the four main categories of WoS related to that subject. According to the two used terms for research, the result was quite conflicting. It was observed that the more productive writers are not necessarily the most influential ones, which also occurred in regard to periodic publications. The large majority of the production occurred from 2006 on, and the countries that stood out more, in quantity terms, were the United States of America, Germany, Australia and England.

  15. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  16. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  17. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  18. The intra-rater reliability and agreement of compensatory stepping thresholds of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest, intra-rater reliability and agreement of compensatory stepping thresholds. A protocol was developed to establish anteroposterior single-stepping thresholds, anteroposterior multiple-stepping thresholds, and lateral single-stepping thresholds. Healthy, young subjects stood on a microprocessor-controlled treadmill, and responded to three series of progressively challenging surface translations. Subjects were instructed to "try not to step" when establishing single-stepping thresholds or "try to take only one step" when establishing multiple-stepping thresholds. Stepping thresholds were defined as the minimum disturbance magnitude that consistently elicited a single or second compensatory step. Thresholds were expressed as the ankle torque necessary to maintain upright posture. Thresholds studied included anterior single-stepping thresholds (τ = 273.0 ± 82.3 N m), posterior single-stepping, thresholds (τ = 235.5 ± 98.0 N m), anterior multiple-stepping thresholds (τ = 977.0 ± 416.3 N m), posterior multiple-stepping thresholds (τ = 701.9 ± 237.5 N m), stability-side lateral single-stepping thresholds (τ = 225.7 ± 77.7 Nm), and mobility-side lateral single-stepping thresholds (τ = 236.8 ± 85.4 N m). Based on intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots, all thresholds demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.87-0.97) and agreement. These results suggest that compensatory stepping thresholds have sufficient repeatability to be used in clinical and research-related assessments of fall-risk. Additional study is needed to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities and validity of thresholds specific to the patient populations of interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  20. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  1. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  2. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  3. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  4. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  5. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  6. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  7. Nature of the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone revealed by the sea-surface, mid-water, and near-source magnetic sensor data in the western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ) has been a long-standing debate in understanding Earth's geomagnetic field history and behavior. We present a coherent and likely globally significant marine magnetic reversal record for the JQZ by constructing a correlation of new and previously acquired magnetic anomaly profiles in the western Pacific. We obtained a high-resolution marine magnetic anomaly record using sea surface, mid-water (3-km level deep-towed), and near-bottom (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)) profiles that targeted a spreading corridor in the Hawaiian lineation in 2011 (TN272 on R/V Thompson) and 2014 (SKQ2014S2 on R/V Sikuliaq). To extract crustal magnetic signals, the sea surface and mid-water magnetic data were corrected for ship-to-sensor offset, the diurnal effect, and the present-day ambient geomagnetic field. Mid-water data were upward continued to a constant 3 km level plane and to the sea surface. Near-bottom data were calibrated to remove the induced magnetic field by AUV Sentry, then corrected for IGRF and diurnal variations. We used these near-source data as an anchor for correlations with the sea surface and mid-water level data because of the AUV's superb inertial navigation and hydrodynamically stable, quiet platform environment. Our sea surface anomaly correlation with the previously established Japanese lineation sequence shows (i) an excellent correlation of anomaly shapes from M29 to M42; (ii) a remarkable similarity in anomaly amplitude envelope, which decreases back in time from M19 to M38, with a minimum at M41, then increases back in time from M42; and (iii) refined locations of pre-M25 lineations in the Hawaiian lineation set. Moreover, short-wavelength anomalies from the mid-water and near-bottom profiles show a strong similarity in the M37/M38 polarity attributes found both in the magnetostratigraphic and marine magnetic records, implying that rapid magnetic reversals were occurring at that time. The average reversal

  8. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork in th...

  9. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  10. The Subjective Experience of Punishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam J. Kolber

    2009-01-01

    ... laws pay little attention to such differences. I make two central claims: First, a successful justification of punishment must take account of offenders' subjective experiences when assessing punishment severity...

  11. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  12. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  14. Heating of the quiet solar corona from measurements of the FET/TESIS instrument on-board the KORONAS-FOTON satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybák, J.; Gömöry, P.; Benz, A.; Bogachev, P.; Brajša, R.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the first results of the observations of time evolution of the quiet solar corona brightenings obtained due to very rapid photography of the corona with full-disk EUV telescopes of the FET/TESIS instrument onboard the KORONA FOTON satellite. The measurements were performed simultaneously in the emission of the Fe IX / X 17.1 and Fe VIII 13.1 spectral lines with 10 second temporal cadence and spatial scale of 1.7 arc seconds within one hour. This test observation, carried out on 15 July 2009, was analyzed in order to determine whether this type of observation can be used to identify individual microevents in the solar corona heating that are above the tresholds of spatial and temporal resolutions of the observations of non-active regions in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, a simple method was used involving cross-correlation of the plasma emission time evolution at different temperatures, each time from observations of identical elements. The results obtained are confronted with the expected observable manifestations of the corona heating via nanoflares. TESIS is a set of instruments for the Sun photography developed in the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that was launched into orbit in January 2009.

  15. Behavior and EEG concordance of active and quiet sleep in preterm very low birth weight and full-term neonates at matched conceptional age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Ávila; Khan, Richard Lester; Rocha, Gibsi; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2014-09-01

    Sleep organization in neonates is an established predictor of neurological outcome and can be evaluated through the concordance between EEG and behavioral parameters. To evaluate the correlation between sleep stages and behavioral states in neonates. Longitudinal study performed in a birth-cohort of preterm low birth weight neonates. Twenty five neonates, 15 preterm (gestational age between 27 and 33 weeks) and low birth weight (800-1500g) and 10 full-term neonates that served as controls. All neonates were submitted to video-electroencephalography of, at least, 60 minute duration. The preterm during the first 15 days of life and, subsequently, at 38-42 weeks of conceptional age. The full-term between the 1st and 2nd days of life. The characterization of sleep stages by EEG parameters and behavioral states (based on Prechtl scale) was performed independently by previously trained researchers. Active sleep (AS) was the predominant sleep stage in the three groups. Preterm neonates had an increase in concordance between state 1 and quiet sleep (QS) from the 1st to the 2nd EEG (pEEG and behavior is lower in QS in preterm and full-term neonates when compared to AS. Extra-uterine development of preterm neonates seems to accelerate concordance in QS. Prechtl behavior scale proved to be useful in preterm as percentage of concordance was similar in AS in the groups studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. F3 layer development during quiet and disturbed periods as observed at conjugate locations in Brazil: The role of the meridional wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Inez S.; Candido, C. M. N.; Souza, J. R.; Abdu, M. A.; de Araujo, R. C.; Resende, L. C. A.; Santos, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we use ionospheric data from two low-latitude stations located north and south of the geomagnetic equator, at approximately the same magnetic longitude, in order to study the occurrence of the F3 layer. The location of the stations being at almost geomagnetically conjugate points is such that the effects of the electric field/vertical plasma drift and diffusion will be almost symmetric around the magnetic equator. Under this configuration it is possible to deduce the effect of meridional wind in the F3 layer occurrence. Our results show that during the December solstice the layer will be present at the Southern Hemisphere (SH) location in 97% of the days and in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) location in only 4% of the days. In the June solstice the situation is reversed with the occurrence in the NH being 82% and 16% in the SH. For the March equinox the occurrence is low at both locations (4% in NH and 7% in SH), being mainly present during magnetically disturbed periods. The analysis of the effective meridional wind based on the Horizontal Wind Model and on the asymmetry of the F layer peak height observed at the two locations confirms the ubiquitous role of the wind in the F3 layer formation and/or persistence during both quiet and disturbed periods. The B0 parameter, that is a measure of the thickness of the bottomside F region profile, revealed to be a good proxy for the F3 layer occurrence.

