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Sample records for subjects skin vasomotor

  1. Skin vasomotor hemiparesis followed by overactivity: characteristic thermography findings in a patient with Horner syndrome due to spinal cord infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    We present a 21-year-old female with Horner syndrome due to spinal cord infarction. In this patient, infrared thermography revealed a hemibody skin temperature increase followed by excessive focal decreases, indicating skin vasomotor hemiparesis and overactivity.

  2. Vasomotor response of the human face: laser-Doppler measurements during mild hypo- and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, W; Cabanac, M

    1993-04-01

    The skin of the face is reputed not to vasoconstrict in response to cold stress because the face skin temperature remains steady during hypothermia. The purpose of the present work was to measure the vasomotor response of the human face to whole-body hypothermia, and to compare it with hyperthermia. Six male subjects were immersed in cold and in warm water to obtain the two conditions. Skin blood flow, evaporation, and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded in three loci of the face, the forehead, the infra orbital area, and the cheek. Tympanic (Tty) and oesophageal (Toes) temperatures were also recorded during the different thermal states. Normothermic measurements served as control. Blood flow was recorded with a laser-Doppler flowmeter, evaporation measured with an evaporimeter. Face Tsk remained stable between normo-, hypo-, and hyperthermia. Facial blood flow, however, did not follow the same pattern. The facial blood flow remained at minimal vasoconstricted level when the subjects' condition was changed from normo- to hypothermia. When the condition changed from hypo- to hyperthermia a 3 to 9-fold increase in the blood flow was recorded. From these results it was concluded that a vasoconstriction seems to be the general vasomotor state in the face during normothermia.

  3. Sudomotor and vasomotor activity during the menstrual cycle with global heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Khowailed, Iman Akef

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have reported that there are changes in sympathetic activity throughout the menstrual cycle as there are oestrogen receptor in the hypothalamus and all other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to see whether there were variations in sympathetic activity, skin vasomotor and sweat gland sudomotor rhythms during the menstrual cycle. Eight young female subjects with a regular menstrual cycle participated in the study. Subjects were tested once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase. Skin blood flow and sweat rate were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (p < .05), but the frequency and magnitude of sudomotor and vasomotor rhythms were significantly greater in the follicular phase (p < .05). In contrast, spectral data showed less sympathetic activity in the luteal phase. A significant finding here is that the sudomotor rhythm of sweat glands is altered by the menstrual cycle. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer formulation in female subjects with sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisbet SJ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie J Nisbet Skin Health Medical Affairs, GSK Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, Surrey, UK Purpose: This 3-week, open-label, noncomparative clinical study evaluated the skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer in subjects with sensitive skin, by monitoring adverse events (AEs and cutaneous discomfort related to normal usage.Materials and methods: Female subjects aged between 18–60 years, with Fitzpatrick phototype classification I–IV and sensitive skin, verified by a positive reaction on the stinging test at screening, were included. Subjects applied the moisturizer to their face and body twice daily for 21±2 days at home and recorded study product usage and feelings of cutaneous discomfort (eg, dryness, prickling, stinging, and itching in a diary; any AEs were reported to the clinic. At study end, skin acceptability of the moisturizer was investigator-assessed based on the nature of AEs and subjects’ self-reported feelings of discomfort, and by clinical evaluation of skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application (appearance of erythema, formation of edema, and skin desquamation; scored according to an adapted Draize and Kligman scale. Only subjects with a treatment compliance of ≥80% were included in the final analysis.Results: In total, 35 subjects initiated and completed the study; all were compliant to the minimum study product usage. Per investigator clinical dermatological assessment at study end, none of the 35 subjects had skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application and there were no reported AEs. One subject reported sensations of mild prickling and itching immediately after applying the moisturizer (not classified as AEs, which spontaneously remitted after complete absorption of the product and were noted only in exposed areas. These events were considered by the investigator as being possibly/probably related to the use of study product; however, no clinical signs of skin reaction were observed in

  5. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

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    Gupta A B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  6. Efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion with skin-identical lipids in healthy subjects with atopic dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, Enzo; Mortillo, Susan; Cameli, Norma; Ardigo, Marco; Mariano, Maria

    2018-05-10

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that adversely affects quality of life. The current study evaluates the efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion, each with skin-identical lipids and emollients, in the treatment of atopic dry skin of subjects with a history of atopic condition. In all, 40 healthy females with clinically dry skin on the lower legs were enrolled in the study and underwent 4 weeks of daily use of the shower cream and 2 additional weeks of both the shower cream and the body lotion. Subjects were evaluated at day 0, week 4, and week 6. Skin barrier function was assessed by Tewameter ® , skin hydration by Corneometer ® , smoothness and desquamation by Visioscan ® , and stratum corneum architecture by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The investigator assessed the degree of dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, and subjective self-assessment evaluated the perception of skin soothing, smoothness, and softness. Skin barrier function and skin moisture maintenance were significantly improved using the shower cream. The lotion with physiological lipids, together with the shower cream, also improved skin barrier function and moisture. Both the shower cream and the body lotion reduced clinical dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, according to the dermatologist, and increased soothing, smoothness, and softness, according to the subjects of the study. The combination of a shower cream and a lotion with physiological lipids efficiently restores skin barrier function and increases skin hydration, becoming an effective skin-care option for patients with atopic dry skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cryosurgery in vasomotor rhinopathy: experimental histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerhals, B; Schlageter, J S

    1976-01-01

    Experimental cryosurgery of the nasal mucosa in normal guinea pigss and in animals with drug-induced vasomotor rhinopathy showed complete closure of the initial ulceration by a temporary atypical epithelium within 2 week. 3-4 weeks after cryotreatment, normal ciliated epithelium covered the whole area. Within 4-5 weeks, the last signs of inflammatory reaction dinappeared. The treatment resulted in a definitive reduction of mucosal thickness, and in a numerically significant loss of vessels and glandular acini. The hintopathological results thus agreed with the clinical objective of the treatment in vasomotor rhinopathy (reduction of the nasal resistance and diminution of rhinorrhea).

  8. Characteristics of Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-01-01

    Nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) conditions are currently considered diagnoses by exclusion. A diagnosis of NAR requires negative specific IgE responses by skin or serologic testing and more recently testing to exclude localized production of specific IgE in the nose. Symptoms are classically aggravated by irritant triggers such as tobacco smoke, perfumes/fragrances, and temperature or barometric pressure changes. A previously developed questionnaire survey designed to help physicians recognize dif...

  9. The influence of incontinence on the characteristic properties of the skin in bedridden elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Makino, Mayumi; Takagi, Miyuki; Maki, Kumiko; Murakami, Emiko; Tasaka, Yoshiko; Sato, Noriko; Akiba, Shunichi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Ando, Kikue

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of skin breakdown induced by incontinence have been proposed from a variety of experimental studies. However, studies on the influence of skin properties caused by incontinence of bedridden subjects are very limited. This work was conducted to reveal how incontinence influences skin properties by comparing bedridden incontinent elderly subjects with age-matched healthy continent elderly and middle-aged subjects. Bedridden incontinent elderly subjects (n = 35, 83.5 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± SD), healthy continent elderly (n = 41, 75.9 ± 5.6 years), and middle-aged (n = 20, 41.3 ± 2.8 years) were recruited for this study. Skin surface pH, capacitance/hydration, transepidermal water loss, and bacteria on forearm and buttock skin were measured. Hydration and transepidermal water loss values between healthy elderly subjects and incontinent elderly subjects were significantly different on buttock skin. Significant differences between those two groups were also observed regarding pH and total bacteria levels on buttock skin. The forearm skin showed no significant difference in these parameters. No significant influence was observed between with and without urination at the measurement time except for the pH of buttock skin. No significant correlation was observed except between pH and bacteria levels on buttock skin of incontinent elderly subjects. In this study, we clarified the characteristic features of skin induced by incontinence. Our results indicate that these parameters are adequate not only to evaluate the characteristic skin features of bedridden incontinent subjects but also to develop new diapers to avoid the diaper dermatitis caused by incontinence. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Characteristics of Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) conditions are currently considered diagnoses by exclusion. A diagnosis of NAR requires negative specific IgE responses by skin or serologic testing and more recently testing to exclude localized production of specific IgE in the nose. Symptoms are classically aggravated by irritant triggers such as tobacco smoke, perfumes/fragrances, and temperature or barometric pressure changes. A previously developed questionnaire survey designed to help physicians recognize differences between allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis subtypes found that patients with symptom onset later in life (> 35 years), no family history of allergies, no seasonality or cat-induced symptoms, and symptoms induced by perfumes and fragrances had > 95% likelihood of having a physician diagnosis of NAR. Of note, clinical symptoms were not generally useful for differentiating chronic rhinitis subtypes which has also been confirmed in a more recent study investigating the relationship between headaches and chronic rhinitis subtypes (Table 1). In subsequent studies it was found that a significant percentage of NAR patients did not experience irritant-induced symptoms, suggesting that these triggers are not a clinical characteristic that can be uniformly used for all NAR patients. However, a newly developed Irritant Index Scale can be used to reliably differentiate pure allergic rhinitis from nonallergic rhinitis with trigger phenotypes. The use of standardized and validated questionnaires allows objective characterization of chronic rhinitis subtypes that appears to improve the accuracy of clinically diagnosing these patients. PMID:24228982

  11. Subjective facial skin type, based on the sebum related symptoms, can reflect the objective casual sebum level in acne patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Youn, S W

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between the subjective skin type and the casual sebum level was not fully clarified. To investigate the characteristics of subjective skin type and to find the relationship between the subjective skin types and the skin type-related symptoms, casual sebum level, along with the objective skin type. Seven hundred and nine patients, clinically diagnosed with acne, were included. The questionnaire and the casual sebum level measurement were performed. The determining symptoms of each subjective skin type were investigated. The 95% confidence interval of casual sebum level of each subjective skin type was calculated. The most frequent subjective skin type was the combination type. The dryness, tightness, and oiliness can be conclusive symptoms in determining the subjective skin type. The mean and the 95% confidence interval of the casual sebum level was highest in the oily skin type, followed by the combination, normal, and dry skin type. We found that the subjective skin type was determined by the skin type-related symptoms. The 95% confidence intervals of the casual sebum level of each subjective skin type were established. Based on the skin type-related symptoms, the casual sebum level of acne patients can be estimated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

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    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  13. Etiology of chronic skin lesions in subjects with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, G; Chisari, E M; Borzì, A M; Grasso, A; Chisari, C G

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions can be defined as lesions that result in loss of tissues and their joints, and often this cutaneous skin process is a primary or secondary consequence of the structural changes in the skin itself. Subjects with peripheral arteripathies that develop chronic skin lesions in the lower extremities of the Western world are constantly increasing. We conducted a study on the etiologic incidence of chronic skin lesions in peripheral arterial disease CSLpa subjects in the lower limbs compared to subjects with chronic skin lesions CSL (controls). 30 subjects with peripheral atheropathies PA (22 F - 8 M mean age 74,5 ± 4,9) and with chronic skin lesions (CSLpa) in the lower limbs "A" group were admitted to our study according to a randomized and compared to 30 no peripheral atheropathies subjects (19 F-11 M, mean age 81,5 ± 7,3 - controls) group B with chronic skin lesions (CSL). These two groups "A" and "B" have been studied and compared on the basis of infectious etiology responsible for the infectious skin process. In the subjects of the "A" group we found a 12 positive assay of 40.0% of the examinations, while in the group "B" we achieved a total cultured positivity of 9 cases corresponding to 30.0% of the examinations . For the number of bacterial species identified for "A" group we obtained 3 mono microbial and 6 poly microbial bacteriological tests and for group "B" we observed 7 mono microbial and 2 poly microbial tests. All bacteriological isolates showed "in vitro" sensitivity to satisfactory ciprofloxacin with MICs range of 0.78-1.56mg/L. The data observed after 4 weeks after the amniotic membrane (MA) in the two study groups A and B were respectively the following: and for group A 50% scarring, 46.6% partial resolution and in one case worsening for the B-healing group in 63.3%, the partial resolution in the remaining 36.6. The data from this study show a different etiology between subjects with CSLpa than subjects with CSL. This phenomenon confirms

  14. Ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation response: an international study.

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    Lee, E; Kim, S; Lee, J; Cho, S-A; Shin, K

    2014-08-01

    Due to global marketing in the cosmetics industry, it is important to assess ethnic population susceptibility when evaluating the safety of cosmetic products or chemicals. To investigate ethnic variations in skin irritation response to positive irritants. Clinical testing was performed in four countries on two ethnic groups - Asian and Caucasian. We performed patch tests on the subjects' back with 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and 0.15% retinol prepared in 1,3-butylene glycol. Stinging tests were performed using 5% aqueous lactic acid and 0.001% (w/v) capsaicin prepared in 10% ethanol solution separately. The incidence of self-perceived skin sensitivity was similar in the two ethnic groups. However, the incidence of adverse skin reaction to cosmetics appeared significantly higher in Asian (33.0%) than in Caucasian subjects (11.3%). For standard positive irritants such as 0.5% aqueous SLS solution, Asian subjects showed significantly higher scores than Caucasian subjects. The incidence of positive reaction to the 0.15% retinol patch test tended to be higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Our data also showed that neurosensitivity to 5% lactic acid and 0.001% capsaicin was higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Although self-reported skin sensitivity does not appear to differ according to ethnicity, there are ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation responses to several standard positive materials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E

    2015-07-01

    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Local heat stress and skin blood flowmotion in subjects with familial predisposition or newly diagnosed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewska, Barbara; Nęcki, Mirosław; Cwynar, Marcin; Baron, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin microcirculation blood flow and flowmotion response to heat stress in normotensive subjects with familial predisposition to hypertension and in hypertensive patients. Normotensives without [NT(-)] or with [NT(+)] familial predisposition and subjects with newly diagnosed hypertension (HT) were studied. Clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring as well as laboratory assessments were performed. Resting (RF), heat (HF) and maximal heat (MHF) blood flows were measured using PeriFlux laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and expressed as absolute units (AU) and as index of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Spectral analysis of the skin LDF signal was performed by means of the Perisoft dedicated software. Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance, χ(2) statistic and multivariate reverse regression analysis were used for calculation. The studied population consisted of 70 persons (mean age 36.1 ± 10.3 years, 44.3% women): 17 NT(-), 22 NT(+) and 31 HT, age and gender matched. Higher values of body mass index (BMI), and insulin, glucose and triglyceride levels were observed in HT than in NT groups. RF, HF and MHF were similar in all study groups, but CVC of maximal heat flow differed (p=0.02); in particular, lower values were observed in the HT than in NT(-) group (p=0.01). The study groups differed with regard to total power (p=0.01) and myogenic (p=0.03) origin flowmotion with the lowest values in the NT(+) group. BMI and night BP characteristics were strong predictors of reduction of CVC, MHF and myogenic origin flowmotion. Skin microcirculation response to local heat stress is altered in hypertensive patients with decrease in maximal heat CVC values. Moreover, normotensive subjects with familial predisposition to hypertension are characterized by diminished myogenic origin of skin blood flowmotion.

  17. Infusion pressure and pain during microneedle injection into skin of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Park, Sohyun; Bondy, Brian; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusion into skin using hollow microneedles offers an attractive alternative to hypodermic needle injections. However, the fluid mechanics and pain associated with injection into skin using a microneedle have not been studied in detail before. Here, we report on the effect of microneedle insertion depth into skin, partial needle retraction, fluid infusion flow rate and the co-administration of hyaluronidase on infusion pressure during microneedle-based saline infusion, as well as on associated pain in human subjects. Infusion of up to a few hundred microliters of fluid required pressures of a few hundred mmHg, caused little to no pain, and showed weak dependence on infusion parameters. Infusion of larger volumes up to 1 mL required pressures up to a few thousand mmHg, but still usually caused little pain. In general, injection of larger volumes of fluid required larger pressures and application of larger pressures cause more pain, although other experimental parameters also played a significant role. Among the intradermal microneedle groups, microneedle length had little effect; microneedle retraction lowered infusion pressure but increased pain; lower flow rate reduced infusion pressure and kept pain low; and use of hyaluronidase also lowered infusion pressure and kept pain low. We conclude that microneedles offer a simple method to infuse fluid into the skin that can be carried out with little to no pain. PMID:21684001

  18. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-05-01

    The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  19. Differences in laser-Doppler indices between skin-surface measurement sites in subjects with diabetes.

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    Hsiu, Hsin; Hu, Hsiao-Feng; Tsai, Hung-Chi

    2018-01-01

    This study performed laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of identifying differences in diabetes-induced microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) responses between the following skin surface measurement sites: an acupoint around the wrist, an acupoint around the ankle, and a nearby nonacupoint around the ankle. The 67 study subjects were assigned to diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses were applied to the LDF waveform to obtain the foot delay time (FDT), the flow rise time (FRT), and the relative energy contributions (RECs) in five frequency bands. FRT and FDT were significantly shorter and the RECs of the endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were significantly smaller in the diabetic group than in the control group at the acupoint around the ankle, but there were no such prominent differences at the other sites. The acupoint around the ankle was better than the nearby nonacupoint and the acupoint around the wrist for distinguishing the age-matched diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy subjects. These findings imply that when monitoring diabetes-induced MBF responses, the measurement locations should be chosen carefully in order to minimize interference effects and to improve the ability to distinguish subjects with different conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Myeloperoxidase deficiency preserves vasomotor function in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolph, T.K.; Wipper, S.; Reiter, B.; Rudolph, V.; Coym, A.; Detter, Ch.; Lau, D.; Klinke, A.; Friedrichs, K.; Rau, T.; Pekarová, Michaela; Russ, D.; Knöll, K.; Kolk, M.; Schroeder, B.; Wegscheider, K.; Andresen, H.; Schwedhelm, E.; Boeger, R.; Ehmke, H.; Baldus, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 13 (2012), s. 1625-1634 ISSN 0195-668X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : leucocyte * endothelium * vascular tone Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 14.097, year: 2012

  1. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Berg Madsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. RESULTS: Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (ptrend relation...... of insertion, pain and skin trauma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per....... Lack of needle lubrication and small 'needle hooks' increased PF and SBP (pskin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome...

  2. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  3. New Mydriasis-Free Electroretinogram Recorded with Skin Electrodes in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Asakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of the new mydriasis-free electroretinogram (ERG with a skin electrode (RETeval device, to determine the normative values of parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of pupil records to colored-light stimulus. Methods. A total of 100 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.4 years were enrolled. The diagnostic parameters obtained by the RETeval device were examined under the following conditions. The reproducibility was determined with the coefficient of variation (CV. The consistency was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean value and the normal range were analyzed with a 95% confidence interval as the normative values of parameters. The correlation of parameters to pupil records (area ratio, constriction ratio and flicker ERG was also examined in the diabetic retinopathy assessment protocol. Results. From the CV for each of the two measurements, the amplitude has a low reproducibility compared with the implicit time. Generally good consistency was obtained with both ERG parameters (ICCs = 0.48–0.92. Moderate correlations were found for the white-, red-, and blue-light stimulus in the area ratio and the constriction ratio, respectively (r = 0.44–0.62; P = 0.010–<0.0001. No correlation was observed between pupil and flicker parameters (r = 0.06–0.34; P = 0.646–0.051. Conclusions. The RETeval device was suggested as a possible screening device to detect the visual afferent diseases by evaluating in combination with the ERG recording and the colored-light pupil response.

  4. Uncovering different masking factors on wrist skin temperature rhythm in free-living subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Nicolas

    Full Text Available Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18-24 years old were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a "constant routine" protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature. Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions.

  5. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Madsen, Nils B; Kildegaard, Jonas; Stallknecht, Bente M

    2016-01-01

    Pen needles used for subcutaneous injections have gradually become shorter, thinner and more thin walled, and thereby less robust to patient reuse. Thus, different needle sizes, alternative tip designs and needles resembling reuse were tested to explore how needle design influences ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m 2 were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (ptrend relation. Lack of needle lubrication and small 'needle hooks' increased PF and SBP (pskin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome was dependent of SBP increase. The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. NCT02531776; results.

  6. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; van der Linden, Rianne A D; Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans. BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years), using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations. Proximal and distal (hand/feet) skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001). Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010) and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030) and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010), while core body temperature did not. Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects. NTR 2473.

  7. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  8. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  9. Direct evidence for insulin-induced capillary recruitment in skin of healthy subjects during physiological hyperinsulinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; IJzerman, RG; Gans, ROB; Nijveldt, R; de Vries, G; Evertz, R; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    It has been proposed that insulin-mediated changes in muscle perfusion modulate insulin-mediated glucose uptake. However, the putative effects of insulin on the microcirculation that permit such modulation have not been studied in humans. We examined the effects of systemic hyperinsulinemia on skin

  10. Behavior of Skin Friction of Piles subjected to Top-downward and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ results of Osterberg cell load test and the conventional static compression load test are compared. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to study the effects of changes in boundary conditions, mechanism of pile-soil interaction and the accompanying change in soil stress, which are responsible for the difference in skin ...

  11. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznitzky Raquel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD. Results Eleven normal individuals were challenged with different chemical or physical irritants. Two patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD were also challenged with the relevant antigen in order to have a positive control for CCL21 expression. Macroscopic as well as microscopic responses were evaluated. We observed typical ICD responses with mostly mononuclear cells in perivascular areas, but a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells away from the inflamed blood vessels and in the epidermis at 24 hours. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of CCL21 by lymphatic endothelial cells in all the biopsies taken from ICD and ACD lesions compared to normal skin. Kinetic study at 10, 48, 96 and 168 hours after contact with a classical irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate showed that the expression of CCL21 was increased in lymphatic vessels at 10 hours, peaked at 48 hours, and then gradually declined. There was a strong correlation between CCL21 expression and the macroscopic response (r = 0.69; p = 0.0008, but not between CCL21 and the number of infiltrating cells in the lesions. Conclusions These results provide new evidence for the role of CCL21 in inflammatory processes. Since the up-regulation of this chemokine was observed in ICD and ACD, it is tempting to speculate that this mechanism operates independently of the type of dermal insult, facilitating the emigration of CCR7+ cells.

  12. Skin reactions to histamine of healthy subjects after hypnotically induced emotions of sadness, anger, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, R; Jørgensen, M M; Egekvist, H; Bjerring, P

    2001-08-01

    The severity of symptoms in asthma and other hypersensitivity-related disorders has been associated with changes in mood but little is known about the mechanisms possibly mediating such a relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mood on skin reactivity to histamine by comparing the effects of hypnotically induced emotions on flare and wheal reactions to cutaneous histamine prick tests. Fifteen highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers had their cutaneous reactivity to histamine measured before hypnosis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 15 min after the histamine prick. These measurements were repeated under three hypnotically induced emotions of sadness, anger, and happiness presented in a counterbalanced order. Skin reactions were measured as change in histamine flare and wheal area in mm2 per minute. The increase in flare reaction in the time interval from 1 to 3 min during happiness and anger was significantly smaller than flare reactions during sadness (P<0.05). No effect of emotion was found for wheal reactions. Hypnotic susceptibility scores were associated with increased flare reactions at baseline (r=0.56; P<0.05) and during the condition of happiness (r=0.56; P<0.05). Our results agree with previous studies showing mood to be a predictor of cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity and histamine skin reactions. The results are also in concordance with earlier findings of an association between hypnotic susceptibility and increased reactivity to an allergen.

  13. Vasomotor wave and blood pressure response to erect posture after operation for aortic coarctation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sehested, J; Schultze, G

    1982-01-01

    Low frequency fluctuations (five to 10/min) in blood pressure, that is vasomotor waves, were recorded in the erect position in 18 patients operated upon for an isolated aortic coarctation six to eight and a half years previously, and compared with vasomotor waves in six age matched normotensive controls with respect to frequency and amplitude. The investigation was carried out by simultaneous intra-arterial blood pressure radiotelemetry recordings from the brachial and femoral arteries in all...

  14. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Effects of a synthetic retinoid on skin structure, matrix metalloproteinases, and procollagen in healthy and high-risk subjects with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Tahrani, Abd; Shakher, Jayadave; Varani, James; Hughes, Sharon; Dubb, Kiran; Stevens, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    In diabetes, foot ulceration may result from increased skin fragility. Retinoids can reverse some diabetes-induced deficits of skin structure and function, but their clinical utility is limited by skin irritation. The effects of diabetes and MDI 301, a nonirritating synthetic retinoid, and retinoic acid have been evaluated on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), procollagen expression, and skin structure in skin biopsies from nondiabetic volunteers and diabetic subjects at risk of foot ulceration using organ culture techniques. Zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were utilized for analysis of MMP-1, -2, and -9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and immunohistochemistry for type I procollagen protein abundance. Collagen structure parameters were assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The % of active MMP-1 and -9 was higher and TIMP-1 abundance was lower in subjects with diabetes. Type 1 procollagen abundance was reduced and skin structural deficits were increased in diabetes. Three μM MDI 301 reduced active MMP-1 and -9 abundance by 29% (P structural deficit scores. Two μM retinoic acid reduced MMP-1 but did not significantly affect skin structure. These data indicate that diabetic patients at risk of foot ulceration have deficits of skin structure and function. MDI 301 offers potential for repairing this skin damage complicating diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity: steady-state versus transient changes in carbon dioxide tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Crandall, Craig G; Zhang, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) is assessed during steady-state or transient changes in P aCO 2. This study tested the following two hypotheses: (i) that CVMR during steady-state changes differs from that during transient changes in P aCO 2; and (ii) that CVMR during rebreathing-induced hypercapnia would be blunted when preceded by a period of hyperventilation. For each hypothesis, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET , CO 2) middle cerebral artery blood velocity (CBFV), cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCI; CBFV/mean arterial pressure) and CVMR (slope of the linear regression between changes in CBFV and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2) were assessed in eight individuals. To address the first hypothesis, measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) steady-state increases in P ET , CO 2 of 5 and 10 Torr above baseline; and (ii) rebreathing-induced transient breath-by-breath increases in P ET , CO 2. The linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.65) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P = 0.44) was similar between methods; however, individual variability in CBFV or CVCI responses existed among subjects. To address the second hypothesis, the same measurements were made during the following two conditions (randomized): (i) immediately following a brief period of hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation for 1 min followed by rebreathing; and (ii) during rebreathing only. The slope of the linear regression for CBFV versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) and CVCI versus P ET , CO 2 (P < 0.01) was reduced during hyperventilation plus rebreathing relative to rebreathing only. These results indicate that cerebral vasomotor reactivity to changes in P aCO 2 is similar regardless of the employed methodology to induce changes in P aCO 2 and that hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia attenuates the cerebral vasodilatory responses during a subsequent period of rebreathing

  18. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity and apnea test in symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić-Prokin Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR represents an autoregulatory response of the arterial trunks on the specific vasoactive stimuli, most commonly CO2. Objective. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare VMR in high-grade symptomatic (SCAS and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACAS, using the apnea test to evaluate the hemodynamic status. Methods. The study included 50 patients who were hospitalized at the neurology and vascular surgery departments as part of preparation for carotid endarterectomy. We evaluated VMR by calculating the breath holding index (BHI in 34 patients with SCAS and 16 patients with ACAS, with isolated high-grade carotid stenosis. We evaluated the impact of risk factors and collateral circulation on BHI, as well as the correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Results. A pathological BHI was more frequent in the SCAS group (p<0.01. There was no difference in the range of BHI values between the groups, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Only male gender was associated with pathological BHI in both groups (p<0.05. Collateral circulation did not exist in over 60% of all subjects. We confirmed a negative correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and BHI. Conclusion. SCAS and ACAS patients present with different hemodynamics. While ACAS patients have stable hemodynamics, combination of hemodynamic and thromboembolic effects is characteristic of SCAS patients.

  19. Cyclooxygenase inhibition improves endothelial vasomotor dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Melissa G.; Tiwari, Stephanie; Karki, Shakun; Ngo, Doan TM; Carmine, Brian; Hess, Donald T.; Zuriaga, Maria A.; Walsh, Kenneth; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Gokce, Noyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclooxygenase inhibition improves vascular dysfunction of adipose microvessels from obese humans. Design and Methods In 20 obese subjects (age 37±12 yrs, BMI 47±8 kg/m2) we collected subcutaneous and visceral fat during bariatric surgery and characterized adipose depot-specific gene expression, endothelial cell phenotype, and microvascular function. Vasomotor function was assessed in response to endothelium-dependent agonists using videomicroscopy of small arterioles from fat. Results Arterioles from visceral fat exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation, compared to the subcutaneous depot (p<0.001). Expression of mRNA transcripts relevant to the cyclooxygenase pathway were upregulated in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. Pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin improved endothelium-dependent vasodilator function of arterioles from visceral fat by 2-fold (p=0.01), whereas indomethacin had no effect in the subcutaneous depot. Indomethacin increased activation via serine-1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in response to acetylcholine in endothelial cells from visceral fat. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abrogated the effects of cyclooxygenase-inhibition suggesting that vascular actions of indomethacin were related to increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cyclooxygenase-mediated vasoconstrictor prostanoids partly contribute to endothelial dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity. PMID:23640904

  20. Weather/temperature-sensitive vasomotor rhinitis may be refractory to intranasal corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robert; Lieberman, Philip; Kent, Edward; Silvey, MaryJane; Locantore, Nicholas; Philpot, Edward E

    2009-01-01

    Vasomotor rhinitis (VMR) is a common but poorly understood disorder of which there are two major subgroups: VMR(w/t), triggered by weather/temperature and VMR(ir), triggered by airborne irritants. No specific biological pathways or specific treatments for VMR(w/t) or VMR(ir) have been identified. However, intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) are effective in treating many forms of nonallergic rhinitis that include these conditions. A recently introduced INS with established efficacy in allergic rhinitis and enhanced affinity, fluticasone furoate, may possess the potency and safety profile required to treat chronic VMR(w/t). Two replicate studies (FFR30006 and FFR30007) were conducted in six countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate nasal spray in subjects with VMR(w/t). After a 7- to 14-day screening period, subjects (n = 699) with symptomatic VMR(w/t) received fluticasone furoate, 110 mug q.d. or placebo for 4 weeks in these two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies. Subjects rated their nasal symptoms (congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip) twice daily on a 4-point categorical scale and evaluated their overall response to treatment at study end. Fluticasone furoate did not significantly improve daily reflective total nasal symptom scores, the primary end point, versus placebo (p = 0.259) and there was no improvement in any other measure of efficacy. The active treatment was well tolerated. Fluticasone furoate was not effective in treating subjects with a newly defined condition, weather-sensitive VMR. These unexpected results suggest that VMR(w/t) is a distinct subgroup of VMR that is refractory to treatment with INSs. Additional study of other treatments for VMR(w/t) (including INSs) is warranted.

  1. Distribution and infection of Langerhans cells in the skin of HIV-infected healthy subjects and AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Weier, S; Kojouharoff, G; Grez, M; Berger, S; Kappus, R; Shah, P M; Stutte, H J; Schmidts, H L

    1993-01-01

    The in situ content of cells of the reticuloendothelial system and lymphatic cells was examined in the skin of eight symptom-free HIV-positive individuals, three AIDS patients and eleven healthy immunocompetent volunteers. The epidermis was obtained in vivo by the suction blister technique. The numbers of CD68+, CD3+, CD8+, CD25-(IL2R)+ and HLA-DR+ intraepidermal cells proved to be independent of the number of CD4+ peripheral blood lymphocytes. At the same time, the intraepidermal concentrations of these cells were generally low in symptom-free HIV-infected individuals. The strong inverse correlation between the number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and the severity of immunodeficiency was quantitatively confirmed; an increase in LC in symptom-free HIV-infected individuals was found. Thus, the reduction in these cells which was observed in the epidermis of AIDS patients began at a significantly elevated level. In contrast to results from other studies, in AIDS patients, in the present study, the concentration of epidermal LC did not differ significantly from that of healthy immunocompetent volunteers. The immunohistochemical technique can be as effective as in situ hybridization for the detection of HIV in the skin. Our results suggest that the viral load of the skin is rather low in HIV-infected subjects. HIV was demonstrated in one cell of one AIDS case by in situ techniques and this result was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction examination using the same amount of tissue as for the in situ techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Estimation of dose in skin through the use of radiochromic and radiographic films in patients subjected to interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Garcia, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Radiation doses in skin of patients subjected to interventional procedures is estimated from the utilization and analysis of GAFCHROMIC® XR-RV2 radiochromic films and KODAK® X-Omat films with aid of the ImageJ software. The distribution of the radiation fields in the films is generated to obtain the distribution of dose in skin and to find peaks of dose by isodose curves using ImageJ software. The calibration curves are realized from GAFCHROMIC® XR-RV2 radiochromic films, through the use of a densitometer and two types of scanners (reflection scanner and transmission scanner). The reflection scanner has digitalized color images of 48 bit in TIFF format. The scanner transmission has digitalized in grayscale images to 16 bit in TIFF format. Each method has determined the points with maximum dose in skin. The images of the areas of regions with maximum doses are obtained of the scanner. The quantified doses are compared in the radiochromic films with the band of doses supplied by the manufacturer. The methodologies for the estimation of the doses obtained are compared of the radiochromic films with those obtained with the KODAK® X-Omat films. The procedure of obtaining of the doses is validated in patients with KODAK® X-Omat films. The doses obtained have covered a range from the 0,1Gy to 9 Gy. Radiographic films have allowed an assessment of the doses to 900 cGy due to the saturation thereof, the doses found in that range have been consistent with the doses in radiochromic films [es

  3. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Van Acker

    Full Text Available The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN. Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes.

  4. Methods for the Design of Vasomotor Symptom Trials: The MsFLASH Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Katherine M.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Caan, Bette; Cohen, Lee S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Joffe, Hadine; Sternfeld, Barbara; Reed, Susan D.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; Kroenke, Kurt; Larson, Joseph C.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This report describes the "Menopausal Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers to Symptoms and Health” (MsFLASH) network and methodological issues addressed in designing and implementing vasomotor symptom trials. Methods Established in response to a National Institute of Health request for applications, the network was charged with conducting rapid throughput randomized trials of novel and understudied available interventions postulated to alleviate vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. Included are descriptions of and rationale for criteria used for interventions and study selection, common eligibility and exclusion criteria, common primary and secondary outcome measures, consideration of placebo response, establishment of a biorepository, trial duration, screening and recruitment, statistical methods, and quality control. All trial designs are presented including: 1) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate effectiveness of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in reducing vasomotor symptom frequency and severity; 2) a 2×3 factorial design trial to test three different interventions (yoga, exercise, and omega-3 supplementation) for improvement of vasomotor symptom frequency and bother; and 3) a three-arm comparative efficacy trial of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine and low-dose oral estradiol versus placebo for reducing vasomotor symptom frequency compared to placebo. The network’s structure and governance are also discussed. Conclusions The methods used and lessons learned in the MsFLASH trials are shared to encourage and support the conduct of similar trials and encourage collaborations with other researchers. PMID:23760428

  5. The influence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and beta-1 receptor selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling in normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, J W; Salemans, J; de Boo, T; Lemmens, W A; Thien, T; van't Laar, A

    1986-03-01

    A double-blind randomized study was designed to investigate differences in the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling during dosing with placebo or one of four beta-blockers: propranolol, atenolol, pindolol, and acebutolol. In 11 normotensive nonsmoking subjects, finger skin temperature was measured with a thermocouple before and 20 minutes after immersion of one hand in a water bath at 16 degrees C. This finger cooling test caused no significant changes in systemic hemodynamics such as arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow. The recovery of finger skin temperature during propranolol dosing was better than that during pindolol and atenolol dosing. There were no differences between the recoveries of skin temperature during pindolol, atenolol, and acebutolol dosing. Thus we could demonstrate no favorable effect of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity or beta 1-selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling.

  6. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  7. Red and green laser Doppler compared with capillary microscopy to assess skin microcirculation in the feet of healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I. I.; Ubbink, D. T.; Jacobs, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Skin microvasculature consists of nutritive capillaries and subpapillary arteriolar and venular plexus connected by arteriolovenular anastomoses. Capillary perfusion is of paramount importance for skin viability. Recently a new combined laser Doppler instrument has become available, featuring a

  8. Topical microemulsion containing Punica granatum extract: its control over skin erythema and melanin in healthy Asian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rashida; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum is apotent source of polyphenolic compounds with strong free radicals scavenging activity. The skin lightening effects of Punica granatum are assumed due to ellagic acid which acts by chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase. To explore a topical microemulsion (O/W) of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract for its control on skin erythema and melanin. Microemulsions were formulated using a polysorbate surfactant (Tween 80(®)) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol) and were characterized regarding their stability. The placebo microemulsion (without extract) and the active microemulsion (containing Punica extract) were applied in a split face fashion by the volunteers (n = 11) for a period of 12 weeks. Skin erythema and melanin were measured at baseline and after every 15 days to determine any effect produced by these formulations. Active formulation showed a significant impact on skin erythema and melanin (p Punica granatum extract for conditions where elevated skin melanin and erythema have significantly prone skin physiology.

  9. Hazard identification of particulate matter on vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lone; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    and inflammatory pathways. We have assessed the effect of exposure to particulate matter on progression of atherosclerosis and vasomotor function in humans, animals, and ex vivo experimental systems. The type of particles that have been tested in these systems encompass TiO(2), carbon black, fullerene C(60...... of particulate matter....

  10. Peptidergic and non-peptidergic innervation and vasomotor responses of human lenticulostriate and posterior cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Gulbenkian, Sergio; Engel, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    ) between the two vessels. However, the general pattern indicates stronger vasomotor responses (Emax and Imax) in the PCA branches as compared to the lenticulostriate arteries which may lend support for the clinical observation of a difference in stroke expression between the two vascular areas....

  11. Pooled Analysis of Six Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Interventions for Vasomotor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Joffe, Hadine; Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Caan, Bette; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Larson, Joseph C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rexrode, Kathy; Skaar, Todd C.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the effects of six interventions for menopausal vasomotor symptoms relative to control in a pooled analysis, facilitating translation of the results for clinicians and symptomatic women. The MsFLASH (Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health) network tested these interventions in three randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Methods An analysis of pooled individual-level data from three RCTs is presented. Participants were 899 peri- and postmenopausal women with at least 14 bothersome vasomotor symptoms/week. Interventions included escitalopram 10–20 mg/day, non-aerobic yoga, aerobic exercise, 1.8 g/day omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol 0.5-mg/day, and low-dose venlafaxine XR 75-mg/day. The main outcome measures were changes from baseline in mean daily vasomotor symptoms frequency and bother during 8–12 weeks of treatment. Linear regression models estimated differences in outcomes between each intervention and corresponding control group, adjusted for baseline characteristics. Models included trial-specific intercepts, effects of the baseline outcome measure, and time. Results The 8-week reduction in vasomotor symptoms frequency from baseline relative to placebo was similar for escitalopram at −1.4/day (95% CI: −2.7 to −0.2), low-dose estradiol at −2.4 (95% CI: −3.4 to −1.3), and venlafaxine at −1.8 (95% CI: −2.8 to −0.8); vasomotor symptoms bother reduction was minimal and did not vary across these three pharmacologic interventions (means −0.2 to −0.3 relative to placebo). No effects on vasomotor symptoms frequency or bother were seen with aerobic exercise, yoga or omega-3 supplements. Conclusions These analyses suggest that escitalopram, low-dose estradiol, and venlafaxine provide comparable, modest reductions in vasomotor symptoms frequency and bother among women with moderate hot flushes. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www

  12. Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation on cerebral blood flow and cerebral vasomotor reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiorri, Floriana; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Gilio, Francesca; Giacomelli, Elena; Frasca, Vittorio; Cambieri, Chiara; Ceccanti, Marco; Di Piero, Vittorio; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether intermittent theta burst stimulation influences cerebral hemodynamics, we investigated changes induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation on the middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in healthy participants. The middle cerebral artery flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity were monitored by continuous transcranial Doppler sonography. Changes in cortical excitability were tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation. In 11 healthy participants, before and immediately after delivering intermittent theta burst stimulation, we tested cortical excitability measured by the resting motor threshold and motor evoked potential amplitude over the stimulated hemisphere and vasomotor reactivity to CO(2) bilaterally. The blood flow velocity was monitored in both middle cerebral arteries throughout the experimental session. In a separate session, we tested the effects of sham stimulation under the same experimental conditions. Whereas the resting motor threshold remained unchanged before and after stimulation, motor evoked potential amplitudes increased significantly (P = .04). During and after stimulation, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities also remained bilaterally unchanged, whereas vasomotor reactivity to CO(2) increased bilaterally (P = .04). The sham stimulation left all variables unchanged. The expected intermittent theta burst stimulation-induced changes in cortical excitability were not accompanied by changes in cerebral blood flow velocities; however, the bilateral increased vasomotor reactivity suggests that intermittent theta burst stimulation influences the cerebral microcirculation, possibly involving subcortical structures. These findings provide useful information on hemodynamic phenomena accompanying intermittent theta burst stimulation, which should be considered in research aimed at developing this noninvasive, low-intensity stimulation technique for safe

  13. Vasomotor Regulation of Coronary Microcirculation by Oxidative Stress: Role of Arginase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih eKuo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, i.e., oxidative stress, is associated with the activation of redox signaling pathways linking to inflammatory insults and cardiovascular diseases by impairing endothelial function and consequently blood flow dysregulation due to microvascular dysfunction. This review focuses on the regulation of vasomotor function in the coronary microcirculation by endothelial nitric oxide (NO during oxidative stress and inflammation related to the activation of L-arginine consuming enzyme arginase. Superoxide produced in the vascular wall compromises vasomotor function by not only scavenging endothelium-derived NO but also inhibiting prostacyclin synthesis due to formation of peroxynitrite. The upregulation of arginase contributes to the deficiency of endothelial NO and microvascular dysfunction in various vascular diseases by initiating or following oxidative stress and inflammation. Hydrogen peroxide, a diffusible and stable oxidizing agent, exerts vasodilator function and plays important roles in the physiological regulation of coronary blood flow. In occlusive coronary ischemia, the release of hydrogen peroxide from the microvasculature helps to restore vasomotor function of coronary collateral microvessels with exercise training. However, excessive production and prolonged exposure of microvessels to hydrogen peroxide impairs NO-mediated endothelial function by reducing L-arginine availability through hydroxyl radical-dependent upregulation of arginase. The redox signaling can be a double-edged sword in the microcirculation, which helps tissue survival in one way by improving vasomotor regulation and elicits oxidative stress and tissue injury in the other way by causing vascular dysfunction. The impact of vascular arginase on the development of vasomotor dysfunction associated with angiotensin II receptor activation, hypertension, ischemia-reperfusion, hypercholesterolemia and inflammatory insults is discussed.

  14. Psychosocial and socioeconomic burden of vasomotor symptoms in menopause: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utian Wulf H

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many women experience vasomotor symptoms at or around the time of menopause. Hot flushes and night sweats are considered primary menopausal symptoms that may also be associated with sleep and mood disturbances, as well as decreased cognitive function. All of these symptoms may lead to social impairment and work-related difficulties that significantly decrease overall quality of life. Hot flushes have shown a great deal of variability in their frequency and severity in women. In some women, hot flushes persist for several months; in others, they may last for more than 10 years. Traditionally vasomotor symptoms were reported to begin 5 to 10 years prior to the cessation of the final menstrual cycle, corresponding with the initial decline in circulating gonadal hormones; however, night sweats in particular most often begin in perimenopause. The pathogenesis of hot flushes has not yet been fully elucidated, but the circuitry involving estrogen and neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin specifically, are hypothesized to play a major role in the altered homeostatic thermoregulatory mechanisms underlying these events. Menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms are associated with significant direct and indirect costs. Overall costs of traditional pharmacotherapy or complementary and alternative medicine modalities, including over-the-counter treatments and dietary supplements, for managing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms are substantial and include initial and follow-up physician visits and telephone calls. Additional costs include laboratory testing, management of adverse events, loss of productivity at work, and personal and miscellaneous costs. Pharmacoeconomic analyses, including those that consider risks identified by the Women's Health Initiative, generally support the cost-effectiveness of hormonal therapy for menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms, which have been the mainstay for the management of these symptoms for more

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to soy isoflavones and maintenance of bone mineral density (ID 1655) and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause (ID 1654, 1704, 2140, 3093, 3154, 3590

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of bone mineral density and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, soy isoflavones, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects, maintenance of bone mineral density and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated...... with menopause, which are eligible for further assessment, are beneficial physiological effects. The proposed target populations are peri- and/or post-menopausal women. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship...... between the consumption of soy isoflavones and maintenance of bone mineral density, and between the consumption of soy isoflavones and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause....

  16. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species.Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions.Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  17. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  18. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  19. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  20. Effectiveness of Acellular Dermal Matrix on Autologous Split-Thickness Skin Graft in Treatment of Deep Tissue Defect: Esthetic Subjective and Objective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jung; Park, Myong Chul; Park, Dong Ha; Hahn, Hyung Min; Kim, Sue Min; Lee, Il Jae

    2017-10-01

    A split-thickness skin graft (STSG) is performed to cover a large full-thickness skin defect. Esthetic and functional deficits can result, and many studies have sought to overcome them. This study compared the effectiveness of the acellular dermal matrix (ADM) graft and STSG concerning esthetic and functional effectiveness of ADM on scar quality. Of the patients who underwent anterolateral thigh free flap from 2011 to 2015, patients who received skin graft only (n = 10) or skin graft with ADM (n = 20) for coverage of the donor site were enrolled. In all cases, autologous STSG was performed with 1:1.5 meshed 0.008-0.010-inch-thick skin. In the skin graft with ADM group, 0.008-0.013-inch-thick meshed ADM (CGderm ® ; CGBio, Inc., Seungnam, Korea) was co-grafted. Negative-pressure wound therapy (CuraVAC ® ; CGBio, Inc., Seungnam, Korea) was applied to both groups in continuous mode at -120 mmHg. We investigate early outcomes (skin loss rate, duration of negative-pressure wound therapy, days to removal of stitches, days to achieve complete healing, and complications) and late outcomes in terms of scar quality (vascularity, pigmentation, pliability and height) and graft-related symptoms (itching sensation and pain). Assessments used the Vancouver Scar Scale and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Skin fold was measured to evaluate the elasticity of scar tissue. In the Vancouver Scar Scale, vascularity subscore (p = 0.003) and total score (p = 0.016) were significantly lower in the skin graft with ADM group. In Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the pain (p = 0.037) and stiffness subscores (p = 0.002), and total score (p = 0.017) were significantly lower in the skin graft with ADM group. Skin graft with ADM results in better scar quality in objective and subjective aspects. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to

  1. Intense pulsed light, near infrared pulsed light, and fractional laser combination therapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian subjects: a prospective multi-center study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Wu, Jiaqiang; Qian, Hui; Lu, Zhong; Li, Yuanhong; Wang, Weizhen; Zhao, Xiaozhong; Tu, Ping; Yin, Rui; Xiang, Leihong

    2015-09-01

    Ablative skin rejuvenation therapies have limitations for Asian people, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long down time. Non-ablative lasers are safer but have limited efficacy. This study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of intense pulsed light (IPL), near infrared (NIR) light, and fractional erbium YAG (Er:YAG) laser for skin rejuvenation in Asian people. This study recruited 113 subjects from six sites in China. Subjects were randomly assigned to a full-face group, who received combination therapy, and split-face groups, in which one half of the face received combination therapy and the other half received IPL monotherapy. Each subject received five treatment sessions during a period of 90 days. Subjects were followed up at 1 and 3 months post last treatment. Three months after last treatment, the full-face group (n = 57) had a global improvement rate of 29 % and 29 % for wrinkles, 32 % for skin texture, 33 % for pigment spots, 28 % for pore size, respectively. For patients in the split-face groups (n = 54), monotherapy side had a global improvement rate of 23 % and 20 % for wrinkles, 27 % for skin texture, 25 % for pigment spots, 25 % for pore size, respectively. Both combination therapy and monotherapy resulted in significant improvements at the follow-up visits compared to baseline (P < 0.001). Combination therapy showed significantly greater improvements compared to monotherapy at two follow-up visits (P < 0.05). Combination therapy is a safe and more effective strategy than IPL monotherapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian people.

  2. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  3. Sex-Related Differences in Vasomotor Function in Patients With Angina and Unobstructed Coronary Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Sechtem, Udo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary vasomotor dysfunction is an important mechanism for angina in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of vasomotor dysfunction in a European population...... and to examine sex differences in the dose of acetylcholine leading to a positive acetylcholine provocation test (ACH test). METHODS Between 2007 and 2014, we included 1,379 consecutive patients with stable angina, unobstructed coronaries and ACH test performed for epicardial vasospasm or coronary microvascular...... dysfunction (CMD) due to microvascular spasm. The predictive value of sex, risk factors, symptoms, and noninvasive test results was analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS The mean patient age was 62 years, and 42% were male. There were 813 patients (59 with a pathological ACH test, 33% for CMD...

  4. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chennupati, Ramesh; Meens, Merlijn J P M T; Marion, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS), to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice. METHODS...... of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting...... responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar...

  5. Treating the root cause: acupuncture for the treatment of migraine, menopausal vasomotor symptoms, and chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Amber E; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the effectiveness of a single intervention, acupuncture, for relieving or abolishing severe migraines, menopausal vasomotor symptoms, and chronic insomnia and, thus, markedly improving quality of life. A 49-year-old woman was referred for acupuncture treatment of her daily migraines, menopausal vasomotor symptoms, and chronic insomnia. The patient had received polypharmacy treatment for these conditions for several years but had rather limited relief of her symptoms. The patient received 10 weekly or biweekly acupuncture treatments over three months. Her migraines reduced in frequency and intensity after her first acupuncture treatment, and she was able to discontinue use of her migraine medications after her eighth treatment. Subsequently, her menopausal vasomotor symptoms and chronic insomnia resolved. This case illustrates successful treatment of the symptoms of three medical conditions with a single complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine procedure, namely, acupuncture, one of the key elements of traditional Chinese medicine. The patient's medical problems had been treated for years with a multitude of medications, which led to adverse effects and little symptomatic improvement. Providers of complementary, alternative, and integrative medicine and providers practicing allopathic medicine should seek treatment options for their patients that promise to be helpful for various symptoms or diseases, that is, treating the root cause rather than using polypharmacy for various symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of chemokine receptors and CD62L in subjects with asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch and grass pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in s...

  7. Skin reactions to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 specific antigens intradermally injected in healthy subjects and patients with cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, Muriel; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte I. E.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; de Jong, Joan; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Wafelman, Amon R.; Slappendel, Gijs M.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Kenter, Gemma G.

    2008-01-01

    We have tested the safety and feasibility of a synthetic long peptide-based HPV16-specific skin test to detect cellular immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in vivo. Women with cervical neoplasia (n = 11) and healthy individuals (n = 19) were intradermally challenged with 8 different pools of

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Dose Estradiol and the SNRI Venlafaxine for Vasomotor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Reed, Susan D.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Newton, Katherine M.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Hunt, Julie; Shifren, Jan; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Importance Estrogen therapy is the gold standard treatment for hot flashes and night sweats, but some women are unable or unwilling to use it because of associated risks. The serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine is used widely as a non-hormonal treatment. While clinical impression is that serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are less effective than estrogen, these medications have not been simultaneously evaluated in one clinical trial. Objective To determine the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine XR in alleviating vasomotor symptoms. Design and Participants 339 peri- and postmenopausal women with ≥2 bothersome vasomotor symptoms per day (mean 8.1, SD 5.3/day) were recruited from the community to MsFLASH (Menopause Strategies: Finding Lasting Answers for Symptoms and Health) clinical network sites November 2011—October 2012. Interventions Participants were randomized to double-blinded treatment with low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol 0.5-mg/day (n=97), low-dose venlafaxine XR 75-mg/day (n=96), or placebo (n=146) for 8 weeks. Main Outcomes Primary outcome was the mean daily frequency of vasomotor symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were vasomotor symptom severity, bother and interference. Intent-to-treat analyses compared change in vasomotor symptom frequency between each active intervention and placebo and between the two active treatments. Results Compared to baseline, mean vasomotor symptom frequency at week 8 decreased by 53% with estradiol, 48% with venlafaxine, and 29% with placebo. Estradiol reduced the frequency of symptoms by 2.3 (95% CI 1.3–3.4) more per day than placebo (p<0.001), and venlafaxine by 1.8 (95% CI 0.8–2.7) more per day than placebo (p=0.005). Results were consistent for VMS severity, bother and interference. Low-dose estradiol reduced symptom frequency by 0.6 more per day than venlafaxine (95% CI, 1.8 more per day to 0.6 fewer per day than

  9. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha

    2017-06-01

    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  10. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were 14 C-protein hydrolysate, ( 14 C)uridine, and ( 14 C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of ( 14 C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules

  11. Differences in time-domain and spectral indexes of skin-surface laser-Doppler signals between controls and breast-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu, Hsin; Chen, Chao-Tsung; Hung, Shuo-Hui; Chen, Guan-Zhang; Huang, Yu-Ling

    2018-04-13

    There is an urgent need to improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study applied spectral and beat-to-beat analyses to laser-Doppler (LDF) data sequences measured on the skin surface on the back of the right hands, with the aim of comparing the different peripheral microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) perfusion condition between breast-cancer and control subjects. ECG and LDF signals were obtained simultaneously and noninvasively from 23 breast-cancer patients and 23 age-matched control subjects. Time-domain beat-to-beat indexes and their variability parameters were calculated. Spectral indexes were calculated using the Morlet wavelet transform. The beat-to-beat LDF pulse width and its variability were significantly smaller in cancer patients than in the controls. The energy contributions of endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were also significantly smaller in cancer patients. The present study has revealed significant differences in the beat-to-beat and spectral indexes of skin-surface-acquired LDF signals between control subjects and breast-cancer patients. This illustrates that LDF indexes may be useful for monitoring the changes in the MBF perfusion condition induced by breast cancer. Since the breast-cancer patients were at TNM stages 0- 2, the present findings may aid the development of indexes for detecting breast cancer.

  12. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chennupati

    Full Text Available Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS, to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice.Endothelium-selective Ass-deficient mice (Assfl/fl/Tie2Cretg/- = Ass-KOTie2 were generated by crossing Assfl/fl mice ( = control with Tie2Cre mice. Gene ablation in endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Blood pressure (MAP was recorded in 34-week-old male mice. Vasomotor responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Depletion of circulating L-arginine by arginase 1 infusion or inhibition of NOS activity with L-NAME resulted in an increased MAP (10 and 30 mmHg, respectively in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Optimal arterial diameter, contractile responses to phenylephrine, and relaxing responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were similar in healthy control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. However, in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 mice, relaxation responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-derived NO (EDNO were significantly reduced when compared to diabetic control mice.Absence of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting endothelial function in diabetes.