  17. Low-latitude daytime F region irregularities observed in two geomagnetically quiet days by the Hainan coherent scatter phased array radar (HCOPAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Jin, Han; Yan, Jingye; Zhang, Shaodong; Li, Guozhu; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Yang, Guotao; Yan, Chunxiao; Wu, Chen; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Dingkun; Li, Yaxian; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-02-01

    Hainan coherent scatter phased array radar (HCOPAR) located at low latitude of China has recorded the extremely rare daytime F region irregularities at noon of 22 July 2013 and 23 May 2016. The two field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) appeared in the topside F2 layer and presented small Doppler velocities and narrow spectral widths. The fan sector maps show that the FAIs moved northward with almost no zonal speed. The irregularities emerged in the geomagnetically quiet condition and were irrelevant to the storm-induced eastward electric field as other daytime cases. More than 2 h after the emergency of the daytime irregularities over Hainan, the Shaoyang digisonde situated 870 km north to the HCOPAR recorded the spread-F in ionospheric F1 layer. According to the echo altitudes, the spread-F may connect the daytime bubbles via magnetic field line. The strong photoionization after sunrise made it difficult to generate the plasma bubbles in the sunlit ionosphere. Consequently, the two midday FAIs over Hainan may drift along the magnetic field lines from higher altitudes in the south and are most likely the remnant of previous night's bubbles.

  18. Diel and seasonal patterns of underwater sounds by Weddell seals, leopard seals, and killer whales in the Antarctic: When it's adaptive to be quiet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindach, Debrah; Thomas, Jeanette

    2005-09-01

    Automated underwater recordings taken during the austral breeding season of the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) in Antarctica also provided data on the vocalizations of predators in the area; leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) and killer whales (Orcinus orca). Weddell seals inhabit fast ice areas to give birth, mate, and molt. Near the end of the breeding season in December the fast ice often breaks out and the two pack ice predators are able to move near the Weddell seal colonies and prey on them, especially pups. Recordings were taken continuously for a 2.5-min period each hour from mid-October 1977 and late-January 1978 at Hutton Cliffs and South Turtle Rock Crack, in McMurdo Sound. The leopard seals increased their trill calls when killer whales came into the area as evidenced by an increase in their frequency-modulated squeak calls. Weddell seals decreased their vocalization rate dramatically (~10 sounds/min) compared to during the peak of the breeding season (~75 sounds/min). Perhaps by being quiet, Weddell seals do not attract predators to their area.

  19. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar J1813–1246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; De Luca, A.; Caraveo, P.; Salvetti, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Harding, A. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Acero, F., E-mail: marelli@lambrate.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universit Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-11-10

    We have analyzed the new deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the energetic, radio-quiet pulsar J1813–1246. The X-ray spectrum is nonthermal, very hard, and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available Fermi ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The γ-ray light curve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardening toward the bridge. Surprisingly, both X-ray peaks lag behind the γ-ray ones by a quarter of phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with INTEGRAL, which is consistent with the extrapolation of both the soft X-ray and γ-ray emission of J1813. The unique X-ray and γ-ray phasing suggests a singular emission geometry. We discuss some possibilities within the current pulsar emission models. Finally, we develop an alternative geometrical model where the X-ray emission comes from polar cap pair cascades.

  20. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A L; Wood, G; Vine, S J; Vickers, J N; Wilson, M R

    2017-02-01

    Quiet eye training (QET) may be a more effective method for teaching children to catch than traditional training (TT) methods, but it is unclear if the benefits accrued persist in the long term. Thirty children were randomly allocated into a QET or TT group and, while wearing a mobile eye tracker, underwent baseline testing, training and two retention tests over a period of eight weeks, using a validated throw and catch task. During training, movement-related information was provided to both groups, while the QET group received additional instruction to increase the duration of their targeting fixation (QE1) on the wall prior to the throw, and pursuit tracking (QE2) period on the ball prior to catching. In both immediate (R1) and delayed (R2, six weeks later) retention tests, the QET group had a significantly longer QE1 duration and an earlier and longer QE2 duration, compared to the TT group, who revealed no improvements. A performance advantage was also found for the QET compared to the TT group at both R1 and R2, revealing the relatively robust nature of the visuomotor alterations. Regression analyses suggested that only the duration of QE1 predicted variance in catch success post-training, pointing to the importance of a pre-programming visuomotor strategy for successful throw and catch performance.

  1. Synchronous NmF2 and NmE daytime variations as a key to the mechanism of quiet-time F2-layer disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The observed NmF2 and NmE variations were analyzed for the periods of positive and negative quiet-time F2-layer disturbances (Q-disturbances observed in the midlatitude daytime F2-layer to specify the mechanism of their origin. The noontime δNmF2 and δNmE deviations demonstrate a synchronous type of variation which can be explained by vertical gas motion in the thermosphere. This neutral gas motion should result in atomic abundance variations, the latter being confirmed by the Millstone Hill ISR observations for periods of positive and negative Q-disturbance events. The analysis of the ISR data has shown that atomic oxygen concentration variations are the main cause of the daytime F2-layer Q-disturbances. The auroral heating which controls the poleward thermospheric wind is considered to be the basic mechanism for the Q-disturbances, however, the specific mechanisms of positive and negative Q-disturbances are different. Some morphological features of the Q-disturbances revealed earlier are explained in the scope of the proposed concept.

  2. Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 2. High-latitude circulation and interplanetary magnetic field dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmert, J.T.; Hernandez, G.; Jarvis, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Stromfjord (67 degrees N, 51 degrees W), and Thule (77 degrees N, 68 degrees W). We examine the wind patterns as a function of magnetic local time and latitude, solar cycle, day of year, and the dawn-dusk and north-south components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B-y and B-z). In magnetic...... By negative winds; this behavior is consistent with the By-dependence of statistical ionospheric convection patterns. The strength of the wind response to By tends to increase with increasing solar EUV irradiation, roughly in proportion to the increased wind speeds. Quiet time By effects are detectable...... at latitudes as low as that of Millstone Hill ( magnetic latitude 53 degrees N). Quiet time Bz effects are negligible except over the magnetic polar cap station of Thule....