  13. Effect of engineered nanoparticles on vasomotor responses in rat intrapulmonary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, Arnaud; Andujar, Pascal; Ladeiro, Yannick; Ducret, Thomas; Rogerieux, Francoise; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Guibert, Christelle; Roux, Etienne; Canal-Raffin, Mireille; Brochard, Patrick; Marano, Francelyne; Marthan, Roger; Muller, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary circulation could be one of the primary vascular targets of finest particles that can deeply penetrate into the lungs after inhalation. We investigated the effects of engineered nanoparticles on vasomotor responses of small intrapulmonary arteries using isometric tension measurements. Acute in vitro exposure to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) decreased, and in some case abolished, the vasomotor responses induced by several vasoactive agents, whereas acute exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NP) did not. This could be attributed to a decrease in the activity of those vasoactive agents (including PGF 2α , serotonin, endothelin-1 and acetylcholine), as suggested when they were exposed to CNP before being applied to arteries. Also, CNP decreased the contraction induced by 30 mM KCl, without decreasing its activity. After endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores depletion (by caffeine and thapsigargin), CaCl 2 addition induced a contraction, dependent on Store-Operated Calcium Channels that was not modified by acute CNP exposure. Further addition of 30 mM KCl elicited a contraction, originating from activation of Voltage-Operated Calcium Channels that was diminished by CNP. Contractile responses to PGF 2α or KCl, and relaxation to acetylcholine were modified neither in pulmonary arteries exposed in vitro for prolonged time to CNP or TiO 2 NP, nor in those removed from rats intratracheally instilled with CNP or TiO 2 NP. In conclusion, prolonged in vitro or in vivo exposure to CNP or TiO 2 NP does not affect vasomotor responses of pulmonary arteries. However, acute exposure to CNP decreases contraction mediated by activation of Voltage-Operated, but not Store-Operated, Calcium Channels. Moreover, interaction of some vasoactive agents with CNP decreases their biological activity that might lead to misinterpretation of experimental data.

  14. Vegans report less bothersome vasomotor and physical menopausal symptoms than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; McGrath, Robert E; Feldman, Arielle

    2018-06-01

    Lifestyle modifications that may reduce menopausal symptoms have generated much interest. The vegetarian diet has been associated with a lower risk of chronic disease as well as a more healthy hormonal milieu. Our objective in this cross-sectional study was to survey peri- and postmenopausal women to investigate menopausal symptoms and dietary pattern. Survey distribution in 2015-2016 was aimed at female vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores between the ages of 45 and 80 years, who were active on senior and vegetarian social networking websites and at vegan restaurants and events. We investigated vasomotor and physical symptoms as measured by the Menopause-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and dietary pattern classified by animal protein intakes reported in response to food frequency questions. Out of 754 participants who completed the survey, 604 reported they were perimenopausal (n = 121) or postmenopausal (n = 483), of whom 539 also completed the food frequency questions. We compared vasomotor and physical symptoms in omnivores (n = 304, consumed meat and/or poultry at least monthly) and vegans (n = 125, abstained from all animal proteins) using general linear models; covariates included age, exercise, hormone replacement therapy, presence of reproductive organs, and age at menopause. Among perimenopausal women, vegans reported less bothersome vasomotor (p < 0.01) and physical symptoms (p < 0.01) than omnivores. For both symptom types, more vegetables and less flesh food were associated with less bothersome symptoms (p values < 0.05). Eating a plant-based diet may be helpful for women in menopausal transition who prefer a natural means to manage their symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  16. Characteristics of functional state of arteriolar and venular skin microvessels in patients with essential arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovich, Andrey A; Rogoza, Anatoly N; Chikhladze, Novella M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the vasomotor activity of skin precapillary arterioles, depending on the condition of blood outflow from the capillary bed in patients with essential arterial hypertension (AH). The study included 30 normotensive subjects (NT) and 63 patients with AH, who were tested with a laser Doppler flowmetry with wavelet analysis of blood flow oscillations on the right forearm and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) on the left shoulder. Antihypertensive therapy was stopped for all patients 14 days prior to the experiment or AH was diagnosed for the first time. The hypertensive patients were divided into 2 groups, depending on the amplitude of the respiratory blood flow oscillations in skin microvessels. The first group included 30 patients without blood outflow violations of the capillary bed (AHVN), the second group consisted of 33 patients with various intensity of functional disorders in venular sector of microvasculature (AHVS). If the value of the amplitude of blood flow oscillations can be related to the tone" definition, then AHVN patients have a significant increase in neurogenic component of vascular tone (phypertensive patients can have significant differences in the functional state of microvessels. The assessment of the initial skin microvasculatory regulatory mechanism status could potentially be useful for individual choice of antihypertensive therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and pulmonary vasomotor tone in hypoxic pig lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, P.; Pillain, R.; Pearse, D.; Eichhorn, G.; Sylvester, J.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between lung tissue energy state and vasomotor tone, the authors measured 31 P NMR spectra during repeated exposures to hypoxia in 5 isolated degassed left lower lobes perfused with blood at a constant flow (500ml/min) and left atrial pressure ( 2 tension (PpO 2 ) was changed by varying the gas mixtures (40, 7, 0% O 2 ) flowing through a bubble oxygenator in the perfusion circuit. 31 P spectra obtained after stabilization of pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) at each PpO 2 revealed peaks for ATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi) phosphomono and diesters (PME and PDE). During 7% O 2 , Ppa and ATP increased but Pi did not change suggesting that lung tissue energy state improved during hypoxic vasoconstriction. During 0% O 2 , there was a reversible deterioration of energy state (high Pi, low ATP). Thus, it appears that lung tissue energy state and vasomotor tone were related, but the precise nature of the relationship remains to be determined

  18. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  19. Vasomotor symptoms among Japanese-American and European-American women living in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Morrison, Lynn; Brown, Daniel E; Reza, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    The Hilo Women's Health Survey was designed and administered to gather baseline data on women's health in Hilo, HI. This randomized, cross-sectional study allowed for a focus on ethnic differences in symptom reporting. The results presented here focus on hot flash and night sweat experience among Japanese-American and European-American women. Survey packets were mailed to street addresses associated with parcel numbers pulled randomly from Hilo tax maps. Of the 6,401 survey packets delivered to households, 1,824 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results reported here are based on 869 women aged 40 to 60, of whom 249 described themselves to be 100% Japanese and 203 described themselves to be 100% European-American. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the relationship between ethnicity and vasomotor symptoms persisted after controlling for other variables. European-American participants were more likely to have ever experienced a hot flash as compared with Japanese-American participants (72% vs 53%, P<0.01). During the 2 weeks before the survey, European-American participants were more likely to have experienced hot flashes (P<0.05) and night sweats (P<0.01). In logistic regression analyses, after controlling for age, body mass index, menopause status, level of education, financial comfort, smoking habits, alcohol intake, exercise, use of hormone therapy, and soy intake, European-American women were still significantly more likely to have experienced hot flashes (odds ratio=1.858) and night sweats (odds ratio=2.672). The results, based on self-reporting of menopausal symptoms, indicate that Japanese-American women report fewer hot flashes and night sweats than European-American women. Japanese-American women reported a higher intake of soy, but soy intake was not associated with fewer vasomotor symptoms.

  20. Vasomotor and sexual symptoms in older Australian women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Berihun M; Bell, Robin J; Billah, Baki; Davis, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and sexual symptoms in community-dwelling older women, and to explore factors associated with VMS. Population-based cross-sectional study. Not applicable. A total of 1,548 women aged 65-79 years. None. The presence and self-rated severity of VMS (hot flashes, night sweats, or sweating), and sexual symptoms (intimacy, desire, and vaginal dryness) were determined with the use of the Menopause Quality of Life (MenQOL) questionnaire. All items of the vasomotor and the sexual MenQOL domains were completed by 1,532 and 1,361 of the study participants, respectively. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use was reported by 6.2% of the women, and 6.9% reported using vaginal estrogen. Among the 1,426 women not using MHT, at least 1 VMS was reported by 32.8%. The prevalence of VMS rated as moderately to severely bothersome was 3.4%. A total of 54.4% of currently partnered women had sexual symptoms, and 32.5% reported vaginal dryness during intercourse in the past month. In the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with VMS were age, obesity, being a caregiver for another person, and bilateral oophorectomy. VMS and vaginal atrophy symptoms are common in community-dwelling older women, but they are predominantly untreated. The degree of distress caused by sexual symptoms among older women needs further exploration. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...... blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high...... reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new...

  2. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  3. Vasomotor function in rat arteries after ex vivo and intragastric exposure to food-grade titanium dioxide and vegetable carbon particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ditte Marie; Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2018-01-01

    -grade particle exposure on vasomotor function and systemic oxidative stress in an ex vivo study and intragastrically exposed rats.Methods: In an ex vivo study, aorta rings from naive Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 30 min to food-grade TiO2 (E171), benchmark TiO2 (Aeroxide P25), food-grade vegetable carbon...... (E153) or benchmark carbon black (Printex 90). Subsequently, the vasomotor function was assessed in wire myographs. In an in vivo study, lean Zucker rats were exposed intragastrically once a week for 10 weeks to vehicle, E171 or E153. Doses were comparable to human daily intake. Vasomotor function...... no differences between groups.Conclusion: Gastrointestinal tract exposure to E171 and E153 was associated with modest albeit statistically significant alterations in the vasocontraction and vasorelaxation responses. Direct particle exposure to aorta rings elicited a similar type of response. The vasomotor...

  4. The role of transdermal estrogen sprays and estradiol topical emulsion in the management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Egras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy M Egras, Elena M UmlandJefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS are among the most bothersome complaints of postmenopausal women. To date, the most widely studied and effective treatment for VMS is hormone replacement therapy, consisting of estrogen (in women without a uterus or estrogen plus progestin (in women with a uterus. Traditionally, oral estrogens have been used for treatment. However, over the years, additional estrogen formulations have been developed including transdermal patches; vaginal rings, creams, and tablets; and injectable preparations. Two newer formulations are transdermal estrogen spray and estradiol topical emulsion. This review evaluates the current literature assessing the use of these two newer formulations for the treatment of VMS associated with menopause.Keywords: menopause, vasomotor symptoms, transdermal estrogen spray, estradiol topical emulsion

  5. The effect of foot reflexology applied to women aged between 40 and 60 on vasomotor complaints and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozuyesil, Ebru; Baser, Muruvvet

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of foot reflexology applied to women on their vasomotor complaints and quality of life. A randomised controlled study was conducted with 120 women. The experimental group received foot reflexology treatment, while the control group received nonspecific foot massage. The mean scores for hot flashes, sweats, and night sweats, were lower in the reflexology group than the control group after the practice; and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p reflexology group (p  0.05). Results showed that reflexology might be effective in decreasing vasomotor problems and increasing quality of life in women in the menopausal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mind-body interventions for vasomotor symptoms in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Grunfeld, Elizabeth Alice

    2017-09-01

    Mind-body therapies are commonly recommended to treat vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS). The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence to date for the efficacy of different mind-body therapies to alleviate HFNS in healthy menopausal women and breast cancer survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using seven electronic search engines, direct searches of specific journals and backwards searches through reference lists of related publications. Outcome measures included HFNS frequency and/or severity or self-reported problem rating at post-treatment. The methodological quality of all studies was systematically assessed using predefined criteria. Twenty-six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included yoga (n = 5), hypnosis (n = 3), mindfulness (n = 2), relaxation (n = 7), paced breathing (n = 4), reflexology (n = 1) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4). Findings were consistent for the effectiveness of CBT and relaxation therapies for alleviating troublesome vasomotor symptoms. For the remaining interventions, although some trials indicated beneficial effects (within groups) at post-treatment and/or follow up, between group findings were mixed and overall, methodological differences across studies failed to provide convincing supporting evidence. Collectively, findings suggest that interventions that include breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as CBT, can be beneficial for alleviating vasomotor symptoms. Additional large, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to establish the efficacy of interventions on vasomotor symptoms, examine long-term outcomes and understand how they work.

  7. Burden of vasomotor symptoms in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Ming-Ann Hsu,3 Andrew Bushmakin41Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, USA; 4Global Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, USABackground: Several studies have documented a significant association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS and a decrement in health outcomes among postmenopausal women, but these studies have mostly focused on the US. The aim of the current study was to broaden this investigation by examining the burden of VMS symptoms in the European Union with respect to both humanistic and economic outcomes.Methods: All women aged 40–75 years who completed the 2010 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK National Health and Wellness Survey were identified as potential respondents and invited to participate in an additional cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Only postmenopausal women from 5EU were included in the current analyses (n = 3801. VMS was assessed using the Menopausal Rating Scale, and was used in multiple regression models as the primary predictor of health status (EQ-5D-3L, work productivity loss, and the number of physician visits due to menopause.Results: Over half (50.3% of postmenopausal women experienced either mild (24.6%, moderate (17.6%, or severe (8.1% VMS. Controlling for confounding variables, mild (b = −0.03, P < 0.05, moderate (b = −0.07, P < 0.05, and severe VMS (b = −0.17, P < 0.05 were each associated with worse health utilities relative to women without VMS. Similarly, increased resource use (b = 1.04–2.39, all P < 0.05, overall work impairment (b = 8.71–19.69, all P < 0.05, and activity impairment (b = 11.22–24.54, all P < 0.05 were also observed as VMS severity increased (with each b representing the difference between each level of severity and the

  8. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Idelcaid, Y; Agrawal, D

    2018-04-01

    A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin microrelief, etc.) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in four Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). A total of 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y), were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city. The same instrumental measurements of facial skin colour and its homogeneity, its mechanical properties, the sebum production, skin pores size, skin relief, etc. as in the previous work, were conducted. Overall, the facial skin colour shows a darker complexion in men as compared to women, on forehead, ocular region, lips, chin and cheek. The skin colour unevenness, which increases with age, was found higher in men, as compared to women. At comparable age, women and men present a same density of skin pores, whereas those of men appear larger, up to 55y. The deepness of Crow's feet wrinkles does not significantly differ between genders. A lesser extensibility was found on the cheeks of men. In men, the sebum production was found significantly higher than that of women at ages above 40y. This work indicates some commonly shared age-related skin features between women and men from Mumbai, despite slight different characteristics such as skin pigmentation, forehead/cheek colour contrast, mechanical properties and sebum production. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  10. Oxygen sensing and conducted vasomotor responses in mouse cremaster arterioles in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Thuc Anh; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Riemann, Mads Achen

    2010-01-01

    .0 +/- 4.9 mum) when changing from high (PO(2) = 242.5 +/- 13.3 mm Hg) to low (PO(2) = 22.5 +/- 4.8 mm Hg) oxygen tension as seen in the intact cremaster circulation (DeltaD = 18.7 +/- 1.0 mum). Blockade of NO synthases by L: -NAME and adenosine receptors by DPCPX had no effects on vasomotor responses...... to low or high oxygen. Induction of localized low (PO(2) = 23.3 +/- 5.7 mmHg) or high (PO(2) = 300.0 +/- 25.7 mm Hg) oxygen tension caused vasodilatation or -constriction locally and at a site 1,000 mum upstream (distantly). Glibenclamide blocker of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels inhibited vasodilatation...... and -constriction to low (PO(2) = 16.0 +/- 6.4 mm Hg) and high (PO(2) = 337.4 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) oxygen tension. 1) ATP-sensitive K(+) channels seem to mediate, at least in part, vasodilatation and vasoconstriction to low and high oxygen tension; 2) Red blood cells are not necessary for inducing vasodilatation...

  11. Omega-3 versus isoflavones in the control of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S; Lilue, M; Mejia, A; Menendez, C

    2017-12-01

    Determine the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids versus soybean isoflavones in reducing the vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) frequency in postmenopausal women. A randomized, prospective, two-arm study was performed in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65. The two arms were: two capsules/day of omega-3 (425 mg of omega-3/capsule) administered orally (n = 38) and two tablets/day of soybean isoflavones (54.4 mg of isoflavones/tablet) (n = 30), over 16 weeks. The mean baseline frequency of moderate and severe VMSs per week in the omega-3 group was 24.56 and 23.90, respectively, and 19.65 and 19.51 in the isoflavone group. After 4 months, the reduction in moderate and severe hot flashes with omega-3 was significant (p Omega-3 did not demonstrate significant efficacy differences versus isoflavones over time. The use of omega-3 has a beneficial effect on hot flash reduction after 4 months of treatment. This is comparable to the benefits found with soybean isoflavones after 3-4 weeks and after 4 months in severe hot flash women, but higher than those found with soybean isoflavones in moderate symptom women.

  12. Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hao-Chang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs. 6.1 [2.2], P menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.

  13. Management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: Current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Pachman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Deirdre R Pachman1, Jason M Jones1, Charles L Loprinzi21Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Hot flashes are one of the most common and distressing symptoms associated with menopause, occurring in more than 75% of postmenopausal women. They are especially problematic in breast cancer patients since some breast cancer therapies can induce hot flashes. For mild hot flashes, it is proposed that behavioral modifications are the first step in management. Hormonal therapies, including estrogens and progestogens, are the most well known effective agents in relieving hot flashes; however, the safety of these agents is controversial. There is an increasing amount of literature on nonhormonal agents for the treatment of hot flashes. The most promising data regard newer antidepressant agents such as venlafaxine, which reduces hot flashes by about 60%. Gabapentin is another nonhormonal agent that is effective in reducing hot flashes. While many complimentary therapies, including phytoestrogens, black cohosh, and dehydroepiandrosterone, have been explored for the treatment of hot flashes; none can be recommended at this time. Furthermore, there is a lack of strong evidence to support exercise, yoga, or relaxation for the treatment of hot flashes. Paced respirations and hypnosis appear to be promising enough to warrant further investigation. Another promising nonpharmacological therapy, currently under investigation, involves a stellate ganglion block.Keywords: vasomotor symptoms, hot flashes, menopause, therapy

  14. Impact of the severity of vasomotor symptoms on health status, resource use, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Jennifer; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Bushmakin, Andrew; Kopenhafer, Lewis; Dibonaventura, Marco; Racketa, Jill

    2013-05-01

    The current study characterizes health-related quality of life, work productivity, and resource use among postmenopausal women by severity of vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Participants were selected from the 2010 US National Health and Wellness Survey. Women aged 40 to 75 years who did not report a history of menstrual bleeding or spotting for 1 year were eligible for analysis (N = 3,267). Cohorts of women with no VMS (n = 1,740), mild VMS (n = 931), moderate VMS (n = 462), and severe VMS (n = 134) were compared after controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures were assessed using linear models and included health status, work productivity within the past 7 days, and healthcare resource use within the past 6 months. The mean age of women experiencing severe VMS was 57.92 years. After demographic and health characteristics had been controlled for, women experiencing severe and moderate VMS reported significantly lower mean health status scores compared with women with no symptoms (P women with severe, moderate, or mild symptoms than among women with no symptoms (P women experiencing VMS, women with severe and moderate symptoms had adjusted presenteeism of 24.28% and 14.3%, versus 4.33% in women with mild symptoms (P women with mild symptoms (P women, a greater severity of VMS is significantly associated with lower levels of health status and work productivity, and greater healthcare resource use.

  15. Efficacy of keishibukuryogan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, in treating cold sensation and numbness after stroke: clinical improvement and skin temperature normalization in 22 stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Keishi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kamezaki, Takao; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Cold sensation and numbness have been reported as post-stroke sensory sequelae attributable to distal axonopathy, which is caused by chronic ischemia of diseased limbs resulting from dysfunction of vasomotor regulatory systems. Keishibukuryogan is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat symptoms of peripheral ischemia such as cold extremities. This study investigated clinical improvement and skin temperature in peripheral ischemia patients to determine the efficacy of keishibukuryogan in alleviating post-stroke cold sensation and numbness. Twenty-two stroke patients with cold sensation and/or numbness were enrolled in this study. Subjective cold sensation and numbness, evaluated using the visual analogue scale, were found in 21 and 31 limbs, respectively. The skin temperature of diseased and healthy limbs was recorded. We observed all patients for 4 weeks and 17 patients for 8 weeks after administration of keishibukuryogan. The skin temperature of diseased limbs was significantly higher than baseline at 4 weeks and 8 weeks, whereas that of healthy limbs did not change significantly. Cold sensation and numbness were significantly improved at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Keishibukuryogan administration resulted in warming of diseased limbs and improved cold sensation and numbness, probably by increasing peripheral blood flow.

  16. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase; Thomassen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot

  17. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE) could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid). To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left), randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity) using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher ( P =0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant ( P =0.0001) increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours) in comparison with both baseline ( P =0.0001) and non-treated control site ( P =0.001). TEWL after 24 hours was significantly lower ( P =0.049; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site (13±4 arbitrary units [AU] vs 16±6 AU). JCS fluid

  18. Menopausal vasomotor symptoms are associated with poor self-assessed work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartoulla, Pragya; Bell, Robin J; Worsley, Roisin; Davis, Susan R

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesised that vasomotor symptoms (VMS), the hallmark of menopause, may affect women's workplace performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between VMS and self-reported work ability, taking into account socio-demographic characteristics. Study design/Main Outcome measures: A national cross-sectional survey of women, aged 40-65 years, was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014. Participants provided socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and completed the Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and the Work Ability Index (WAI). Of 2020 women who comprised the study sample, 1274 were in paid employment and 1263 completed the WAI. The WAI score was good-excellent for 81.5% of women and poor-moderate for 18.5%. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, having any VMS was associated with greater likelihood of poor-moderate work ability [odds ratio (OR)=2.45, 95% CI 1.69-3.54]. Poorer work ability was significantly and independently associated with being un-partnered, obese or overweight, smoking, being carer and having insecure housing finance, but not with age. Overall, most women functioned well at work. We observed an association suggesting a relationship not only between menopausal VMS and personal wellbeing, but also between VMS and self-assessed work ability. Although 4 in 5 women functioned well at work, recognition of the association with VMS may improve wellbeing and work performance of working women at midlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety of veralipride for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Arias, María de Jesús Vega; González, Cuauhtémoc Celis; Marín, Imelda Hernández; González, Juan Humberto Martín; Campos, Enrique Rafael Morcate; Rodríguez, María Antonia Basavilvazo; Álvarez, Ignacio Morales; Vargas, María Antonia Valdés; Flores, José Braulio Everardo Otero; Haro, Samuel Santoyo; Bonilla, Manuel Cortes; Escudero, Roberto Bernardo; Campero, Rosalba Alonso

    2014-05-01

    Veralipride is a nonhormonal option for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Incidence of adverse events in a Mexican population and drug compliance according to correct use were evaluated. We carried out a longitudinal, prospective, and analytical study in Mexican women who received veralipride to treat symptoms of menopause from 2011 to 2012. There were 386 treatment cycles; 272 were assigned to dosing schedule 1, which included 20 days of treatment with 10 days of suspension, and 114 were assigned to dosing schedule 2, which included 5 days of treatment and 2 days of suspension. A total of 57 adverse events were registered during the 386-month treatment. For the 20 × 10 dosing schedule, the highest incidence was observed for anxiety (2.2%), drowsiness, and weakness (1.5%); for the 5 × 2 dosing schedule, the highest incidence was observed for drowsiness (5.3%) and headache (2.6%). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess the presence and severity of depression; improvement was noted. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used to assess neurological movement disorders; no adverse neurological events were detected. Based on the assessments of both women and physicians, the highest frequency was observed for "very satisfied" (45.5% and 52.3%, respectively), followed by "satisfied" (23.9% and 27.3%, respectively). Both dosing schedules show acceptable safety profiles for up to 6 months of use when used according to the contraindications in the current prescribing information for standard use (2012) and recent medical literature.

  20. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, Erfan; Chunmao, Han; Lutgers, Helen L.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e.g. due to

  1. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  2. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  3. Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Alexandra; Schmidt, Tim; Fernando, Disala; Hardes, Kelly; Scott, Nicola; Brett, Sara; Clark, Deborah; Oliveira, João Joaquim; Davis, Bill; McHugh, Simon; Stone, John

    2016-05-01

    To characterise the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to repeated challenges of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in healthy volunteers, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted investigational agents. Forty-nine subjects received either KLH, PPD, or PBS repeat skin challenges, and clinical assessments including induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging. Skin biopsies or suction blisters were taken after challenge to investigate the cellular infiltrate of the challenge site, the T cell activation status, as determined by LAG-3 expression, and, specifically for the blister, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Point estimates, estimates of variation and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each type of challenge and timepoint. The DTH response could be measured at 48 and 120 h post-KLH and PPD challenge with induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging, with 48 h post-challenge demonstrating the peak of the response. PPD was well tolerated in subjects after multiple challenges, however, a significant number of KLH-treated subjects demonstrated an injection site reaction 6-7 days following the SC injection. PPD demonstrated a boost effect on the second challenge as measured by increased induration, where as this was not noted consistently for KLH. Compared to unchallenged and PBS control-injected skin, increased T cell numbers were detected in the challenge site by both the skin suction blister and biopsy technique, at either time point following KLH or PPD challenge. Use of the T cell activation marker LAG-3 demonstrated the activated phenotype of these cells. In skin blisters, higher numbers of LAG-3+ T cells were detected at 48 h post-challenge, whereas in the biopsies, similar numbers of LAG-3+ cells were observed at both 48 and 120 h. Analysis of blister T cell subpopulations revealed some differences in phenotypes between the time points and between the CD4

  4. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alan M; Stevens, Michael T; Church, Martin K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into t...

  5. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™. The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045 and flare (P = 0.0143 when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024 and flare (P = 0.015 in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014

  6. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™). The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045) and flare (P = 0.0143) when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024) and flare (P = 0.015) in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046). There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014 PMID:21385340

  7. Prospective Internally Controlled Blind Reviewed Clinical Evaluation of Cryolipolysis Combined With Multipolar Radiofrequency andVaripulseTechnology for Enhanced Subject Results in Circumferential Fat Reduction and Skin Laxity of the Flanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Julius; Gold, Michael; Sadick, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for non-invasive skin tightening and body contouring procedures has led to several technological in- novations in energy-based devices such as ultrasound, radiofrequency and cryolipolysis. An emerging trend in the eld is to evaluate whether combination therapies for skin laxity/body contouring using energy-based devices can deliver superior clinical results and patient satisfaction. As such, the objective of this prospective, internal-controlled, blind clinical study was to assess the safety and efficacy of cryolipolysis followed by multipolar radiofrequency with pulsed electromagnetic elds (PEMF) and adjustable pulsed suction for the treatment of skin laxity in the flanks. Ten subjects with focal adiposities in the anks were enrolled in the study. All subjects received one session of cryolipolysis treatment and after randomization received two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF (spaced two weeks apart), followed by another two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF and adjustable pulsed suction (spaced two weeks apart). Clinical photography was used to monitor the subject's results at baseline, one week, three, and six months post treatment. Blinded reviewers and the treating inves- tigator assessed the clinical outcomes using the Global Aesthetic Improvement (GAI) scale. Side effects were recorded at every visit and patient satisfaction was noted at the one week, three and six-month follow-up using a 5-scale subject satisfaction assessment questionnaire. Analysis of the blinded investigator ratings demonstrated statistical significant enhanced skin laxity mean improvement of 1 grade on the GAI scale in subject treated with the combination treatment (cryolipolysis+RF/PEMF/suction) compared with the cryolipolysis treatment alone. The unblinded investigator GAI ratings also showed enhanced (20%) mean improvement of laxity in the combination treated subjects versus those receiving cryolipolysis alone. Over half of the participants reported

  8. Burden of vasomotor symptoms in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Chandran, Arthi; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Bushmakin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have documented a significant association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and a decrement in health outcomes among postmenopausal women, but these studies have mostly focused on the US. The aim of the current study was to broaden this investigation by examining the burden of VMS symptoms in the European Union with respect to both humanistic and economic outcomes. All women aged 40-75 years who completed the 2010 5EU (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) National Health and Wellness Survey were identified as potential respondents and invited to participate in an additional cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Only postmenopausal women from 5EU were included in the current analyses (n = 3801). VMS was assessed using the Menopausal Rating Scale, and was used in multiple regression models as the primary predictor of health status (EQ-5D-3L), work productivity loss, and the number of physician visits due to menopause. Over half (50.3%) of postmenopausal women experienced either mild (24.6%), moderate (17.6%), or severe (8.1%) VMS. Controlling for confounding variables, mild (b = -0.03, P < 0.05), moderate (b = -0.07, P < 0.05), and severe VMS (b = -0.17, P < 0.05) were each associated with worse health utilities relative to women without VMS. Similarly, increased resource use (b = 1.04-2.39, all P < 0.05), overall work impairment (b = 8.71-19.69, all P < 0.05), and activity impairment (b = 11.22-24.54, all P < 0.05) were also observed as VMS severity increased (with each b representing the difference between each level of severity and the reference category). These results suggest a high prevalence of VMS in Western Europe. These symptoms are also associated with both humanistic and economic outcomes. Improved management of VMS may be able to increase the health status and ability to work productively as well as reduce societal direct costs.

  9. Clinical, biophysical, immunohistochemical, and in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy evaluation of the response of subjects with sensitive skin to home-use fractional non-ablative photothermolysis device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, R.J.; Hoogedoorn, L.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Janssen, L.D.; Tom Nuijs, A.M.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis using professional devices is a well-accepted and a widely used technique for skin rejuvenation. Recently, the technology has also been implemented in devices for home-use. Yet, a subpopulation of consumers exists that reacts excessively to this stimulation

  10. Análisis del beneficio del ejercicio aeróbico sobre los síntomas vasomotores en pacientes postmenopáusicas

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Pérez, Noé Napoleón

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar el beneficio del ejercicio aeróbico sobre los síntomas vasomotores de las pacientes postmenopáusicas. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo, cuasi experimental, comparativo del antes y el después de ejercicio aeróbico en postmenopáusicas con síntomas vasomotores que acudieron para tratamiento no hormonal. Fueron ingresando desde el 2 de enero del 2012 y todas tuvieron seguimiento hasta el 30 de junio del 2012. Todas realizaron una rutina de ejercicio con evaluación bas...

  11. Beneficio del ejercicio aeróbico sobre los síntomas vasomotores de pacientes postmenopáusicas..

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Pérez, Napoleón; Universidad de San Martín de Porres

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVOAnalizar el beneficio del ejercicio aeróbico sobre los síntomas vasomotores de las pacientes postmenopáusicas..MATERIAL Y MÉTODOEstudio prospectivo, cuasi experimental, comparativo del antes y el después de ejercicio aeróbico en postmenopáusicas con síntomas vasomotores que acudieron para tratamiento no hormonal. Fueron ingresando desde el 2 de enero del 2012 y todas tuvieron seguimiento hasta el 30 de junio del 2012. Todas realizaron una rutina de ejercicio con evaluación basal, a los...

  12. Safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of drospirenone and estradiol in the treatment of menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Carranza-Lira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebastián Carranza-LiraReproductive Medicine, UMAE Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia “Luis Castelazo Ayala” Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, MéxicoAbstract: During menopause vasomotor symptoms are one of the main complaints about which women seek medical advice. For symptom control, several therapies have been used, among which hormone therapy has produced good results. One of these is estrogen monotherapy, which unfortunately may induce endometrial hyperplasia in women with an intact uterus. A progestin must be added to avoid this risk. Progestins may induce several secondary effects such as breast tenderness, hirsutism, edema and unfavorable lipid profile modifications. Recently a new progestin called drospirenone has been synthesized and used in combination with estradiol for the treatment of postmenopausal women. This progestin is derived from spironolactone, and lacks estrogenic, androgenic and glucocorticoid activities. Several studies have evaluated safety, efficacy and patient tolerability, and have shown a good profile in all these parameters. All studies agree that the combination of estradiol 1 mg plus drospirenone 2 mg is a good choice for postmenopausal women with vasomotor symptoms.Keywords: estradiol, drospirenone, postmenopause, review

  13. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  14. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2013-04-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10(-7)-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P back versus other sites (P back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF.

  15. Association of Vasomotor and Other Menopausal Symptoms with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulant Muka

    Full Text Available Vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats and other symptoms, including depression, anxiety and panic attacks, are commonly experienced by menopausal women and have been associated with an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile.To investigate whether presence of menopausal symptoms is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were search until February 17th, 2015 to identify relevant studies. Observational cohort studies or randomised intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they followed participants prospectively (at least 1 year of follow-up, and reported relevant estimates on the association of any vasomotor symptoms, or other menopausal symptoms, with risk of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD, or stroke in perimenopausal, menopausal, or postmenopausal women. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Separate pooled relative risks (RRs for age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., education, ethnicity adjusted data and for established cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators-adjusted data (e.g., smoking, body mass index, and hypertension were calculated.Out of 9,987 initially identified references, ten studies were selected, including 213,976 women with a total of 10,037 cardiovascular disease outcomes. The age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors adjusted RRs [95% confidence intervals] for development of CHD, Stroke and CVD comparing women with and without any menopausal symptoms were 1.34 [1.13-1.58], 1.30 [0.99-1.70], 1.48 [1.21-1.80] respectively, and the corresponding RRs adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators were 1.18 [1.03-1.35], 1.08 [0.89-1.32], 1.29 [0.98-1.71]. However, these analyses were limited by potential unmeasured confounding and the small number of studies on this topic.Presence of vasomotor symptoms and

  16. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  17. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  18. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  19. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  20. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  1. MF-101, an estrogen receptor beta agonist for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Dale W; Pinkerton, Joann V

    2009-04-01

    During peri- and postmenopausal stages, the majority of women experience moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, that interfere with sleep and reduce quality of life. Estrogen alone or in combination with a progestagen has been the standard therapy for such vasomotor symptoms; however, this therapeutic regimen is associated with severe side effects, such as breast cancer or cardiovascular events. To provide a better treatment option for menopausal women, Bionovo Inc is developing the estrogen receptor (ER)beta-selective agonist MF-101. Selective ER agonists can stimulate either ERalpha or ERbeta and induce tissue-specific estrogen-like effects, thus providing a safer alternative to conventional hormone therapy. MF-101 is derived from 22 herbs that are traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. MF-101 did not promote the growth of breast cancer cells or stimulate uterine growth in preclinical studies and, in a phase II trial, was demonstrated to be safe and more effective in reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes in postmenopausal women compared with placebo. To confirm the safety and efficacy of MF-101, larger phase III trials were planned for 2009. Although MF-101 appears to be a promising therapeutic, the herbal composition of the drug may be a disadvantage, because of the increased risk of causing allergic reactions in the general population. Studies with the MF-101-isolated active compounds liquiritigen and chalcone demonstrated selectivity for ERbeta, with no induction of proliferative events. If these isolates were demonstrated to be as effective and safe in clinical trials as preliminary data suggest regarding MF-101, these compounds could change the way clinicians treat menopause-associated symptoms.

  2. Topical, geospatial, and temporal diffusion of the 2015 North American Menopause Society position statement on nonhormonal management of vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Laine, Tei; Harrison, Blake; LePage, Meghan; Pierce, Taran; Hoteling, Nathan; Börner, Katy

    2017-10-01

    We sought to depict the topical, geospatial, and temporal diffusion of the 2015 North American Menopause Society position statement on the nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms released on September 21, 2015, and its associated press release from September 23, 2015. Three data sources were used: online news articles, National Public Radio, and Twitter. For topical diffusion, we compared keywords and their frequencies among the position statement, press release, and online news articles. We also created a network figure depicting relationships across key content categories or nodes. For geospatial diffusion within the United States, we compared locations of the 109 National Public Radio (NPR) stations covering the statement to 775 NPR stations not covering the statement. For temporal diffusion, we normalized and segmented Twitter data into periods before and after the press release (September 12, 2015 to September 22, 2015 vs September 23, 2015 to October 3, 2015) and conducted a burst analysis to identify changes in tweets from before to after. Topical information diffused across sources was similar with the exception of the more scientific terms "vasomotor symptoms" or "vms" versus the more colloquial term "hot flashes." Online news articles indicated media coverage of the statement was mainly concentrated in the United States. NPR station data showed similar proportions of stations airing the story across the four census regions (Northeast, Midwest, south, west; P = 0.649). Release of the statement coincided with bursts in the menopause conversation on Twitter. The findings of this study may be useful for directing the development and dissemination of future North American Menopause Society position statements and/or press releases.

  3. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. VASOMOTOR ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND MICROCIRCULATION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH ISOLATED SYSTOLIC ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: INFLUENCE OF "DRY" CARBONIC BATHS AND GENERAL LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Alypova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The comparative estimation of influence of the general low-frequency magnetotherapy (GLMT) and "dry" carbonic baths (DCB) on indicators of vasomotor endothelial function and microcirculation in elderly patients with isolated systolic (ISAH) arterial hypertension has been studied. The efficiency of application the combined use of the GLMT and "dry" carbonic baths DCB for correction of revealed disorders in comparing to the monovariant use of thees medical physical factors is establis...

  6. Vasomotor response to cold stimulation in human capsaicin-induced hyperalgesic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pud, Dorit; Andersen, Ole Kaeseler; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Eisenberg, Elon; Yarnitsky, David

    2005-07-01

    Cooling the skin induces sympathetically driven vasoconstriction, with some vasoparalytic dilatation at the lowest temperatures. Neurogenic inflammation, on the other hand, entails vasodilatation. In this study we investigated the balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in an area of experimentally induced secondary hyperalgesia (2 degrees HA), in response to low-temperature stimulations. Fourteen healthy volunteers were exposed to three 30-s long cold stimuli (20, 10, and 0 degrees C) applied, at three adjacent sites, before (baseline) and 8 min after intradermal injection of 50 microg capsaicin to the volar forearm. The cold stimuli were applied distally to the injection site within the 2 degrees HA. Blood flux (BF) and skin temperatures were measured at four different regions (proximally, and distally to the capsaicin injection and at the 0, 10, and 20 degrees C thermode sites) all within the 2 degrees HA. The vascular measurements were conducted five times. Results showed a marked increase in BF after baseline cold stimulation (Peffect (elevated BF) was found following the capsaicin injection compared with baseline for all regions (Pcooled area was dilated by 450+/-5.1%; The vasoconstrictive effect for the 10 and 20 degrees C did not overcome the capsaicin vasodilatation, but did reduce it, with dilatation of 364+/-7.0% and 329+/-7.3%, respectively. For 0 degrees C, a dilatation of 407+/-6.5% was seen. It is concluded that in this experimental model, and potentially in the equivalent clinical syndromes, vasodilatation induced by the inflammation is only slightly reduced by cold stimulation such that it is still dominant, despite some cold-induced vasoconstriction.

  7. A Pilot Randomized, Single Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Traditional Acupuncture for Vasomotor Symptoms and Mechanistic Pathways of Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painovich, Jeannette M.; Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Azziz, Ricardo; Yang, Yuching; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Braunstein, Glenn D.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Stewart, Paul M.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2011-01-01

    Objective To conduct a pilot study for feasibility of planning a definitive clinical trial comparing traditional acupuncture (TA) to sham acupuncture (SA) and waiting control (WC) on menopause related vasomotor symptoms (VMS), quality of life (QOL), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in peri and post-menopausal women. Methods Thirty-three peri and post-menopausal women with at least 7 VMS daily were randomized to TA, SA or WC. The TA and SA groups were given three treatments per week for 12 weeks. Outcomes included the number and severity of VMS, MENQOL questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Instrument, Pittsburgh Quality Sleep Index, 24 hour urine cortisol and metabolites, and ACTH stimulation testing. Results Both TA and SA groups demonstrated improved VMS trends compared to WC (Δ −3.5±3.00 vs. −4.1±3.79 vs. −1.2±2.4, respectively, p=.20), and significantly improved MENQOL vasomotor scores (Δ − 1.5±2.02 vs. −1.8±1.52 vs. 0.3±0.64, respectively, p=.04). There were no psychosocial group differences. Exit 24-hour urinary measures were lower in the TA vs the SA or WC in total cortisol metabolites (4,658.9±1,670.9 vs 7,735.8±3,747.9 vs 5,166.0±2,234.5, p=0.03, respectively) and DHEA (41.4±27.46, 161.2±222.77, 252.4±385.40, respectively, p=0.05). The ACTH stimulation cortisol response data also trended in the hypothesized direction (p=0.17). Conclusion Both TA and SA reduce VMS frequency and severity and improve VMS-related quality of life compared to WC; however, TA alone may impact the HPA axis. This association is viewed as preliminary and hypothesis-generating and should be explored in a large clinical trial. PMID:21968279

  8. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  9. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  10. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  11. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  12. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  13. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  14. Short-Term Isoflavone Intervention in the Treatment of Severe Vasomotor Symptoms after Surgical Menopause: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are soy phytoestrogens that potentially exert various favorable effects in postmenopausal women, for example, alleviating vasomotor episodes, attenuating bone loss, and stimulating vaginal epithelial maturation. There has, however, been lack of consensus regarding those therapeutic effects. Most clinical studies of isoflavones have been conducted with women who had undergone natural menopause, but not those who had undergone surgical menopause. This study reports on a 51-year-old woman who presented with severe vasomotor episodes after undergoing a hysterectomy and a bilateral oophorectomy due to hypermenorrhea secondary to myoma uteri. She refused hormone therapy due to fear of adverse drug reactions so was treated with oral soy isoflavones (two capsules twice daily, equivalent to at least 100 mg daily dose for 8 weeks. The number and severity of hot flushes and her menopause-specific quality of life dramatically improved from baseline values. The serum bone resorption marker (beta C-telopeptide decreased markedly, while vaginal epithelial maturation improved slightly, suggesting the potential of isoflavones in attenuating bone loss and stimulating vaginal maturation. The intervention did not adversely affect the hormonal profile (FSH, LH, and estradiol and liver or renal functions. Thus, isoflavones could be an option for women experiencing severe vasomotor episodes after surgical menopause.

  15. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  16. Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia-telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furcinitti, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    Caffeine was found to potentiate x-ray-induced killing of human diploid fibroblasts from a normal subject and an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patient when it was present at 2 mM concentration for 30 to 66 h postirradiation. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated normal cells had an average value of 1.26 +- 0.13 which did not vary significantly with treatment time or x-ray dose. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated AT cells was 1.12 +- 0.12 at 30 h, rose to 1.66 +- 0.17 at 41 h, and decreased to 1.31 +- 0.13 at 66 h. Thus no clear difference was observed between these two cell strains' susceptibility to postirradiation caffeine treatment

  17. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject - a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofina, T.; Kamil, W. A.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'.

  18. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  19. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  20. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  2. Sex differences in the modulation of vasomotor sympathetic outflow during static handgrip exercise in healthy young humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S.; VanGundy, Tiffany B.; Galbreath, M. Melyn; Shibata, Shigeki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Reelick, Miriam F.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in sympathetic neural control during static exercise in humans are few and the findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized women would have an attenuated vasomotor sympathetic response to static exercise, which would be further reduced during the high sex hormone [midluteal (ML)] vs. the low hormone phase [early follicular (EF)]. We measured heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 women and 10 men during a cold pressor test (CPT) and static handgrip to fatigue with 2 min of postexercise circulatory arrest (PECA). HR increased during handgrip, reached its peak at fatigue, and was comparable between sexes. BP increased during handgrip and PECA where men had larger increases from baseline. Mean ± SD MSNA burst frequency (BF) during handgrip and PECA was lower in women (EF, P < 0.05), as was ΔMSNA-BF smaller (main effect, both P < 0.01). ΔTotal activity was higher in men at fatigue (EF: 632 ± 418 vs. ML: 598 ± 342 vs. men: 1,025 ± 416 a.u./min, P < 0.001 for EF and ML vs. men) and during PECA (EF: 354 ± 321 vs. ML: 341 ± 199 vs. men: 599 ± 327 a.u./min, P < 0.05 for EF and ML vs. men). During CPT, HR and MSNA responses were similar between sexes and hormone phases, confirming that central integration and the sympathetic efferent pathway was comparable between the sexes and across hormone phases. Women demonstrated a blunted metaboreflex, unaffected by sex hormones, which may be due to differences in muscle mass or fiber type and, therefore, metabolic stimulation of group IV afferents. PMID:21508291

  3. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  4. Gender-related asymmetric brain vasomotor response to color stimulation: a functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemanze, Philip C

    2010-11-30

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of color stimulation on cerebral blood mean flow velocity (MFV) in men and women. The study included 16 (8 men and 8 women) right-handed healthy subjects. The MFV was recorded simultaneously in both right and left middle cerebral arteries in Dark and white Light conditions, and during color (Blue, Yellow and Red) stimulations, and was analyzed using functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy (fTCDS) technique. Color processing occurred within cortico-subcortical circuits. In men, wavelength-differencing of Yellow/Blue pairs occurred within the right hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term depression (CLTD) and subcortical long-term potentiation (SLTP). Conversely, in women, frequency-differencing of Blue/Yellow pairs occurred within the left hemisphere by processes of cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP) and subcortical long-term depression (SLTD). In both genders, there was luminance effect in the left hemisphere, while in men it was along an axis opposite (orthogonal) to that of chromatic effect, in women, it was parallel. Gender-related differences in color processing demonstrated a right hemisphere cognitive style for wavelength-differencing in men, and a left hemisphere cognitive style for frequency-differencing in women. There are potential applications of fTCDS technique, for stroke rehabilitation and monitoring of drug effects.

  5. Microvascular versus macrovascular cerebral vasomotor reactivity in patients with severe internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Peyman; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Dinia, Lavinia; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-02-01

    In patients with severe internal carotid artery steno-occlusive lesions (ISOL), impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is predictive of future ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Therefore, the evaluation of CVR in ISOL patients may be a means to evaluate the risk for IS/TIA and decide on an intervention. Our aim was (1) to explore the feasibility of concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS-DOS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and transcranial Doppler for CVR assessment in ISOL patients, and (2) to compare macrovascular and microvascular CVR in ISOL patients and explore its potential for IS/TIA risk stratification. Twenty-seven ISOL patients were recruited. The changes in continuous microvascular and macrovascular hemodynamics upon acetazolamide injection were used to determine CVR. Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2, by near-infrared spectroscopy), microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF, by diffuse correlation spectroscopy) and CBF velocity (by transcranial Doppler) showed significant increases upon acetazolamide injection in all subjects (P < .03). Only macrovascular CVR (P = .024) and none of the microvascular measures were significantly dependent on the presence of ISOL. In addition, while CBF was significantly correlated with HbO2, neither of these microvascular measures correlated with macrovascular CBF velocity. We demonstrated the simultaneous, continuous, and noninvasive evaluation of CVR at both the microvasculature and macrovasculature. We found that macrovascular CVR response depends on the presence of ISOL, whereas the microvascular CVR did not significantly depend on the ISOL presence, possibly due to the role of collaterals other than those of the circle of Willis. The concurrent microvascular and macrovascular CVR measurement in the ISOL patients might improve future IS/TIA risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: 2015 position statement of The North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    To update and expand The North American Menopause Society's evidence-based position on nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms (VMS), previously a portion of the position statement on the management of VMS. NAMS enlisted clinical and research experts in the field and a reference librarian to identify and review available evidence. Five different electronic search engines were used to cull relevant literature. Using the literature, experts created a document for final approval by the NAMS Board of Trustees. Nonhormonal management of VMS is an important consideration when hormone therapy is not an option, either because of medical contraindications or a woman's personal choice. Nonhormonal therapies include lifestyle changes, mind-body techniques, dietary management and supplements, prescription therapies, and others. The costs, time, and effort involved as well as adverse effects, lack of long-term studies, and potential interactions with medications all need to be carefully weighed against potential effectiveness during decision making. Clinicians need to be well informed about the level of evidence available for the wide array of nonhormonal management options currently available to midlife women to help prevent underuse of effective therapies or use of inappropriate or ineffective therapies. Recommended: Cognitive-behavioral therapy and, to a lesser extent, clinical hypnosis have been shown to be effective in reducing VMS. Paroxetine salt is the only nonhormonal medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of VMS, although other selective serotonin reuptake/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, gabapentinoids, and clonidine show evidence of efficacy. Recommend with caution: Some therapies that may be beneficial for alleviating VMS are weight loss, mindfulness-based stress reduction, the S-equol derivatives of soy isoflavones, and stellate ganglion block, but additional studies of these therapies are

  7. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  8. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  12. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  13. Skin barrier composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  14. Skin barrier composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  15. Skin hydration, microrelief and greasiness of normal skin in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. The average sebum content in each group was in the order of T-zone>forehead>chin>cheek. In case of the T-zone, a significant difference between the dry skin group and the oily skin group was observed, suggesting that the area is most sensitive to sebum content by skin type. Significant differences were not observed in energy and nutrient intakes by skin type. Serum concentrations of antioxidant minerals such as copper, manganese, zinc and selenium were not significantly different among the groups, but the dry skin group tended to be higher than the oily skin group. Serum catalase was significantly higher in the oily skin group (P skin group (P skin health. PMID:20607067

  17. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  18. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  19. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  20. Modest vasomotor dysfunction induced by low doses of C60 fullerenes in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with different degree of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loft Steffen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to small size particulate matter in urban air is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular effects, whereas there is little information about the impact on the cardiovascular system by exposure to pure carbonaceous materials in the nano-size range. C60 fullerenes are nano-sized particles that are expected to have a widespread use, including cosmetics and medicines. Methods We investigated the association between intraperitoneal injection of pristine C60 fullerenes and vasomotor dysfunction in the aorta of 11–13 and 40–42 weeks old apolipoprotein E knockout mice (apoE-/- with different degree of atherosclerosis. Results The aged apoE-/-mice had lower endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation elicited by acetylcholine in aorta segments mounted in myographs and the phenylephrine-dependent vasoconstriction response was increased. One hour after an intraperitoneal injection of 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg of C60 fullerenes, the young apoE-/- mice had slightly reduced maximal endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. A similar tendency was observed in the old apoE-/- mice. Hampered endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was also observed as slightly increased EC50 of sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation response in young apoE-/- mice. Conclusion Treatment with C60 fullerenes affected mainly the response to vasorelaxation in young apoE-/- mice, whereas the vasomotor dysfunction in old apoE-/- mice with more advanced atherosclerosis was less affected by acute C60 fullerene treatment. These findings represent an important step in the hazard characterization of C60 fullerenes by showing that intraperitoneal administration is associated with a moderate decrease in the vascular function of mice with atherosclerosis.

  1. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  2. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  3. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  4. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  5. Characterization of oily mature skin by biophysical and skin imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, M O; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2018-02-13

    The skin is a complex biological system and may suffer change according to the environmental factors, as higher temperatures can increase sebum excretion, presenting oiliness and acne. These alterations can persist during the aging and provoke more changes in aged skin. In this study we evaluated the mature oily skin characteristics using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Sixty healthy female subjects, aged between 39 and 55 years old were recruited and separated into 2 groups according to their skin type: normal/dry and oily skin. The skin was evaluated in terms of stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) sebum content, dermis thickness and echogenicity, skin microrelief, and pores content. The mature oily skin presented no significant differences when compared to the normal/dry skin on the stratum corneum water content and TEWL parameters. The sebum content was significantly higher on the oily skin group. The microrelief analysis showed an increase of skin roughness values in the oily skin and increase of scaliness in the normal/dry skin. The oily skin showed lower dermis echogenicity mainly in the frontal region and higher dermis thickness when compared to normal/dry skin. The mature oily skin showed different characteristics from normal/dry skin in terms of sebum content, microrelief parameters, and dermis thickness. This way, the characterization of mature oily skin in an objective way is very important to development of dermocosmetic products for more effective treatments focused specially on this type of skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  7. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  8. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction

  9. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Preliminary experiments on quantification of skin condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kenzo; Iyatomi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated a preliminary assessment method for skin conditions such as a moisturizing property and its fineness of the skin with an image analysis only. We captured a facial images from volunteer subjects aged between 30s and 60s by Pocket Micro (R) device (Scalar Co., Japan). This device has two image capturing modes; the normal mode and the non-reflection mode with the aid of the equipped polarization filter. We captured skin images from a total of 68 spots from subjects' face using both modes (i.e. total of 136 skin images). The moisture-retaining property of the skin and subjective evaluation score of the skin fineness in 5-point scale for each case were also obtained in advance as a gold standard (their mean and SD were 35.15 +/- 3.22 (μS) and 3.45 +/- 1.17, respectively). We extracted a total of 107 image features from each image and built linear regression models for estimating abovementioned criteria with a stepwise feature selection. The developed model for estimating the skin moisture achieved the MSE of 1.92 (μS) with 6 selected parameters, while the model for skin fineness achieved that of 0.51 scales with 7 parameters under the leave-one-out cross validation. We confirmed the developed models predicted the moisture-retaining property and fineness of the skin appropriately with only captured image.

  11. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  12. Epidemiology of "fragile skin": results from a survey of different skin types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftek M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek Haftek,1 Christine Coutanceau,2 Charles Taïeb3 1Université Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Lyon, 2Département Médical, Laboratoires Dermatologiques A-Derma, Lavaur, 3Public Health, Pierre Fabre SA, Paris, France Background: Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of "fragile skin" in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived "fragile skin" across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods: Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218, Caucasian South skin (n=1,695, Asian skin (n=1,500, and Black skin (n=500. The main survey question was "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual's skin were also evaluated. Results: A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, "fragile skin" was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001. Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of "fragile skin" was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001, regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting "fragile skin" were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of "fragile skin" was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type in the previous 12 months. Conclusion: Whilst these

  13. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  14. A preliminary investigation of the impact of oily skin on quality of life and concordance of self-perceived skin oiliness and skin surface lipids (sebum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Niu, Y; Zhong, S; Liu, H; Zhen, Y; Saint-Leger, D; Verschoore, M

    2013-10-01

    This preliminary study investigated both the impact of oily skin on quality of life (QoL) and the agreement between subjective oily skin self-assessment and objective skin surface sebum measurement in young to middle-aged Chinese women in Beijing. A 18-item Chinese version of the Oily Skin Self-Image Questionnaire (OSSIQ) was used to assess the impact of oily skin on QoL in 300 healthy female subjects (age groups: 20-25; 26-30; 31-35,). The subjects were divided equally into the oily skin group and the non-oily skin group based on their self-perception of skin oiliness. The level of skin surface lipids (SSL) was measured on the middle of the forehead, and both cheeks using the Sebumeter(®). In order to assess the agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL, we tentatively used the SSL median value as a dividing point to regroup all subjects. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the OSSIQ distinguished the oily skin group from the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had significant higher emotional status score and behavior score when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had higher SSL when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group, especially in younger age groups. The agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL was moderately strong in younger age groups, and declined with age. These results strongly suggest that having oily skin can cause a significant negative impact on QoL among Chinese women. The Chinese version of the OSSIQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oily skin on QoL. The accuracy of oily skin self-assessment declines with age. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  16. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...

  17. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  18. Skin Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  19. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  20. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body defense, and is predisposed to disease when subjected to ... sanitation workers in Wuhan (China) for better manage- ment and ... Symptoms of facial skin photo .... ronment, diet nutrition and working environment were also poor.

  1. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  2. Pulsed Wave Doppler Ultrasound Is Useful to Assess Vasomotor Response in Patients with Multiple System Atrophy and Well Correlated with Tilt Table Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Vin Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to assess sympathetic vasomotor response (SVR by using pulsed wave Doppler (PWD ultrasound in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA and correlate with the tilt table study. We recruited 18 male patients and 10 healthy men as controls. The SVR of the radial artery was evaluated by PWD, using inspiratory cough as a provocative maneuver. The response to head-up tilt was studied by a tilt table with simultaneous heart rate and blood pressure recording. The hemodynamic variables were compared between groups, and were examined by correlation analysis. Regarding SVR, MSA patients exhibited a prolonged latency and less heart rate acceleration following inspiratory cough. Compared with the tilt table test, the elevation of heart rate upon SVR was positively correlated to the increase of heart rate after head-up tilt. The correlation analysis indicated that the magnitude of blood pressure drop from supine to upright was positively associated with the SVR latency but negatively correlated with the heart rate changes upon SVR. The present study demonstrated that blunted heart rate response might explain MSA's vulnerability to postural challenge. PWD may be used to predict cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress upon head-up tilt in MSA patients.