  3. The Effect of Continuous and Discretized Presentations of Concurrent Augmented Visual Biofeedback on Postural Control in Quiet Stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D'Anna

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous and a discretized Visual Biofeedback (VBF on balance performance in upright stance. The coordinates of the Centre of Pressure (CoP, extracted from a force plate, were processed in real-time to implement the two VBFs, administered to two groups of 12 healthy participants. In the first group, a representation of the CoP was continuously shown, while in the second group, the discretized VBF was provided at an irregular frequency (that depended on the subject's performance by displaying one out of a set of five different emoticons, each corresponding to a specific area covered by the current position of the CoP. In the first case, participants were asked to maintain a white spot within a given square area, whereas in the second case they were asked to keep the smiling emoticon on. Trials with no VBF were administered as control. The effect of the two VBFs on balance was studied through classical postural parameters and a subset of stabilogram diffusion coefficients. To quantify the amount of time spent in stable conditions, the percentage of time during which the CoP was inside the stability area was calculated. Both VBFs improved balance maintainance as compared to the absence of any VBF. As compared to the continuous VBF, in the discretized VBF a significant decrease of sway path, diffusion and Hurst coefficients was found. These results seem to indicate that a discretized VBF favours a more natural postural behaviour by promoting a natural intermittent postural control strategy.

  4. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on chest wall volumes in subjects with stroke compared to healthy controls: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elis E A; Resqueti, Vanessa R; Lima, Illia N D F; Gualdi, Lucien P; Aliverti, Andrea; Fregonezi, Guilherme A F

    2017-07-08

    Alterations in respiratory system kinematics in stroke lead to restrictive pattern associated with decreased lung volumes. Chest physical therapy, such as positive expiratory pressure, may be useful in the treatment of these patients; however, the optimum intensity to promote volume and motion changes of the chest wall remains unclear. To assess the effect of different intensities of positive expiratory pressure on chest wall kinematics in subjects with stroke compared to healthy controls. 16 subjects with chronic stroke and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index were recruited. Chest wall volumes were assessed using optoelectronic plethysmography during quiet breathing, 5 minutes, and recovery. Three different intensities of positive expiratory pressure (10, 15, and 20cmH2O) were administered in a random order with a 30 minutes rest interval between intensities. During positive expiratory pressure, tidal chest wall expansion increased in both groups compared to quiet breathing; however, this increase was not significant in the subjects with stroke (0.41 vs. 1.32L, 0.56 vs. 1.54L, 0.52 vs. 1.8L, at 10, 15, 20cmH2O positive expiratory pressure, for stroke and control groups; p<0.001). End-expiratory chest wall volume decreased in controls, mainly due to the abdomen, and increased in the stroke group, mainly due the pulmonary rib cage. Positive expiratory pressure administration facilitates acute lung expansion of the chest wall and its compartments in restricted subjects with stroke. Positive expiratory pressure intensities above 10cmH2O should be used with caution as the increase in end-expiratory volume led to hyperinflation in subjects with stroke. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Influência do biofeedback respiratório associado ao padrão Quiet Breathing sobre a função pulmonar e hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiero, Eliane de Fáveri Franqui [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the use of respiratory biofeedback (RB) associated with quiet breathing on the thoracic perimetry, pulmonary function, force of the respiratory muscles and the following habits of functional mouth breathing (FMB): vigil of open mouth, sleeps of open mouth, dribbles in the pillow, difficult wakening, snore and restless sleep. Methods: It had been evaluated 20 FMB children, which had been submitted to 15 sessions of RB, through biofeedback pletsmovent (MICR...

  6. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  7. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  8. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  9. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  10. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.

  11. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  12. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  13. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  14. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  15. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  16. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  17. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  18. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  19. The Subjective Dimension of Nazism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of

  20. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  1. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  2. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  3. EEG activity as an objective measure of cognitive load during effortful listening: A study on pediatric subjects with bilateral, asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Pasquale; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Cartocci, Giulia; Giannantonio, Sara; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Venuti, Isotta; Brizi, Ambra; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Deaf subjects with hearing aids or cochlear implants generally find it challenging to understand speech in noisy environments where a great deal of listening effort and cognitive load are invested. In prelingually deaf children, such difficulties may have detrimental consequences on the learning process and, later in life, on academic performance. Despite the importance of such a topic, currently, there is no validated test for the assessment of cognitive load during audiological tasks. Recently, alpha and theta EEG rhythm variations in the parietal and frontal areas, respectively, have been used as indicators of cognitive load in adult subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of EEG, the cognitive load of pediatric subjects affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss as they were engaged in a speech-in-noise identification task. Seven children (4F and 3M, age range = 8-16 years) affected by asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (i.e. profound degree on one side, mild-to-severe degree on the other side) and using a hearing aid only in their better ear, were included in the study. All of them underwent EEG recording during a speech-in-noise identification task: the experimental conditions were quiet, binaural noise, noise to the better hearing ear and noise to the poorer hearing ear. The subjects' Speech Recognition Thresholds (SRT) were also measured in each test condition. The primary outcome measures were: frontal EEG Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the theta band and parietal EEG PSD in the alpha band, as assessed before stimulus (word) onset. No statistically significant differences were noted among frontal theta power levels in the four test conditions. However, parietal alpha power levels were significantly higher in the "binaural noise" and in the "noise to worse hearing ear" conditions than in the "quiet" and "noise to better hearing ear" conditions (p hearing loss with the purpose of studying the cognitive load during

  4. Intermittent control with ankle, hip, and mixed strategies during quiet standing: a theoretical proposal based on a double inverted pendulum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nomura, Taishin; Casadio, Maura; Morasso, Pietro