  3. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  4. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 ± 0.99 vs. 3.38 ± 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  5. Technical background for shallow (skin) dose equivalent evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; Crawford, O.H.; Hamm, R.N.; Reaves, K.L.; McMahan, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Department of Energy Order 5480.11 describes procedures for radiation protection for occupational workers. The revisions dealing with non-uniform exposure to the skin are the subject of this report. We describe measurements and analysis required to assess shallow (skin) dose equivalent from skin contamination. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants Lack Vasomotor Response in Relationship to Cold Body Temperatures at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Knobel, Robin B.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A.; Wimmer, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated peripheral vasoconstriction in ELBW infants when body temperature decreased during the first 12-hours of life. Design An exploratory, within-subjects design with 10 ELBW infants. Abdominal and foot temperatures were measured every minute. Peripheral vasoconstriction (abdominal > peripheral temperature by 2? C) and abdominal-peripheral temperature difference were also evaluated. Results Abdominal and peripheral temperatures were significantly correlated within ea...

  7. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  8. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  9. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  10. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  11. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  13. Development of an Active Topical Skin Protectant (aTSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    protectant as a follow-on product to Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents (SERPACWA). 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination , Skin...corresponding author), Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination from Skin, In J.A. Romano Jr., B.J. Lukey, and H. Salem, eds., 2nd Edition of Chemical Warfare ...CG, and Braue, EH Jr (corresponding author), “ Chemical warfare agent decontamination from skin,” In J.A. Romano Jr., B.J. Lukey, and H. Salem

  14. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  15. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  16. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  17. Digital dermoscopy to determine skin melanin index as an objective indicator of skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Majewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical assessment of skin photosensitivity is subjectively determined by erythema and tanning responses to sunlight recalled by the subject, alternatively known as Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype (SPT. Responses may be unreliable due to recall bias, subjective bias by clinicians and subjects, and lack of cultural sensitivity of the questions. Analysis of red-green-blue (RGB color spacing of digital images may provide an objective determination of SPT. This paper presents the studies to assess the melanin index (MI, as determined by RGB images obtained by both standard digital camera as well as by videodermoscope, and to correlate the MI with SPT based upon subjects’ verbal responses to standardized questions administered by a dermatologist.A sample of subjects representing all SPTs I–VI was selected. Both the digital camera and videodermoscope were calibrated at standard illumination, light source and white balance. Images of constitutive skin of the upper ventral arm were taken of each subject using both instruments.The studies showed that 58 subjects (20 M, 38 F were enrolled in the study (mean age: 47 years; range: 20–89, stratified to skin phototype I–VI. MI obtained by using both digital camera and videodermoscope increased significantly as the SPT increased p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001, respectively and positively correlated with dermatologist-assessed SPT (Spearman correlation, r = 0.48 and r = 0.84, respectively.Digital imaging can quantify melanin content in order to quantitatively approximate skin pigmentation in all skin phototypes including Type VI skin. This methodology holds promise as a simple, non-invasive, rapid and objective approach to reliably determine skin phototype and, with further investigation, may prove to be both practical and useful in the prediction of skin cancer risk.

  18. Is an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile a risk factor for vasomotor menopausal symptoms? Results of a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M J; Herber-Gast, G C M; van der Schouw, Y T

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests an association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMSs), i.e. hot flushes and night sweats, and cardiovascular disease. However, the causal pathway is unclear. We investigated whether an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile is a risk factor for VMS later in life. Retrospective cohort study. Women aged 50-70 from the general population. The Prospect-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Prospect-EPIC) cohort is a population-based cohort of women who enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Follow-up questionnaires were sent at 5-year intervals for 15 years. Women who returned the third questionnaire, answered questions regarding lifetime VMS and did not report VMS prior to baseline were included in this study (n = 1295). At baseline, the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was determined. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between baseline FRS and incident VMS. Incident VMS. At baseline (mean age ± standard deviation, 52.2 ± 3.6 years), 21.2% had a FRS > 10%. During follow-up, 40.2% of women reported the onset of VMS. Adjusted for body mass index, physical activity, education and alcohol consumption, each point increase in FRS was associated with a decreased incidence of VMS [OR, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.97)]. Additional adjustment for menopausal status attenuated the OR to null [OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1.01)]. None of the separate FRS variables were associated with VMS after adjustment for age. In our cohort, an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile was not associated with VMS, and therefore we found no evidence for the involvement of a vascular mechanism in the etiology of VMS. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. The role of sleep difficulties in the vasomotor menopausal symptoms and depressed mood relationships: an international pooled analysis of eight studies in the InterLACE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsin-Fang; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Kuh, Diana; Brunner, Eric J; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Gold, Ellen B; Mitchell, Ellen S; Woods, Nancy F; Bromberger, Joyce T; Thurston, Rebecca C; Joffe, Hadine; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Anderson, Debra; Mishra, Gita D

    2018-02-12

    Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions. A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49-51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation. At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13-62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8-41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27-1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47-2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90-1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38-2.34). Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.

  20. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  1. Shaker-related voltage-gated K+ channel expression and vasomotor function in human coronary resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Yoshinori; Korishettar, Ankush; Chabowski, Dawid S; Cao, Sheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Gutterman, David D; Zhang, David X

    2018-01-01

    K V channels are important regulators of vascular tone, but the identity of specific K V channels involved and their regulation in disease remain less well understood. We determined the expression of K V 1 channel subunits and their role in cAMP-mediated dilation in coronary resistance arteries from subjects with and without CAD. HCAs from patients with and without CAD were assessed for mRNA and protein expression of K V 1 channel subunits with molecular techniques and for vasodilator response with isolated arterial myography. Assays of mRNA transcripts, membrane protein expression, and vascular cell-specific localization revealed abundant expression of K V 1.5 in vascular smooth muscle cells of non-CAD HCAs. Isoproterenol and forskolin, two distinct cAMP-mediated vasodilators, induced potent dilation of non-CAD arterioles, which was inhibited by both the general K V blocker 4-AP and the selective K V 1.5 blocker DPO-1. The cAMP-mediated dilation was reduced in CAD and was accompanied by a loss of or reduced contribution of 4-AP-sensitive K V channels. K V 1.5, as a major 4-AP-sensitive K V 1 channel expressed in coronary VSMCs, mediates cAMP-mediated dilation in non-CAD arterioles. The cAMP-mediated dilation is reduced in CAD coronary arterioles, which is associated with impaired 4-AP-sensitive K V channel function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  4. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  6. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  7. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  8. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  9. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  10. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  11. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  12. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject – a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofina, T; Kamil, W A; Ahmad, A H

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'

  13. Differentiation of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin from healthy skin using noninvasive visual, colorimeter and evaporimeter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, L K; Bakhtian, S; Wright, E D; Rallis, T M

    1995-08-01

    Uninvolved skin of psoriasis may not be entirely normal. The object was to characterize healthy, uninvolved psoriatic skin and lesional skin by biophysical methods. Involved and uninvolved psoriatic and age-gender matched healthy skin was measured objectively with a colorimeter and evaporimeter and subjectively with visual assessment in 14 subjects. Visual assessment of erythema (E), scaling (S) and induration (I) as well as the target lesion score at the involved psoriatic skin sites were significantly elevated (puninvolved psoriatic skin >healthy skin (pcolorimeter L* and a* scale values at uninvolved psoriatic skin sites were lower and higher (pcolorimeter description (L*× b*)/a* significantly differentiated healthy skin from both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. These collective data highlight that even visually appearing uninvolved psoriatic skin is compromised compared with healthy skin. These objective, noninvasive but differential capabilities of the colorimeter and evaporimeter will aid in the mechanistic quantification of new psoriatic drug therapies and in conjuction with biochemical studies, add to understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  14. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Checking your skin regularly can help you notice any unusual changes. Follow your health care provider's recommendations on how often to ...

  15. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  17. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  18. Occupational skin problems in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-10-01

    Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20-25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms.

  19. Assessment of knowledge about skin care among Turkish people

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Gökdemir; Seher Arı; Adem Köşlü

    2008-01-01

    Background and Design: Skin care is essential for maintenance of healty skin. But skin care behaviors vary in different societies. There are a few studies about this subject in Turkish population. The aim of this study was to determine behaviors of skin care products use and knowledge about skin care. MATERIAL-METHOD: A total of 870 patients were enrolled to the study between October 2006 and May 2007. The study group were composed of patients in dermatology out-patient clinic. A standart que...

  20. Taking Care of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking Care of Your Skin ... you're in. Why Be Nice to Your Skin? Like the heart, stomach, and brain, your skin ...

  1. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M; Vallerga, M B [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M R [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  2. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mdigiorg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  3. State of hydration and electrical conductance of ichthyotic skin

    OpenAIRE

    A B Gupta; Manisha Bhattacharya; B Haldar

    1990-01-01

    Dry skin of twelve subjects suffering from ichthyosis vulgaris and the efficacy of a moisturiser-Cotaryl were quantitatively assessed by measuring the skin surface hydration and high frequency (3.5 MHz) electrical conductance of skin. The state of hydration and conductance of ichthyotic skin were 86.9 + 24.6 and 11.0 + 5.7 micro-mho respectively, being much less-compared to 132. 0 + 5.3 and 72.5 + 54.0 micro-mho ofnormal subjects. The moisturiser increased the state of hydration and also the ...

  4. SKIN CARE IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is a complex organ in its structure. Numerous functions of the skin may be impaired in its pathology. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the skin in children predispose to common diseases of the skin. Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. Diaper dermatitis may vary in clinical severity and course. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of diaper dermatitis and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. For the treatment of diaper dermatitis agents selected depending on the presence and severity of complications. For prevention and treatment of uncomplicated diaper dermatitis effective means of containing dexpantenol.

  5. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed.

  6. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2017-06-22

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  7. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  8. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  9. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System......) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...

  11. Tribology of human skin and mechanical skin equivalents in contact with textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derler, S.; Schrade, G.U.; Gerhardt, L.C.

    2007-01-01

    The friction of untreated human skin (finger) against a reference textile was investigated with 12 subjects using a force plate. In touch experiments, in which the subjects assessed the surface roughness of the textile at normal loads of 1.5 ± 0.7 N, the average friction coefficients ranged from

  12. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  13. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  14. Recommendations for skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Further to the reecommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating the radiation exposure of the skin after contamination (SAAS-Mitt--89-16), measures for skin decontamination are recommended. They are necessary if (1) after simple decontamination by means of water, soap and brush without damaging the skin the surface contamination limits are exceeded and the radiation exposure to be expected for the undamaged healthy skin is estimated as to high, and if (2) a wound is contaminated. To remove skin contaminations, in general universally applicable, non-aggressive decontamination means and methods are sufficient. In special cases, nuclide-specific decontamination is required taking into account the properties of the radioactive substance

  15. Ingestion of an Oral Hyaluronan Solution Improves Skin Hydration, Wrinkle Reduction, Elasticity, and Skin Roughness: Results of a Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Imke; Voss, Werner; von Hehn, Ulrike; Kammerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Intake of oral supplements with the aim of a cutaneous antiaging effect are increasingly common. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate, as it is the key factor for preserving tissue hydration. In our practice study, we evaluated the effect of an oral HA preparation diluted in a cascade-fermented organic whole food concentrate supplemented with biotin, vitamin C, copper, and zinc (Regulatpro Hyaluron) on skin moisture content, elasticity, skin roughness, and wrinkle depths. Twenty female subjects with healthy skin in the age group of 45 to 60 years took the product once daily for 40 days. Different skin parameters were objectively assessed before the first intake, after 20 and after 40 days. Intake of the HA solution led to a significant increase in skin elasticity, skin hydration, and to a significant decrease in skin roughness and wrinkle depths. The supplement was well tolerated; no side effects were noted throughout the study.

  16. Understanding women's experience of memory over the menopausal transition: subjective and objective memory in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bryant, Christina A; Judd, Fiona K; Ong, Ben; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-12-01

    Many women complain of forgetfulness during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to examine women's subjective perception of memory and their objective memory performance across the menopausal transition. One hundred thirty women, aged 40 to 60 years were recruited from outpatient Menopause and Gynaecological clinics at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Women were divided into menopausal stage groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria based on menstrual patterns. All women completed self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms; attitude to menopause; and various aspects of memory, including memory contentment, frequency of forgetting, sense of control over memory, and use of memory strategies. Women also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation assessing memory and executive function. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment showed no difference between premenopausal (n = 36), perimenopausal (n = 54), and postmenopausal (n = 40) groups in performance on memory and executive tasks. Perimenopausal women, however, reported significantly more frequent forgetting (η = 0.09, P memory (η = 0.08, P memory. During the menopausal transition women with a more negative attitude to menopause and more intense depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms are more vulnerable to feeling less content with their memory.

  17. Infrared imaging of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Jackson, Michael; Crowson, A. Neil; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2002-02-01

    IR spectroscopy produces spectra in which detailed information concerning chemical structure is inherent. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most useful IR methods for analysis of biological tissues are microscopic image-based techniques in which fine-scaled spatial and high-quality spectral information is integrated. Unlike traditional visible microscopic methods, the contrast in IR imaging is gained by differences in spectra and the spatial heterogeneity of biochemical components, not by the addition of stains. In order for IR imaging to be more broadly accepted, non-subjective data processing methods are being developed to extract the most out of the large spectral images that are acquired. This paper demonstrates data processing techniques that have been extremely useful in the analysis of normal and abnormal skin. Analysis of skin specimens is of particular clinical importance due to the difficulty in rendering a differential diagnosis. Unstained frozen skin sections were mapped using an IR microscope. Functional group mapping, clustering routines and linear discriminant analysis were used to process the data. Functional group mapping and clustering routines were useful in the initial interpretation of images and to research for trends in uncharacterized spectral images. LDA was useful for differentiating normal from abnormal tissue once a well- defined training spectral set was established. Representative spectroscopic images are shown that demonstrate the power of IR imaging.

  18. Evaluation of subjectively assessed nodule traits of ostrich skins as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    leather quality (Sales, 1999). No formal ... Both traits are clearly age-dependent, with nodule size increasing and nodule density decreasing with an increase in .... E stim ated ag e (m o n th s). Producers. Graders. Marketers. Agents. Managers.

  19. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  20. Comparative study in Japan and China concerning aspiration of Asian women towards quality of skin fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Miho; Matsumoto, Junko; Date, Akira; Li, Junfang

    2002-06-01

    Beauty is a world common aspiration, but perceptions of what make a woman beautiful vary across culture and countries. A series of Saito's studies indicated that unlike much of the Western world, in Asia, one common desire is fairer skin tone that epitomizes feminine beauty. Using 105 Japanese women and 105 Chinese women as subjects, a comparative study concerning aspiration of Asian Women toward skin fairness was conducted. In this study, four real skin photo images that have skin tone variations (fair/dark) and skin texture variations (rough/smooth) were used. The fifty-two words describe personality were shown to the subject. The subjects were required to match a suitable skin photo image to the descriptive words. The overall result between China and Japan were very consistent. Both in China and Japan, fairer skin tone with smoother skin texture was accepted very positively. Fairer skin tone with rougher texture tends to provide passive and conservative impression while smoother skin texture with darker skin tone tends to provide friendly and delight impression. The results suggested that in addition to skin tone, the skin texture plays an important role for the personal impressions and it works as a trigger to enhance 'ideal skin fairness' for Asian women.

  1. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: ... Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention ...

  3. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  4. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  5. The Relative Utility of Skin Resistance and Skin Conductance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barland, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two circuits (constant current = skin resistance; constant voltage = skin conductance) used for measuring electrodermal activity during a psychophysiological detection of deception...

  6. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  8. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  9. Intravenous glutathione for skin lightening: Inadequate safety data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein thiol that protects mammalian cells from oxidative stress. Intravenous (IV) GSH for skin lightening is advertised by clinics in South Africa and internationally online, yet to date no published review on the subject exists. Methods.

  10. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  11. Instrument-related Skin Disorders in Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Cataldo; Napolitano, Maddalena; La Bella, Serena; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Nicola; Cantelli, Mariateresa; Balato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Among artists, musicians may suffer from occupational skin problems; notwithstanding, these conditions have been rarely reviewed. The characteristics of individual performer and the type of instrument will determine the kind of disease. Moreover, the hours that the musician spent to advance artistic skill may influence the severity. The frequency and risk factors of instrument-related skin disorders in musicians from southern Italy were analyzed. An observational study was conducted in 628 musicians. A questionnaire including questions related to age, sex, instrument played, musical activity, previous or current skin disorders, and impact of skin symptoms on music making was submitted. Of 628 musicians, 199 (31.7%) reported suffering from at least 1 skin disease. Cutaneous diseases likely directly correlated with the use of the musical instrument were found in 129 (20.5%) of the 628 subjects. In particular, different patterns of irritant contact dermatitis were found. Skin conditions may be a significant problem in professional instrumentalists. They are mainly related to musical activity. Preventive measures should be established.

  12. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi

    2011-07-01

    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  13. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  14. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  15. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  16. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  17. Trending on Pinterest: an examination of pins about skin tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Greene, Kathryn; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-04-10

    Rates of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are on the rise in the USA with data revealing disproportionate increase in female young adults. The popularity of intentional skin tanning among U.S. adolescents is attributed to several factors, including prioritization of physical appearance, media images of tanned celebrities, ease of availability of artificial tanning facilities, and more recently, the prevalence and celebration of tanned skin on social media. Pinterest, as the third most popular social media platform, was searched for "pins" about skin tanning. The resultant "pins" were examined to understand the extent and characteristics of skin tanning portrayed on Pinterest. We analyzed pins on Pinterest about skin tanning (n = 501) through a quantitative content analysis. Overall, results indicated an overwhelmingly protanning characteristic of pins about skin tanning on Pinterest, with over 85% of pins promoting tanning behavior. The pins were generally characterized by the portrayal of a female subject (61%) and provided positive reinforcement for tanning (49%). Use of tanning for enhancing appearance was the main positive outcome expectancy portrayed in the pins (35%), and nudity or exposure of skin on arms (32%) and legs (31%) was evident in about a third of pins. With overwhelmingly positive pins promoting tanning, use of female subjects, exhibiting nudity, and appearance enhancement, there seems be to a consistent targeting of female users to accept tanning as a socially acceptable and popular behavior. The findings indicate a need for developing sun protection messages and the leveraging of social media for dissemination of skin cancer prevention and detection messages.

  18. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Ghislain Francois,1 Huixia Qiu,2 Chengda Ye,2 Tomoo Hanaya,3 Dominique Batisse,3 Suzy Cointereau-Chardon,1 Mirela Donato Gianeti Seixas,4 Susi Elaine Dal Belo,4 Roland Bazin5 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5RB Consult, Bievres, France Abstract: Skin pores (SP, as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2 and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1 were recorded in all studied subjects; 2 varied greatly with ethnicity; 3 plateaued with age in most cases; and 4 globally reflected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly

  19. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced haptic sensor for measuring human skin conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Okuyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a sensory receptor of the sensor to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of human skin. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight, and we can examine skin condition quickly using these sense. But, its subjectivity and ambiguity make it difficult to quantify skin conditions. Therefore, development of measurement device which can evaluate skin conditions easily and objectively is demanded by dermatologists, cosmetic industries, and so on. In this paper, an advanced haptic sensor system that can measure multiple information of skin condition in various parts of human body is developed. The applications of the sensor system to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of skin are investigated through two experiments.

  1. Supraclavicular skin temperature and BAT activity in lean healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Vosselman, Maarten J; Hanssen, Mark J W; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    The 'gold standard' for measuring brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging. With this technique subjects are exposed to ionizing radiation and are therefore limited in the number of scans that can be performed. We investigated the relation between supraclavicular skin temperatures and BAT activity values using a strictly temperature-controlled air-cooling protocol. Data of 36 male subjects was analyzed. BAT activity was evaluated by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging and skin temperature was measured by means of wireless temperature sensors. Supraclavicular skin temperature dropped less compared to skin temperatures at other sites (all P values BAT activity (R (2) 0.23), and the change in supraclavicular skin temperature and non-shivering thermogenesis (R (2) 0.18, both P values BAT activity and BAT thermogenesis.

  2. Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth J; Schmelz, Joseph O; Mazer, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The NATO litter serves as a transport device and hospital bed during all types of operations. Little is known about the skin interface pressure on this litter. The purpose of this study was to determine whether various types of padding on the litter and body position affect the peak skin interface pressure and the total body area exposed to interface pressures above 30 mm Hg at different body areas. Thirty-two subjects participated. A repeated measures design was used. The surface effect was statistically significant for all peak pressure and surface area analyses (repeated-measures analysis of variance, p patients if feasible. Preventive measures (turning, elevating the heels) are still required.

  3. Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Tadaki, H; Takami, S; Muramatsu, R; Hagiwara, S; Mizuno, T; Arakawa, H

    2009-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  4. Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. Design: Case control study. Setting: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. Subjects: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin ...

  5. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (skin severity (P skin (P skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  6. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  7. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  8. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  9. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  10. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms. Medications can interfere with results Before scheduling a skin test, bring your doctor a list ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  11. Caring for Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  12. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  13. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  15. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma Treatment: Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma ...

  16. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & Sponsors ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ...

  17. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  18. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin care; Incontinence - pressure sore; Incontinence - pressure ulcer Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Images Male urinary system References Holroyd S. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: identification, prevention and care. Br J Nurs . 2015;24( ...

  19. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...

  20. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics ... The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method of determining whether a person is infected ...

  1. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  2. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... those conditions that are encountered in daily practice and to remind you of those ... care conditions. Parasitic infections can be solely confined to the skin, as seen ..... endemic areas or may become chronic and disseminate.

  3. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  4. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming ...

  6. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types are atopic dermatitis (often called eczema) and contact dermatitis. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) Eczema is a chronic ... contact with your skin, they may cause a rash called contact dermatitis. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: ...

  7. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Light treatment to the skin and Restylane to tear troughs and outer eyebrow. Photo courtesy of Rebecca Fitzagerald, MD - Los Angeles, California Possible risks Soreness Mild bruising Temporary weakness of surrounding muscles Headache Drooping eyelid Why choose neuromodulators for aging ...

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  9. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  10. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  11. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  12. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  13. Association of atopy and tentative diagnosis of skin cancer - results from occupational skin cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, I; Mohr, P; Zander, N; Fölster-Holst, R; Augustin, M

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between atopic conditions and carcinoma of the skin has been described inconsistently. Population-based data providing information on atopic diseases as well as on skin cancer are sparse. To determine the correlation between atopy and prevalence of precanceroses, non-melanoma skin cancer and malignant melanoma (MM), while taking into account known risk factors for skin cancer. Data from occupational skin cancer screenings were analysed in a cross-sectional study. Dermatologists performed whole body examinations and collected medical histories. Subjects comprised all employees (16-70 years) examined from 2006 to 2014. 'Atopy' was defined by clinical screening diagnosis and/or by participant-reported, pre-existing atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or other specified allergies confirmed by a physician. Tentative screening diagnoses of skin cancer related to actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. The study cohort comprised 90 265 employees (mean age 43 ± 11 years, 58.5% male), 30.7% of whom were ever diagnosed with an atopic disease. Persons with atopic conditions recorded in their medical history and at the time of screening had a significantly lower prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and MM. After controlling for age, sex and relevant risk factors (skin type, childhood sun burns), atopy remained significantly protective against BCC (OR 0.77) and MM (OR 0.53). Design limitations of the study include that all findings of skin cancer were based on clinical examination only and must therefore be considered tentative diagnoses. Furthermore, owing to the cross-sectional study design, causal pathways cannot be proven. However, analyses of data from such a large and general population-based cohort afford valuable insights into the relationship between atopic diseases and skin cancer. They provide the grounds for prospective cohort studies to evaluate and dissect the underlying mechanism. © 2017

  14. Skin subtype categorization based on a new questionnaire for Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeong Jin; Kim, Jeong Eun; Ko, JooYeon; Kim, Myoung Shin; Park, Eun Joo; Lee, Ga Young; Lee, Jong Hee; Na, Jung Im; Chang, Sung Eun

    2018-03-02

    Several terms have been used to characterize skin types. However, these are not based on evident dermatologic definitions, which usually include subjective and psychological properties. The objective of this study is to establish a new practical questionnaire to classify skin subtypes in Korean women to establish treatment and skin care guidance. Eight experts developed consensus statements about skin types and created a questionnaire. The content was categorized into four major subtypes: dry or non-dry; oily or nonoily; sensitive or nonsensitive; and pigmented or nonpigmented. A total of 512 patients completed the questionnaire. Correlations with age, skin Fitzpatrick's phototypes, and dermatologic comorbidities were analyzed. Korean women commonly have oily skin but complain of dryness after cleansing. They are especially sensitive to skin care products and prone to developing pigmentary lesions. There was a trend in the proportion of dry skin subtype that increased as pigmented skin increased and oily skin decreased with advanced age. The proportion of sensitive skin was higher in patients with dermatologic comorbidities. The proportion of the pigmented skin was higher in darker Fitzpatrick skin phototypes. This is the first questionnaire established for Korean women to classify practical skin subtypes and may provide a basis for treating various skin conditions.

  15. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  16. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169

  17. Biophysical effects of water and synthetic urine on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Sims, N

    2001-01-01

    Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to pressure-induced flow reductions was tested in this study. Pads saturated with water and with a water solution mixed with the main chemical constituents of urine (synthetic urine; s-urine) were applied to forearm skin of 10 healthy subjects for 5.5 hours. Skin hardness, blood flow change caused by 60 mm Hg of pressure, erythema, and temperature were compared among dry, water, and s-urine test sites. 10 healthy women. Research Center, Nova Southeastern University, Health Professions Division, Fort Lauderdale, FL. S-urine and water caused significant reductions in initial hardness and caused greater initial perfusion decreases during pressure load when compared with dry sites. Skin temperature and erythema were lower at wet sites when compared with dry sites. The findings of this study are consistent with the concept that sustained skin wetness increases vulnerability to pressure-induced blood flow reduction. The effect appears to be mainly dependent on wetness, but urine constituents may exacerbate the effect. In addition, wetness-related skin cooling may play a role. In the healthy subjects studied, the blood flow decrease was not sustained due to perfusion recovery under pressure. Skin wetness would likely have more sustained effects in patients with compromised recovery mechanisms. Measures to diminish skin exposure to wetness in these patients, whatever the wetness source, are an important consideration in a multifaceted strategy to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

  18. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  19. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics

  20. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics.

  1. Efeito vasomotor após intoxicação aguda com bupivacaína e levobupivacaína via intraperitoneal em ratos, analisado por imagem infravermelha digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Manoel Grande Carstens

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O estudo do efeito vasomotor dos anestésicos locais (AL é de suma importância para a análise da ocorrência de efeitos cardiotóxicos, neurotóxicos e interações medicamentosas. Com a finalidade de encontrar um fármaco mais seguro do que a bupivacaína racêmica, o presente estudo teve por objetivo a análise por imagem infravermelha digital do efeito vasomotor da intoxicação aguda da bupivacaína e da levobupivacaína via intraperitoneal em ratos. MÉTODO: Utilizaram-se 30 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, alocados em três grupos (n = 10 e submetidos a uma injeção intraperitoneal de AL. No Grupo C (Controle, foi realizada injeção intraperitoneal de soro fisiológico 0,9% 1 mL. No Grupo B (bupivacaína, injeção intraperitoneal de bupivacaína racêmica a 0,5% (R50-S50, dose de 20 mg.kg-1 de peso. No Grupo L (levobupivacaína, injeção intraperitoneal de levobupivacaína a 0,5%, excesso enantiomérico (S75-R25 em dose de 20 mg.kg-1 de peso. Procedeu-se à filmagem termográfica contínua desde o momento da pré-injeção até 30 minutos após a injeção. Os resultados das filmagens foram analisados em forma gráfica, verificando-se a temperatura máxima de cada rato e a temperatura média do sistema que abrigava o animal. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise gráfica revelaram que não houve diferença entre o Grupo L e o Grupo C, e a temperatura média permaneceu estável durante todo o experimento em ambos os grupos. No Grupo B, houve um fenômeno de aumento de temperatura após a injeção intraperitoneal de bupivacaína. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstraram que o efeito vasomotor da toxicidade aguda da levobupivacaína foi semelhante ao Grupo C com soro fisiológico, por meio de estudos macroscópicos por filmagem digital infravermelha, e que houve alterações vasomotoras (vasoconstrição com a intoxicação por bupivacaína em relação ao Grupo C e em relação ao Grupo L.