    2012-10-07

    Human upright posture, as a mechanical system, is characterized by an instability of saddle type, involving both stable and unstable dynamic modes. The brain stabilizes such system by generating active joint torques, according to a time-delayed neural feedback control. What is still unsolved is a clear understanding of the control strategies and the control mechanisms that are used by the central nervous system in order to stabilize the unstable posture in a robust way while maintaining flexibility. Most studies in this direction have been limited to the single inverted pendulum model, which is useful for formalizing fundamental mechanical aspects but insufficient for addressing more general issues concerning neural control strategies. Here we consider a double inverted pendulum model in the sagittal plane with small passive viscoelasticity at the ankle and hip joints. Despite difficulties in stabilizing the double pendulum model in the presence of the large feedback delay, we show that robust and flexible stabilization of the upright posture can be established by an intermittent control mechanism that achieves the goal of stabilizing the body posture according to a "divide and conquer strategy", which switches among different controllers in different parts of the state space of the double inverted pendulum. Remarkably, it is shown that a global, robust stability is achieved even if the individual controllers are unstable and the information exploited for switching from one controller to another is severely delayed, as it happens in biological reality. Moreover, the intermittent controller can automatically resolve coordination among multiple active torques associated with the muscle synergy, leading to the emergence of distinct temporally coordinated active torque patterns, referred to as the intermittent ankle, hip, and mixed strategies during quiet standing, depending on the passive elasticity at the hip joint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploratory X-Ray Monitoring of Luminous Radio-quiet Quasars at High Redshift: No Evidence for Evolution in X-Ray Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Brandt, W. N.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Kaspi, Shai; Vignali, Cristian; Lira, Paulina; Schneider, Donald P.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the second installment of an X-ray monitoring project of seven luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). New Chandra observations of four of these, at 4.10≤slant z≤slant 4.35, yield a total of six X-ray epochs per source, with temporal baselines of ˜ 850{--}1600 days in the rest frame. These data provide the best X-ray light curves for RQQs at z> 4 to date, enabling qualitative investigations of the X-ray variability behavior of such sources for the first time. On average, these sources follow the trend of decreasing variability amplitude with increasing luminosity, and there is no evidence for X-ray variability increasing toward higher redshifts, in contrast with earlier predictions of potential evolutionary scenarios. An ensemble variability structure function reveals that their variability level remains relatively flat across ≈ 20{--}1000 days in the rest frame and it is generally lower than that of three similarly luminous RQQs at 1.33≤slant z≤slant 2.74 over the same temporal range. We discuss possible explanations for the increased variability of the lower-redshift subsample and, in particular, whether higher accretion rates play a leading role. Near-simultaneous optical monitoring of the sources at 4.10≤slant z≤slant 4.35 indicates that none is variable on ≈ 1 day timescales, although flux variations of up to ˜25% are observed on ≈ 100 day timescales, typical of RQQs at similar redshifts. Significant optical-X-ray spectral slope variations observed in two of these sources are consistent with the levels observed in luminous RQQs and are dominated by X-ray variations.

  6. Coherent structure in solar wind C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} ionic composition data during the quiet-sun conditions of 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lynch, B. J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    This analysis offers evidence of characteristic scale sizes in solar wind charge state data measured in situ for 13 quiet-Sun Carrington rotations in 2008. Using a previously established novel methodology, we analyze the wavelet power spectrum of the charge state ratio C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} measured in situ by ACE/SWICS for 2 hr and 12 minute cadence. We construct a statistical significance level in the wavelet power spectrum to quantify the interference effects arising from filling missing data in the time series, allowing extraction of significant power from the measured data to a resolution of 24 minutes. We analyze each wavelet power spectrum for transient coherency and global periodicities resulting from the superposition of repeating coherent structures. From the significant wavelet power spectra, we find evidence for a general upper limit on individual transient coherency of ∼10 days. We find evidence for a set of global periodicities between 4-5 hr and 35-45 days. We find evidence for the distribution of individual transient coherency scales consisting of two distinct populations. Below the ∼2 day timescale, the distribution is reasonably approximated by an inverse power law, whereas for scales ≳2 days, the distribution levels off, showing discrete peaks at common coherency scales. In addition, by organizing the transient coherency scale distributions by wind type, we find that these larger, common coherency scales are more prevalent and well defined in coronal hole wind. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for current theories of solar wind generation and describe future work for determining the relationship between the coherent structures in our ionic composition data and the structure of the coronal magnetic field.

  7. Audiological evaluation and self-assessed hearing problems in subjects with single-sided congenital external ear malformations and associated conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priwin, Claudia; Jönsson, Radi; Magnusson, Lennart; Hultcrantz, Malou; Granström, Gösta

    2007-04-01

    Previously, unilateral hearing impairment (UHI) has been considered of little consequence. However, a recent meta-analysis of children with UHI displayed educational and behavioural problems and possible delays of speech and language development. Further, patients with UHI consequently report hearing difficulties. Our study investigated hearing function, possible inner ear protection, and self-assessed hearing problems in 57 subjects aged between 3-80 years with single-sided congenital ear malformations and conductive UHI. Pure-tone thresholds and speech recognition (quiet, noise) were measured, and all patients completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Pure-tone thresholds corresponding to sensorineural function did not significantly differ between the normal (air conduction) and affected ear (bone conduction). However, speech recognition in both quiet and in noise was normal on the non-affected side but significantly worse on the malformed side. A moderate to high degree of self-assessed hearing problems were reported. In conclusion, hearing function in the affected ear was found to be subnormal in terms of supra threshold signal processing. Furthermore, a high degree of hearing difficulty was reported. Therefore, active treatment, surgery, or hearing amplification, might be considered.

  8. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  9. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  10. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  11. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  12. Measurement of effective alveolar carbon dioxide tension during spontaneous breathing in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanoglou, J; Koulouris, N; Kyroussis, D; Rapakoulias, P; Vassalos, P; Madianos, J

    1995-03-01

    The measurement of effective alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA-CO2eff) is still a matter of debate. It has, however, become common practice to use arterial instead of alveolar CO2 tension for computing alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) and physiological dead space, not only in normal subjects but also in patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate alveolar CO2 tension during spontaneous breathing with a new bedside technique which is simple and non-invasive, and to compare these values with arterial CO2 tension measured in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction. The subjects breathed quietly through the equipment assembly (mouthpiece, monitoring ring, Fleisch transducer head) connected to a pneumotachograph and a fast response infrared CO2 analyser. The method is a computerised calculation of the volume weighted effective alveolar CO2 tension obtained from the simultaneously recorded expiratory flow and CO2 concentration versus time curves. An arterial blood sample was taken to measure PaCO2 for comparison during the study. The results showed a mean difference (PACO2eff-PaCO2) of -0.205 kPa in 20 normal subjects and -0.460 kPa in 46 patients. The 95% confidence interval of the bias was -0.029 to -0.379 kPa in normal subjects and -0.213 to -0.707 kPa in patients. The limits of agreement between PACO2eff and PaCO2 were 0.526 to -0.935 in normal subjects and 1.170 to -2.088 in patients. The volume weighted effective alveolar PCO2 in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction is lower than the arterial PCO2 and is recommended as a better estimate in the classical equations for estimating dead space and intrapulmonary shunt.

  13. Study place preferences: quiet please!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Attractive and appropriate study places can contribute to students’ learning performance and have an impact on student's choices where to study. But what does ‘attractive’ and ‘appropriate mean? Based on PhD research this paper shows what students want.

  14. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel S; Nikolopoulos, Christos; Badekas, Athanasios; Vagenas, George; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2007-09-12

    Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG) activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i) without brace, ii) with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii) with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter) was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris) activation onset. The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter) was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately stimulated by the brace application and therefore are not able to

  15. The effect of different skin-ankle brace application pressures on quiet single-limb balance and electromyographic activation onset of lower limb muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Stamatios A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of ankle bracing on ankle joint function and performance. However, no study so far has examined the role of skin-brace interface pressure in neuromuscular control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different skin-ankle brace interface pressures on quiet single limb balance and the electromyographic (EMG activation sequence of four lower limb muscles. Methods Thirty three male physical education students who volunteered to take part in the study were measured under three ankle brace conditions: i without brace, ii with brace and 30 kPa application pressure and iii with brace and 60 kPa application pressure. Single limb balance (anteroposterior and mediolateral parameter was assessed on the dominant lower limb, with open and closed eyes, on a force platform, simultaneously with the EMG recording of four lower lower limb muscles' (gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, rectus femoris and biceps femoris activation onset. Results The results showed that overall balance (total stability parameter was not significantly affected in any of the three ankle brace conditions. However, the anteroposterior centre of pressure excursion and centre of pressure excursion velocity were significantly increased with the application of ankle brace, both with 30 and 60 kPa application pressures. Furthermore, it was found that single limb balance was significantly worse with closed eyes compared to open eyes. EMG measurements showed that the sequence of lower limb activation onset was not affected in any of the three ankle brace application conditions. The results of this study showed that the application of an ankle brace with two different skin-brace interface pressures had no effect on overall single limb balance and the sequence of lower limb muscle activation. Conclusion These findings suggest that peripheral joint receptors are either not adequately

  16. The quiet revolution: continuous glider monitoring at ocean 'choke' points as a key component of new cross-platform ocean observation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, E. E.; Tintore, J.; Ruiz, S.; Allen, J.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    A quiet revolution is taking place in ocean observations; in the last decade new multi-platform, integrated ocean observatories have been progressively implemented by forward looking countries with ocean borders of economic and strategic importance. These systems are designed to fill significant gaps in our knowledge of the ocean state and ocean variability, through long-term, science and society-led, ocean monitoring. These ocean observatories are now delivering results, not the headline results of a single issue experiment, but carefully and systematically improving our knowledge of ocean variability, and thereby, increasing model forecast skill and our ability to link physical processes to ecosystem response. Here we present the results from a 3-year quasi-continuous glider monitoring of a key circulation 'choke' point in the Western Mediterranean, undertaken by SOCIB (Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System). For the first time data from the high frequency glider sampling show variations in the transport volumes of water over timescales of days to weeks, as large as those previously only identifiable as seasonal or eddy driven. Although previous surveys noted high cruise-to-cruise variability, they were insufficient to show that in fact water volumes exchanged through this narrow 'choke' point fluctuate on 'weather' timescales. Using the glider data to leverage an 18-year record of ship missions, we define new seasonal cycles for the exchange of watermasses, challenging generally held assumptions. The pattern of the exchange is further simplified through the characterisation of 5 circulation modes and the defining of a new seasonal cycle for the interplay between mesoscale and basin scale dynamics. Restricted 'choke points' between our ocean basins are critical locations to monitor water transport variability, as they constrain the inter-basin exchange of heat, salt and nutrients. At the Ibiza Channel 'choke' point, the exchange of

  17. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1484 ft/sec Tip Speed Quiet High-Speed Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow

  18. Heart rate variability in normotensive subjects with family history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Rao, Badanidiyur Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a major silent disease affecting young people because of their hereditary and modern lifestyles. Target organ damages occur before overt hypertension is diagnosed. Many offspring of HT parents show early changes in their cardiovascular autonomic functions. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides a window to understand the cardiac autonomic balance. This study was designed to quantify and to compare the HRV among the normotensive young male offspring without history of parenteral hypertension & diabetic (control group, n = 25, age 20.8 +/- 2.4, BMI 24.4 +/- 3.1) with parenteral history of hypertension & non diabetic (study group n = 25, age 19.7 +/- 1.9, 24.05 +/- 3.5). Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), indices of short term HRV during supine rest and quiet standing, HR variation during timed controlled deep breathing was compared between the two groups. There were significant difference in low frequency (LF) power, HF power, total power. LF and HF expressed also in normalized units at rest and standing. In time domain standard deviation of normal to normal RR interval (SDNN) at supine rest and standing were significant. Respiratory sinus arrthymia (RSA), HF in normalized units, deep breathing difference (BDD) and the ratio of maximum RR to minimum RR were also significant in the control group than study group. In the present study there was an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in the study group. These findings are an early marker of cardiovascular autonomic impairment in subjects with parenteral history of hypertension.

  19. The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Peter H; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Metzger, Matthew; Wade, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty healthy individuals self-administered Salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. Experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. Additionally, post-session responses to the Hallucinogen Rating Scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. Qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. Three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. The experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. Participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. Additionally, the abuse potential of Salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. These findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  1. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  2. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  3. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  4. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  5. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  6. Cognitive performance and perceived effort in speech processing tasks: effects of different noise backgrounds in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsby, Birgitta; Hällgren, Mathias; Lyxell, Björn; Arlinger, Stig

    2005-03-01

    Cognitive tests of speech understanding were administered (presented as text, or in auditory or audiovisual modality) and perceived effort was rated. This was done in four background conditions: in silence, and in three types of noise (S/N=+10 dB) varying in temporal structure and meaningfulness. Four groups of 12 subjects each (young/elderly with normal hearing and young/elderly with hearing impairment) participated. The presence of noise had a negative effect on accuracy and speed of performance in the speech processing tasks, and resulted in higher scores of perceived effort, even when the stimuli were presented as text. Differences in performance between noise conditions existed. In the subjective scores, the noise with temporal variations, but without meaningful content, was the most disruptive of the three noise conditions. In the objective scores the hearing-impaired subjects showed poorer results in noise with temporal variations. The elderly subjects were more distracted by noise with temporal variations, and especially by noise with meaningful content. In noise, all subjects, particularly those with impaired hearing, were more dependent upon visual cues than in the quiet condition.

  7. A model of postural control in quiet standing: robust compensation of delay-induced instability using intermittent activation of feedback control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to compare two different feedback controllers for the stabilization of quiet standing in humans, taking into account that the intrinsic ankle stiffness is insufficient and that there is a large delay inducing instability in the feedback loop: 1 a standard linear, continuous-time PD controller and 2 an intermittent PD controller characterized by a switching function defined in the phase plane, with or without a dead zone around the nominal equilibrium state. The stability analysis of the first controller is carried out by using the standard tools of linear control systems, whereas the analysis of the intermittent controllers is based on the use of Poincaré maps defined in the phase plane. When the PD-control is off, the dynamics of the system is characterized by a saddle-like equilibrium, with a stable and an unstable manifold. The switching function of the intermittent controller is implemented in such a way that PD-control is 'off' when the state vector is near the stable manifold of the saddle and is 'on' otherwise. A theoretical analysis and a related simulation study show that the intermittent control model is much more robust than the standard model because the size of the region in the parameter space of the feedback control gains (P vs. D that characterizes stable behavior is much larger in the latter case than in the former one. Moreover, the intermittent controller can use feedback parameters that are much smaller than the standard model. Typical sway patterns generated by the intermittent controller are the result of an alternation between slow motion along the stable manifold of the saddle, when the PD-control is off, and spiral motion away from the upright equilibrium determined by the activation of the PD-control with low feedback gains. Remarkably, overall dynamic stability can be achieved by combining in a smart way two unstable regimes: a saddle and an unstable spiral. The intermittent

  8. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  9. Beer, wine, spirits and subjective health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M; Mortensen, E L; Mygind, K