  2. Skin color parameters and Fitzpatrick phototypes in estimating the risk of skin cancer: A case-control study in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2016-04-01

    Light skin pigmentation is a known risk factor for skin cancer. Skin color parameters and Fitzpatrick phototypes were evaluated in terms of their usefulness in predicting the risk of skin cancer. A case-control study involved 133 individuals with skin cancer (100 with basal cell carcinoma, 21 with squamous cell carcinoma, 12 with melanoma) and 156 healthy individuals. All of them had skin phototype determined and spectrophotometric skin color measurements were done on the inner surfaces of their arms and on the buttock. Using those data, prediction models were built and subjected to 17-fold stratified cross-validation. A model, based on skin phototypes, was characterized by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.576 and exhibited a lower predictive power than the models, which were mostly based on spectrophotometric variables describing pigmentation levels. The best predictors of skin cancer were R coordinate of RGB color space (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.687) and melanin index (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.683) for skin on the buttock. A small number of patients were studied. Models were not externally validated. Skin color parameters are more accurate predictors of skin cancer occurrence than skin phototypes. Spectrophotometry is a quick, easy, and affordable method offering relatively good predictive power. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [A case of skin autograft for skin ulcers in ichthyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijun; Tang, Xueyang

    2017-10-28

    Ichthyosis refers to a group of skin diseases characterized by abnormal keratinization of the epidermis, resulting in dryness, roughness and scale of the skin. A girl with ichthyosis, who presented with skin ulcers and infection of the right dorsal foot, was admitted to our department. An autologous razor-thin skin grafting procedure was performed to repair the skin ulcers after debridement and vacuum sealing drain. After 8 months of follow-up, both the donor and recipient site healed well and there were no newly formed ulcers or infections. Although the skin quality of ichthyosis is poor, the lesion area can still be used as donor or recipient cite.

  4. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David W; Dvoracek, Barb; Vongsa, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    The ideal gentle cleansing product is one that effectively removes soils while minimizing damage to the skin. Thus, measuring physical abrasion caused by cleansing tissues is critical to the continued development of gentle cleansing products. Current analysis of cleansing materials for skin gentleness is time consuming and requires expensive human subject testing. This report describes the development of a rapid and inexpensive bench assay for the assessment of skin abrasion caused by wiping. Coefficient of friction (COF) evaluations using bench methods were compared with results from clinical studies of repeated wiping and with confocal visualizations of excised skin. A Monitor/Slip and Friction instrument (model 32-06; TMI, Amityville, NY, USA) was used to measure tissue friction on simulated skin (Vitro-Skin, N19-5X; IMS, Milford, CT, USA). Clinical data from a 4-day repetitive forearm wiping study measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in 30 subjects was compared with results from the bench top assay. In addition, excised skin samples were also treated using the COF bench assay and examined using confocal microscopy to visualize stratum corneum damage caused by wiping. Using the bench COF assay, we were able to distinguish between bath tissue codes by comparing average static friction value (ASFV) for the test codes, where lower ASFV indicated less abrasive tissue. The ASFV followed the same gentleness trend observed in the clinical study. Confocal microscopy of excised skin wiped with the same materials indicated stratum corneum damage consistent with the bench COF and clinical TEWL observations. We observed significant correlation between bench and clinical methods for measuring skin damage caused by wiping of skin with tissue. The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. New analysis methods for skin fine-structure via optical image and development of 3D skin Cycloscan(™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J Y; Nam, G W; Lee, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, E J

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to develop methods for measuring skin fine-structure via optical image and apparatus for photographing to analyze efficacy of anti-aging. We developed an apparatus named 3D Skin CycloScan(™) to evaluate the efficacy of cosmetics by imagification of skin fine-structure such as wrinkles, pores, and skin texture. The semi-sphere shaped device has 12 different sequential flashing light sources captures optical image simultaneously in one second to exclude the influence of the subject's movement. The normal map that is extracted through shape from shading method is composed of face contour and skin fine-structure parts. When the low-frequency component which is the result of the Gaussian Filter application is eliminated, we can get only skin fine-structure. In this normal map, it is possible to extract two-dimensional vector map called direction map and we can regulate the intensity of the image of wrinkles, pores, and skin texture after filtering the direction map. We performed a clinical study to apply this new apparatus and methods to evaluate an anti-aging efficacy of cosmetics visually and validate with other conventional methods. After using anti-aging cream including 2% adenosine for 8 weeks, the total amount of fine wrinkle around eye area detected via 3D Skin CycloScan(™) was reduced by 12.1%. Also, wrinkles on crow's feet measured by PRIMOS COMPACT(®) (GFMesstechnik GmbH, Germany) reduced 11.7%. According to an aspect of the present study, by changing the direction of the lights toward to subject's skin, we can obtain the information about the fine structures present on the skin such as wrinkles, pores, or skin texture and represent it as an image. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  7. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  8. Thyroid and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Alka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of thyroid disorders with skin manifestations is complex. Both hypothryoidism and hyperthyroidism are known to cause these changes. In order to study this association of skin changes in relation to hypothyroidism, a study was carried out in the outpatients department of Dermatology of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, over a period of 3 months from Jan-March 2005. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study and parameters were noted regarding history, general symptoms, cutaneous signs and associated diseases. We found gain in weight (71.85% and lethargy (65.62% to be the most common complaints. On cutaneous examination, dry, coarse texture of the skin (56%, pigmentary disorders (37.5% and telogen effluvium (40.62% were the most common findings. Other associated disorders were vitiligo, melasma, pemphigus, alopecia areata, xanthelasma palpebrarum, etc.

  9. Environment and the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskind, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury

  10. Climate change and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ashley D

    2018-04-01

    Despite commanding essentially universal scientific consensus, climate change remains a divisive and poorly understood topic in the United States. Familiarity with this subject is not just for climate scientists. The impact of climate change on human morbidity and mortality may be considerable; thus, physicians also should be knowledgeable in this realm. Climate change science can seem opaque and inferential, creating fertile ground for political polemics and undoubtedly contributing to confusion among the general public. This puts physicians in a pivotal position to facilitate a practical understanding of climate change in the public sphere by discussing changes in disease patterns and their possible relationship to a changing climate. This article provides a background on climate change for dermatologists and highlights how climate change may impact the management of skin disease across the United States.

  11. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin graft viability test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahner, H.W.; Robertson, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    With respect to skin pedicles (tubular pedicle or direct flap), an estimation of the blood supply is of great importance in making a decision as to when to perform the separation from the original blood supply. This decision is based on empiric observation of the normal time of healing and varies greatly with the site and the concepts of the individual surgery. A number of methods have been proposed for testing the circulation of pedicle skin flaps or tubes, and these methods all seem more complicated and less accurate than the isotope method that is described in this chapter

  13. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  14. Studies on age-related changes, regional and bilateral differences in the skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung-Wook

    1992-01-01

    Xenon-133 clearance method was used to determine skin blood flow at different sites. The correlation between skin blood flow in the deltoid region and age was examined. In addition, regional and bilateral differences in skin blood flow were examined. The subjects were 60 men. They ranged in age from 23 to 72 years with a mean of 53.3±10.95. Fifty μCi of xenon-133 dissolved in 0.1 ml of sterile distilled water was injected into the skin area. The clearance curve over the skin was recorded for 30 minutes by a scintillation counter. Skin blood flow in the deltoid region decreased significantly with aging. Dorsal skin blood flow in the hands and feet were significantly lower than the deltoid region. Regarding skin blood flow in the deltoid regions, there was significantly bilateral difference. In the hands and feet, the dorsal skin was bilaterally nearly equal. In view of regional hemodynamics in the skin, the conditions for random-pattern skin flap and wound healing were unfavorable in the elderly as compared with younger persons. Skin blood flow decreased gradually from the upper part of the body to the lower part of the body. In skin blood flow in the dorsal skin of the hands and feet, no bilateral difference was observed. (N.K.)

  15. The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Paluso, Dominic; Anderson, Devyn; Swan, Kristin; Yim, Jong Eun; Murugesan, Vengatesh; Chindam, Tirupathi; Goraksh, Neha; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Trivedi, Moxi; Hudlikar, Akshay N; Katrak, Vahishta

    2011-04-01

    As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  17. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  18. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  19. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007) ar...... of the 'Muselmann', and Anton Ehrenzweig's psychoanalytic theory of artistic creation. Whereas Hart is focusing on form and colour, I also turn my attention towards the texture of the painting....

  20. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected...... by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Plasma...... cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...

  1. A handheld optical device for skin profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiuai; Liu, Xiaojin

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a portable optical scanning device designed for skin surface measurement on both colour and 3D geometry through a relative easy and cost effective multiple light source photometric stereo method. The validation of colour recovered had been verified through its application on skin lesion segmentation in our early work. This paper focuses on the reconstructed topographic data which are subject to further evaluation and advancement. The evaluation work takes the skin in vitro as an application scenario and compares the experimental result to that obtained by using a commercial product. The experiments show that this handheld device can measure the skin profile significantly closer to that of the ground truth and have the additional function of skin colour recovery.

  2. Skin dosimetry - radiological protection aspects of skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following a Workshop in Skin Dosimetry, a summary of the radiological protection aspects is given. Aspects discussed include routine skin monitoring and dose limits, the need for careful skin dosimetry in high accidental exposures, techniques for assessing skin dose at all relevant depths and the specification of dose quantities to be measured by personal dosemeters and the appropriate methods to be used in their calibration. (UK)

  3. DNA-repair after UV-irradiation in skin fibroblasts from patients with actinic keratosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbano, E.; Andreassi, L.; Fimiani, M.; Valentino, A.; Baiocchi, R.

    1978-01-01

    Autoradiographic counting technique was utilized to measure the ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of skin fibroblasts from 12 patients with chronic actinic keratosis and from 12 healthy donors of about the same age. In order to reveal a possible regional difference of DNA repair between the parts of the body ordinarily exposed and those parts unexposed to sunlight, two cell strains were used for each examined subject; one developed from the forehead skin and the other from the abdominal or axillary skin. Unscheduled DNA synthesis appeared depressed in actinic keratosis patients, as compared with controls. In all examined subjects, however, cell strains from exposed skin showed a DNA repair more active than cell strains from unexposed skin. These findings show that skin cancer may be promoted in actinic keratosis patients by a defect of DNA repair. The exalted DNA repair of chronically sun exposed skin is probably the consequence of a defensive process caused by enzymatic induction. (orig.) [de

  4. Frog skin function revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of the epidermis. These mechanisms have evolved pari passu with life alternating between aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with permeabilities of the skin controlled by external ion- and osmotic concentrations (loc. cit.). This allows for fast switching of the cutaneous uptake of chloride between active...

  5. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the exhibition is to create a connection between the artistic and technological development through Danish rms and researchers who represent the newest technology in concrete treatment. The rst part exhibition (skin) will focus on the surface treatment of concrete (’graphical concrete’), the second (cut...

  6. Mechanical modeling of skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Peters, G.W.M.; Kassab, G.S.; Sacks, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter describes the work that was performed in the soft tissue biomechanics laboratory at Eindhoven University of Technology on the biomechanics of skin. A rationale is given for the changes from standard testing methods to inverse methods, from in vitro to in vivo and back to in vitro testing

  7. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  8. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  9. Immunity and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms

  10. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ... 29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463- ...

  11. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  12. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  13. Light and skin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere due to chlorofluorocarbons, the screening effect of this ozone layer on ultraviolet radiation (especially the so-called UV-B component) is reduced. This paper describes the impact of increased UV radiation on the human skin. Because of the 'ozone-hole', a distinct increase in the rate of skin cancer is to be expected which will affect all living beings but most of all man - an indirect consequence of the climate development. What makes the increased intensity of UV-B radiation so harmful is the fact that light-induced skin damage accumulates for the period of the life-time of the individual and cannot be reversed. A further thinning of stratospheric ozone would let through, in addition, the more short-waved ('harder') UV-C radiation. The latter, though clinically not significant currently, would then account for a further increase in the rate of malignant skin disease world-wide. (orig.) [de

  14. Skin peeling syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

  15. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  16. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  17. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation an...

  18. Comparison of skin responses from macroscopic and microscopic UV challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, InSeok; Bargo, Paulo R.; Chu, Melissa; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2011-03-01

    The minimal erythema dose induced by solar-simulated radiation is a useful measure of UV sensitivity of skin. Most skin phototests have been conducted by projecting a flat field of UV radiation onto the skin in an area greater than 15 cm × 15 cm with an increment of radiation doses. In this study, we investigated the responses of human skin to solar-simulated radiation of different field sizes. Twelve human subjects of skin phototype I-IV were exposed to solar-simulated radiation (SSR) on their upper inner arm or on their lower back with a series of doses in increments of 20% in order to determine the threshold dose to induce a minimal perceptible erythema response (MED). Each dose was delivered with a liquid light guide (8 mm diameter on the back or 6 mm on the upper inner arm) and with quartz optical fibers of 200 μm diameter. The resulting skin responses were evaluated visually and investigated with a reflectance confocal microscope and imaging. The erythema response to the microscopic challenge was always diffuse with no clear boundaries extending to several times the exposed site diameter at doses greater than 2 MED. The skin returned to normal appearance from the microscopic challenge after two weeks of exposure while change in appearance for the larger areas persisted for several weeks to months. This new modality of testing provides the possibility to study skin at the microscopic level with a rapid recovery following challenge.

  19. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  20. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with no breaks in the surface. It is warm (not hot or red) and neither dry and flaky nor moist and wrinkled. Healthy skin is a mirror of a healthy body. How to take care of your skin NUTRITION: To keep your skin healthy, eat a well- ...

  1. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Health Awareness Month Diabetes Awareness What Are Skin Cancers of the Feet? Skin cancer can develop anywhere on the body, including ... cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer on the skin of the feet. Most types of early squamous ...

  2. ICRP-26 and skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.; Huda, W.; Newbery, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The experience of dealing with skin contamination incidents at The Radiochemical Centre over a 3-year period is presented. Data are given for the primary isotopes involved, the duration of skin contamination, and the skin doses that arise from these incidents. The methods employed in performing dosimetry for skin contamination are discussed and examples involving the isotopes carbon-14 and indium-111 are described. For skin contamination incidents, the mode of penetration of the activity into skin is normally not known and this can be of major significance for the final skin dose estimate. The operational health physics difficulties encountered in complying with both ICRP-26 and UK legislation for skin contamination are considered. In the event of multiple exposure (i.e. skin doses calculated from whole body film badges, extremity TLD dose meters and skin contamination) there is ambiguity in the precise meaning of the skin dose. The usefulness of Derived Working Levels is also discussed. Experience at The Radiochemical Centre has shown that good plant design, proper training and prompt action in dealing with contamination incidents ensures that overexposures to skin from accidental contamination are rare occurrences. (author)

  3. "Shades of beauty": examining the relationship of skin color to perceptions of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research project was to investigate the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness. Previous research suggested that skin color plays an important role in how we perceive an individual's physical attractiveness. The current study was conducted to determine how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. In this study, 79 subjects were asked to evaluate images of potential endorsers to be used in an upcoming advertising campaign. The images were those of females of varying skin tones. Data were then collected and analyzed to determine whether skin tone and level of skin color can in fact influence the physical attractiveness stereotype.

  4. Characterization of skin friction coefficient, and relationship to stratum corneum hydration in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Song, S P; Luo, W; Elias, P M; Man, M Q

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15-79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer FR 770 and Corneometer CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p skin friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p skin friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Combination of microneedle radiofrequency (RF), fractional RF skin resurfacing and multi-source non-ablative skin tightening for minimal-downtime, full-face skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Haim; Kaplan, Lilach

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, there is a growth in demand for radiofrequency (RF)-based procedures to improve skin texture, laxity and contour. The new generation of systems allow non-invasive and fractional resurfacing treatments on one platform. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new treatment protocol using a multisource RF, combining 3 different modalities in each patient: [1] non-ablative RF skin tightening, [2] fractional skin resurfacing, and [3] microneedling RF for non-ablative coagulation and collagen remodelling. 14 subjects were enrolled in this study using EndyMed PRO ™ platform. Each patient had 8 non-ablative treatments and 4 fractional treatments (fractional skin resurfacing and Intensif). The global aesthetic score was used to evaluate improvement. All patients had improvement in skin appearance. About 43% had excellent or very good improvement above 50%, 18% had good improvement between 25 and 50%, and the rest 39% had a mild improvement of skin texture, skin laxity and wrinkle reduction achieved using RF treatment platform.

  6. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  7. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is skin cancer? Skin cancer is cancer that occurs in different kinds ... squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Facts About Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: acral peeling skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Acral peeling skin syndrome Acral peeling skin syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by ...

  9. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, David M [Corvallis, OR; Farsoni, Abdollah T [Corvallis, OR; Cazalas, Edward [Corvallis, OR

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  10. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks. Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5 and 14 days (94.8. Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1. Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days. Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.

  12. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation

  13. Vibroacoustic Skin Diagnostics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana М. Yatsun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the mathematical modeling of biological diagnosis of complex heterogeneous structure (skin, using non-destructive control method. The mathematical model, describing interaction of the material with electrodynamic vibration generator and sensor system, controlling the propagation of small disturbances was developed. The influence of material model parameters on the spectrum in the course of the propagation of the surface disturbance

  14. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  15. Superficial skin ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaila, Modupeola O.; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini H.; Oluwole, Olabode P.; Adewuyi, Sunday A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the underlying cause of superficial skin ulcers over a 15-year period. A retrospective histopathological analysis of 670 cases of superficial skin ulcers diagnosed in the Dept. of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria from January 1991 to December 2005. A total of 670 superficial skin ulcers were analyzed. The mail to female gender ratio was 409:261(1.5:1.0) and a peakage frequency of 44.3 %( 297) in the 5th and 6th decades. Spectrum of lesions encountered was categorized into inflammatory, infections, benign and malignant diseases. The malignant lesions were 309 (46.1%), non-specific inflammation 302 (45.1%), granulation tissue 25 (3.7%) and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia 14 (2.1%). A total of 18(2.7%) specific infections were encountered, which included bacterial, fungal and viral infection. Benign lesions were 2(0.3%), comprising of neurofibroma and Bowen's disease. The most common malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma 203 (30.3%) with a male to female ratio of 128:75 (1.7:1.0). Of these 161 were well differentiated tumors. The lower limb was the prevalent site distribution of all the ulcers. Superficial ulcers may be harbinger of malignant diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma remains the most common malignant lesion arising from chronic superficial ulcers from our setting. Adequate tissue biopsy and early diagnosis may reduce the attendant morbidity of these ulcers. (author)

  16. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  17. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  18. Effects of radiation on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on pig skin are described, comparing and contrasting the effects seen in human and rodent skin. It is concluded that, anatomically, pig skin is the best animal model for human skin. The applications of the 'pig skin model' to investigations of the problems of radiation therapy and radiological protection of human skin are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Lower corticosteroid skin blanching response is associated with severe COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J M Hoonhorst

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation caused by ongoing inflammatory and remodeling processes of the airways and lung tissue. Inflammation can be targeted by corticosteroids. However, airway inflammation is generally less responsive to steroids in COPD than in asthma. The underlying mechanisms are yet unclear. This study aimed to assess whether skin corticosteroid insensitivity is associated with COPD and COPD severity using the corticosteroid skin blanching test.COPD patients GOLD stage I-IV (n = 27, 24, 22, and 16 respectively and healthy never-smokers and smokers (n = 28 and 56 respectively were included. Corticosteroid sensitivity was assessed by the corticosteroid skin blanching test. Budesonide was applied in 8 logarithmically increasing concentrations (0-100 μg/ml on subject's forearm. Assessment of blanching was performed after 7 hours using a 7-point scale (normal skin to intense blanching. All subjects performed spirometry and body plethysmography.Both GOLD III and GOLD IV COPD patients showed significantly lower skin blanching responses than healthy never-smokers and smokers, GOLD I, and GOLD II patients. Their area under the dose-response curve values of the skin blanching response were 586 and 243 vs. 1560, 1154, 1380, and 1309 respectively, p<0.05. Lower FEV1 levels and higher RV/TLC ratios were significantly associated with lower skin blanching responses (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 respectively. GOLD stage I, II, III and IV patients had similar age and packyears.In this study, severe and very severe COPD patients had lower skin corticosteroid sensitivity than mild and moderate COPD patients and non-COPD controls with comparable age and packyears. Our findings together suggest that the reduced skin blanching response fits with a subgroup of COPD patients that has an early-onset COPD phenotype.

  20. The relationship of psychological trauma with trichotillomania and skin picking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özten, Eylem; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Eryılmaz, Gül; Kağan, Gaye; Işık, Sibel; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder. The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events. There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07). But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects. We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as developing trichotillomania or skin picking symptoms helps the patient to cope with intrusive thoughts related to trauma. Future longitudinal research must focus on whether trauma and post-traumatic stress or trichotillomania and skin picking precede the development of mental disorder.

  1. The "Haptic Finger"- a new device for monitoring skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mami; Lévêque, Jean Luc; Tagami, Hachiro; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Chonan, Seifi

    2003-05-01

    Touching the skin is of great importance for the Clinician for assessing roughness, softness, firmness, etc. This type of clinical assessment is very subjective and therefore non-reproducible from one Clinician to another one or even from time to time for the same Clinician. In order to objectively monitor skin texture, we developed a new sensor, placed directly on the Clinician's finger, which generate some electric signal when slid over the skin surface. The base of this Haptic Finger sensor is a thin stainless steel plate on which sponge rubber, PVDF foil, acetate film and gauze are layered. The signal generated by the sensor was filtered and digitally stored before processing. In a first in vitro experiment, the sensor was moved over different skin models (sponge rubber covered by silicon rubber) of varying hardness and roughness. These experiments allowed the definition of two parameters characterizing textures. The first parameter is variance of the signal processed using wavelet analysis, representing an index of roughness. The second parameter is dispersion of the power spectrum density in the frequency domain, corresponding to hardness. To validate these parameters, the Haptic Finger was used to scan skin surfaces of 30 people, 14 of whom displayed a skin disorder: xerosis (n = 5), atopic dermatitis (n = 7), and psoriasis (n = 2). The results obtained by means of the sensor were compared with subjective, clinical evaluations by a Clinician who scored both roughness and hardness of the skin. Good agreement was observed between clinical assessment of the skin and the two parameters generated using the Haptic Finger. Use of this sensor could prove extremely valuable in cosmetic research where skin surface texture (in terms of tactile properties) is difficult to measure.

  2. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PAPULOSQUAMOUS SKIN LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdari Balaji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Papulosquamous lesions form the largest group of skin diseases. Since, they are all characterized by scaling papules or plaques, clinical confusion may result in their diagnosis, hence definitive histopathological analysis is important for their differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study includes skin biopsies from 108 clinically diagnosed /suspected non-infectious, erythematous, papulosquamous skin diseases which were received in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam for a period of two years from January 2016 to December 2017. The specimens obtained were subjected to formalin fixation and was subjected to routine processing and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The lesions were classified as Lichen Planus, Psoriasis, along with rare conditions like Pityriasis Rosea, Parapsoriasis, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris, Prurigo Nodularis and Lichen Simplex chronicus and clinicopathological correlation was done. RESULTS A total of 108 cases were studied. Lichen planus (51 cases- 47.22% was the most common lesions followed by Psoriasis (34 cases - 31.48% and with majority of cases in the age group of 21 to 30 years (25 cases– 23.15%. Females were more commonly affected with a male to female ratio of 0.89:1. Out of 108 cases, clinicopathological correlation was seen in 68 cases (62.96%. CONCLUSION The importance of specific histopathological diagnosis lies in distinguishing these lesions into different entities as the treatment and prognosis varies widely and is disease-specific.

  3. Proposed derivation of skin contamination and skin decontamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    From the primary dose limits for the skin, secondary dose limits were derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. Analogous to the secondary dose limit for the maximum permissible body burden in the case of incorporation, dose limits for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' were calculated, with the help of dose factors, for application in the case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. For conditions in which the skin is exposed to temporary contamination, a limit of skin contamination was derived for immediately removable contamination and for one day of exposure. For non-removable contamination a dose limit of annual skin contamination was defined, taking into account the renewal of the skin. An investigation level for skin contamination was assumed, as a threshold, above which certain measures must be taken; these to include appropriate washing not more than three times, with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The dose limits are indicated for selected radionuclides. (author)

  4. Impact of chemical peeling combined with negative pressure on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Kang, I J; Shin, M K; Jeong, K H; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Lee, S J

    2016-10-01

    In vivo changes in skin barrier function after chemical peeling with alpha hydroxyacids (AHAs) have been previously reported. However, the additional effects of physical treatment with chemical agents on skin barrier function have not been adequately studied. This study measured the degree of acute skin damage and the time required for skin barrier repair using non-invasive bioengineering methods in vivo with human skin to investigate the additional effect of a 4% AHA chemical jet accelerated at supersonic velocities. Thirteen female subjects (average age: 29.54 ± 4.86 years) participated in this study. The faces of the subjects were divided into half according to the block randomization design and were then assigned to receive AHA peeling alone or AHA peeling combined with pneumatic pressure on each side of the face. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin colour and skin blood flow were evaluated at baseline and at 30 min, 2, 5 and 7 days after treatment. The TEWL and skin blood flow were significantly increased after 30 min in chemodermabrasion compared with chemical peeling alone (P peeling alone (P < 0.05). Chemodermabrasion can temporarily impair skin barriers, but it is estimated that it can enhance the skin barrier function after 7 days compared to the use of a chemical agent alone. In addition, chemodermabrasion has a more effective impact in the dermis and relatively preserves the skin barrier. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Johnson, John M

    2016-04-01

    Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss. These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on reconstruction of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarish Babu Malli Sadhasivan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of the study was to describe the use of skin fold advancement flaps (SFAFs and other reconstructive techniques for closure of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs. Materials and Methods: Twelve dogs underwent reconstruction of large ventral skin defects following mammary tumor excision with wide margins. Skin fold flaps (flank fold flap and elbow fold flap were elevated from the flank and elbow region, respectively, and transposed and sutured onto the large ventral skin defect following mastectomy in all the dogs. In addition to the skin fold flaps, other reconstructive techniques such as undermining, walking sutures, and tension-relieving suture techniques were followed during surgery in the closure of large skin defects without skin tension and compromising limb mobility. The skin flap viability was assessed subjectively by gross observation of the flap such as color, temperature, capillary perfusion, and cosmetic appearance, and scoring (1-4 was done. Tissue samples were collected from a surgical site on days 3, 6, and 12 post-operatively for histopathological evaluation and healing status of the skin flap. Results: All the surgical wounds healed primarily, without any major complications and the skin flap remained healthy throughout the healing process post-operatively. Distal flap necrosis was noticed in one case and necrosis of skin flap between two suture lines was noticed in another case in which the necrotized distal portion healed by secondary intention after 7 days. The mean survival of subdermal plexus flap in the above cases was 98% which was a subjective evaluation based on surface area of the skin defect measured by Image 'J software and the flap dimensions. The average healing of skin flap in days was 14.91±0.86. Conclusion: The SFAFs along with other reconstructive techniques help in the reconstruction of large ventral skin defects following mastectomy in dogs without much

  7. Dermal safety assessment of Arm & Hammer laundry products formulated for sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Douglas M; Vorwerk, Linda; Gupta, Archana; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of sensitive skin among the general population in industrialized countries is reported to be over 50%. Sensitive skin subjects often report significant reactions to contact with cosmetics, soaps and other consumer products. This paper describes the overall skin compatibility and mildness program for a newly developed, lightly fragranced, colorant free laundry product (i.e. Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent), specially formulated for individuals with sensitive skin. The skin mildness of the product was compared to Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear liquid laundry detergent with no fragrance or colorant, and an established history of safe use by sensitive skin consumers. The test material was a liquid laundry product with a light scent formulated for sensitive skin consumers (Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent). The product was compared to commercially marketed products for sensitive skin with a history of skin safety in the marketplace, including: a very similar product formulation (Arm & Hammer™ Free & Clear with no fragrance), and several selected competitors' products. Studies were conducted among individuals with self-assessed sensitive skin (based on a questionnaire) using standard protocols for the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT), 10-Day Cumulative Irritation, the Wrist Band Wear test, and the Safety In-Use testing. Responses in all protocols were evaluated by visual scoring of potential dermatologic reactions, and recording any sensory effects at the time of the examination. In addition, sensory effects collected from panelists' daily diaries were also evaluated. The HRIPT confirmed that neither the fragrance alone, nor the product formulation with fragrance, induced contact sensitization in sensitive skin subjects. The 10-Day cumulative irritation study conducted using sensitive skin subjects showed highly favorable skin compatibility, and the test product was comparable to the control

  8. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  9. Changes in skin microcirculation during radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesselaar, Erik; Flejmer, Anna M; Farnebo, Simon; Dasu, Alexandru

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast cancer patients who receive radiation treatment are affected by acute radiation-induced skin changes. The assessment of these changes is usually done by subjective methods, which complicates the comparison between different treatments or patient groups. This study investigates the feasibility of new robust methods for monitoring skin microcirculation to objectively assess and quantify acute skin reactions during radiation treatment. Laser Doppler flowmetry, laser speckle contrast imaging, and polarized light spectroscopy imaging were used to measure radiation-induced changes in microvascular perfusion and red blood cell concentration (RBC) in the skin of 15 patients undergoing adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer. Measurements were made before treatment, once a week during treatment, and directly after the last fraction. In the treated breast, perfusion and RBC concentration were increased after 1-5 fractions (2.66-13.3 Gy) compared to baseline. The largest effects were seen in the areola and the medial area. No changes in perfusion and RBC concentration were seen in the untreated breast. In contrast, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scores were increased only after 2 weeks of treatment, which demonstrates the potential of the proposed methods for early assessment of skin changes. Also, there was a moderate to good correlation between the perfusion (r = 0.52) and RBC concentration (r = 0.59) and the RTOG score given a week later. We conclude that radiation-induced microvascular changes in the skin can be objectively measured using novel camera-based techniques before visual changes in the skin are apparent. Objective measurement of microvascular changes in the skin may be valuable in the comparison of skin reactions between different radiation treatments and possibly in predicting acute skin effects at an earlier stage.