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  10. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  11. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  12. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  13. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  14. Trunk Accelerometry Reveals Postural Instability in Untreated Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.; Zampieri, Cris; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have shown that subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormalities in sway parameters during quiet standing, abnormalities of postural sway associated with untreated PD have not been reported. Although not clinically apparent, we hypothesized that spontaneous sway in quiet stance is abnormal in people with untreated PD. We examined 13 subjects, recently diagnosed with PD, who were not yet taking any anti-parkinsonian medications and 12 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with a linear accelerometer on the posterior trunk (L5 level) and compared with traditional forceplate measures of sway. Subjects stood for two minutes under two conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). One of the most discriminative measures of postural changes in subjects with untreated PD was the increased ‘JERK’ of lower trunk in the EO condition, measured with the accelerometer. Root mean square and the frequency dispersion of postural sway in the EO condition also discriminated sway in untreated PD subjects compared to controls subjects. We conclude that accelerometer-based sway metrics could be used as objective measures of postural instability in untreated PD. Accelerometer-based analysis of spontaneous sway may provide a powerful tool for early clinical trials and for monitoring the effects of treatment of balance disorders in subjects with PD. PMID:21641263

  15. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  16. Inter-individual variability of oscillatory responses to subject's own name. A single-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  20. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  1. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  2. Visiting Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï eKapoula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesised to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased 5 monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle.Using computerised dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade. A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway. Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability (in terms of spectral power and cancelling time of body sway at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of cancelling time. Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto was cancelled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power increased after the promenade.Fourteen additional visitors were asked to sit in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test.We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic training ground thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium and gravity.

  3. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  4. The anatomy of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-layer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  5. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  6. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  7. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  8. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to wh...

  9. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  10. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives...

  11. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  12. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  13. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  14. Objective versus subjective assessment of laparoscopic skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, P.J.; van Rijssen, L.B.; Commandeur, J.P.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Scheele, F.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The equality of subjective- and objective-assessment methods in laparoscopic surgery are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare a subjective assessment method to an objective assessment method to evaluate laparoscopic skill. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was

  15. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  16. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short discussion article outlines a range of theoretical issues underpinning the formation of subject knowledge for teaching. It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the ...

  17. Inferring Beliefs as Subjectively Imprecise Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2012-01-01

    . The experimental task consists of a series of standard lottery choices in which the subject is assumed to use conventional risk attitudes to select one lottery or the other and then a series of betting choices in which the subject is presented with a range of bookies offering odds on the outcome of some event...

  18. Heritability estimates and correlations between subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PavarniN

    exceptions were positive genetic correlations of fibre diameter (FD) and coefficient of variation of FD with staple formation score and belly and points score. Genetic progress in subjective traits thus appears possible, if desired in a selection strategy. Keywords: Correlations, heritabilities, linearly assessed traits, subjective ...

  19. Subjection and subjectification / technique and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Clarizio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Course on The Hermeneutic of the Subject problematizes a theme that goes through the whole Foucault’s thought, that of technique. The article, through a dialogue among Foucault, Heidegger and Simondon, aims to trace the development of this theme, also asking the way the technique works when related to processes of subjection and subjectification.

  20. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device: first Nordic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie; Hansen, Soren; Thomassen, Per Cayé

    2017-08-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4 was lowered by 14.7 dB. SDS was increased by 37.5% at 50 dB SPL, SRT50% in noise improved 1.4 dB. Aided thresholds improved insignificantly at frequencies above 2 kHz. 52.9% of the patients used their device every day, and 76.5% used the device at least 5 days a week. Mean IOI-HA score was 3.4, corresponding to a good benefit. In SSQ-12, "quality of hearing" scored especially high. Patients with a conductive and/or mixed hearing loss benefitted the most. This device demonstrates a significant subjective hearing benefit 8 month post surgery. In patients with conductive and/or mixed hearing losses, patient satisfaction and frequency of use were high. Objective gain measures showed less promising results especially in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) compared to other bone conduction devices.

  1. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  2. Multiple Image Arrangement for Subjective Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Subjective quality assessment serves as the foundation for almost all visual quality related researches. Size of the image quality databases has expanded from dozens to thousands in the last decades. Since each subjective rating therein has to be averaged over quite a few participants, the ever-increasing overall size of those databases calls for an evolution of existing subjective test methods. Traditional single/double stimulus based approaches are being replaced by multiple image tests, where several distorted versions of the original one are displayed and rated at once. And this naturally brings upon the question of how to arrange those multiple images on screen during the test. In this paper, we answer this question by performing subjective viewing test with eye tracker for different types arrangements. Our research indicates that isometric arrangement imposes less duress on participants and has more uniform distribution of eye fixations and movements and therefore is expected to generate more reliable subjective ratings.

  3. CLASSIFIED BY SUBJECT IN SPORT SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Protić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available High school and academic libraries users need precise classifi cation and subject access review of printed and electronic resources. In library catalogue since, Universal Decimal Classifi cation (UDC -similar to Dewey system - ex classifi es research and scientifi c areas. in subject areas of 796 Sport and 371 Teaching. Nowadays, users need structure of subjects by disciplines in science. Full-open resources of library must be set for users in subject access catalogue, because on the example of bachelors degree thesis in Faculty of Physical Education in Novi Sad they reaches for disciplines in database with 36 indexes sort by fi rst letters in names (Athletics, Boxing, Cycling, etc. This database have single and multiplied index for each thesis. Users in 80% cases of research according to the subject access catalogue of this library.

  4. Relationship between subjective halitosis and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Armita; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afghari, Parastoo; Javad Shirani, Mohamad; Afshar, Hamid; Savabi, Omid; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-06-01

    Subjective halitosis is a growing concern in the fields of dentistry and psychology. This study was designed to determine the association between subjective halitosis and contributing psychological factors. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered from 4,763 participants who had answered questions on subjective halitosis and psychological factors (depression, anxiety, stress and personality traits) in the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN). Binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The mean age of all subjects was 36.58 years; and the majority of subjects were female (55.8%), married (81.2%) and graduates (57.2%). The prevalence of subjective halitosis was 52.8%. The majority of subjects with the complaint of subjective halitosis were married (Phalitosis were significantly more anxious [odds ratio (OR)=1.76, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.38-2.24], stressed (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.71) and depressed (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). Among personality traits, neuroticism was a risk factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.43-2.13) and conscientiousness was revealed to be a protective factor (tertile 1 vs. tertile 2: OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; and tertile 1 vs. tertile 3: OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.53-0.80). It seems that psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression and stress, as well as some personality traits, can be considered as risk factors for subjective halitosis. Multidisciplinary efforts by dental and psychological professionals must be considered to address this problem. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  6. Subjective judgements in scientific practice and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Since art and science went their separate ways in the 18th century, the purpose of science has been to generate true knowledge based on reason and objectivity. However, during the second half of the 20th century, opinions emerged within science that showed the impossibility of eliminating subjectivity in scientific practice. This paper describes the similarity of the subjective judgements that form part of the peer-review system-the method devised by the scientific community to guarantee truth and objectivity-and the subjective judgements involved in artistic evaluation.