  10. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Andersen, Ole K.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: CO(2) lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial...... to deeper skin layers. Methods: In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO(2) laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were...... compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results: The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p

  12. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  13. Skin tightening technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and intense focused ultrasound (IFUS) are increasingly used to address skin laxity of the face and neck. Both nonablative RF and ultrasound create a heat-induced tissue response that leads to collagen remodeling and other ultrastructural changes. Although these treatments are not meant to replace surgical procedures, patient satisfaction in the majority of studies has been consistently high. This article discusses the various RF and IFUS technologies currently in use and reviews pertinent clinical studies evaluating their efficacy and safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  15. Comparison of different skin preservation methods with gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Linda; Camacho, Bernardo

    2017-06-01

    Allografts are in constant demand, not only for burn victims, but also for all open wounds as "biological dressings". Tissue quality and security are two of the major concerns of Tissue Banks. There are limited studies published. There has been extensive discussion on the subject of preservation methods for cadaver skin. Most literature available comes from clinical reports. In this research, the authors compared 85% glycerolized non irradiated skin allografts with three glycerolized irradiated skin allografts (using different glycerol concentrations 50%, 70% and 85%). The evaluation of allograft quality was done by measuring physical and biological properties of such prepared human tissue grafts. In the histological structure evaluation changes were minimal and did not alter the skin structure. The clinical function of their behavior as temporal dressings was tested. They proved to have similar capabilities for improving granulating tissue and contributing to wound beds closure (Hickerson et al. (1994) [1]). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  17. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  18. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  19. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  20. Novel 3D “active” representations of skin biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin exhibits unique biomechanical properties that enable unrestricted body movements without tearing. Several devices have been used to quantify skin mechanical properties, but techniques, in general, do not concern this multidirectional capacity, only allowing measurements in a few angles. CutiScan® is a new device that quantifies skin elasticity over 360°. It uses a suction method to induce skin deformation and a video camera to quantify its displacement. This work aims to assess these properties through the analysis of 3D time-angle-height of displacement representations. 20 female subjects (37.0 ± 18.7 years old were enrolled in this study after informed consent, grouped by age in group 1 (22.0 ± 1.3 years old, and group 2 (52.0 ± 13.7 years old. The in vivo mechanical profile of each volunteer was assessed in the forehead, forearm and in the leg. Significantly higher surface area and volume under the curve values were found in the forehead of the subjects of group 2. Significant differences were also found between the forehead and forearm and between the forehead and leg among each group. These results suggest that these 3D representations are useful in distinguishing the viscoelastic profile of differently aged subjects and of different skin sites.

  1. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  2. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juturu V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya Juturu,1 James P Bowman,2 Jayant Deshpande1 1Department of Scientific and Clinical Affairs, OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., Morristown, NJ, 2James P Bowman & Associates LLC, Loveland, OH, USA Purpose: Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi, filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants.Subjects and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study (males and females, age: 18–45 years with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso-zeaxanthin or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L* were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded.Results: Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (P<0.0237, and luminance (L* values were significantly increased in the L/Zi group. Mean minimal erythemal dose was increased with L/Zi supplementation after 12 weeks of supplementation. L/Zi supplementation significantly increased the individual typological angle.Conclusion: L/Zi supplementation lightens and improves skin conditions. Keywords: lutein, zeaxanthin isomers, skin lightening, minimal erythemal dose, individual typological angle, overall skin tone

  3. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  4. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  5. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  6. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  7. [The notion of occupational skin disease. Medical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, P; Schliemann, S

    2015-03-01

    The different definitions of skin disease in medicine and in law are frequently confusing for dermatologists. While a skin disease may be defined medically referring to the definition of health by the WHO as a pathological condition of the skin leading to a disruption of the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, legal definitions vary depending on the field of insurance law that is referred to. In the law of private health insurance, a skin disease is defined as an anomalous condition of the skin requiring medical treatment that exists independently of the subjective judgement of the insured person and needs to be objectively confirmed by a medical evaluation. In contrast, in the law of the social health insurance, the Federal Court of Social Justice defines disease as irregular physical or mental condition, deviating from the perception of a healthy human being that requires medical treatment or leads to inability to work. Substantial bodily disfigurement may be regarded as an irregular physical condition. In the law of the statutory accident insurance, occupational skin diseases are defined under clause 5101 of the occupational disease regulation as serious or repeatedly relapsing skin diseases that have forced a person to refrain from any work activities causal for the development, the aggravation or the recurrence of the disease. The Federal Court of Social Justice interprets the term "skin disease" from the protective purpose of the law, i.e. the protection against the economic and health consequences of the exposure to harmful agents and a thereby forced change of profession. This broad interpretation of the term "skin disease" leads to the recognition of diseases of the conjunctiva of the eye or diseases of the blood vessels of the skin due to cold damage as skin diseases according to clause 5101. For the correct treatment and possibly notification of occupational skin diseases in collaboration with various insurance carriers

  8. Quality system and audit of human skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.

    1999-01-01

    Allograft skin has long been recognised as an important resource in the management of bum wounds. The important issue in skin banking is fust to guarantee safety of human cadaveric donor skin. Second, the quality of the allografts should be assured. The Euro Skin Bank, established in 1976, is located in The Netherlands. Not only in The Netherlands, but in many other (European) countries no specific regulation exists for tissue banking. With respect to skin banking in The Netherlands the Euro Skin Bank requested the government what regulations should be applied on their activities. It was stated in 1994 that human allografl skin should be regarded as a phan-naceutical drug, a magistral preparation. The Euro Skin Bank should therefore be subjected to the guidelines given for the Good Laboraton, Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices to process allogmft skin. Nevertheless, it was in the opinion of the Euro Skin Bank that regulating human tissue as a pharmaceutical drug was not sufficient e.g. no specific regulations for serologic testing of the tissue donor is given, which should be one of the most important issues in tissue banking. Recently the government has published new legislation for tissue banks in The Netherlands: on July I st, 1998, a new legislation was enforced concerning organ and tissue donation and on November I st, 1998, quality requirements for organ and tissue banks are published. The European Community discussed the possibility to bring all animal and human tissues under the Medical Device Directive (MDD). Soon it was proposed not to incorporate viable hw-nan tissue into the MDD. Last year all human tissue was excluded from the MDD. Lack of European regulations has been resulted in national laws, e.g. in The Netherlands, Germany and France. Possibly there might be a more significant role for the European Association of Tissue Banks in the near future for European legislation on tissue banking. In order to have a standard quality system wmch is

  9. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt-Nielsen Lars

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p 2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation.

  10. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of low relative humidity, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, hydration state of skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), recovery sebum level and skin temperature as physiological responses. We asked subjects to judge thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Sixteen non-smoking healthy male students were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test room conditions were adjusted to provide a Ta of 25 degrees C and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%.RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland and on cardiovascular reactions like blood pressure and HR. However, it was obvious that low RH affects SCT, the dryness of the ocular mucosa and the stratum corneum of the skin and causes a decrease in mean skin temperature. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin, and the mean skin temperature decreases. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 30%, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 10%. Subjects felt cold immediately after a change in RH while they had only a slight perception of dryness at the change of humidity.

  11. Optimal operation of a south double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; De Herde, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Architecture et Climat

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for higher quality office buildings. Occupants and developers of office buildings ask for a healthy and stimulating working environment. Double-skin facades are appropriate when buildings are subject to great external noise and wind loads. A further area of application is in rehabilitation work, when existing facades cannot be renewed, or where this is not desirable. Double-skin facades have a special esthetic of their own, and this can be exploited architecturally to great advantage. However there are still relatively few buildings in which double-skin facades have actually been realized, and there is still too little experience of their behaviour in operation. In this matter, we choose to study a multi-storey double-skin facades behaviour. Simulations were realized with TAS software on the building proposed in the frame of the subtask A of the Task 27 (performance of solar facade components) of the International Energy Agency. Simulations were performed on the chosen building with and without double-skin facades. We decide to study eight types of days; and we analyze the double-skin facade behaviour for various operations. The thermal behaviours of the building with and without double-skin are compared. The study of these eight cases showed the importance of the dynamic use of the double-skin. The operation of this one must be obligatorily related to the climatic conditions as well external as interior and a bad operation of the double-skin could lead to catastrophic results. (author)

  12. Skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT): origins and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streilein, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The skin has an unusual set of immunologic requirements. It is confronted by a specialized set of pathogenic organisms and environmental chemicals that represent a distinctive spectrum of antigenic specificities. Skin is subjected to physicochemical stresses such as irradiation with ultraviolet light that alter dramatically its immunologic properties. It is proposed that nature has provided skin with a unique collection of lymphoid cells, reticular cells, and organized lymphoid organs to deal with these special demands. Evidence in favor of the existence of skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) includes (1) the cutaneous microenvironment is capable on its own of accepting, processing, and presenting nominal antigen; (2) strategically located peripheral lymph nodes are able to accept immunogenic signals derived from skin; (3) subsets of T lymphocytes display differential affinity for skin and its associated peripheral nodes; and (4) acquisition of this affinity by T cells is determined at least in part by differentiation signals received in situ from resident cutaneous cells. Responsibility for the establishment and integration of SALT rests with keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and immunocompetent lymphocytes, each of which contributes uniquely to the synthesis. Together they provide skin with immune surveillance that effectively prejudices against the development of cutaneous neoplasms and persistent infection with intracellular pathogens. In patients who have been under long-term immunosuppressive therapy, the large majority of nonlymphoid malignancies arise within the skin, rather than other types of tissues. These data suggest that immune surveillance, once thought to be an immune defense operative in all somatic tissues, is a specialized immune function dedicated to the skin and mediated by SALT

  13. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  14. Non-ablative skin tightening with radiofrequency in Asian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-02-01

    The recent successful application of radiofrequency (RF) in non-ablative skin tightening for skin laxity has attracted attention worldwide. The efficacy and clinical effect of RF were assessed in Asian skin, with additional study on the duration of the effect and any complications. Eighty-five Japanese females were enrolled in the study for treatment of nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and sagging jowls with 6-month follow-up. RF treatment was effective for nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and jowls. Objective physician evaluation found relatively good improvement at 3 months post-treatment, and even better improvement at the 6-month evaluation. RF treatment was very satisfactory for skin tightening in Asian facial skin. When compared with published literature from the United States, the results suggested that there might be race-related differences in the treatment parameters. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Facial skin blood flow responses during exposures to emotionally charged movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Ishii, Kei; Ito, Momoka; Liang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    The changes in regional facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance have been assessed for the first time with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry during audiovisually elicited emotional challenges for 2 min (comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 12 subjects. Limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic cardiovascular variables were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance, especially in the lips, decreased during viewing of comedy and horror movies, whereas they did not change during viewing of a landscape movie. The decreases in facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance were the greatest with the comedy movie. The changes in lip, cheek, and chin skin blood flow negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness. The changes in lip skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of pleasantness, while the changes in infraorbital, subnasal, and chin skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of consciousness. However, none of the changes in limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic hemodynamics correlated with the subjective ratings. The mental arithmetic task did not alter facial and limb skin blood flows, although the task influenced systemic cardiovascular variables. These findings suggest that the more emotional status becomes pleasant or conscious, the more neurally mediated vasoconstriction may occur in facial skin blood vessels.

  16. Friction of human skin against smooth and rough glass as a function of the contact pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derler, S.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Lenz, A.; Bertaux, E.; Hadad, M.

    2009-01-01

    The friction behaviour of human skin was studied by combining friction measurements using a tri-axial force plate with skin contact area measurements using a pressure sensitive film. Four subjects carried out friction measurement series, in which they rubbed the index finger pad and the edge of the

  17. A novel approach to measuring the frictional behaviour of human skin in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2012-01-01

    Friction involving human skin plays a key role in human life. The availability of a portable tribometer improves the accessibility to large number of both subjects and anatomical sites. This is the first mobile device suitable to measure skin friction with a controlled and variable normal load

  18. Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Titze, IR; Popolo, PS

    How accurately can sound pressure levels (SPLs) of speech be estimated from skin vibration of the neck? Measurements using a small accelerometer were carried out in 27 subjects (10 males and 17 females) who read Rainbow and Marvin Williams passages in soft, comfortable, and loud voice, while skin

  19. Response of Human Skin to Aesthetic Scarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Vincent A.; McClellan, Elizabeth A.; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate changes in RNA expression in previously healthy adult human skin following thermal injury induced by contact with hot metal that was undertaken as part of aesthetic scarification, a body modification practice. Subjects were recruited to have pre-injury skin and serial wound biopsies performed. 4 mm punch biopsies were taken prior to branding and 1 hour, 1 week, and 1, 2 and 3 months post injury. RNA was extracted and quality assured prior to the use of a whole-genome based bead array platform to describe expression changes in the samples using the pre-injury skin as a comparator. Analysis of the array data was performed using k-means clustering and a hypergeometric probability distribution without replacement and corrections for multiple comparisons were done. Confirmatory q-PCR was performed. Using a k of 10, several clusters of genes were shown to co-cluster together based on Gene Ontology classification with probabilities unlikely to occur by chance alone. OF particular interest were clusters relating to cell cycle, proteinaceous extracellular matrix and keratinization. Given the consistent expression changes at one week following injury in the cell cycle cluster, there is an opportunity to intervene early following burn injury to influence scar development. PMID:24582755

  20. Experimental studies on the nature of sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligman, A M; Sadiq, Iqbal; Zhen, Yaxian; Crosby, Marilyn

    2006-11-01

    In the USA, Europe and Japan 40 to 50% of women report that they have sensitive skin, defined as abnormal sub-clinical sensory responses to drugs, cosmetics and toiletries in the absence of visible signs of irritation. Itching, burning, stinging and tightness are the commonest complaints, which mainly afflict women. Manufacturers of skin care products have made available a large variety of products which are designed for persons with sensitive skin. Such products are not required by regulatory agencies to submit evidence of safety and efficacy, allowing marketers to make claims that are often exaggerated, irrational and even preposterous. The consumer with self-assessed sensitive skin has no way of judging which products are likely to be most beneficial and least harmful. The marketplace is awash with products for which there is no evidence that the rosy claims have been substantiated by appropriate testing procedures. There is no internationally accepted consensus regarding the criteria which define sensitive skin. Many papers have been published in the last 15 years, mainly originating from industry, which express widely differing views regarding what constitutes sensitive skin. For some, any adverse reaction to a product topically applied to sensitive skin, including breakouts, redness, scaling etc., a panoply of adverse reactions which is virtually meaningless. Others include environmental factors as causative, including cold, dry wind, heat and high humidity, solar radiation, etc., which add to the manifest complexities of the subject. This is the first paper in a series which provides a comprehensive review of the subject, emphasizing the all too many controversies and confusions arising from the lack of a consensus regarding the identification, classification, epidemiology, prevalence and pathogenesis of sensitive skin. Sensitive skin is a biologic reality and not a psychological, fashionable fantasy on the part of impressionable women. There is an urgent

  1. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    favored by companies and their employees. To bring the reduction of energy use in these buildings application of suitable tools and methods is necessary to achieve successful design solutions. Earlier work on the topic of DSF modelling was examined from various publications. As a result, the main...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model...... is developed to account for recirculation flow appearance in the DSF cavity. The model is based on a simple mass balance between the boundary layer flow and the main flow in the cavity....

  2. Regulatory T cells in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    Foxp3 + CD4 + regulatory T (Treg) cells are a subset of immune cells that function to regulate tissue inflammation. Skin is one of the largest organs and is home to a large proportion of the body's Treg cells. However, relative to other tissues (such as the spleen and gastrointestinal tract) the function of Treg cells in skin is less well defined. Here, we review our understanding of how Treg cells migrate to skin and the cellular and molecular pathways required for their maintenance in this tissue. In addition, we outline what is known about the specialized functions of Treg cells in skin. Namely, the orchestration of stem cell-mediated hair follicle regeneration, augmentation of wound healing, and promoting adaptive immune tolerance to skin commensal microbes. A comprehensive understanding of the biology of skin Treg cells may lead to novel therapeutic approaches that preferentially target these cells to treat cutaneous autoimmunity, skin cancers and disorders of skin regeneration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  4. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complete chart of side effects. Side effects of Skin Cancer Treatment OrganSystem General Body • cTo ( i D rme ... scrilineesnr/ desbuaoocrnfettedhh) e( ersatkrrieena) tment HELPFUL WEBSITES ON SKIN CANCER TARG E T I NG C A NC ...

  5. Parkinson disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: protein expression in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Leyva, Ildefonso; Chi-Ahumada, Erika G; Carrizales, Juan; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Velázquez-Osuna, Salvador; Medina-Mier, Verónica; Martel-Gallegos, María G; Zarazúa, Sergio; Enríquez-Macías, Lourdes; Castro, Adriana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E

    2016-03-01

    This study characterizes the expression of tau (p-tau) and α-synuclein (α-syn) by immunohistochemistry in the skin of three different populations: healthy control (HC), Parkinson disease (PD), and progressive supranuclear paralysis (PSP) subjects, with the purpose of finding a biomarker that could differentiate between subjects with PD and PSP. We evaluated the presence of p-tau and α-syn in a pilot study in the skin of three distinct groups of patients: 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with PD, and 10 patients with PSP. Four millimeters punch biopsies were obtained from the occipital area and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against α-syn and phosphorylated species of tau. PHF (paired helical filaments) antibody identifies p-tau in both normal and pathological conditions and AT8 recognizes p-tau characteristic of pathological conditions. Differences between the three groups were assessed by quantification of immunopositive areas in the epidermis. The immunopositivity pattern of p-tau and α-syn was significantly different among the three groups. Healthy subjects showed minimal staining using AT8 and α-syn. The PD group showed significantly higher α-syn and AT8 immunopositivity, while the PSP group only expressed higher AT8 immunopositivity than HCs. These data suggest that the skin reflects brain pathology. Therefore, immunohistochemical analysis of p-tau and α-syn in the skin can be useful for further characterization of PD and PSP.

  6. Radiation reaction of skin treatment with nucliderm-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandova, V.; Marinova, Ts.; Stefanova, D.; Pantev, T.; Yankova, S.

    1988-01-01

    The process of epithelization and the anticeptic effect of nucliderm-gel applied locally have been studied in 63 oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy. In all cases under study nucliderm-gel promotes skin epithelization and has a high antiseptic effect as compared with the drugs applied hitherto

  7. Gingival Tissue Color Related With Facial Skin and Acrylic Resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to determine the predominant gingival tissue colour in this environment; to assess the association of gingival tissue colour with gender and facial skin colour. Four hundred and thirty subjects that attended the Dental Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan, who consented to participate in the ...

  8. Skin Colour Awareness and Preference in London Nursery School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishley, Jenny

    1971-01-01

    Study focuses on children aged 3 to 5 years from 3 London areas. Contrary to expectation, awareness of differences in skin color was not a simple function of age and contact with colored children and adults; no clear evidence of prejudiced thinking was found in the subjects studied. (RJ)

  9. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  10. Fourier and wavelet analysis of skin laser doppler flowmetry signals

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveThis thesis examines the measurement of skin microvascular blood flows from Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) signals. Both healthy subjects and those with features of the metabolic syndrome are studied using signal processing techniques such as the Fourier and Wavelet transforms. An aim of this study is to investigate whether change in blood flow at rest can be detected from the spectral content of the processed signals in the diferent subject groups. Additionally the effect of insulin ...

  11. SMART SKINS - A Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochocki, Joseph M.

    1990-02-01

    The Air Force Project Forecast II identified a number of key technology initiatives for development. This paper addresses one such initiative, PT-16, Smart Skins. The concept of the Smart Skin is introduced by briefly highlighting its attributes and potential advantages over standard avionics packaging and maintenance, and then goes on to describe some of the key ingredients necessary for its development. Problem areas are brought out along with some of the required trades that must be made. Finally, a time phased development roadmap is introduced which shows Calspan's proposed sequence of technology development programs that can, in combination, lead to first functional Smart Skins implementations in narrowband form in the late 1990's and in wideband form in first decade of the twenty - first century. A Smart Skins implementation in integral aircraft skin structure form will take at least until 2010.

  12. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p < 0.001). Of the 16 subjects tested; eight subjects reported pricking pain in the hairy skin following a stimulus of 0.6 J/cm2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm) only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin) was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation. PMID:21059226

  13. Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Charles; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2009-01-01

    Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

  14. Matching the skin barrier to the skin type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hyacinth; North, Jacqui; Davenport, Rebecca; Williams, Julia

    Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common (Herlufsson et al, 2006; Williams et al, 2010), and can interfere with the security of stoma products. Stoma patients are reliant on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Bekkers et al (1996) highlighted that, if the peristomal skin becomes damaged, it not only affects the person physically, but also psychologically, ultimately prolonging rehabilitation and adaptation to the stoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintaining skin integrity is a basic and essential skill in ensuring good stoma management. This article explores the assessment of four stoma patients, highlighting the importance of matching their skin type with their skin barrier for optimum skin protection. The patients have kindly agreed for their case studies to be published as a means of informing others. All names have been changed in line with Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) guidelines to maintain patient confidentiality. This article was originally presented at the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists' (WCET) annual conference in 2010, receiving first prize at poster presentations.

  15. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  16. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  17. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  18. Effects of oral versus transdermal menopausal hormone treatments on self-reported sleep domains and their association with vasomotor symptoms in recently menopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Dahima; Lahr, Brian D.; Bailey, Kent R.; Santoro, Nanette; Lloyd, Robin; Manson, JoAnn E.; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Pal, Lubna; Taylor, Hugh S.; Wharton, Whitney; Naftolin, Fredrick; Harman, S. Mitchell; Miller, Virginia M.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study determined whether two different formulations of hormone therapy (HT): oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE; 0.45 mg/d, n = 209), transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2; 50 μg/d, n = 201) plus cyclic progesterone (Prometrium, 200 mg) or placebo (PBO, n = 243) affected sleep domains in participants of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Methods: Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at baseline and during the intervention at 6, 18, 36, and 48 months. Global sleep quality and individual sleep domain scores were compared between treatments using analysis of covariance, and correlated with vasomotor symptom (VMS) scores using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (mean 6.3; 24% with score >8) were similar across groups at baseline and were reduced (improved sleep quality) by both HT (average change −1.27 [o-CEE] and −1.32 [t-E2]) when compared with PBO (−0.60; P = 0.001 [o-CEE vs PBO] and P = 0.002 [t-E2 vs PBO]). Domain scores for sleep satisfaction and latency improved with both HT. The domain score for sleep disturbances improved more with t-E2 than o-CEE or PBO. Global sleep scores significantly correlated with VMS severity (rs = 0.170, P < 0.001 for hot flashes; rs = 0.177, P < 0.001 for night sweats). Change in scores for all domains except sleep latency and sleep efficiency correlated with change in severity of VMS. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is common in recently menopausal women. Sleep quality improved with both HT formulations. The relationship of VMS with domains of sleep suggests that assessing severity of symptoms and domains of sleep may help direct therapy to improve sleep for postmenopausal women. PMID:28832429

  19. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdial...

  20. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  1. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  2. Disturbed skin barrier in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz-Prus, Elzbieta; Kilis-Pstrusinska, Katarzyna; Reich, Adam; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Miklaszewska, Monika; Szczepanska, Maria; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on skin lesions in children with end-stage renal failure. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the skin barrier in children with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of xerosis, its severity, as well as its link selected demographic factors, were examined. The study included 103 children: 72 with CKD stages 3-5 (38 on conservative treatment and 34 on dialysis) and 31 patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis as a control group. Initially, the study subjects described the localisation and severity of dry skin by themselves. Next, clinical evaluation of xerosis, non-invasive corneometric assessment of epidermis moisturising and the measurement of transepidermal water loss were performed. Most CKD children reported dry skin. The problem of xerosis was identified more frequently in patients on dialysis (67.6 %) than on conservative treatment (42.1 %) (p = 0.01). CKD patients divided according to skin dryness did not differ with regards to age, sex, initial kidney disease and CKD duration. Disturbed skin barrier is an important concern of children with CKD, intensifying as the disease progresses. This symptom occurs on early stages of CKD and it should be taken into consideration in the CKD management.

  3. Iron deposition in skin of patients with haemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Silva, J.N.; Alves, L.C.; Filipe, P.

    2003-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is the most common inherited liver disease in Caucasians and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder. It is characterized by inappropriately high iron absorption resulting in progressive iron overload in parenchymal organs such as liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, joints, and skin. Upon early detection, haemochromatosis can be a manageable chronic disease but, if undetected, is potentially fatal. Skin biopsies were obtained from patients and from healthy donors. Images of the elemental distributions in skin were obtained using nuclear microscopy techniques (nuclear microprobe, NMP). Elemental profiles along skin, and intra-, and extra-cellular iron concentrations, were determined. Results for patients with haemochromatosis were cross-examined with morphologic features and with data obtained for healthy skin. Skin iron content is much increased in patients with haemochromatosis when compared with healthy subjects. Extensive iron deposits are observed at dermis, at the dermo-epidermal interface, at upper epidermis layers and at stratum corneum. Iron deposition was observed preferentially at cell boundaries or at the interstitial matrix

  4. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  5. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studi...... technical solutions are being pursued to further improve the quality of the images and the data provided, and OCT is being integrated in multimodal imaging devices that would potentially be able to provide a quantum leap to the imaging of skin in vivo....