  7. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  8. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  9. Cartel Stability with Subjective Detection Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Hinloopen, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    The condition is derived for Friedman 's trigger strategy to sustaina collusive market equilibrium as a noncooperative Nash equilibriumgiven subjective beliefs as to the antitrust authority's ability of suc-cesfully dissolving the illegal cartel.

  10. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  11. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  12. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  13. Moore’s Law: The Life of Gordon Moore, Silicon Valley’s Quiet Revolutionary Arnold Thackray, David C. Brock, and Rachel Jones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Five decades ago, Gordon Moore, who would go on to co-found Intel Corporation, made a prescient observation about the exponential advance of semiconductor technology with a corresponding decrease in device cost. His prediction about the pace of doubling of the number of transistors in an integrated circuit came to be known eponymously as Moore’s law and has held true for 50 years. He also foresaw, way back in 1965, the development of home computers, electronic controls in automobiles, portable communications systems, and electronic wrist watches. Moore’s fascinating life, characterized by relentless innovation, charity and breathtaking humility, is the subject of this comprehensive authorized biography. The enthralling narrative is the product of collaboration between an academic (Thackray), a technology historian (Brock) and a journalist (Jones), and draws its material from numerous interviews, Moore’s meticulously maintained notes and professional records, personal papers, industry data, published volumes, and news accounts.

  14. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a f...

  15. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kunliang Qiu; Xuehui Lu; Riping Zhang; Geng Wang; Mingzhi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer? and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the ...

  16. Friendship network composition and subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa; Smyth, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the UK Community Life Survey, we present the first study to examine the relationship between heterogeneity in one’s friendship network and subjective wellbeing. We measure network heterogeneity by the extent to which one’s friends are similar to oneself with regard to ethnicity and religion. We find that people who have friendship networks with characteristics dissimilar to themselves have lower levels of subjective wellbeing. Specifically, our two-stage least squares (2SLS) e...

  17. Teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticha Eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects and problems of teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language (English at various degrees of education focusing mainly on secondary and concisely on tertiary learning. The main principles and methods have been outlined, supported by longstanding experience in teaching under the CLIL mode. The answers to both language-related and subject-related questions are sought.

  18. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of paymen...

  19. On the subject-predicate relation and subject agreement in SiSwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also argues that subject agreement is a purely syntactic phenomenon that takes place in a spec-head relationship. It proposes that subject agreement is triggered by verbs, and that multiple subject agreement within a clause occurs when auxiliary verbs iterate. The theoretical consequences of the analysis ...

  20. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  1. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy.

  2. Assessment of postural stability in young healthy subjects based on directional features of posturographic data: vision and gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Beck, Monika; Sadowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Directional characteristics of postural sway and their impact on postural stability control (PSC) still need to be clarified. To assess the directional characteristics of PSC, center-of-pressure (COP) while standing quiet was recorded and analyzed in 46 young healthy subjects. The participants completed five 60-s trials with 'eyes open' and five with 'eyes closed'. The control asymmetry was characterized using three standardized COP measures: mean sway velocity (V), sway ratio (SR), and sway directional index (DI). The COP data were low-pass filtered at 10 Hz. In such conditions the V, SR and DI revealed consistent and unique differences in both the anteroposterior (AP) and the mediolateral (ML) controls. Each of the COP measures showed the involvement of different neuromuscular and biomechanical mechanisms in the stabilization of standing posture. The DI documented a very stable proportion between frontal and saggital controls, with roughly 60% of the swaying movements being performed in the AP direction. The AP DI was significantly higher in comparison with the ML value (0.71±0.04 vs. 0.55±0.06). This proportion remained at the same level in both experimental groups and it was only slightly affected by the visual conditions. Analysis of the SR confirmed that to maintain stable stance the neuromuscular system must allocate 50% more effort to control AP stability. The results also documented gender-related differences in postural stability. Generally the female subjects appeared to have lower postural stability as evidenced by higher COM and COP velocities. Consequently the higher SR values observed in the female group indicate a need for higher neuromuscular efforts to maintain stable posture. The introduced here set of COP measures proved to be a valuable standard for static posturography, creating the opportunity for improved and reliable assessment of postural stability.

  3. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  4. Subjective recovery time after exhausting muscular activity in postpolio and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, J C; Rodriquez, A A; Franke, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the time to subjectively fully recover after the performance of exhausting muscular exercise was greater in unstable postpolio as compared with stable postpolio or control subjects. Twenty-five unstable (those complaining of declining muscle strength) postpolio, 16 stable (those denying declining muscle strength) postpolio, and 25 control subjects performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensor (quadriceps femoris) musculature at 40% of maximal torque until they were no longer able to do so. Five-second maximal effort contractions were made every 30 s through 2 min after the time of failure was reached and then at 1-min intervals through 10 min after failure was reached. Subjects reported the duration of time required to subjectively fully recover from this activity. Choices of "less than 1 day," "1 day," "2 days," etc., up to "greater than 2 wk" were given to the subjects for their response. Analysis was by nonparametric ANOVA and appropriate post hoc comparison procedures. Unstable postpolio subjects reported a greater recovery time than either the stable postpolio or control subjects (mean +/- SD of 2.6 +/- 3.0 days, 0.6 +/- 1.0 days, and 0.7 +/- 1.1 days, respectively, P postpolio subjects than stable postpolio or control subjects. The cause for this finding is unknown and requires further investigation.

  5. Suspect Subjects: Affects of Bodily Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Henne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of academic literature that scrutinises the effects of technologies deployed to surveil the physical bodies of citizens. This paper considers the role of affect; that is, the visceral and emotive forces underpinning conscious forms of knowing that can drive one’s thoughts, feelings and movements. Drawing from research on two distinctly different groups of surveilled subjects – paroled sex offenders and elite athletes – it examines the effects of biosurveillance in their lives and how their reflections reveal unique insight into how subjectivity, citizenship, harm and deviance become constructed in intimate and public ways vis-à-vis technologies of bodily regulation. Specifically, we argue, their narratives reveal cultural conditions of biosurveillance, particularly how risk becomes embodied and internalised in subjective ways.

  6. Classifications of subjects with the language PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, R

    1989-03-01

    The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.

  7. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  8. Subject and text production in virtual campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mireya Cuéllar Sánchez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research takes place in the context of academic processes in virtual campus, through field diaries, which recorded the interactions and dynamics of both students and teachers, two discussion groups were planned with counselors who develop their practice through virtual platforms. This allowed us to recognize a substantial difference between the usual subject of culture and the virtual subject, this aspect has been developed over the investigation. Finally an argument arises about the need to work with methodologies that blend the synchronous and asynchronous chnopedagogy practices of virtual environments in order to promote academic interaction, critical and the possibility of textual construction.

  9. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper...... we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets...

  10. Subjective biological self and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerlin, J R; Berretta, S A; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M

    1994-12-01

    Ginsburg, Rogers, and Maslow, humanistic theorists, have maintained that the self is an emergent characteristic of one's biological makeup. The relationship between physical self-efficacy as an appraisal of subjective biology and self-actualization was examined in a sample of 160 black and white participants. An r of .46 supports the association of subjective biology and self-actualization. Whereas there were no gender or racial differences in scores on self-actualization, men scored higher on physical self-efficacy and subscales of perceived physical ability and perceived self-presentation confidence.

  11. Subjective Writing in Contemporary Chinese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Siyan, Jin

    2008-01-01

    In twentieth century Chinese literature, we find writers expressing several forms of subjectivity characterised as “ziwo” (I), “xiaowo” (small I), “dawo” (capital I),“wangwo” (I to be forgotten), as well as “wuwo” (no I). The “capital I” and the “I to be forgotten” are characteristic of the “art for life” school of authors, which had its zenith in the 1950s and 1960s. The “ziwo” and “xiaowo” are both expressions of the “art for art’s sake” and the “ziwo de zhutixing” (the subjectivity of the ...

  12. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...

  13. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechel, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor ratings to evaluate employees when objective performance measures are unavailable. Supervisor ratings are subjective and data containing supervisor ratings typically stem from individual firm level data sets. For both these reasons, doubts persist on how useful...... such data are for evaluating theories in personnel economics and whether findings from such data generalize to the labor force at large. In this paper, we examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employees within narrowly...

  14. Subject thesaurus permuted listing: Energy Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This permuted listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multi-word descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone. Each descriptor, whether a single word or multi-word entry, has been permuted and alphabetized by each significant word. The complete descriptor is given at each point.

  15. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  16. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  17. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  18. Del.icio.us Subject Guides: Maintaining Subject Guides Using a Social Bookmarking Site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available By using Web 2.0 social bookmarking sites, libraries can more easily manage subject guides and other lists of Web resources. Social bookmarking services such as Delicious provide a one-click method to bookmark a Web site, allowing librarians to describe and categorize Web sites. Using a small amount of JavaScript, these bookmarked resources can be dynamically included into subject guides and other Web-based library resources. This paper describes and analyses the use of social bookmarking at a medium-sized comprehensive college library for the creation and maintenance of modern languages subject guides. A brief technical description outlining necessary JavaScript code provides a way for librarians to try this idea elsewhere. This paper examines the initiative at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ Library to utilize the social bookmarking Web site del.icio.us to easily update and maintain modern language subject-specific guides on the library Web site. Previously, the subject guides have proven difficult to maintain and a solution that allowed subject librarians to quickly and easily update subject guides from anywhere was desired. By using del.icio.us, librarians at TCNJ have been able to stream line subject guide maintenance. This paper describes the process used to include resources bookmarked on del.icio.us by librarians from both the subject librarians' and systems librarian's perspectives. Included is a brief technical description that outlines the JavaScript code that needs to be included in the subject guides that other libraries can use as an example if they choose to embark on a similar project. The response from librarians and teaching faculty has been positive. Librarians appreciate the ease of use while teaching faculty appreciate the constantly evolving nature of the subject guides. Recommendations on ways to expand this project, including methods to allowing students and faculty to identify content to be included in subject guides

  19. Political Subjects: Decision and Subjectivity from a Post-Fundational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Retamozo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of decision and of political subjects was addressed in the field of 20th century political philosophy by authors such as Carl Schmitt, Hannah Arendt, and Jacques Derrida, who related it closely to the concepts of sovereignty, freedom, and contingency. The works of Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek have currently turnedto the issue of decision in order to address the constitutive spects of the political. In a context dominated by deconstruction, post-Marxism, and post-structuralism,the article inquires into the elation between decision and political subjects in a contemporary setting, examining in depth the difference between subjectivity,subjectivization, and subject.

  20. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  1. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    and vasodilatation of cranial vessels. A stable analog of PGI(2) epoprostenol (10 ng/kg/min) was infused for 25 min into 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over, double-blind study. Headache intensity was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10. In addition, we recorded mean flow in the middle cerebral artery (V...

  2. Subjective measures of well--being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter deals with three question: 1) What are ‘subjective’ measure? 2) What is ‘wellbeing’? and 3) Are subjective measures of wellbeing of use for policymaking, in particular in developing nations? The first question is answered by making a distinction between two kinds of

  3. Subjective Evaluations: Discretionary Bonuses and Feedback Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, William

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new rationale for the use of discretionary bonuses. In a setting with unknown match qualities between a worker and a firm and subjective evaluations by the principal, bonuses are useful in order to make the feedback from the firm to the workers credible. This way workers in good matches are less inclined to accept outside offers.

  4. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  5. Family Support and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    In order to distinguish typologies of university students based on family support received in the form of tangible and intangible resources, their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life as well as subjective happiness, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 stude...

  6. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  7. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2017-01-01

    Subjective beliefs are elicited routinely in economics experiments. However, such elicitation often suffers from two possible disadvantages. First, beliefs are recovered in the form of a summary statistic, usually the mean, of the underlying latent distribution. Second, recovered beliefs are bias...

  8. Effect Size Calculations and Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa L.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared visual analyses with five alternative methods for assessing the magnitude of effect with single subject designs. Each method was successful in detecting intervention effect. When rank ordered, each method was consistent in identifying the participants with the largest effect. We recommend the use of the standard mean difference…

  9. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  10. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  11. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  12. Clinical Perspective An adolescent's subjective experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness were explored in a single case study of a 17-yearold female. Data were created by means of 'mindfulness sessions', unstructured interviews, creative expression, journals and field notes. The data were analysed and interpreted using a combination of typological and ...

  13. Essays on subjective expectations and mortality trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters on two topics. The first topic, covered in chapter 2, 3, and 4, is about subjective expectations. Economists have long understood that expectations are important determinants of economic decisions. However, expectations are rarely observed. One way to overcome

  14. Evaluating the Streif index against commercial subjective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical physiological data for Golden Delicious and Starking apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) from various orchards in the Ceres area were analysed. Significant correlations were obtained between the SI and subjective predictions of the release date for harvesting, after adapting the local starch breakdown values.

  15. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Sanskrit Grammarians and the 'Speaking Subjectivity'

    OpenAIRE

    Aussant, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Starting from the grammatical terminology, I give in this paper a panorama of the speaking subjectivity manifestationsaccording to Sanskrit grammatical texts, from the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini to the Paramalaghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.

  17. On confessional dialogue and collective subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of dialogue as an ideal for face-to face relationships in education has a long history in Western societies. Dialogue, however, does not only opeate in face-to-face relationships but also between collective subjects such as national states. The focus of this chapter is to discuss...

  18. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  19. CELEBRATING OUR SUBJECTIVITY: Research as Lived Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When we celebrate our subjectivity we are learning new ways of telling our research tales. The research becomes a ... This paper is a celebration of learning from my research at two levels. the personal and the professional. ... some value hack into their lives. (Chairperson and parent speaking at the. Annual Let Laverton ...

  20. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...