  7. Bioprinting of skin constructs for wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zhao, Junning; Zhang, Jiumeng; Li, Bo; Gou, Zhiyuan; Gou, Maling; Li, Xiaolu

    2018-01-01

    Extensive burns and full-thickness skin wounds are difficult to repair. Autologous split-thickness skin graft (ASSG) is still used as the gold standard in the clinic. However, the shortage of donor skin tissues is a serious problem. A potential solution to this problem is to fabricate skin constructs using biomaterial scaffolds with or without cells. Bioprinting is being applied to address the need for skin tissues suitable for transplantation, and can lead to the development of skin equivale...

  8. Radioisotope method for assessing skin blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Misiunia, P.; Woytowicz, A.; Olewinski, T.

    1979-01-01

    A method of measuring the skin blood pressure (SBP) evolved by Holstein and Lassen is described. The method is based on determination of the force of pressure causing blockade of Na 131 I clearance from the site of its intradermal injection. Using this method it was found that in the lower extremities in healthy subjects the SBP approached the diastolic pressure measured by the conventional method in the brachial artery. On the other hand in patients with obliterative arteriosclerosis and in Buerger's disease the SBP was considerably lower than the diastolic arterial pressure. The authors think that the method gives a good insight into the state of blood supply to the extremities in healthy subjects and in peripheral vascular failure. (author)

  9. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  10. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  11. [Skin hydration and hydrating products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, H; Nocera, T

    2018-05-01

    One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum. The present article brings together data recently acquired in the fields of skin hydration and the characterisation of dehydrated or dry skin, whether through study of the regulatory processes involved or as a result of changes in the techniques used for in situ measurement, and thus in optimisation of management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy; Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; Melasma - pregnancy; Prenatal skin changes ... during pregnancy may have other effects on your skin. Some women get brownish or yellowish patches around ...

  13. Quantitative evaluation methods of skin condition based on texture feature parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the skin condition after using skin care products and beauty, a quantitative evaluation method for skin surface state and texture is presented, which is convenient, fast and non-destructive. Human skin images were collected by image sensors. Firstly, the median filter of the 3 × 3 window is used and then the location of the hairy pixels on the skin is accurately detected according to the gray mean value and color information. The bilinear interpolation is used to modify the gray value of the hairy pixels in order to eliminate the negative effect of noise and tiny hairs on the texture. After the above pretreatment, the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is calculated. On the basis of this, the four characteristic parameters, including the second moment, contrast, entropy and correlation, and their mean value are calculated at 45 ° intervals. The quantitative evaluation model of skin texture based on GLCM is established, which can calculate the comprehensive parameters of skin condition. Experiments show that using this method evaluates the skin condition, both based on biochemical indicators of skin evaluation methods in line, but also fully consistent with the human visual experience. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the biochemical evaluation method of skin damage and long waiting time, also the subjectivity and fuzziness of the visual evaluation, which achieves the non-destructive, rapid and quantitative evaluation of skin condition. It can be used for health assessment or classification of the skin condition, also can quantitatively evaluate the subtle improvement of skin condition after using skin care products or stage beauty.

  14. Quantitative evaluation methods of skin condition based on texture feature parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Chen, Tianhua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Chang, Zhineng; Shao, Siqi; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the skin condition after using skin care products and beauty, a quantitative evaluation method for skin surface state and texture is presented, which is convenient, fast and non-destructive. Human skin images were collected by image sensors. Firstly, the median filter of the 3 × 3 window is used and then the location of the hairy pixels on the skin is accurately detected according to the gray mean value and color information. The bilinear interpolation is used to modify the gray value of the hairy pixels in order to eliminate the negative effect of noise and tiny hairs on the texture. After the above pretreatment, the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated. On the basis of this, the four characteristic parameters, including the second moment, contrast, entropy and correlation, and their mean value are calculated at 45 ° intervals. The quantitative evaluation model of skin texture based on GLCM is established, which can calculate the comprehensive parameters of skin condition. Experiments show that using this method evaluates the skin condition, both based on biochemical indicators of skin evaluation methods in line, but also fully consistent with the human visual experience. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the biochemical evaluation method of skin damage and long waiting time, also the subjectivity and fuzziness of the visual evaluation, which achieves the non-destructive, rapid and quantitative evaluation of skin condition. It can be used for health assessment or classification of the skin condition, also can quantitatively evaluate the subtle improvement of skin condition after using skin care products or stage beauty.

  15. The seasonal variation in skin hydration, sebum, scaliness, brightness and elasticity in Korean females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, G W; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Hwang, J-K

    2015-02-01

    Age, gender, regional, and ethnic differences influence skin conditions. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of environments, especially the air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, duration of sunshine, and precipitation on skin, and the seasonal variation in skin hydration, sebum, scales, brightness, and elasticity in Korean females. The study included 89 Korean subjects, aged 29.7 ± 6.2 years. The five skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, sebum, scales, brightness, and elasticity) were measured at six sites: forehead, under the eye, frontal cheek, crow's foot, lateral cheek, and inner forearm. Skin hydration was measured using the Corneometer® CM 825. Skin sebum was measured with Sebumeter® SM 815. Skin scaliness was measured with Visioscan® VC 98. Skin brightness (L* value) was measured by using Spectrophotometer. A suction chamber device, Cutometer® MPA 580, was used to measure the skin elasticity. The measurements were performed every month for 13 months, from April 2007 to April 2008. There were significantly seasonal variations in environmental factors. The air temperature was the lowest in January (-1.7°C), and the highest in August (26.5°C). The relative humidity was the lowest in February (46%), and the highest in July and August (75%). There was a negative correlation between skin scaliness and three environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and highest precipitation. There was a positive correlation between skin scaliness and two environmental factors such as air pressure and duration of sunshine. Elasticity was correlated with air temperature positively and with air pressure negatively. The correlations shown between the skin biophysical parameters and environmental factors demonstrate that the skin biophysical parameters are affected by environmental factors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Farris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  17. The relationship of psychological trauma with trichotillomania and skin picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özten E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eylem Özten,1 Gökben Hızlı Sayar,1 Gül Eryilmaz,1 Gaye Kağan,2 Sibel Işik,3 Oğuz Karamustafalioğlu4 1Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Üsküdar University, 2Istanbul Neuropsychiatry Hospital, Üsküdar University, 3Turkish Red Crescent Altintepe Medical Center, 4Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Üsküdar University, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder.Methods: The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23 or skin picking disorder (n=44, and healthy controls (n=37. Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events.Results: There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07. But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects.Conclusion: We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as

  18. Image-based non-contact monitoring of skin texture changed by piloerection for emotion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mihiro; Akaho, Rina; Ogawa, Keiko; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we find the effective feature values of skin textures captured by non-contact camera to monitor piloerection on the skin for emotion estimation. Recently, emotion estimation is required for service robots to interact with human more naturally. There are a lot of researches of estimating emotion and additional methods are required to improve emotion estimation because using only a few methods may not give enough information for emotion estimation. In the previous study, it is necessary to fix a device on the subject's arm for detecting piloerection, but the contact monitoring can be stress itself and distract the subject from concentrating in the stimuli and evoking strong emotion. So, we focused on the piloerection as the object obtained with non-contact methods. The piloerection is observed as goose bumps on the skin when the subject is emotionally moved, scared and so on. This phenomenon is caused by contraction of arrector pili muscles with the activation of sympathetic nervous system. This piloerection changes skin texture. Skin texture is important in the cosmetic industry to evaluate skin condition. Therefore, we thought that it will be effective to evaluate the condition of skin texture for emotion estimation. The evaluations were performed by extracting the effective feature values from skin textures captured with a high resolution camera. The effective feature values should have high correlation with the degree of piloerection. In this paper, we found that standard deviation of short-line inclination angles in the texture is well correlated with the degree of piloerection.

  19. PERBEDAAN SKIN CAPACITANCE DAN TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS PADA KULIT NON-LESI PASIEN PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR DENGAN NON-PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    . Pityriasis versicolor subjects and non-pityriasis versicolor subjects were matched in age and sex. The study was done in September until November 2004, at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The measurement of the skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss were done on the back at the non-PV area, using Tewameter/Corneometer 350.During that periode there were 32 pityriasis versicolor and 32 healthy non-pityriasis versicolor subjects. No significant differences was observed for skin capacitance of pityriasis versicolor and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin (p = 0.730. The transepidermal water loss of PV skin is significantly lower than in the healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin (p=0.000.There was no differences between skin capacitance of pityriasis versicolor and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin, but the transepidermal water loss of pityriasis versicolor skin was significantly. lower than non-pityriasis versicolor.Keywords: pityriasis versicolor, skin capacitance, transepidermal water loss

  20. Human reconstructed skin xenografts on mice to model skin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Giorgiana; Ng, Yi Zhen; Koh, Li Fang; Goh, Christabelle S M; Common, John E

    Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models. In the case of skin research, the mouse persists as the most popular animal model of choice, despite its well-known anatomical differences with human skin. Differences in skin biology are especially evident when trying to dissect more complex skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema, where interactions between the immune system, epidermis and the environment likely occur. While the use of animal models are still considered the gold standard for systemic toxicity studies under controlled environments, there are now alternative models that have been approved for certain applications. To overcome the biological limitations of the mouse model, research efforts have also focused on "humanizing" the mice model to better recapitulate human skin physiology. In this review, we outline the different approaches undertaken thus far to study skin biology using human tissue xenografts in mice and the technical challenges involved. We also describe more recent developments to generate humanized multi-tissue compartment mice that carry both a functioning human immune system and skin xenografts. Such composite animal models provide promising opportunities to study drugs, disease and differentiation with greater clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  2. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  4. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P skin temperature, which possibly...

  5. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Vogt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide or antiseptics (silver. Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  6. Allogeneic cultured keratinocytes vs. cadaveric skin to cover wide-mesh autogenous split-thickness skin grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstrey, S; Beele, H; Kettler, M; Van Landuyt, K; Blondeel, P; Matton, G; Naeyaert, J M

    1999-09-01

    Improved shock therapy has extended the limits of survival in patients with massive burns, and nowadays skin coverage has become the major problem in burn management. The use of mesh skin grafts is still the simplest technique to expand the amount of available donor skin. However, very wide-mesh skin grafts take a very long time to heal, often resulting in unaesthetic scar formation. On the other hand, allogeneic cultured keratinocytes have been reported as a natural source of growth factors and thus could be useful to improve wound healing of these wide-mesh grafts. A clinical study was performed to compare the use of cryopreserved allogeneic cultured keratinocytes vs. the traditional cadaveric skin as a double layer over widely expanded autogenous skin grafts. This procedure was performed in 18 pairs of full-thickness burn wounds (with similar depth and location) in 11 severely burned patients. Early clinical evaluation was made at 2, 3, and 4 to 5 weeks. Parameters such as epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, infection, and scar formation were evaluated. Biopsies were taken to compare the histological characteristics of the epidermis, the epidermal-dermal junction, and the dermis. Late evaluations were performed at 6 and 12 months regarding color, softness, thickness, and subjective feeling of the scar tissue. Aside from a faster (p keratinocyte group at 2 weeks, there were no statistically different results in any of the early evaluated parameters, neither clinically nor histologically. At long-term follow-up, clinical results and scar characteristics were not significantly different in the two compared groups. It is concluded from the results of this study that, during the early phase, epithelialization was faster with allogeneic cultured keratinocytes compared with cadaveric skin. However, taking into account the substantial difference in costs, the described use of cryopreserved allogeneic cultured keratinocytes as a double layer on meshed

  7. Simultaneous assessment of blood flow in UVB-inflamed human skin by laser Doppler flowmetry and the 133-xenon cashout technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare skin bloood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the 133-Xenon washout technique in UVB-inflamed human skin. Six healthy subjects participated in the study. Forearm skin blood flow was measured prior to irradiation and then 8, 24, 48 and 72 h...

  8. Perception of Human Skin in Street Lighting under Five Types of Led Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Bruyère, Lucie; Blanc-Gonnet, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    A panel of observers has been invited to rate and compare the quality of 5 spectra of LED sources used for street lighting, on 30 subjects. Vertical illuminance on faces was 14 lx (+/- 3 lx) . All 30 subjects did not have the same type of skin. 60% were from the European Caucasian type (clear skin......). The xtreme stimuli (2200K and 4800K) were rejected by all participants. When presented in pairs (Thurstone protocole), 75% of observers preferred the 3200K stimulus, 61% the 4000 K stimulus, 59% preferred the 2700K stimulus. People with Asian skin was found to be preferred under CCT of 3200 K and below...

  9. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  10. Dynamic skin deformation simulation using musculoskeletal model and soft tissue dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Murai; Q. Youn Hong; Katsu Yamane; Jessica K. Hodgins

    2017-01-01

    Deformation of skin and muscle is essential for bringing an animated character to life. This deformation is difficult to animate in a realistic fashion using traditional techniques because of the subtlety of the skin deformations that must move appropriately for the character design. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates natural, dynamic, and detailed skin deformation (movement and jiggle) from joint angle data sequences. The algorithm has two steps: identification of parameters for a quasi-static muscle deformation model, and simulation of skin deformation. In the identification step, we identify the model parameters using a musculoskeletal model and a short sequence of skin deformation data captured via a dense marker set. The simulation step first uses the quasi-static muscle deformation model to obtain the quasi-static muscle shape at each frame of the given motion sequence (slow jump). Dynamic skin deformation is then computed by simulating the passive muscle and soft tissue dynamics modeled as a mass–spring–damper system. Having obtained the model parameters, we can simulate dynamic skin deformations for subjects with similar body types from new motion data. We demonstrate our method by creating skin deformations for muscle co-contraction and external impacts from four different behaviors captured as skeletal motion capture data. Experimental results show that the simulated skin deformations are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to measured actual skin deformations.

  11. Dynamic skin deformation simulation using musculoskeletal model and soft tissue dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Murai; Q.Youn Hong; Katsu Yamane; Jessica K.Hodgins

    2017-01-01

    Deformation of skin and muscle is essential for bringing an animated character to life. This deformation is difficult to animate in a realistic fashion using traditional techniques because of the subtlety of the skin deformations that must move appropriately for the character design. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates natural, dynamic, and detailed skin deformation(movement and jiggle) from joint angle data sequences. The algorithm has two steps: identification of parameters for a quasi-static muscle deformation model, and simulation of skin deformation. In the identification step, we identify the model parameters using a musculoskeletal model and a short sequence of skin deformation data captured via a dense marker set. The simulation step first uses the quasi-static muscle deformation model to obtain the quasi-static muscle shape at each frame of the given motion sequence(slow jump). Dynamic skin deformation is then computed by simulating the passive muscle and soft tissue dynamics modeled as a mass–spring–damper system. Having obtained the model parameters, we can simulate dynamic skin deformations for subjects with similar body types from new motion data. We demonstrate our method by creating skin deformations for muscle co-contraction and external impacts from four different behaviors captured as skeletal motion capture data. Experimental results show that the simulated skin deformations are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to measured actual skin deformations.

  12. Venous malformations: MR imaging features that predict skin burns after percutaneous alcohol embolization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Carrino, John A.; Bluemke, David A.; Mitchell, Sally

    2008-01-01

    To examine the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for predicting the occurrence of skin burns in patients with venous malformations who undergo percutaneous alcohol embolization was the objective of the study. Pre-procedural MR imaging at 1.5 T from 40 patients with venous malformations who had undergone percutaneous alcohol embolization was retrospectively reviewed by two observers for these features: anatomic location, definition (well-defined or ill-defined), and the presence of skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, tendon, bone, joint, and deep venous system involvement. One observer recorded the length of skin involvement and volume of the malformation. Univariate and multivariate analysis tests were used to determine whether an association between the occurrence of skin burns and MR imaging features existed. The anatomic locations of the venous malformations were the lower extremity (20 out of 40), upper extremity (11 out of 40), trunk (four out of 40), head/neck (three out of 40) and pelvis (two out of 40). Of the 40 subjects, 15% (six out of 40) experienced skin burns. There was a significant association between the absence of muscle involvement (p=0.0198) as well as the length of skin involvement (p=0.027), with the occurrence of skin burns. Malformation size and all other features were not significantly associated with skin burns. Skin burns in patients with venous malformations treated with alcohol embolization are associated with the length of skin involvement and with the absence of deeper tissue involvement, as depicted on MR imaging. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivet-Seyve, Mathieu; Santoro, Francine; Lachmann, Nadège

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF) moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners. This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3-5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability. The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female). At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44) showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days' treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial redness, did not worsen rosacea, and was easily incorporated into their skincare regimen. Half would switch to the product, and 80% of subjects would buy and recommend the product. The product was well tolerated in rosacea-prone subjects, producing objective

  14. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  15. Origins of variation in conducted vasomotor responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Welsh, Donald G.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    , the efficacy of conducted responses varies significantly between different initiating stimuli within the same vascular bed as well as between different vascular beds following the same stimulus. The differences have stimulated proposals of different mechanisms to account for the experimentally observed...... variation. Using a computational approach that allows for introduction of structural and electrophysiological heterogeneity, we systematically tested variations in both arteriolar electrophysiology and modes of stimuli. Within the same vessel, our simulations show that conduction efficacy is influenced...

  16. Reversible sympathetic vasomotor dysfunction in POTS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J; Santos, R; Azevedo, E; Costa, O; Carvalho, M; de Freitas, A F

    2000-11-01

    Orthostatic intolerance refers to the development upon assuming an upright posture of disabling symptoms, which are partly relieved by resuming the supine position. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an orthostatic intolerance syndrome characterized by palpitations due to excessive orthostatic sinus tachycardia, lightheadedness, tremor, and near-syncope. Patients usually undergo extensive medical, cardiac, endocrine, neurological and psychiatric evaluation, which usually fails to identify a specific abnormality. We investigated the autonomic and hemodynamic profile of POTS patients and the efficacy of bisoprolol and or fludrocortisone. We evaluated eleven female patients with POTS before and after medical treatment with a cardio-selective beta blocker (bisoprolol) and/or fludrocortisone, and eleven age-matched controls. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure was assessed by Fast Fourier Transform, and spontaneous baroreceptor gain by temporal sequences slope and alpha index. Modelflow was used to quantify hemodynamics. All patients improved greatly after medication. The autonomic and hemodynamic impairment observed in patients with POTS, particularly after orthostatic stress, is treated effectively with bisoprolol and/or fludrocortisone. These results need further confirmation in a controlled double-blind study. Proper medical treatment dramatically improves the clinical and autonomic/hemodynamic disturbances observed in patients with POTS. The data support the hypothesis that POTS is due to a hyperadrenergic activation and/or hypovolemia during orthostasis.

  17. The effects of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate on hydration and elasticity of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Eimpunth, Sasima; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS) completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P = 0.47). Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P = 0.01). Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P skin elasticity between MPS and vehicle-control group

  18. Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Health Capsule Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested En español Send us ... Each year, millions of people nationwide catch the flu. The best way to protect yourself is to ...

  19. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  20. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  2. Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.

  3. Nanodiamond applications in skin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Roshanak; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2018-04-13

    The biocompatibility and nontoxicity of nanodiamonds (NDs) in combination with their excellent physical performance have rendered them attractive candidates for biomedical applications. NDs have great potential in drug nanoformulations because of their small size compared with other carbon nanomaterials. They are nontoxic with excellent adsorption properties and can be formulated into skin care products. Even though NDs have shown encouraging potential in skin preparations, only a few studies have reviewed their application in topical drug delivery systems. Therefore, here we focus on the application of NDs in skin care preparations, skin cancer medication, and wound healing. We also highlight the development of topical drug delivery by NDs and their cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Characterization of atopic skin and the effect of a hyperforin-rich cream by laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C.; Richter, Heike; Kleemann, Anke; Lademann, Juergen; Tscherch, Kathrin; Rohn, Sascha; Schempp, Christoph M.

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease that affects both children and adults in an increasing manner. The treatment of AD often reduces subjective skin parameters, such as itching, dryness, and tension, but the inflammation cannot be cured. Laser scanning microscopy was used to investigate the skin surface, epidermal, and dermal characteristics of dry and atopic skin before and after treatment with an ointment rich in hyperforin, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The results were compared to subjective parameters and transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum moisture, and stratum corneum lipids. Using biophysical methods, in particular laser scanning microscopy, it was found that atopic skin has distinct features compared to healthy skin. Treatment with a hyperforin-rich ointment resulted in an improvement of the stratum corneum moisture, skin surface dryness, skin lipids, and the subjective skin parameters, indicating that the barrier is stabilized and improved by the ointment. But in contrast to the improved skin surface, the inflammation in the deeper epidermis/dermis often continues to exist. This could be clearly shown by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) measurements. Therefore, RCM measurements could be used to investigate the progress in treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  7. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  8. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Bito, T.; Oka, M.; Fukunaga, M.; Tsuru, K.; Horikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  9. [Compression treatment for burned skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Fadhel; Lassoued, Mohamed A; Sahnoun, Mahdi; Sfar, Souad; Cheikhrouhou, Morched

    2012-02-01

    The regularity of a compressive knit is defined as its ability to perform its function in a burnt skin. This property is essential to avoid the phenomenon of rejection of the material or toxicity problems But: Make knits biocompatible with high burnet of human skin. We fabric knits of elastic material. To ensure good adhesion to the skin, we made elastic material, typically a tight loop knitted. The Length of yarn absorbed by stitch and the raw matter are changed with each sample. The physical properties of each sample are measured and compared. Surface modifications are made to these samples by impregnation of microcapsules based on jojoba oil. Knits are compressif, elastic in all directions, light, thin, comfortable, and washable for hygiene issues. In addition, the washing can find their compressive properties. The Jojoba Oil microcapsules hydrated the human burnet skin. This moisturizer is used to the firmness of the wound and it gives flexibility to the skin. Compressive Knits are biocompatible with burnet skin. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers is irreplaceable in terms comfort and regularity.

  10. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process.

  11. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  12. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Suellen Sena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  13. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  14. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  15. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  16. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  18. [New views about the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimberteau, J-C; Delage, J-P; Wong, J

    2010-08-01

    As the follow up article to "Introduction to the knowledge of subcutaneous sliding system in humans" published in the "Annales de chirurgie plastique" we further investigate the architecture of the skin and comment on the subcutaneous multifibrillar and microvacuolar arrangements that provide form, mobility, adaptability and resistance to force of gravity. The study aimed to highlight the direct link between the skin and subcutaneous environment in dynamic living tissue. Through high resolution endoscopic observations made during live surgery it is revealed how microvacuoles and microspaces can provide dynamic structure and form during movement between the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The study reveals intriguing morphodynamics which are necessary to maintain mobility and continuity to neighboring tissues. The polyhedric design of the skin surface directly relates to multifibrillar pillars beneath the skin which dictate their patterning and movement. The concept of tissue continuity is realised by the chaotic and fractal organisation of multifibrils interlaced with cellular components which characteristics alter depending on the state of hydration. Understanding the integral arrangement that provides continuity of all the structures below the skin provides an appreciation to how skin behaves in relation to movement of the rest of the body. 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ... Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted ...

  20. Social networks of patients with chronic skin lesions: nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Luciana Alves; Santos, Maxuel Cruz Dos; Duarte, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann; Bandeira, Andrea Gonçalves; Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Vieira, Letícia Becker

    2018-01-01

    To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola's Social Network. The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.

  1. Social networks of patients with chronic skin lesions: nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alves Bandeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the social networks of patients with chronic skin damages. Method: A qualitative study conducted through semi-structured interviews with nine subjects with chronic skin lesions from June 2016 to March 2017; we used the theoretical-methodological framework of Lia Sanicola’s Social Network. Results: The analysis of the relational maps revealed that the primary network was formed mainly by relatives and neighbors; its characteristics, such as: reduced size, low density and few exchanges/relationships, configures fragility in these links. The secondary network was essentially described by health services, and the nurse was cited as a linker in the therapeutic process. Final considerations: Faced with the fragility of the links and social isolation, the primary health care professionals are fundamental foundations for the construction of networks of social support and care for patients with chronic skin lesions.

  2. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  3. Light protection of the skin after photodynamic therapy reduces inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Wiegell, S R; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    whether protection with inorganic sunscreen, foundation or light-blocking plaster after PDT can reduce inflammation caused by daylight-activated PpIX. METHODS: On the right arm of 15 subjects with sun-damaged skin, four identical squares (3 × 3 cm) were given conventional PDT treatment. Immediately after...... red-light illumination the squares were either left unprotected or protected by inorganic sunscreen [sun protection factor (SPF) 50], foundation (SPF50) or light-blocking plaster. The skin was then illuminated with artificial daylight for 2 h and afterwards covered for 24 h. Fluorescence and erythema...... treatment was reduced by 19% with the sunscreen (P = 0·29), by 27% with the foundation (P = 0·10) and by 44% with the silver plaster (P = 0·002). CONCLUSIONS: Artificial daylight exposure after conventional PDT increases skin erythema. Light-blocking plaster gives more effective protection against post...

  4. Skin bank development and critical incident response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kellie T; Herson, Marisa R

    2011-05-01

    The Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria (DTBV), situated in Melbourne, Australia developed a skin banking program in 1994. It remains Australia's only operational skin bank, processing cryopreserved human cadaveric skin for the treatment of burns. The demand for allograft skin in Australia has steadily increased since the development of the program. The bank has been involved in the provision of skin for a number of critical incidences or disasters both in Australia and overseas. Demand always exceeds supply, and in the absence of other local skin banks, the DTBV has needed to develop strategies to enable increased provision of allograft skin nationally.

  5. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  6. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  7. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  8. Effectiveness of skin protection creams in the prevention of occupational dermatitis: results of a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Salameh, Bayda; Stolkovich, Sabine; Nikl, Michael; Barth, Alfred; Ponocny, Elisabeth; Drexler, Hans; Tappeiner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    noted a slight, but not significant improvement in all other groups. The subjective improvement of skin condition was reported from the participants who used skin protection and skin care in combination. Taking all these secondary-outcome measurements together, the main result of this study was that skin protection creams alone have a small effect on the skin barrier in workers in the building and timber industries compared with skin care alone or in combination with skin protection.

  9. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  10. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Maria-Magdalena; Poenaru, Elena; Poenaru, Calin; Constantin, Traian

    2014-03-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%.The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions.

  11. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  12. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R 2 = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q 2 ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin sensitization and

  13. MR imaging manifestations of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong-hyon; Kim, Jee Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Chun, Kyung Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary Hospital, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Holy family Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated MR imaging findings of skin tumors and categorized them into four types: (1) discrete mass lesions of the dermis and epidermis, (2) mass lesions of the subcutis with or without abutment to the skin, (3) diffuse or localized skin thickening without a true mass, and (4) a skin mass with bone destruction. The categorization of MR images may be useful in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. (orig.)

  14. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  15. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  16. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  18. A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Jaideep; Birch, Jan; Whitehurst, Colin; Lanigan, Sean W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation, twenty-three volunteers received randomised 20 min treatments three times a week for three weeks to one half of their face, with the untreated side acting as control. Regular assessments were carried out, focusing on parameters of subject satisfaction, photographic assessments, skin elasticity (Cutometer) and skin hydration (Corneometer CM825). Ninety-one percent of the volunteers reported visible changes to their skin. Blinded photographic evaluation reported a clinical response in 59% of the subjects. Objective analysis failed to show statistically significant changes in skin hydration or elasticity. The Omnilux Revive LED lamp is a safe alternative non-ablative skin rejuvenation treatment.

  19. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Sun, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  20. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J; Sun, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy