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Sample records for subjects significant associations

  1. Stool consistency is significantly associated with pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    Full Text Available Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Observational study.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were assessed on their usual stool form (the Bristol Stool Form Scale: BSFS, constipation (the Cleveland Clinic Constipation score: CCS, degree of obesity, pain perception by mechanical stimulus, cold pain threshold, and a questionnaire on psychological state.The BSFS was significantly and positively associated with pain perception, and showed a significant association with anxiety states. Furthermore, pain perception was significantly associated with anxiety states. However, there were no significant associations between the CCS and any independent variables. In addition, we found that a significant predictor to the pain perception was BSFS. Moreover, there were significant relationships among the psychological states, BSFS and obesity.These results suggest that the stool form is associated with pain perception and anxiety status.

  2. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  3. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  4. Association between Hyperhomocysteinemia and Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Diabetic Subjects

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    Yun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The concept now emerging is that higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and lower thyroid hormone levels within the euthyroid range may adversely affect atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the potential associations between thyroid parameters and hyperhomocysteinaemia in a cohort of euthyroid diabetic subjects. Material and Methods. Two hundred and seventy-three euthyroid diabetic subjects (167 males and 106 females were consecutively recruited in this cross-sectional study. Clinical and biomedical data was collected. Results. TSH level was higher in females than males. Compared to normal-homocysteine group, hyperhomocysteinaemia group was more likely to be elderly, males, with longer diabetes history, and with lower diastolic blood pressure. Free thyroxine (FT4 level was lower in hyperhomocysteinaemia group than in normal-homocysteine group; however, it was not statistically significant. Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in logistic regression analyses, hyperhomocysteinaemia was significantly correlated with FT4 (P=0.021. No significant association was found with TSH or free triiodothyronine. When analyzed in subjects with TSH < 2.5 uIU/mL separately, we got similar results. Conclusions. In conclusion, we identified a relation between hyperhomocysteinemia and FT4 in a group of euthyroid diabetic patients.

  5. Associations of objectively and subjectively measured physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    =0.02). PBSS was significantly correlated to body size-adjusted bone mineral content at all sites scanned by DXA (r=0.33 - 0.48; p<0.05). Positive correlations were observed between PBSS and area, density and strength at the radius and tibia ...

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

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    Guo, Sha; Liu, Ying; Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  7. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han...... Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance...... and the rest with suggestive significance (P longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response...

  8. Higher Body Mass Index Is Associated with Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction

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    Z. M. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Morbidly obese patients demonstrate altered olfactory acuity. There has been no study directly assessing Body Mass Index (BMI in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Our purpose was to compare BMI in a group of patients with subjective olfactory dysfunction to those without subjective olfactory complaints. Methods. Retrospective matched case-control study. Sixty patients who presented to a tertiary care otolaryngology center with subjective smell dysfunction over one year were identified. Neoplastic and obstructive etiologies were excluded. Demographics, BMI, and smoking status were reviewed. Sixty age, gender, and race matched control patients were selected for comparison. Chi-square testing was used. Results. 48 out of 60 patients (80% in the olfactory dysfunction group fell into the overweight or obese categories, compared to 36 out of 60 patients (60% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the olfactory dysfunction and control groups for this stratified BMI (p= 0.0168.  Conclusion. This study suggests high BMI is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Prospective clinical research should examine this further to determine if increasing BMI may be a risk factor in olfactory loss and to elucidate what role olfactory loss may play in diet and feeding habits of obese patients.

  9. Novel loci and pathways significantly associated with longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Nie, Chao; Min, Junxia; Liu, Xiaomin; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huashuai; Xu, Hanshi; Wang, Mingbang; Ni, Ting; Li, Yang; Yan, Han; Zhang, Jin-Pei; Song, Chun; Chi, Li-Qing; Wang, Han-Ming; Dong, Jie; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Lin, Li; Qian, Feng; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Yinghao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Zhaochun; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Qi, Ming; Bolund, Lars; Yashin, Anatoliy; Land, Kenneth C.; Gregory, Simon; Yang, Ze; Gottschalk, William; Tao, Wei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Bae, Harold; Nygaard, Marianne; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Franceschi, Claudio; Lutz, Michael W.; Gu, Jun; Tan, Qihua; Perls, Thomas; Sebastiani, Paola; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, Eline; Hauser, Elizabeth; Xu, Huji; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yang, Huanming; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Only two genome-wide significant loci associated with longevity have been identified so far, probably because of insufficient sample sizes of centenarians, whose genomes may harbor genetic variants associated with health and longevity. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Han Chinese with a sample size 2.7 times the largest previously published GWAS on centenarians. We identified 11 independent loci associated with longevity replicated in Southern-Northern regions of China, including two novel loci (rs2069837-IL6; rs2440012-ANKRD20A9P) with genome-wide significance and the rest with suggestive significance (P < 3.65 × 10−5). Eight independent SNPs overlapped across Han Chinese, European and U.S. populations, and APOE and 5q33.3 were replicated as longevity loci. Integrated analysis indicates four pathways (starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism; immune response and inflammation; MAPK; calcium signaling) highly associated with longevity (P ≤ 0.006) in Han Chinese. The association with longevity of three of these four pathways (MAPK; immunity; calcium signaling) is supported by findings in other human cohorts. Our novel finding on the association of starch, sucrose and xenobiotic metabolism pathway with longevity is consistent with the previous results from Drosophilia. This study suggests protective mechanisms including immunity and nutrient metabolism and their interactions with environmental stress play key roles in human longevity. PMID:26912274

  10. Significant cancer prevention factor extraction: an association rule discovery approach.

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    Nahar, Jesmin; Tickle, Kevin S; Ali, A B M Shawkat; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors, we first constructed a prevention factor data set with an extensive literature review on bladder, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and skin cancer. We subsequently employed three association rule mining algorithms, Apriori, Predictive apriori and Tertius algorithms in order to discover most of the significant prevention factors against these specific types of cancer. Experimental results illustrate that Apriori is the most useful association rule-mining algorithm to be used in the discovery of prevention factors.

  11. Association of subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators in athletes

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    Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591   Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.

  12. No Clinically Significant Difference Between Adult and Pediatric IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Scores in Adults.

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    Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul

    Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R2 of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.

  13. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

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    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Youth Subjectivities and Associational Life in Bamenda, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2009-05-13

    May 13, 2009 ... of structural dependency), social adulthood, citizenship and social participa- tion. This study answers the above questions by focusing on the subjectivities and activities of three associations of young men and women in Bamenda,. Cameroon's leading Anglophone city. The associations include the Chosen.

  15. Self-reported, subjectively-determined breath malodor, associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-reported, subjectively-determined breath malodor, associated factors, treatment seeking behavior and oral hygiene practices among adults in Kinondoni, ... was a common problem, associated with not-cleaning the tongue, mobile teeth; tobacco smoking, ginger-spiced tea, and general medical problems whereby the ...

  16. The significance of FM associations for women with FM.

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    Juuso, Päivi; Söderberg, Siv; Olsson, Malin; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Living with fibromyalgia (FM) means living with a long-term pain syndrome that is invisible to others. Support and understanding from others seem to be important to managing the affected daily life. The aim of this study was to describe the significance of FM associations for women with FM. Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with seventeen women with FM. Data were analyzed through thematic content analysis. The findings show that women experienced associations for people with FM as important as they gave access to contacts with others with similar experiences. Their need of togetherness was fulfilled at the association and they described being strengthened by the support received. Because of the lack of information and knowledge about FM, the association was described as an important venue for getting and mediating information about the illness. At the association the women seem to be empowered, which increases their ability to manage their daily lives despite the limitations imposed by FM. Healthcare personnel could not satisfy the women's needs and to manage to support women with FM. There is a need for communication based on a shared understanding between the women and healthcare personnel. This study highlighted the need for communication based on a shared understanding between people with chronic illness and healthcare personnel to support and strengthen women with FM in their daily lives. The FM associations meet the needs for togetherness, confirmation, and information that the women with FM in this study described and healthcare personnel could not satisfy. Healthcare personnel can learn from FM associations how to empower women with FM in their everyday lives.

  17. Association between irisin and homocysteine in euglycemic and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, Rafael; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Romagnoli, Marco; Víctor, Víctor M; Rocha, Milagros

    2014-12-01

    The aim of study was to explore whether a relationship exists between homocysteine and irisin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients-a population with a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease-and euglycemic controls. 69 T2D patients and 75 control subjects (adjusted by body mass index (BMI)) were included in the study. Irisin and homocysteine concentrations and anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined. Levels of homocysteine were significantly higher (11.0±3.0 vs 12.4±4.2 μmol/l) and levels of irisin were lower (279±58 vs 263±38 ng/ml) in T2D patients. When both T2D and controls were considered, irisin was found to correlate only with homocysteine (r=-0.215; p=0.011). Moreover, a decreasing trend in irisin levels was observed according to homocysteine tertile (p=0.034). Our results provide evidence of an association between irisin and homocysteine, which may be due to nicotinamide metabolism. The clinical significance of this relationship is unclear, but our findings may prompt further mechanistic research to investigate the role played by irisin in vascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What are the significant factors associated with burnout in doctors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoafo, E; Hanbali, N; Patel, A; Singh, P

    2015-03-01

    Burnout syndrome is well established as a condition that affects a significant proportion of practising doctors. Although much literature exists on the prevalence of burnout, only specific variables associated with this condition have been analysed. To identify and categorize key factors that are associated with burnout across various medical specialities and geographical locations. Three electronic databases were searched for literature on the factors associated with burnout published in the past 5 years. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in three stages. We analysed and critically appraised each paper individually, identifying the common themes. Forty-seven papers were included from the 395 identified by our primary search. Younger age, female sex, negative marital status, long working hours and low reported job satisfaction were found to be predictive of burnout syndrome across the literature. Participation in 'wellness programmes' was related to lower burnout incidence. Causation could not be established however, due to the limited number of longitudinal studies. More prospective studies are required to assess causation. Despite this, our thematic analysis revealed consistent findings across many papers. This information can be used to inform prevention and interventions to tackle burnout. The associated factors should not be addressed individually, as they are inter-related. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A Highly Significant Association between a COMT Haplotype and Schizophrenia

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    Shifman, Sagiv; Bronstein, Michal; Sternfeld, Meira; Pisanté-Shalom, Anne; Lev-Lehman, Efrat; Weizman, Avraham; Reznik, Ilya; Spivak, Baruch; Grisaru, Nimrod; Karp, Leon; Schiffer, Richard; Kotler, Moshe; Strous, Rael D.; Swartz-Vanetik, Marnina; Knobler, Haim Y.; Shinar, Eilat; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Yakir, Benjamin; Risch, Neil; Zak, Naomi B.; Darvasi, Ariel

    2002-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have placed the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the limelight as a candidate gene for schizophrenia. One of these is its biochemical function in metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters; another is the microdeletion, on chromosome 22q11, that includes the COMT gene and causes velocardiofacial syndrome, a syndrome associated with a high rate of psychosis, particularly schizophrenia. The interest in the COMT gene as a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia has led to numerous linkage and association analyses. These, however, have failed to produce any conclusive result. Here we report an efficient approach to gene discovery. The approach consists of (i) a large sample size—to our knowledge, the present study is the largest case-control study performed to date in schizophrenia; (ii) the use of Ashkenazi Jews, a well defined homogeneous population; and (iii) a stepwise procedure in which several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are scanned in DNA pools, followed by individual genotyping and haplotype analysis of the relevant SNPs. We found a highly significant association between schizophrenia and a COMT haplotype (P=9.5×10-8). The approach presented can be widely implemented for the genetic dissection of other common diseases. PMID:12402217

  20. [Study on platelet-associated tissue factor and its significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi-lian; Chen, Fang-ping; Du, Jian-wei; Peng, Min-yuan; Fu, Bin; Xie, Qin-zhi; He, Shi-lin

    2005-09-01

    To explore whether normal platelet contains tissue factor (TF), and the significance of platelet-associated TF (PATF). Platelets were isolated by Sepharose 2B gel column. ELISA was used to detect the TF content in the lysates of washed platelets. Procoagulant activity of PATF was measured by one stage clotting time assay. The mRNA of TF was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A certain amount of TF antigen (16.37 +/- 6.39) ng/L was detected in the washed-platelet lysates. Upon activation by collagen, platelets released TF and caused a marked increase in TF level in plasma (P collagen increased significantly, which could be blocked by TF McAb and poor VII plasma. TF mRNA could not be detected in washed platelets. TF content in platelets from patients with coronary heart disease was significantly higher than that from normal controls (P < 0.05). Resting platelets from the patients showed a higher procoagulant activity, which could be inhibited by TF McAb. Platelets contain TF and the latter released by activated platelet was functionally active. Platelet itself might not synthesize TF. Protein content and procoagulant activity of PATF in patients with coronary heart disease were higher than that in controls. All these indicate that platelet may be involved in coagulation and thrombosis by releasing TF.

  1. The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

  2. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangwei; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Mingping; Chen, Aiqing; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP) variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP). They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD) of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV) were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  3. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

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    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

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    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  5. Subjectivity

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    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)), rs711830 at...

  7. Proteus bacteriuria is associated with significant morbidity in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, EW; Darouiche, RO; Trautner, BW

    2007-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective chart review. Objectives We investigated the morbidity associated with Proteus bacteriuria in a spinal cord injured (SCI) population. Setting Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston, Texas, USA. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all veterans with SCI who received care in our medical center during the past 3 years. Proteus bacteriuria was defined as the growth of Proteus species in any urine culture during the study period. Urinary stones were defined as either renal or bladder calculi. Results During the study period, 71 of the 501 subjects (14%) had Proteus and 90 (18%) had urinary stones. Twenty-seven percent of the subjects with Proteus had stones, and the association of Proteus with stones was significant (PProteus bacteriuria was likewise associated with complete injury, hospitalization, decubitus ulcers, and history of stones (PProteus, whereas subjects practising spontaneous voiding and clean intermittent catheterization were significantly less likely to have Proteus. In the 90 patients with stones, Proteus was associated with requiring treatment for stones and having multiple stones (PProteus was found in subjects with a greater degree of impairment who were more likely to be hospitalized, to have decubiti, and to use indwelling catheters. Bacteriuria with Proteus predicted urologic complications in persons with SCI. Statement of Ethics All applicable institutional and governmental regulations concerning the ethical use of human volunteers were followed during the course of this research. Sponsorship This work was supported by USPHS grant HD42014. PMID:17179975

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Significant Fibrosis Among Subjects with Transient Elastography-Defined Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2017-08-01

    Transient elastography (TE) can be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and steatosis. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without significant liver fibrosis in the general population. A total of 3033 subjects without alcoholic or chronic viral liver diseases who underwent a medical health check-up including TE were recruited from April 2013 to August 2014. TE-defined NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter of ≥250 dB/m, and significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness (LS) value of ≥8 kPa. Overall, 1178 (42.9%) subjects had NAFLD. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and a higher prevalence of parameters related to metabolic syndrome, such as high blood pressure, a high body mass index (BMI), glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia than did subjects without NAFLD (all P liver fibrosis was identified in 60 (5.1%) subjects with NAFLD, and its independent predictors were age [odds ratio (OR) 1.054], ALT level (OR 1.019), BMI (OR 1.217), and diabetes (OR 1.987) (all P liver fibrosis. The risk factors found in this study can help identify which subjects with NAFLD are vulnerable to fibrosis progression.

  9. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP. They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P<0.01. For the hypertensive group, SD of repeats decreased from 6.5 to 5.5 mmHg for SBP and from 6.7 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP, and CV decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% for SBP and from 5.8% to 3.8% for MAP (all P<0.05. In conclusion, polynomial curve fitting of oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56, overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37, stress (AOR = 2.56, and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85. The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15, instant noodles (AOR = 1.17, and confections (AOR = 1.17 and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22 and vegetables (AOR = 1.19 were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  12. Glaucoma associated with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in 203 Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Premanand; Rao, Harsha L; Mandal, Anil K; Choudhari, Nikhil S; Garudadri, Chandra S; Senthil, Sirisha

    2017-01-01

    To report the demographic profile, clinical features, and prevalence of glaucoma and its management in patients with Iridocorneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome. Retrospective review of 203 consecutive subjects with ICE syndrome at a tertiary eye care centre between January 1988 and June 2013. ICE syndrome was present in 223 eyes of 203 subjects, 124 (61%) were female and 79 (39%) were male. The median age at presentation was 43 years (1st (Q1) and 3rd (Q3) quartile; 34, 51 years). ICE syndrome was unilateral in 183 (90%) subjects, and bilateral in 20 (10%) subjects. The most common clinical variant was progressive iris atrophy (PIA, 115; 52% eyes), followed by Chandler syndrome (CS, 87; 39% eyes) and Cogan-Reese syndrome (CRS, 21; 9% eyes). Glaucoma was found in 156 eyes (70%) at presentation and the median (Q1, Q3) intraocular pressure in eyes with glaucoma was 24 (16, 38) mm Hg. Seven eyes developed glaucoma during the follow-up period, increasing the percentage of eyes with glaucoma to 73%. Intraocular pressure was managed medically in 81 eyes (50%) and the other 82 eyes (50%) required surgical intervention. Corneal edema was present in 124 eyes (56%) of which, 32 eyes (14%) required keratoplasty. In our study on ICE syndrome in Indian population, the presentation was predominantly uniocular and more common in middle aged women. Progressive iris atrophy was the most common clinical variant. ICE syndrome was associated with glaucoma in over 70% of the eyes and half of the eyes had corneal edema.

  13. Association of Chronic Subjective Tinnitus with Neuro- Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudwani, Sunita; Munjal, Sanjay K; Panda, Naresh K; Kohli, Adarsh

    2017-12-01

    Chronic subjective tinnitus is associated with cognitive disruptions affecting perception, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving, memory, visual tasks (reading) and attention. To evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus parameters and neuropsychological performance to explain cognitive processing. Study design was prospective, consisting 25 patients with idiopathic chronic subjective tinnitus and gave informed consent before planning their treatment. Neuropsychological profile included (i) performance on verbal information, comprehension, arithmetic and digit span; (ii) non-verbal performance for visual pattern completion analogies; (iii) memory performance for long-term, recent, delayed-recall, immediate-recall, verbal-retention, visualretention, visual recognition; (iv) reception, interpretation and execution for visual motor gestalt. Correlation between tinnitus onset duration/ loudness perception with neuropsychological profile was assessed by calculating Spearman's coefficient. Findings suggest that tinnitus may interfere with cognitive processing especially performance on digit span, verbal comprehension, mental balance, attention & concentration, immediate recall, visual recognition and visual-motor gestalt subtests. Negative correlation between neurocognitive tasks with tinnitus loudness and onset duration indicated their association. Positive correlation between tinnitus and visual-motor gestalt performance indicated the brain dysfunction. Tinnitus association with non-auditory processing of verbal, visual and visuo-spatial information suggested neuroplastic changes that need to be targeted in cognitive rehabilitation.

  14. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  15. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  16. Assessment of Left Ventricular Torsion in Short Axis View between Healthy Subjects and Significant Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Arab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease causes changes in biomechanical parameters and function of myocardial. Recently, torsion angle is one of the most important mechanical parameters. Therefore in this study, torsion angle in healthy subjects and LAD significant coronary artery disease patients, using echo tracking method in short axis view, was evaluated.Materials and Methods: In cross sectional study, 14 healthy subjects and 10 patients with significant stenosis of LAD were evaluated. Two dimensional echocardiography images were scanned in apical and basal parasternal short axis view were recorded. Successive ultrasonic images were processed by echo tracking under block matching algorithm and peak torsion angle were estimated. Difference between healthy group and patient group were extracted by using peak torsion angle by the confidence level of 95%.Results: In this study, basal rotation angle, apical rotation angle and torsion angle in short axis view in significant coronary artery disease patients significantly decreased 33%, 44% and 38% relative to healthy subjects, respectively. Also time to reach peak torsion angle in LAD coronary artery stenosis patients increased 19% relative to healthy group.Conclusion: It seems, torsion angle in short axis view, can diagnose LAD coronary artery stenosis patients reative to healthy subject.

  17. Significance of Lockeia and associated trace fossils from the Bada ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Its close association with other bivalve traces, viz., Lockeia and Protovirgularia suggests predation on small molluscs (Mángano et al. 1999). Ichnogenus Lockeia James 1879. Lockeia cunctator Schlirf and Uchman 2001. Plate 1(c–f). Material: Two slabs containing 77 specimens. Plesiotypes: MACS G 5188, MACS G 5189a.

  18. The influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms and intentions regarding dietary supplement use among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M S; Eddy, J M; Wang, M Q; Nagy, S; Perko, M A; Bartee, R T

    2001-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased significantly over the past decade. The use of supplements among adolescents seems to be influenced by their beliefs and attitudes. The influence of coaches, parents, and athletic trainers also may be important. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others (coaches, parents, and trainers) on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Adolescents (N = 1,626) who were enrolled in grades six through twelve in nine public schools completed a self-report questionnaire that measured attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions regarding dietary supplement use. Results indicated that attitudes were a better predictor of intentions to use dietary supplements than were subjective norms. It was also found that trainers had more influence on the attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of adolescents regarding supplement use than did parents and coaches. Implications for prevention are addressed.

  19. Significance of genome-wide association studies in molecular anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

    2009-12-01

    The successful advent of a genome-wide approach in association studies raises the hopes of human geneticists for solving a genetic maze of complex traits especially the disorders. This approach, which is replete with the application of cutting-edge technology and supported by big science projects (like Human Genome Project; and even more importantly the International HapMap Project) and various important databases (SNP database, CNV database, etc.), has had unprecedented success in rapidly uncovering many of the genetic determinants of complex disorders. The magnitude of this approach in the genetics of classical anthropological variables like height, skin color, eye color, and other genome diversity projects has certainly expanded the horizons of molecular anthropology. Therefore, in this article we have proposed a genome-wide association approach in molecular anthropological studies by providing lessons from the exemplary study of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We have also highlighted the importance and uniqueness of Indian population groups in facilitating the design and finding optimum solutions for other genome-wide association-related challenges.

  20. [Serum myeloperoxidase activity and serum paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with silicosis and observation subjects and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei-hua; Qiu, Sheng-qiang; Hong, Xiao-ping; Wu, Quan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in patients with silicosis and observation subjects and their clinical significance. Seventy-two patients with silicosis (stage I: 30 cases, stage II: 22 cases, stage III: 20 cases) and 37 observation subjects were selected as a case group, and 110 healthy men were selected as a control group. Serum MPO activity was measured by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and serum PON-1 activity was measured by chemical spectrophotometry. Serum MPO activity was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group [(102.1 ± 15.7) U/L vs. (62.4 ± 11.4) U/L, P silicosis than in the observation subjects [(91.3 ± 13.5) U/L, (85.7 ± 14.4) U/L, and (88.6 ± 14.5) U/L vs. (128.4 ± 16.4) U/L, P silicosis increased; serum PON-1 activity was significantly lower in the patients with stages II and III silicosis than in the observation subjects and the patients with stage I silicosis [(70.4 ± 11.4) U/ml and (67.6 ± 13.7) U/ml vs. (101.5 ± 14.0) U/ml and (89.1 ± 10.1) U/ml, P silicosis and evaluation of patient's condition.

  1. Association between subjective memory complaints and nursing home placement: a four-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    nursing home placements were observed. Subjective memory complaints were associated with an adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 2.59 for nursing home placement. Other statistical significant covariates were MMSE anxiety......OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate whether elderly persons with subjective memory complaints may be regarded as a group of potentially vulnerable patients who need close follow-up, we investigated the risk of nursing home placement during a 4-year follow-up period. METHODS: Prospective cohort survey....../depression (HR = 4.74). The effect of subjective memory complaints is seen to moderate when subjects are older. CONCLUSION: The data of this study indicated that in an elderly primary care population the presence of subjective memory complaints was a significant independent predictor for nursing home placement...

  2. Murine malaria is associated with significant hearing impairment

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    Stephan Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been suspected to cause hearing loss. Developmental, cognitive and language disorders have been observed in children, surviving cerebral malaria. This prospective study aims to evaluate whether malaria influences hearing in mice. Methods Twenty mice were included in a standardized murine cerebral malaria model. Auditory evoked brainstem responses were assessed before infection and at the peak of the illness. Results A significant hearing impairment could be demonstrated in mice with malaria, especially the cerebral form. The control group did not show any alterations. No therapy was used. Conclusion This suggests that malaria itself leads to a hearing impairment in mice.

  3. The association of subjective orthodontic treatment need with oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragt, Lea; Jaddoe, Vincent; Wolvius, Eppo; Ongkosuwito, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    The existing body of evidence reports an inconsistent association between subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. The concept of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) might help to explain the differences in subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. Our aim was to investigate the association of subjective orthodontic treatment with OHRQoL in children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. OHRQoL and subjective orthodontic treatment need were assessed by parental questionnaires. Questionnaire items were individually compared among children with no, borderline and definite subjective orthodontic need. The association between subjective orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL was investigated in multivariate regression analysis with weighted least squares. Differences by sex and levels of objective orthodontic treatment need were evaluated. In total, 3774 children were included in the analysis. Children with borderline subjective orthodontic treatment need and those with definite subjective orthodontic treatment need had significantly poorer OHRQoL based on the fully adjusted model (adjusted regression coefficient (aβ)=-0.49, 95% CI: -0.75, -0.30; (aβ)=-1.58, 95% CI: -1.81, -1.58, respectively). The association between subjective orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL was stronger in girls than in boys and stronger in children with objective orthodontic treatment need than in those with none. Oral health-related quality of life is poorer in children with subjective orthodontic treatment need. This has not been investigated before in such a large-population-based study and clearly offers an explanation for the lack of concurrence between objective and subjective orthodontic treatment need. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Metacognitions are associated with subjective memory problems in patients with chronic fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Børsting Jacobsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety.Methods: In this non-controlled study, patients (n=137 on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4 % was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions.Results: Results showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post scores on symptom measures. Conclusion: This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs

  5. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  6. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  7. Markers of sympathetic nervous system activity associate with complex plasma lipids in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul J; Khan, Anmar A; Straznicky, Nora E; Mellett, Natalie A; Jayawardana, Kaushala; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Lambert, Gavin W; Meikle, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Plasma sphingolipids including ceramides, and gangliosides are associated with insulin resistance (IR) through effects on insulin signalling and glucose metabolism. Our studies of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) showed close relationships between IR and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity including arterial norepinephrine (NE). We have therefore investigated possible associations of IR and SNS activity with complex lipids that are involved in both insulin sensitivity and neurotransmission. We performed a cross-sectional assessment of 23 lipid classes/subclasses (total 339 lipid species) by tandem mass spectrometry in 94 overweight untreated subjects with IR (quantified by HOMA-IR, Matsuda index and plasma insulin). Independently of IR parameters, several circulating complex lipids associated significantly with arterial NE and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) and marginally with heart rate (HR). After accounting for BMI, HOMA-IR, systolic BP, age, gender, and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations were significant (p 0.05) with ceramide, GM3 ganglioside, sphingomyelin, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylinositol and free cholesterol. Multiple subspecies of these lipids significantly associated with NE and NEFA. None of the IR biomarkers associated significantly with lipid classes/subclasses after correction for multiple comparisons. This is the first demonstration that arterial norepinephrine and NEFA, that reflect both SNS activity and IR, associate significantly with circulating complex lipids independently of IR, suggesting a role for such lipids in neural mechanisms operating in MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What is the probability of replicating a statistically significant association in genome-wide association studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xue, Jing-Hao; Yu, Weichuan

    2017-11-01

    The goal of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to discover genetic variants associated with diseases/traits. Replication is a common validation method in GWASs. We regard an association as true finding when it shows significance in both primary and replication studies. A question worth pondering is what is the probability of a primary association (i.e. a statistically significant association in the primary study) being validated in the replication study? This article systematically reviews the answers to this question from different points of view. As Bayesian methods can help us integrate out the uncertainty about the underlying effect of the primary association, we will mainly focus on the Bayesian view in this article. We refer the Bayesian replication probability as the replication rate (RR). We further describe an estimation method for RR, which makes use of the summary statistics from the primary study. We can use the estimated RR to determine the sample size of the replication study and to check the consistency between the results of the primary study and those of the replication study. We describe an R-package to estimate and apply RR in GWASs. Simulation and real data experiments show that the estimated RR has good prediction and calibration performance. We also use these data to demonstrate the usefulness of RR. The R-package is available at http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/RRate.html. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  11. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  12. Subjective memory complaints among patients on sick leave are associated with symptoms of fatigue and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kristine Aasvik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167 who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Everyday Memory Questionnaire – Revised. General linear modeling (GLM was used to analyze variables associated with SMCs. Results: Symptoms of fatigue (p-value <= 0.001 and anxiety (p-value = 0.001 were uniquely and significantly associated with perceived memory failures. The associations with symptoms of pain, depression and insomnia were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints should be recognized as part of the complex symptomatology among patients who report multiple symptoms, especially in cases of fatigue and anxiety. Self-report questionnaires measuring perceived memory failures may be a quick and easy way to incorporate and extend this knowledge into clinical practice.

  13. Genetic variation in the NOC gene is associated with body mass index in Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Liu, Pi-Hua; Hee, Siow Wei; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Jiang, Yi-Der; Lee, Wei-Jei; Lee, Po-Chu; Kao, Hui-Yi; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clock genes are critical regulators of energy homeostasis and metabolism. However, whether variation in the circadian genes is associated with metabolic phenotypes in humans remains to be explored. In this study, we systemically genotyped 20 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 candidate genes involved in circadian clock, including CLOCK, BMAL1(ARNTL), PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1E,, and NOC(CCRN4L) in 1,510 non-diabetic Chinese subjects in Taipei and Yunlin populations in Taiwan. Their associations with metabolic phenotypes were analyzed. We found that genetic variation in the NOC gene, rs9684900 was associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0016, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.032). Another variant, rs135764 in the CSNK1E gene was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.0023, Bonferroni corrected P = 0.046). These associations were consistent in both Taipei and Yunlin populations. Significant epistatic and joint effects between SNPs on BMI and related phenotypes were observed. Furthermore, NOC mRNA levels in human abdominal adipose tissue were significantly increased in obese subjects compared to non-obese controls. Genetic variation in the NOC gene is associated with BMI in Chinese subjects.

  14. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with anxiety and depression in older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Lorrain, Dominique; Belleville, Geneviève; Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insufficient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main specific sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between risk perception, subjective knowledge, and depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Fukutomi, Eriko; Wada, Taizo; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-05-30

    Risk perception is one of the core factors in theories of health behavior promotion. However, the association between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in depression is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between subjective knowledge, risk perception, and objective scores of depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. A total of 747 elderly participants (mean age: 76.1, female: 59.8%) who completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) along with items assessing subjective knowledge and risk perception were included in the analysis. We assessed the correlation between subjective knowledge and risk perception, and then compare GDS-15 scores by level of subjective knowledge and risk perception. Subjective knowledge was weakly associated with risk perception and related to lower GDS-15 scores in a dose-response pattern, which did not change after adjusting for age, gender, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, years of education and history of depression. There was no significant association between risk perception and GDS-15 scores. The relationship between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in younger generations is unclear, but warrants examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between subjective and cortisol stress response depends on the menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-12-01

    The relation between the physiologic and subjective stress responses is inconsistently reported across studies. Menstrual cycle phases variations have been found to influence the psychophysiological stress response; however little is known about possible cycle phase differences in the relationship between physiological and subjective stress responses. This study examined the effect of menstrual cycle phase in the association between subjective stress and physiological response. Forty-five women in either the follicular (n=21) or the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle were exposed to a psychosocial stress task. Salivary cortisol, cardiovascular, and subjective stress were assessed throughout the experiment. Results revealed a significant group difference in the association between peak levels of cortisol and post task subjective stress. In women in the follicular phase a negative association was observed (r(2)=0.199, p=0.04), while this relation was positive in the group of women in the luteal phase (r(2)=0.227, p=0.02). These findings suggest a possible role of sex hormones in modulating the cortisol stress response function in emotion regulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Significant association of SREBP-2 genetic polymorphisms with avascular necrosis in the Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Eui

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that steroid usage and alcohol abuse are major etiological factors in the development of avascular necrosis (AVN, a bone disease that produces osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The facilitation of fat biosynthesis by steroids and alcohol disrupts the blood supply into the femoral head. SREBP-2 plays a central role in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis through stimulating expression of genes associated with cholesterol biosynthetic pathways. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the polymorphisms of the SREBP-2 gene and AVN susceptibility in the Korean population. Methods Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the SREBP-2 gene, IVS1+8408 T>C (rs2267439, IVS3-342 G>T (rs2269657, IVS11+414 G>A (rs1052717 and IVS12-1667 G>A (rs2267443, were selected from public databases and genotyped in 443 AVN patients and 273 control subjects by using single-based extension (SBE genotyping. Results The minor allele (C frequency of rs2267439 showed a significant protective effect on AVN (P = 0.01, OR; 0.75, 95% CI; 0.604–0.935, and the genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were also different from the controls in all alternative analysis models (P range, 0.009–0.03, OR; 0.647–0.744. In contrast, rs1052717 and rs2267443 polymorphisms were significantly associated with AVN risk. Further analysis based on pathological etiology showed that the genotypes of rs2267439, rs1052717 and rs2267443 were also significantly associated with AVN susceptibility in each subgroup. Conclusion This study is the first report to evaluate the association between SREBP-2 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of AVN in the Korean population.

  19. Longitudinal associations between perceived age discrimination and subjective well-being: variations by age and subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Bodner, Ehud

    2017-07-01

    Perceived age discrimination can have negative effects on one's subjective well-being (SWB). The response to age discrimination might differ based on age, and based on perceived longevity, or subjective life expectancy (SLE). These differential effects have not yet been prospectively examined within adult life span samples. We examined the association between perceived age discrimination at baseline (T1) and SWB at follow-up (T2), and the moderation effect of SLE. We compared differences in these effects between middle-aged and older adults. Analyses were based on participants who took part in the 2008 (T1) and 2011 (T2) assessments of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS; listwise N = 1534), a population-based representative sample of the German adult population. Participants were categorized as middle-aged (ages 40-64; n = 919) or older adults (ages 65-93; n = 615). Regression analyses indicated that T1 perceived age discrimination significantly predicts lower T2 SWB among middle-aged, but not among older adults, after adjusting for covariates and T1 SWB. There is a significant interaction between age discrimination and SLE for predicting SWB, only among middle-aged participants, suggesting that age discrimination predicts decreases in SWB for those reporting higher, but not lower levels of SLE. People in the transition from midlife to old age, who hold higher SLE, appear to be more vulnerable to age discrimination. This may be due to the experience of age discrimination as an 'off-time', or unexpected event for those in midlife who have a higher expectation to live longer.

  20. The association of genome-wide significant spirometric loci with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Peter J; Cho, Michael H; Litonjua, Augusto A; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A; Anderson, Wayne; Beaty, Terri H; Hokanson, John E; Crapo, James D; Laird, Nan; Silverman, Edwin K

    2011-12-01

    Two recent metaanalyses of genome-wide association studies conducted by the CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia identified novel loci yielding evidence of association at or near genome-wide significance (GWS) with FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC. We hypothesized that a subset of these markers would also be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility. Thirty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 genes in 11 previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions were tested for association with COPD status in four COPD case-control study samples (NETT/NAS, the Norway case-control study, ECLIPSE, and the first 1,000 subjects in COPDGene; total sample size, 3,456 cases and 1,906 controls). In addition to testing the 32 spirometric GWS SNPs, we tested a dense panel of imputed HapMap2 SNP markers from the 17 genes located near the 32 GWS SNPs and in a set of 21 well studied COPD candidate genes. Of the previously identified GWS spirometric genomic regions, three loci harbored SNPs associated with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate: the 4q24 locus including FLJ20184/INTS12/GSTCD/NPNT, the 6p21 locus including AGER and PPT2, and the 5q33 locus including ADAM19. In conclusion, markers previously associated at or near GWS with spirometric measures were tested for association with COPD status in data from four COPD case-control studies, and three loci showed evidence of association with COPD susceptibility at a 5% false discovery rate.

  1. Subjective memory complaints in aging are associated with elevated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Dziobek, Isabel; McHugh, Pauline; Sweat, Victoria; de Leon, Mony J; Javier, Elizabeth; Convit, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The origin and clinical significance of subjective memory complaints among middle aged and older individuals is not well understood. Associations with objective memory impairments, personality traits or mood disturbances have been reported. Elevated cortisol levels occur in aging and depression and causal links to cognitive or emotional problems have been suggested. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between basal and feedback indices of cortisol regulation and subjective memory impairment in a sample of healthy middle aged and older subjects (mean age 61.8 years) with (n=27) and without (n=19) subjective memory complaints. Participants with memory complaints had both higher basal cortisol levels and higher cortisol levels after dexamethasone. There was a significant group by gender interaction for basal cortisol levels, where women without memory complaints showed significantly lower cortisol levels, whereas no such difference was found for the men. All effects were not due to slight differences in depression scores. Differences in personality traits or in stress susceptibility might underlie the present findings. Future studies of memory complaints should take a comprehensive approach including relevant endocrine parameters.

  2. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  3. Youth Subjectivities and Associational Life in Bamenda, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2009-05-13

    May 13, 2009 ... sentiments, and embodied sensibilities, and especially their senses of self and self-world relations (Holland and Leander 2004:127). Subjectivity involves making choices about one's identities as well as resisting those identities that are imposed by others or outsiders (Brettell and Sargent 2006:4). In this.

  4. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jaekyoung; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE) in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Kor...

  5. Circulating ApoJ is closely associated with insulin resistance in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji A; Kang, Min-Cheol; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Choe, Charles; Hwang, Won Min; Lim, Dong Mee; Farr, Olivia; Mantzoros, Christos; Henry, Robert R; Kim, Young-Bum

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. ApolipoproteinJ (ApoJ) has been implicated in altered pathophysiologic states including cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of ApoJ in regulation of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. This study sought to determine whether serum ApoJ levels are associated with insulin resistance in human subjects and if they change after interventions that improve insulin sensitivity. Serum ApoJ levels and insulin resistance status were assessed in nondiabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. The impacts of rosiglitazone or metformin therapy on serum ApoJ levels and glucose disposal rate (GDR) during a hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp were evaluated in a separate cohort of T2D subjects. Total ApoJ protein or that associated with the HDL and LDL fractions was measured by immunoblotting or ELISA. Fasting serum ApoJ levels were greatly elevated in T2D subjects (ND vs T2D; 100±8.3 vs. 150.6±8.5AU, Pinsulin, HOMA-IR, and BMI. ApoJ levels were significantly and independently associated with HOMA-IR, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Rosiglitazone treatment in T2D subjects resulted in a reduction in serum ApoJ levels (before vs. after treatment; 100±13.9 vs. 77±15.2AU, P=0.015), whereas metformin had no effect on ApoJ levels. The change in ApoJ levels during treatment was inversely associated with the change in GDR. Interestingly, ApoJ content in the LDL fraction was inversely associated with HOMA-IR. Serum ApoJ levels are closely correlated with the magnitude of insulin resistance regardless of obesity, and decrease along with improvement of insulin resistance in response only to rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Tattooing and its significance in Switzerland. A representative study of 2177 20-year-old Swiss subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, W E

    1990-03-03

    To investigate the incidence, significance and symbolism of tattooing in Switzerland, a representative group of 2177 young males (all liable for military service, age 19-21 years) were examined in 1988. All tattoos were sketched, the location was recorded and the individual meaning was discussed with the bearer. 135 subjects (6.2%) had 1-9 tattoos per person, showing 155 different marks. Only 13% of all tattoos were professional, moderate to large in size and most often located in the area of the upper arm and the shoulder. 87% of tattoos were self-inflicted or placed by a friend and the left side was therefore preferred (66%). In general, these were small to moderate in size, simple in design, and usually located on the forearm and the hand. The dominant significance of all tattoos was related to mental attitude (29%) and love affairs (14%). 13% were pictorial. Some were related to drug abuse, criminality of gangs, or contained magic symbolism or personal data such as zodiac signs and initials (about 4% each). Only 20% had no conventional or private meaning or involved concealed symbolism. For further understanding of the individuals' social history, it should be noted that some tattoos were characterized by minor differences of meaning, such as the "man-in-4-walls" mark (= prison), the "fuck-the-police" mark, the leaf of cannabis sativa or different cross motifs. Even greater consistency related to tattoos located in the web space between the thumb and the forefinger or on the back of the fingers. The location in itself may therefore provide additional personal information on individual circumstances at the time of tattooing.

  7. Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Sentinelli

    2012-01-01

    Aims of our study are to investigate: (1 the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n=752 of Italian obese subjects; (2 the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P<0.043 and rs9930506 (P<0.029 with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI+1.4 kg/m2 per G allele. We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  8. Serum free thyroxine concentration is associated with metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ladan; Amouzegar, Atieh; Tohidi, Maryam; Moayedi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-11-01

    The association between thyroid hormones within the euthyroid range and metabolic syndrome is not clear. This study evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormones and metabolic syndrome and its components in euthyroid subjects. This is a cross-sectional population based study conducted within the framework of the cohort of the Tehran Thyroid Study. Out of 5786 subjects aged ≥ 20 years, 3755 euthyroid subjects without a history of thyroid disorders, diabetes, or use of steroids or lipid-lowering agents were investigated. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, free T4 (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) were assayed. Metabolic syndrome was determined by definition of the Joint Interim Statement adjusted for the Iranian population. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking, serum FT4 was significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), WC, systolic BP, and diastolic BP; the associations that remained significant after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) except for HDL-C. Serum TSH was associated only with TGs after adjustments for age, sex, smoking, and BMI, an association that disappeared after further adjustment for HOMA-IR. Serum FT4 was negatively associated (β=-0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI: -0.03, -0.01]) and TSH was positively associated (β = 0.03 [CI: 0.01, 0.04) with insulin resistance. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased from 30.1% in the lowest FT4 tertile to 22.4% in the highest FT4 tertile (p<0.001). The prevalence of other metabolic syndrome components decreased significantly from higher to lower FT4 tertiles. Higher FT4 values were associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.96 [95% CI: 0.92, 0.99]; p=0.01). In euthyroid

  9. Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess serum uric acid (UA accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, UA, creatinine (Cr, albumin (Alb, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups. Results: Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl (P 1, P < 0.05 associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders. Conclusion: High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition.

  10. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  11. Subjective sleep disturbance in Chinese adults with epilepsy: Associations with affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yeru; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Lanlan; Xu, Xiangjun; Xiao, Gairong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Nong

    2017-09-01

    As well as being a very common neurological disease worldwide, epilepsy significantly impairs patients' emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. Sleep disturbances are the most frequent complaint in patients with epilepsy. The present study assesses the impact of a range of affective symptoms on subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances in Chinese adults with epilepsy. Adults with epilepsy who visited our epilepsy clinic from July 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in our study. Both patients and healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were examined with regard to self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, seizure-related factors, and demographic factors. The PSQI scores and ISI scores of patients were significantly higher (indicating lower quality sleep and more serious insomnia) than those of the control group. Symptoms associated with depression and anxiety were independently related to impaired subjective sleep quality and insomnia. Affective symptoms explained more of the variance in PSQI scores and ISI scores than did seizure-related or demographic variables. In addition, these variables also seemed to be less powerful contributing factors to subjective sleep quality and insomnia than affective symptoms, several seizure-related factors, such as seizure control, partial seizures and duration of epilepsy, which are also significantly associated with subjective sleep quality and insomnia. In addition, use of lamotrigine (LTG) was also associated with insomnia and use of clonazepam (CZP) and phenobarbital (PB) with daytime sleepiness in patients with epilepsy. Chinese adults with epilepsy have poorer self-reported subjective sleep quality and a higher prevalence of insomnia than the control group

  12. Bayesian analysis of factors associated with fibromyalgia syndrome subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardana, Veroni; Mondal, Sumona; Russek, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Factors contributing to movement-related fear were assessed by Russek, et al. 2014 for subjects with Fibromyalgia (FM) based on the collected data by a national internet survey of community-based individuals. The study focused on the variables, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder screen (PC-PTSD), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), a Joint Hypermobility Syndrome screen (JHS), Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS-SF), Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), Pain, work status and physical activity dependent from the "Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire" (FIQR). The study presented in this paper revisits same data with a Bayesian analysis where appropriate priors were introduced for variables selected in the Russek's paper.

  13. Health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamaga, Keiko; Hirano, Takako; Onoue, Kazue; Uehara, Akihiko

    2017-03-28

    Sleep disturbances are related to somatic and mental disorders, industrial accidents, absenteeism, and retirement because of disability. We aimed to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers. This cross-sectional study included 5,297 employees (mean age: 43.6±11.3 years; 4,039 men). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency. Overall, 28.2% of participants experienced subjective sleep insufficiency. There was a significant difference between the genders in the proportion of participants with subjective sleep insufficiency (male: 26.4%; female: 34.3%; psubjective sleep insufficiency. After stratifying by gender, age ≥40 years, not exercising regularly, and eating a late-evening or fourth meal were significantly associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in both genders. Not walking quickly, experiencing a weight change, and eating quickly were positively associated with subjective sleep insufficiency only for males. Females who did not engage in physical activity were more likely to have experienced subjective sleep insufficiency, but this relationship was not observed in males. The results indicated that certain health-related behaviors, specifically not exercising regularly and nocturnal eating habits, were associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in a group of Japanese workers.

  14. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variability are associated with the severity of sepsis in nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preechasuk, Lukana; Suwansaksri, Nattakarn; Ipichart, Nantawan; Vannasaeng, Sathit; Permpikul, Chairat; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee

    2017-04-01

    The purpose was to compare glucose variability (GV) obtained via continuous glucose monitoring between nondiabetic sepsis patients and healthy subjects and to seek associations between GV and sepsis severity in nondiabetic sepsis patients. Nondiabetic sepsis inpatients and healthy controls received a 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring (iPro2, Medtronic) postadmission and post-oral glucose tolerance test, respectively. The mean glucose level (MGL) along with GV represented by standard deviation (SD) and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) were calculated at 24 and 72 hours. Sepsis severity was evaluated with the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA). MGL and GV in patients with SOFA ≥9 and sepsis and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. No differences were found between groups except for higher patient age in sepsis patients. The MGL and MAGE 72h of sepsis patients were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. MGL and GV 24h were higher in patients with SOFA ≥9 than in patients with SOFA sepsis patients had higher MGL and GV values than healthy subjects. MGL and GV 24h were associated with sepsis severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective taste to polyethylene glycol is associated with efficacy of right colon preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Chung, Jin Ook; Chung, Min-Woo; Myung, Eun; Koh, Han-Ra; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2017-04-01

    A prospective observational trial with preparations using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to compare patient compliance and adverse events according to individual subjective taste. A total of 299 outpatients (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 56.5 ± 13.8 years, 172 males) were recruited for our study. We assessed the efficacy of bowel preparation, subjective taste to their regimens, compliance and adverse events during the preparation. We achieved adequate preparation in 267 (89.3%). A total of 124 patients (41.5%) had 'unacceptable taste' to their regimens. The patients with acceptable taste had better compliance than the patients with unacceptable taste (p = .009). The patients with unacceptable taste had more frequent adverse events such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal bloating than the patients with acceptable taste (all p taste (16.1%) had more frequent inadequate preparation in overall colon than patients with acceptable taste (6.9%, p = .011). There was a significant difference in the efficacy of preparation of right colon between the two groups (p = .004). Subjective taste to PEG is associated with efficacy of right colon preparation. In addition, subjective taste to PEG is associated with compliance and adverse events.

  16. The clinical significance of QT prolongation associated with tamoxifen: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Katherine; Imeson, Julia; Cusano, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the literature discussing QT prolongation associated with the use of tamoxifen in order to evaluate the clinical significance. Data sources A search of PubMed (1946 to 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 2017) and EMBASE (1947 to 2017) was performed using a combination of the following search terms: tamoxifen, estrogen antagonist, selective estrogen receptor modulator, QT prolongation, QT interval, long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes. All searches were limited to human subjects. Reference lists of the literature found were also reviewed but did not reveal any further articles. Study selection Articles reviewed were relating to humans only and included clinical trials and case reports that mentioned QT prolongation in association with the use of tamoxifen. Data synthesis It can be common for patients on tamoxifen to also be on a number of different medications being used to treat comorbid medical conditions. Such combinations of medications increase the potential risk for drug interactions, such as drug-induced QT prolongation. Tamoxifen is often flagged by tertiary drug information sources as a drug with indeterminate effects on the QT interval. However, the risk may be elevated when combined with other QT-prolonging agents. A total of five publications were identified, including two phase I clinical trials and three case reports, which discussed the association between tamoxifen and QT prolongation. Conclusions Tertiary drug information sources identify tamoxifen as an agent that may cause QT prolongation when used in combination with other QT-prolonging agents. However, based on the limited number of published reports found, it would suggest that the use of tamoxifen concurrently with other agents known to prolong the QT interval is likely to be of low risk for causing a clinically significant QT-prolonging event, especially at a dose of 20 mg daily.

  17. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in individuals with OA. Findings suggest that the AQLQ(S questionnaire may be used to identify patients with potentially clinically significant levels of psychological distress.

  18. The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject to disturbance, a stoichiometric perspective

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    S. Waldron

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial-aquatic interface is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. Here the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC may be controlled by nutrient availability. However, peat-dominated headwater catchments are normally of low nutrient status and thus there is little data on how DOC and nutrient export co-varies. We present nutrient and DOC data for two UK catchments dominated by peat headwaters. One, Whitelee, is undergoing development for Europe's largest windfarm. Glen Dye by comparison is relatively undisturbed. At both sites there are significant linear relationships between DOC and soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in the drainage waters. However, inter-catchment differences exist. Changes in the pattern of nutrient and carbon export at Whitelee reveal that landscape disturbance associated with windfarm development impacts the receiving waters, and that nutrient export does not increase in a stoichiometric manner that will promote increase in microbial biomass but rather supports aquatic respiration. In turn greater CO2 efflux may prevail. Hence disturbance of terrestrial carbon stores may impact the both the aquatic and gaseous carbon cycle. We suggest estimates of aquatic carbon export should inform the decision-making process prior to development in ecosystems and catchments with high terrestrial carbon storage.

  19. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  20. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  1. Evening chronotype associates with obesity in severely obese subjects: interaction with CLOCK 3111T/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lozano, T; Vidal, J; de Hollanda, A; Canteras, M; Garaulet, M; Izquierdo-Pulido, M

    2016-10-01

    Chronotype has been related to obesity and metabolic disturbances. However, little is known about the relationship between circadian preferences and genetic background in CLOCK genes with obesity and weight loss among severely obese patients after bariatric surgery. The research goals were (1) to examine whether evening chronotype is related to obesity and weight loss evolution in severely obese followed during 6 years after bariatric surgery and (2) to examine potential interactions between circadian preferences and CLOCK 3111T/C for obesity in this population. Participants (n=252, 79% female; age (mean±s.d.): 52±11 years; body mass index (BMI): 46.4±6.0 kg m-2) were grouped into evening and morning types. Obesity and weight loss parameters, energy and macronutrients intake, energy expenditure, chronotype, meal timing, sleep duration and CLOCK genotype were studied. Evening-type subjects showed significantly higher initial body weight (P=0.015) and BMI (P=0.014) than morning types. Moreover, evening-type, when compared with morning types, lost less weight (percentage of excess weight loss) after bariatric surgery (P=0.015). Weight-loss progression between the two chronotype groups differed significantly from the fourth year after the bariatric surgery toward a higher weight regain among evening types (PCLOCK 3111T/C SNP and chronotype for body weight at baseline (PCLOCK 3111T/C SNP significantly associated with obesity and sleep duration in the older subjects. Evening chronotype is associated with higher obesity in severely obese subjects and with lower weight loss effectiveness after bariatric surgery. In addition, circadian preferences interact with CLOCK 3111T/C for obesity. The circadian and genetic assessment could provide tailored weight loss recommendations in subjects who underwent bariatric surgery.

  2. A systematic comparison between subjects with no pain and pain associated with active myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Armstrong, Katee; Diao, Guoqing; Heimur, Juliana; Kopecky, John; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Gebreab, Tadesse; Shah, Jay

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether standard evaluations of pain distinguish subjects with no pain from those with myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) and active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and to assess whether self-reports of mood, function, and health-related quality of life differ between these groups. A prospective, descriptive study. University. Adults with and without neck pain. We evaluated adults with MPS and active (painful) MTrPs and those without pain. Subjects in the "active" (A) group had at least one active MTrP with spontaneous pain that was persistent, lasted longer than 3 months, and had characteristic pain on palpation. Subjects in the "no pain" (NP) group had no spontaneous pain. However, some of these subjects had discomfort upon MTrP palpation (latent MTrP), whereas others in the NP group had no discomfort upon palpation of nodules or had no nodules. Each participant underwent range of motion measurement, a 10-point manual muscle test, and manual and algometric palpation. The latter determined the pain/pressure threshold using an algometer of 4 predetermined anatomic sites along the upper trapezius. Participants rated pain using a verbal analog scale (0-10) and completed the Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Scale (which included a sleep subscale), the Short -Form 36 Health Survey, and the Profile of Mood States. The A group included 24 subjects (mean age 36 years; 16 women), and the NP group included 26 subjects (mean age 26 years; 12 women). Group A subjects differed from NP subjects in the number of latent MTrPs (P = .0062), asymmetrical cervical range of motion (P = .01 for side bending and P = .002 for rotation), and in all pain reports (P < .0001), algometry (P < .03), Profile of Mood States (P < .038), Short Form 36 Health Survey (P < .01), and Oswestry Disability Scale (P < .0001). A systematic musculoskeletal evaluation of people with MPS reliably distinguishes them from subjects with no pain. The 2 groups are significantly different in

  3. OBESITY IS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN 2-TO-9 YEAR OLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Vidot, Denise C.; Gurnurkar, Shilpa; Alhezayen, Reem; Natale, Ruby A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in ethnically diverse 2-to-9 year olds. A retrospective medical chart review identified overweight/obese 2-to-9 year olds (N=147) from a local pediatric clinic who were matched (on age, sex and ethnicity) to normal weight subjects from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (N=294). Comparisons of mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, total- and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were conducted. Results showed that compared to the population-based normal weight sample, the local overweight/obese sample were significantly more likely to have diastolic prehypertension (15% vs. 75%, P<0.0001), systolic prehypertension (10% vs. 43% P<0.0001), and the lowest quintile of HDL cholesterol (19% vs.34%, P=0.003). In summary, at this young age excess weight is significantly associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. These results suggest that overweight/obese children in this age group should be monitored closely to prevent potential chronic disease risk. PMID:25307314

  4. The association between vascular factors and subjective memory impairment in older people: The HUNT Study, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Melbye Langballe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Subjective memory impairment (SMI is often considered an early sign of dementia. This study investigates the relationship between SMI and dementia-related vascular factors in older people.Method: This study was based on data from 12,255 individuals, 65 years and older, participating in the Nord-Trøndelag health study, third survey 2006-08 (HUNT3. SMI, vascular diseases, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption were self-reported. Blood pressure, cholesterol and body mass index (BMI were clinically measured. SMI were predicted using linear regression analysis.Results: Stroke and heart disease were associated with SMI. High exercise intensity was associated with less SMI. Respondents with high systolic blood pressure (SBP reported less SMI than those with moderate SBP. In men, low SBP was associated with significantly more SMI compared to those with moderate SBP. In women, moderate alcohol consumption compared to low alcohol consumption was associated with significantly more SMI.Conclusion: SMI was positively associated with stroke and heart disease in this study. For the other investigated vascular factors, we did not find strong relationships with SMI. However, for preventive and treatment purposes, it is noteworthy that high exercise intensity and high systolic blood pressure was associated with less SMI in both genders.

  5. Frailty is associated with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors in community-dwelling older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Stefano; Cella, Alberto; Puntoni, Matteo; Musacchio, Clarissa; Pomata, Monica; Torriglia, Domenico; Vello, Natalia; Molinari, Beba; Pandolfini, Valeria; Torrigiani, Claudio; Pilotto, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the association between frailty and sociodemographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors in community-dwelling older people. This was a cross-sectional survey in a population-based sample of 542 community-dwelling subjects aged 65 years and older living in a metropolitan area in Italy. Frailty was evaluated by means of the FRAIL scale proposed by the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. Basal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), physical activity, sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status and cohabitation), socioeconomic (education, economic conditions and occupational status) and lifestyle domains (cultural and technological fruition and social activation) were assessed through specific validated tools. Statistical analysis was performed through multinomial logistic regression. Impairments in ADL and IADL were significantly associated with frailty, while moderate and high physical activity were inversely associated with frailty. Moreover, regarding both socioeconomic variables and lifestyle factors, more disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions and low levels of cultural fruition were significantly associated with frailty. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, particularly cultural fruition, are associated with frailty independently from functional impairment and low physical activity. Cultural habits may therefore represent a new target of multimodal interventions against geriatric frailty.

  6. Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Miller

    Full Text Available Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p = 0.01 and right globus pallidus (p = 0.02. Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2 = 0.49, p = 0.001, general fatigue (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.01 and reduced activity (r2 = 0.29, p = 0.02 as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks.

  7. Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhonen, Terhi; Lie, Arve; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-12-01

    Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009). In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.

  8. Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Urhonen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3% had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009. In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.

  9. Objective and subjective binge eating in underweight eating disorders: associated features and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2012-04-01

    To define the utility of the DSM-IV-TR definition of binge eating, as it applies to anorexia nervosa (AN) and underweight eating disorder not otherwise specified (ED-NOS). We investigated the psychopathological features associated with bulimic episodes in 105 underweight individuals with eating disorders who reported regular objective bulimic episodes with or without subjective bulimic episodes (OBE group, n = 33), regular subjective bulimic episodes only (SBE group, n = 36) and neither objective nor subjective bulimic episodes (n = 36, no-RBE group). The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), anxiety, depression, and personality tests were administered before and upon completion of inpatient cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment 6 months later. Compared with the SBE group, OBE subjects had higher body mass index, and more frequent self-induced vomiting, while both OBE and SBE groups had more severe eating disorder psychopathology and lower self-directness than the no-RBE group. Dropout rates and outcomes in response to inpatient CBT were similar in the three groups. Despite a few significant differences at baseline, the similar outcome in response to CBT indicates that categorizing patients with underweight eating disorder on the basis of the type or frequency of bulimic episodes is of limited clinical utility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Poor sleep maintenance and subjective sleep quality are associated with postpartum maternal depression symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eliza M; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stickgold, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Women are at increased risk of developing mood disorders during the postpartum period, and poor postpartum sleep may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of depression. This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between sleep variables and postpartum depression symptoms using wrist actigraphy and self-report surveys. Twenty-five healthy primiparous women were recruited from their outpatient obstetricians' offices from July 2009 through March 2010. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs for 1 week during the third trimester of pregnancy and again during the 2nd, 6th, 10th, and 14th weeks postpartum while completing sleep logs and sleep surveys. Subjective assessments of mood were collected at the end of each actigraph week. Subjective sleep assessments were strongly predictive of depression severity scores as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) across all weeks (p sleep maintenance, such as sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset, were also significantly correlated with EPDS scores postpartum. However, there was no relationship between nocturnal sleep duration and EPDS scores. This study provides additional evidence that poor sleep maintenance as measured by wrist actigraphy, rather than lesser amounts of sleep, is associated with EPDS scores during the postpartum period and that subjective assessments of sleep may be more accurate predictors of postpartum depression symptoms than wrist actigraphy. It also supports the hypothesis that disrupted sleep may contribute to the development and extent of postpartum depression symptoms.

  11. Integrative Genomics Identifies Novel Associations with APOL1 Risk Genotypes in Black NEPTUNE Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Matthew G; Robertson, Catherine C; Martini, Sebastian; Mariani, Laura H; Lemley, Kevin V; Gillies, Christopher E; Otto, Edgar A; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Randolph, Anne; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Eichinger, Felix; Nair, Viji; Gipson, Debbie S; Cattran, Daniel C; Johnstone, Duncan B; O'Toole, John F; Bagnasco, Serena M; Song, Peter X; Barisoni, Laura; Troost, Jonathan P; Kretzler, Matthias; Sedor, John R

    2016-03-01

    APOL1 variants have been associated with renal phenotypes in blacks. To refine clinical outcomes and discover mechanisms of APOL1-associated kidney injury, we analyzed clinical and genomic datasets derived from 90 black subjects in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE), stratified by APOL1 risk genotype. Ninety subjects with proteinuria ≥0.5 g/d were enrolled at first biopsy for primary nephrotic syndrome and followed. Clinical outcomes were determined, and renal histomorphometry and sequencing of Mendelian nephrotic syndrome genes were performed. APOL1 variants were genotyped, and glomerular and tubulointerstitial transcriptomes from protocol renal biopsy cores were analyzed for differential and correlative gene expression. Analyses were performed under the recessive model (high-risk genotype defined by two risk alleles). APOL1 high-risk genotype was significantly associated with a 17 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) lower eGFR and a 69% reduction in the probability of complete remission at any time, independent of histologic diagnosis. Neither APOL1 risk group was enriched for Mendelian mutations. On renal biopsy, high-risk genotype was associated with increased fractional interstitial area, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Risk genotype was not associated with intrarenal APOL1 mRNA expression levels. Differential expression analysis demonstrated an increased steady-state level of five genes associated with the high-risk genotype (CXCL9, CXCL11, and UBD in glomerulus; SNOR14B and MUC13 in tubulointerstitium). APOL1 tubulointerstitial coexpression analysis showed coexpression of APOL1 mRNA levels with a group of intrarenal transcripts that together were associated with increased interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. These data indicate the high-risk APOL1 genotype confers renal risk across histopathologic diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  13. Exploring the socio-emotional factors associated with subjective well-being in the unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Berrios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the relations between dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI and classic constructs, such as social support, on depression, stress, and subjective well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness. The study also sought to determine whether PEI dimensions accounted for a significant portion of the variance beyond that of classic constructs in the study of depression, stress, and well-being outcomes in a sample of 442 unemployed subjects. Results indicated that social support and all PEI dimensions are found to be significant and negatively related to depression and stress, and these variables were also found to be significant and positively associated with life satisfaction and happiness. Additionally, results using regression analysis indicated that PEI, and specifically use of emotions and regulation of emotions, explain a significant amount of the variance of all outcomes after controlling for socio-demographics and social support dimensions. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of these constructs and their relation with psychological adjustment and well-being in unemployed people are discussed.

  14. Inflammation is Associated with Vascular Remodeling - Repairing Balances in Hypertensive Obese Subjects

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    Lies Gantini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension and obesity are proinflammatory conditions. Vascular remodeling is one of the pathomechanisms reflecting increased cardiovascular (CV risks and represented as ratio of MMP-9 and sVEGFR-2 concentration. There is no association confirmed between inflammation and remodeling yet. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between inflammation and vascular remodeling-repairing balances in hypertensive obese subjects. METHODS: This was a cross–sectional study recruited 34 hypertensive obese subjects and 10 hypertensive non obese subjects. They had no antihypertensive medications, neither diabetics nor renal disease and nor acute inflammation detected. Inflammation was assessed as increased hsCRP concentration. Vascular remodeling and repairing were consecutively represented by ratio of MMP-9 and sVEGFR-2. RESULTS: Concentration of hsCRP and MMP-9 were significantly higher in hypertensive obese group than non obese group (2.094±1.90 vs. 0.714±0.40 mg/L; p=0.029; 363.43±143.64 vs. 261.15±61.13 ng/mL, p=0.035, respectively, nonetheless no significant differences of sVEGFR-2 concentration (9.77±2.30 vs. 9.76±1.38 pg/mL, p=0.980 found in both groups. Ratio of MMP-9/sVEGFR-2 was significantly higher in hypertensive obese group than those in non-obese group (38.67±16 vs. 27.22±10, p=0.038. Likewise, they had more subjects with ratio of MMP-9/sVEGFR-2 ≥31.53. This figure is considered as cut-off point of vascular remodeling versus repairing. CONCLUSIONS: In hypertensive obese subjects, inflammation was activated and vascular remodeling more dominant than repairing process. Inflammation was associated with increased remodeling-repairing balances. KEYWORDS: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2, high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP.

  15. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Examination of Associations Among Three Distinct Subjective Aging Constructs and Their Relevance for Predicting Developmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Miche, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    This study examined (a) the empirical associations among three subjective aging (SA) constructs: felt age, attitudes toward own aging (ATOA), and awareness of age-related change (AARC); (b) the moderating role of chronological age in these associations; and (c) the predictive relevance of the SA constructs with regard to two developmental correlates: functional health and satisfaction with life. Participants were 819 adults aged 40-98 years from the United States and Germany. Parallel multiple mediation, moderated mediation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used. As hypothesized, AARC mediated the association between the global measures of SA (felt age and ATOA) and the developmental correlates. Specifically, more negative global subjective aging predicted more AARC losses, which predicted poorer health and well-being. Furthermore, this mediation pathway was moderated by chronological age, such that, with increasing age, greater AARC was more strongly related to poorer functional health (but not well-being). The multidimensional measure, AARC, accounted for a significant amount of the variance in the developmental correlates over and above the unidimensional SA constructs. A consistent pattern emerged supporting the role of domain specificity and valence. These findings support the need for conceptualizing SA across different behavioral domains and for distinguishing between positive and negative SA.

  17. Genome wide association study (GWAS) of Chagas cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xutao; Sabino, Ester C; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Ianni, Barbara; Mady, Charles; Busch, Michael P; Seielstad, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Familial aggregation of Chagas cardiac disease in T. cruzi-infected persons suggests that human genetic variation may be an important determinant of disease progression. To perform a GWAS using a well-characterized cohort to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with cardiac outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was developed by the NHLBI REDS-II program in Brazil. Samples were collected from 499 T. cruzi seropositive blood donors who had donated between 1996 and 2002, and 101 patients with clinically diagnosed Chagas cardiomyopathy. In 2008-2010, all subjects underwent a complete medical examination. After genotype calling, quality control filtering with exclusion of 20 cases, and imputation of 1,000 genomes variants; association analysis was performed for 7 cardiac and parasite related traits, adjusting for population stratification. The cohort showed a wide range of African, European, and modest Native American admixture proportions, consistent with the recent history of Brazil. No SNPs were found to be highly (P<10(-8)) associated with cardiomyopathy. The two mostly highly associated SNPs for cardiomyopathy (rs4149018 and rs12582717; P-values <10(-6)) are located on Chromosome 12p12.2 in the SLCO1B1 gene, a solute carrier family member. We identified 44 additional genic SNPs associated with six traits at P-value <10(-6): Ejection Fraction, PR, QRS, QT intervals, antibody levels by EIA, and parasitemia by PCR. This GWAS identified suggestive SNPs that may impact the risk of progression to cardiomyopathy. Although this Chagas cohort is the largest examined by GWAS to date, (580 subjects), moderate sample size may explain in part the limited number of significant SNP variants. Enlarging the current sample through expanded cohorts and meta-analyses, and targeted studies of candidate genes, will be required to confirm and extend the results reported here. Future studies should also include exposed seronegative controls to investigate

  18. Associations of Common Variants at APLN and Hypertension in Chinese Subjects with and without Diabetes

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    Rong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor, has a potent hypotensive effect via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in vivo. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the common variants of apelin gene (APLN and hypertension, which was reported recently in a Chinese Han population with and without diabetes. Methods. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on APLN were genotyped in 3156 diabetic patients and 3736 nondiabetic individuals. For non-diabetic subjects, 1779 were enrolled in stage 1 and 1757 were recruited for validation. A meta-analysis combining the two stages was carried out to obtain the overall effect. Results. In diabetic patients, no significant associations of the three SNPs with hypertension were observed. In contrast, we found that rs2235306 was associated with hypertension in non-diabetic males after adjusting for covariates (OR=1.19, P=0.039 while rs2235307 and rs3115759 displayed no evidence of association in both genders. One haplotype, C-C-A, also showed an association with hypertension (OR=1.47, P=0.032 only in men. However, analysis in stage 2 and meta-analysis did not support these findings. Conclusions. We conclude that common variants on APLN are not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in the Chinese.

  19. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  20. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  1. Vitamin E Deficiency and Oxidative Status are Associated with Prediabetes in Apparently Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Gabriela; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Carrera-Gracia, Manuela de la A; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angélica

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vitamin E deficiency and oxidative stress affect the beta cell function. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin E deficiency and oxidative status with prediabetes in apparently healthy subjects. Apparently healthy men and women aged 18-65 years were enrolled in a case-control study. Individuals with new diagnosis of prediabetes were considered as cases and compared with a control group of individuals with normal glucose tolerance. Smoking, alcohol intake, pregnancy, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, malignancy, glucocorticoid treatment and consumption of lipid-lowering drugs, antioxidants and vitamin supplements were exclusion criteria. Vitamin E deficiency was defined by serum levels of α-tocopherol <11.6 μmol/L, oxidative status was assessed by total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation, and prediabetes was considered by the presence of impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 148 subjects were allocated into the case (n = 74) and control (n = 74) groups. The frequency of vitamin E deficiency was higher in the case group (41.8%) compared with the control group (35.1%), p = 0.03. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, waist circumference and body mass index, revealed a significant association between vitamin E deficiency (OR 3.23; 95% CI: 1.34-7.79, p = 0.009), lipoperoxidation (OR 2.82; CI 95%: 1.42-5.59, p = 0.003) and total antioxidant capacity (OR 0.93; CI 95%: 0.90-0.96, p <0.001) with prediabetes. Results of the present study suggest that both vitamin E deficiency and oxidative status are associated with prediabetes in apparently healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects in rural Puducherry, India

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    Karthik Laksham Balajee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is paucity of data on the comparison of psychological distress among chronic noncommunicable disease (NCD and healthy subjects in developing countries such as India. Objective: To assess and compare psychological distress and its associated factors among chronic disease and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural field practice area attached to a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected from the chronic disease subjects which included those with diabetes and or hypertension registered in the rural health center. Healthy subjects residing nearest to the corresponding case from the respective village were taken as controls. Psychological distress was assessed by General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12. Results: There were 260 subjects with 130 in each group. Subjects with chronic disease had significantly higher proportion of psychological distress (50.8% compared to healthy subjects (35.4%. The mean ± standard deviation GHQ 12 score of those with chronic disease is also significantly higher than that of healthy subjects (13.35 ± 4.89 vs. 11.15 ± 4.43, P< 0.001. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension had higher psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.5 compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion: Subjects with diabetes and/or hypertension have higher proportion of psychological distress compared to healthy subjects. Screening subjects with chronic NCD for psychological distress may help to take appropriate measures.

  3. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium in subjects with normal blood pressure but not in subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo-Wook; Lee, Sung Ho; Byrne, Christopher D; Chung, Pil-Wook; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-02-01

    An association has been described between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in some studies but not in others. This finding may be explained by a differential impact of inflammation according to the absence or presence of certain co-existing risk factors. Because hypertension may be an effect modifier of inflammation on CVD, our aim was to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP and pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure and hypertension. Data were analyzed from 14,584 Korean subjects. Subjects were stratified according to: a) 6030 (41.3%) patients with normal blood pressure (hypertension (120-139 mmHg and 80-89 mmHg) and c) 2924 (20.0%) patients with hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg). Prevalence and odds ratio for the association between increased hs-CRP (>2 mg/L) and presence of CAC (coronary artery calcium) were calculated. In both normal and pre-hypertensive groups, the prevalence of CAC >0 was higher in subjects with increased hs-CRP concentrations (>2 mg/L). Adjusting for age, sex, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus, lifestyle, obesity, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, there was a significant association between higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) and CAC score in the normal group (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16; p = 0.010); a borderline significant association in the pre-hypertensive group (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.99-1.76; p = 0.054); and no association in the hypertensive group (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.33; p = 0.94). Higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) are associated with pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure but not hypertension. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaekyoung; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2017-07-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE) in Korea. A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Korea was used to evaluate differences between SLE and actuarial LE. Age-adjusted least-squares means, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the relationship of SLE with four categories of predictors: demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Among the 1000 participants, women (mean SLE, 83.43 years; 95% confidence interval, 82.41 to 84.46 years; 48% of the total sample) had an expected LE 1.59 years longer than that of men. The socioeconomic factors of household income and housing arrangements were related to SLE. Among the health behaviors, smoking status, alcohol status, and physical activity were associated with SLE. Among the psychosocial factors, stress, self-rated health, and social connectedness were related to SLE. SLE had a positive correlation with actuarial estimates (r=0.61, p actuarial LE. Demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors showed significant associations with SLE, in the expected directions. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these results.

  5. Neural correlates of subjective CS/UCS association in appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia León, Isabell; Kruse, Onno; Stalder, Tobias; Stark, Rudolf; Klucken, Tim

    2018-01-03

    Explicit knowledge of conditioned stimulus (CS)/unconditioned stimulus (UCS) associations is proposed as important factor in classical conditioning. However, while previous studies have focused on its roles in fear conditioning, it has been neglected in the context of appetitive conditioning. The present functional magnetic resonance study aimed to investigate neural activation and functional connectivity linked to subjective CS/UCS association in appetitive conditioning. In total, 85 subjects participated in an appetitive acquisition procedure in which a neutral stimulus (CS+) was paired with a monetary reward, while another neutral stimulus (CS-) was never paired with the reward. Directly afterwards, subjective CS/UCS association was assessed by measuring the extent to which the CS+ was thought to be associated with the UCS compared to the CS-. Close relationships were established between subjective CS/UCS association and activations in the primary visual cortex (V1) during the early phase of conditioning and in the striatum during the late conditioning phase. In addition, we observed inverse relationships between subjective CS/UCS association and both V1/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and striatal/vmPFC connectivity. The results suggest the involvement of decoupling vmPFC connectivity in reward learning in general and the roles of attentional processes in the formation of the subjective CS/UCS association during the early phase and reward prediction during the late phase of appetitive conditioning. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that elevated UAE is associated with a generalized vascular dysfunction. This study tested this hypothesis for conduit arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinically healthy subject...

  7. Hyperuricemia Associated With Rapid Renal Function Decline in Elderly Taiwanese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Yen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum uric acid level was associated with eGFR and decline in renal function in elderly Taiwanese subjects. Whether hypouricemic therapy could retard the progression of CKD deserves further in-depth study.

  8. Association among low whole blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and diabetic retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Scarinci, F; Scorcia, V; Bruzzichessi, D; Fiorentino, R; Randazzo, G; Scorcia, G; Gnasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Haemorheological variables influence endothelial function through the release of several factors. Clinical studies have described an association among blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and macro-angiopathy. Few data are reported about the association between haemorheological variables and micro-angiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between these variables and retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. 111 men, 79 postmenopausal women, and 95 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Haematocrit and haemoglobin were measured by standard methods. Blood viscosity was calculated according to the formula (0.12× haematocrit)+(0.17× (plasma proteins-2.07)). Subjects were grouped according to the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy, while the severity of retinopathy was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and whole blood viscosity were significantly lower in subjects with retinopathy compared to subjects without retinopathy in both sexes. These variables significantly decreased with increasing severity of retinopathy. A multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent inverse association among viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and retinopathy (p<0.01). Results demonstrate the association among low viscosity, haemoglobin, haematocrit and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanisms responsible for this association can be hypothesised. Reduced haemoglobin might cause direct organ damage. Low blood viscosity, through the reduction of shear stress, might inhibit the anti-atherogenic functions of endothelial cells.

  9. Self-reported and behavioral sound avoidance in tinnitus and hyperacusis subjects, and association with anxiety ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesing, Lena; Kroener-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the role of sound avoidance and anxiety in tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis, defined as hypersensitivity to low to moderate intensity sounds. A group of tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis was compared to tinnitus subjects without hyperacusis, and healthy controls. For assessing noise avoidance, a questionnaire was developed (noise avoidance questionnaire, NAQ) and the duration of self-exposure to a pure tone was assessed as a behavioral index. Different self-rating instruments concerning tinnitus (STI, TF-12), hyperacusis (GÜF), and anxiety (BAI, STAI-T) were used, as well as a psychoacoustic indicator of hyperacusis (ULL). Fifty-six tinnitus subjects with/without hyperacusis and 30 controls without tinnitus and hyperacusis participated in the experiment. The findings indicate that subjects with hyperacusis reported significantly more noise-related avoidance in daily life and show significantly shorter exposure to a pure tone than non-hyperacusic subjects, while discomfort was at the same level for each individual. Self-reported avoidance behavior correlated significantly with distress attributed to hyperacusis (r =0.81), and with anxiety ratings. These results suggest that hyperacusis is associated with noise-related avoidance behavior and anxiety. Systematic exposure to sound could play a significant role in the treatment of hyperacusis.

  10. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  11. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  12. Factors associated with clinically significant insomnia among pregnant low-income Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manber, Rachel; Steidtmann, Dana; Chambers, Andrea S; Ganger, William; Horwitz, Sarah; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2013-08-01

    Poor sleep, common during pregnancy, is associated with negative health risks. The study aimed to identify predictors of clinically significant insomnia among pregnant Latinas. A total of 1289 pregnant Latinas recruited from obstetric clinics completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and questions about demographics and sleep. Clinically significant insomnia (ISI≥10) was present among 17% of participants. Significant correlates of clinically significant insomnia were higher scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) after removing the sleep item (47% of women with EPDS≥9 and 9% with EPDSstrong family ties, and group identity). It will be important to directly test this explanation in future research.

  13. Association of Subjective and Interpretive Drowsiness with Facial Dynamic Changes in Simulator Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchani, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; NaslSaraji, Gebraeil; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Niknezhad, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossien; Raei, Mehdi; Khandan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Major injuries and death in accidents have roots in drowsiness. Sleepiness is a main result of insufficient sleep. It is vital to explore drowsiness and its level. There are various sorts of methods in the forms of subjective and objective approaches. The goal of this study was to detect the association of subjective and interpretive drowsiness with facial dynamic changes. This experimental study was conducted in the Virtual Reality Lab, in Khaje-Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Tehran Iran on 40 drivers in 2015. Facial dynamic changes (eyes, mouth and eyebrows), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and Observer Rating of Drowsiness (ORD) were applied. The neural network and Viola-Jones were utilized for facial characteristics detection. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 21. Thirty-four drivers got drowsy during the test. They were selected randomly among suburban drivers at the age in a range of 26 to 60 yr old. Descriptive statistics of the dynamic changes in eyebrows, mouth and eyes showed that these features were of meaningful changes with respect to the level of drowsiness during driving. A relationship between the dynamic changes of facial features and ORD was recognized. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between facial expression and drowsiness (Pdrowsiness.

  14. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alazawi

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups.We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded.In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4 than without NASH (p = 0.009. Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4 than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04.Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  15. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Bernabe, Eduardo; Tai, David; Janicki, Tomasz; Kemos, Polychronis; Samsuddin, Salma; Syn, Wing-Kin; Gillam, David; Turner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups. We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy) underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded. In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4) than without NASH (p = 0.009). Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4) than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04). Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  16. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    One important aspect of subjective judgments about one's well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the "the ideal life." In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents' nationality. Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of subjective well-being and psychological well

  17. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of

  18. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  19. Thyroid function is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Annemieke; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Links, Thera P.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    Context: Thyroid disease and the metabolic syndrome are both associated with cardiovascular disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis that thyroid function, in euthyroid subjects, is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, including serum lipid

  20. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the

  1. Health Care Institutions Volume Is Significantly Associated with Postoperative Outcomes in Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunaud, Laurent; Polazzi, Stephanie; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Lea; Nocca, David; Duclos, Antoine

    2017-10-16

    The volume of bariatric surgery has significantly increased over the past decade with concomitant postoperative outcomes improvement. The goal of this nationwide study was to estimate the volume-outcome relationship in bariatric surgery at the hospital level. A cross-sectional analysis of all patients who underwent bariatric surgery procedure in France from January 2011 to December 2014 was designed. Volume-outcome relationship was analyzed using generalized estimating equations. We identified 184,332 inpatient stays for bariatric surgical procedures performed in 606 hospitals. Health care institutions performing more than 200 bariatric cases per year were significantly associated with shorter average length of stay (p bariatric surgery that reoperation rate after gastric bypass or sleeve significantly increased at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Health care institutions performing more than 200 bariatric cases per year were significantly associated with improved postoperative outcomes and less frequent need for reoperation.

  2. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A2 in Hemodialysis Patients: Significance for Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Kalousová; Sylvie Dusilová-Sulková; Aleš A. Kuběna; Oskar Zakiyanov; Kateřina Levová; Markéta Bocková; Erika Gedeonová; Xue Chadtová Song; Maria Laura Ermini; Tomáš Špringer; Jiří Homola; Vladimír Tesař; Tomáš Zima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is associated with adverse outcome of long-term hemodialysis patients (HD). The aim of the study was to test whether its homolog pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) can be detected in serum of HD patients and to define its significance. Methods: The studied group consisted of 102 long-term HD patients and 25 healthy controls. HD patients were prospectively followed up for five years (2009-2014). PAPP-A2 was measured by su...

  3. Association of obesity with hypertension and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anari, Razieh; Amani, Reza; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud; Veissi, Masoud; Shahbazian, Hajieh

    Obesity and diabetes are contributed to cardiovascular disease risk. The current study was performed to evaluate the association of central and general obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors, including dyslipidemia and hypertension in T2DM patients. This was a cross-sectional study in T2DM adults. Body mass index (BMI) was used to identify general obesity and waist circumference (WC) was measured to define abdominal obesity (based on ATP III). Biochemical analyses, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were done for all participants. Participants with central obesity showed significantly higher systolic (132.5mmHg vs. 125.4mmHg, p=0.024) and diastolic blood pressures (84.9mmHg vs. 80mmHg, p=0.007) than participants without obesity. Dyslipidemia was more prevalent in all participants either by BMI (98.3% vs. 97%, 95% CI: 0.18-17.53) or by WC (97.2% vs. 98%, 95% CI: 0.07-7.19). Abdominal adiposity in diabetic subjects showed significant reverse association with high level of physical activity (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85). Hypertriglyceridemia rate was increased with both central (OR=2.11; p=0.040) and general obesity (OR=2.68; p=0.021). After adjustment for energy intake and age, females had higher risk of general (OR=4.57, 95% CI=1.88-11.11) and central obesity (OR=7.93, 95% CI=3.48-18.08). Females were more susceptible to obesity. Hypertension was associated with both obesity measures. Dyslipidemia, except for hypertriglyceridemia, was correlated to neither abdominal nor general obesity. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Associated With Subjective Life Expectancy: Comparison With Actuarial Life Expectancy

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    Jaekyoung Bae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Subjective life expectancy (SLE has been found to show a significant association with mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the major factors affecting SLE. We also examined whether any differences existed between SLE and actuarial life expectancy (LE in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1000 individuals in Korea aged 20-59 was conducted. Participants were asked about SLE via a self-reported questionnaire. LE from the National Health Insurance database in Korea was used to evaluate differences between SLE and actuarial LE. Age-adjusted least-squares means, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the relationship of SLE with four categories of predictors: demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Results Among the 1000 participants, women (mean SLE, 83.43 years; 95% confidence interval, 82.41 to 84.46 years; 48% of the total sample had an expected LE 1.59 years longer than that of men. The socioeconomic factors of household income and housing arrangements were related to SLE. Among the health behaviors, smoking status, alcohol status, and physical activity were associated with SLE. Among the psychosocial factors, stress, self-rated health, and social connectedness were related to SLE. SLE had a positive correlation with actuarial estimates (r=0.61, p<0.001. Gender, household income, history of smoking, and distress were related to the presence of a gap between SLE and actuarial LE. Conclusions Demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors showed significant associations with SLE, in the expected directions. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these results.

  5. NCK2 Is Significantly Associated with Opiates Addiction in African-Origin Men

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    Zhifa Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance dependence is a complex environmental and genetic disorder with significant social and medical concerns. Understanding the etiology of substance dependence is imperative to the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. To this end, substantial effort has been made to identify genes underlying substance dependence, and in recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs have led to discoveries of numerous genetic variants for complex diseases including substance dependence. Most of the GWAS discoveries were only based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and a single dichotomized outcome. By employing both SNP- and gene-based methods of analysis, we identified a strong (odds ratio = 13.87 and significant (P value = 1.33E−11 association of an SNP in the NCK2 gene on chromosome 2 with opiates addiction in African-origin men. Codependence analysis also identified a genome-wide significant association between NCK2 and comorbidity of substance dependence (P value = 3.65E−08 in African-origin men. Furthermore, we observed that the association between the NCK2 gene (P value = 3.12E−10 and opiates addiction reached the gene-based genome-wide significant level. In summary, our findings provided the first evidence for the involvement of NCK2 in the susceptibility to opiates addiction and further revealed the racial and gender specificities of its impact.

  6. Vitamin D is significantly associated with total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Malaysian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies in the Caucasian population have shown a significant relationship between vitamin D and testosterone levels, but data in the Asian population are limited. This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels in Malaysian men. Chinese and Malay men (n = 382) aged 20 years or above residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Their fasting blood was collected for serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assays. Relationship between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Testosterone and SHBG levels among subjects with different vitamin D status were compared using univariate analysis. Confounders such as age, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted. 25(OH)D was significantly and positively associated with total testosterone and SHBG levels before and after adjustment for age and ethnicity (p  0.05). 25(OH)D is significantly associated with total testosterone and SHBG in Malaysian men but this association is BMI-dependent.

  7. ER, p53 and MIB-1 are significantly associated with malignant phyllodes tumor

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    Nurhayati H Munawer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllodes tumors (PT are rare. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bcl2, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three tumors were examined using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. Results: ERβ (p <0.001, and p53 (p=0.006 in the stromal component were associated with tumor size. p53 expression was significantly associated with both epithelial and stro­mal components of malignant PTs (p<0.05. In PT, the decreased expressions of p53 and MIB-1 were significantly different with positive Bcl2 protein expression in epi­thelial component (p=0.000. Besides, MIB-1 was also found to be associated with ERα and ERβ in stromal component (p=0.000. Conclusion: The expression of p53 with tumor size and histological grade in PTs may increase risk for malignancy.

  8. The occurrence of Enterococcus faecium and faecalis is significantly associated with anastomotic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmouhand, M; Krohn, P S; Svendsen, L B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enterococcus has emerged as a virulent species; Enterococcus faecium especially has arisen as a source of nosocomial infections. Furthermore, specific Enterococcus faecalis species are significantly associated with anastomotic leakage in rodent studies. The objective of this ......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enterococcus has emerged as a virulent species; Enterococcus faecium especially has arisen as a source of nosocomial infections. Furthermore, specific Enterococcus faecalis species are significantly associated with anastomotic leakage in rodent studies. The objective...... of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of Enterococci ( E. faecium and E. faecalis) obtained from drain samples was associated with leakage in humans undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy had a peritoneal drain sample sent...

  9. The proof is in the eating: subjective peer norms are associated with adolescents’ eating behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de, H.C.W.; de Wit, J. B F; Luszczynska, A.; Safron, M.; Ridder, de, H Huib

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of self-perceived eating-related peer norms (called ‘subjective peer norms’) with adolescents’ healthy eating intentions and intake of healthy and unhealthy food. Design Cross-sectional data were collected in a large international survey Setting Two types of subjective peer norms were assessed: perceived peer encouragement of healthy eating and perceived peer discouragement of unhealthy eating. Outcome variables were healthy eating intentions, intake of h...

  10. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  11. Association between renin and atherosclerotic burden in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Isabel; Edsfeldt, Andreas; Colhoun, Helen M; Shore, Angela C; Palombo, Carlo; Natali, Andrea; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Björkbacka, Harry; Wigren, Maria; Bengtsson, Eva; Östling, Gerd; Aizawa, Kunihiko; Casanova, Francesco; Persson, Margaretha; Gooding, Kim; Gates, Phil; Khan, Faisel; Looker, Helen C; Adams, Fiona; Belch, Jill; Pinnola, Silvia; Venturi, Elena; Kozakova, Michaela; Gan, Li-Ming; Schnecke, Volker; Nilsson, Jan

    2016-09-05

    Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) has been proposed to contribute to development of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine if plasma renin levels are associated with the severity of vascular changes in subjects with and without T2D. Renin was analyzed by the Proximity Extension Assay in subjects with (n = 985) and without (n = 515) T2D participating in the SUMMIT (SUrrogate markers for Micro- and Macro-vascular hard endpoints for Innovative diabetes Tools) study and in 205 carotid endarterectomy patients. Vascular changes were assessed by determining ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque area, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the reactivity hyperemia index (RHI). Plasma renin was elevated in subjects with T2D and demonstrated risk factor-independent association with prevalent cardiovascular disease both in subjects with and without T2D. Renin levels increased with age, body mass index, HbA1c and correlated inversely with HDL. Subjects with T2D had more severe carotid disease, increased arterial stiffness, and impaired endothelial function. Risk factor-independent associations between renin and APBI, bulb IMT, carotid plaque area were observed in both T2D and non-T2D subjects. These associations were independent of treatment with RAAS inhibitors. Only weak associations existed between plasma renin and the expression of pro-inflammatory and fibrous components in plaques from 205 endarterectomy patients. Our findings provide clinical evidence for associations between systemic RAAS activation and atherosclerotic burden and suggest that this association is of particular importance in T2D.

  12. Specific and combined subjective responses to noise and their association with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Vandasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is one of the most extensive environmental factors affecting the general population. The present study is focused on the association between discomfort caused by noise and the incidence of certain diseases (ischaemic heart disease, stroke and hypertension. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study, conducted in 10 cities in the Czech Republic, comprises two stages with 3592 obtained questionnaires in the first phase and 762 in the second phase. Twelve variables describe subjective responses to noise from different sources at different times of day. The intensity of the associations between variables was measured by correlation coefficient. Logistic regression was used for fitting models of morbidity, and confounders such as age and socio-economic status were included. The hypotheses from the first phase were independently validated using data from the second phase. Results: The general rates of noise annoyance/sleep disturbance had greater correlation with traffic noise variables than with neighbourhood noise variables. Factors significantly associated with diseases are: for hypertension − annoyance by traffic noise (the elderly, odds ratio (OR 1.4 and sleep disturbance by traffic and neighbourhood noise (the elderly, OR 1.6; for ischaemic heart disease − the general rate of noise annoyance (all respondents, OR 1.5 and the adults 30–60 years, OR 1.8 and the general rate of annoyance and sleep disturbance (all respondents, OR 1.3; for stroke − annoyance and sleep disturbance by traffic and neighbourhood noise (all respondents, OR 1.8. Conclusion: Factors that include multiple sources of noise or non-specific noise are associated with the studied diseases more frequently than the source-specific factors.

  13. Associations between subjective symptoms and serum immunoglobulin E levels during Asian dust events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2014-07-29

    Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium). Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes.

  14. Sex-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Feng; Yin, Rui-Xing; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Li, Qing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Huang, Ke-Ke; Huang, Ping; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2012-01-13

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is a key enzyme in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and in atherosclerosis. The cellular cholesterol efflux correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations has shown to be impaired in hyperlipidemic mice. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the hyperlipidemic subjects. A total of 821 unrelated subjects (hyperlipidemia, 476; normolipidemia, 345) aged 15-80 were included in the study. Genotyping of the ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP between the normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI in hyperlipidemic subjects were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in male but not in female (P ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP in male hyperlipidemic subjects had higher serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the C allele noncarriers. There is a sex (male)-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  15. Sex-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dong-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT is a key enzyme in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and in atherosclerosis. The cellular cholesterol efflux correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations has shown to be impaired in hyperlipidemic mice. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and serum lipid levels in the hyperlipidemic subjects. Methods A total of 821 unrelated subjects (hyperlipidemia, 476; normolipidemia, 345 aged 15-80 were included in the study. Genotyping of the ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP between the normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects. The levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo AI in hyperlipidemic subjects were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in male but not in female (P Conclusions The present study shows that the C allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP in male hyperlipidemic subjects had higher serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the C allele noncarriers. There is a sex (male-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  16. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jørgen; Puaschitz, Nathalie G; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-14

    Oatmeal porridge has been consumed for centuries and has several health benefits. We aimed to investigate the effect of oatmeal porridge on gut microflora functions. A total of ten healthy subjects ingested 60 g oatmeal porridge daily for 1 week. The following microflora-associated characteristics were assessed before and after the intervention: intestinal gas production following lactulose ingestion, faecal excretion of SCFA and faecal levels of urease and β-galactosidase. In addition, rectal levels of PGE2 were measured. Microbial fermentation as evaluated by intestinal gas production and excretion of SCFA did not change significantly following the dietary intervention. However, faecal levels of β-galactosidase and urease decreased after eating oatmeal porridge (P=0·049 and 0·031, respectively). Host inflammatory state, as measured by rectal levels of PGE2, also decreased, but the change was not significant (P=0·168). The results suggest that oatmeal porridge has an effect on gut microbial functions and may possess potential prebiotic properties that deserve to be investigated further.

  17. Significance of genetic variants in DLC1 and their association with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, CHENG-RONG; SUN, HONG-GUANG; SUN, YU; ZHAO, WEN-XIU; ZHANG, SHENG; WANG, XIAO-MIN; YIN, ZHEN-YU

    2015-01-01

    DLC1 has been shown to be downregulated or absent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with tumorigenesis and development. However, only a small number of studies have focused on genetic variations of DLC1. The present study performed exon sequencing for the DLC1 gene in HCC tissue samples from 105 patients to identify functional genetic variation of DLC1 and its association with HCC susceptibility, clinicopathological features and prognosis. A novel missense mutation and four non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3816748, rs11203495, rs3816747 and rs532841) were identified. A significant correlation of rs3816747 polymorphisms with HCC susceptibility was identified. Compared to individuals with the GG genotype of rs3816747, those with the GA (odds ratio (OR)=0.486; P=0.037) or GA+AA genotype (OR=0.51; P=0.039) were associated with a significantly decreased HCC risk. Furthermore, patients with the GC+CC genotype of rs3816748, the TC+CC genotype of rs11203495 or the GA+AA genotype of rs3816747 had small-sized tumors compared with those carrying the wild-type genotype. No significant association of DLC1 SNPs with the patients' prognosis was found. These results indicated that genetic variations in the DLC1 gene may confer a risk for HCC. PMID:26095787

  18. Expression and prognostic significance of ELL-associated factor 2 in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yachen; Dong, Yun; Yang, Dongrong; Xue, Boxin; Li, Feng; Gu, Peng; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Shaoxiong; Zhou, Songlin; Ying, Rong; Wang, Zhou; Shan, Yuxi

    2016-05-01

    ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) is an androgen-regulated tumor suppressor in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of EAF2 protein in human prostate cancer specimens along with BPH specimens as a control, and to evaluate potential association of EAF2 expression with clinical characteristics and overall survival of the prostate cancer patients. The expression of EAF2 was evaluated in 44 prostate cancer and 23 BPH tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry. The relationships of EAF2 expression with clinical characteristics and overall survival rates were analyzed by Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. The immunostaining intensity of EAF2 in BPH specimens was significantly higher than that in prostate cancer (p < 0.05). EAF2 expression decreased significantly in high-grade and advanced-stage human prostate tumors and inversely correlated with PSA level, Gleason scores, bone metastasis and tumor stage. Importantly, loss of EAF2 expression was associated with a significant decrease in patient survival. Expression of EAF2 is decreased in prostate carcinogenesis, and EAF2 loss is associated with high-risk patients and poor survival.

  19. Molecular Analysis and Clinical Significance of Lactobacillus spp. Recovered from Clinical Specimens Presumptively Associated with Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel M.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Bui, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ≥105 CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686

  20. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  1. Association of DPP4 Gene Polymorphisms with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysian Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan H Ahmed

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4 gene may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the DPP4 gene in Malaysian subjects with T2DM and evaluated whether they had an effect on the serum levels of soluble dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (sDPP-IV.Ten DPP4 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan genotyping assays in 314 subjects with T2DM and 235 controls. Of these, 71 metabolic syndrome (MetS subjects were excluded from subsequent analysis. The odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence interval (CIs were calculated using multiple logistic regression for the association between the SNPs of DPP4 and T2DM. In addition, the serum levels of sDPP-IV were investigated to evaluate the association of the SNPs of DPP4 with the sDPP-IV levels.Dominant, recessive, and additive genetic models were employed to test the association of DPP4 polymorphisms with T2DM, after adjusting for age, race, gender and BMI. The rs12617656 was associated with T2DM in Malaysian subjects in the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.98, p = 0.006, dominant model (OR = 1.95, p = 0.008, and additive model (OR = 1.63, p = 0.001. This association was more pronounced among Malaysian Indians, recessive (OR = 3.21, p = 0.019, dominant OR = 3.72, p = 0.003 and additive model (OR = 2.29, p = 0.0009. The additive genetic model showed that DPP4 rs4664443 and rs7633162 polymorphisms were associated with T2DM (OR = 1.53, p = 0.039, and (OR = 1.42, p = 0.020, respectively. In addition, the rs4664443 G>A polymorphism was associated with increased sDPP-IV levels (p = 0.042 in T2DM subjects.DPP4 polymorphisms were associated with T2DM in Malaysian subjects, and linked to variations in sDPP-IV levels. In addition, these associations were more pronounced among Malaysian Indian subjects.

  2. Reduced pyramidal cell somal volume in auditory association cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Robert A; Pierri, Joseph N; Auh, Sungyoung; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2003-03-01

    Subjects with schizophrenia have decreased gray matter volume of auditory association cortex in structural imaging studies, and exhibit deficits in auditory sensory memory processes subserved by this region. In dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), similar in vivo observations of reduced regional volume and working memory deficits in subjects with schizophrenia have been related to reduced somal volume of deep layer 3 pyramidal cells. We hypothesized that deep layer 3 pyramidal cell somal volume would also be reduced in auditory association cortex (BA42) in schizophrenia. We used the nucleator to estimate the somal volume of pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 of BA42 in 18 subjects with schizophrenia, each of whom was matched to one normal comparison subject for gender, age, and post-mortem interval. For all subject pairs, somal volume of pyramidal neurons in deep layer 3 of dPFC (BA9) had previously been determined. In BA42, somal volume was reduced by 13.1% in schizophrenic subjects (p=0.03). Reductions in somal volume were not associated with the history of antipsychotic use, alcohol dependence, schizoaffective disorder, or death by suicide. The percent change in somal volume within-subject pairs was highly correlated between BA42 and BA9 (r=0.67, p=0.002). Deep layer 3 pyramidal cell somal volume is reduced in BA42 of subjects with schizophrenia. This reduction may contribute to impairment in auditory function. The correlated reductions of somal volume in BA42 and BA9 suggest that a common factor may affect deep layer 3 pyramidal cells in both regions.

  3. Incidence of cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors among subjects with type 2 diabetes - an 11-year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamahesh, K; Vigneswari, A; Surya Thejaswi, G; Satyavani, K; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned to assess the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over an 11-year period and to identify the associated risk factors that could predict the onset of CVD among subjects with type 2 diabetes. Retrospective data of 249 patients (M:F 149:100) with type 2 diabetes, from a cohort of 7800 patients, attending a tertiary care center for diabetes from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrieved and analyzed for this study. Sociodemographic and habitual risk factors, baseline diabetes duration, HbA1c and time of onset of CVD and its risk factors were collected from case records. Person-years method was used to calculate incident rate of CVD. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors associated with CVD and its risk factors. Incidence of CVD among subjects with diabetes was 5.6 cases/1000 person-years. Nearly 60% developed hypertension and dyslipidemia or both during the 11-year period. The most common complication was neuropathy (14.4%). Smoking [OR (95%CI)] [9.26 (1.6-54.9)] (p = 0.014) and heavy alcohol consumption [8.7 (1.1-69.8)] (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with CVD. Higher BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia [2.4 (1.3-4.3)] (p = 0.003). Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with CVD, and increased BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia among subjects with type 2 diabetes in this study population. These findings emphasize the need for early identification and modification of risk factors associated with CVD events in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary patterns differently associate with inflammation and gut microbiota in overweight and obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chun Kong

    Full Text Available Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated.We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota.Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women. A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group.Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water. This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01 a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05. Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups. Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14 and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6 in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics.A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01314690.

  5. Enhanced inter-subject brain computer interface with associative sensorimotor oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Simanto; Ahmed, Khawza I; Mostafa, Raqibul; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios

    2017-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) captures electrophysiological signatures of cortical events from the scalp with high-dimensional electrode montages. Usually, excessive sources produce outliers and potentially affect the actual event related sources. Besides, EEG manifests inherent inter-subject variability of the brain dynamics, at the resting state and/or under the performance of task(s), caused probably due to the instantaneous fluctuation of psychophysiological states. A wavelet coherence (WC) analysis for optimally selecting associative inter-subject channels is proposed here and is being used to boost performances of motor imagery (MI)-based inter-subject brain computer interface (BCI). The underlying hypothesis is that optimally associative inter-subject channels can reduce the effects of outliers and, thus, eliminate dissimilar cortical patterns. The proposed approach has been tested on the dataset IVa from BCI competition III, including EEG data acquired from five healthy subjects who were given visual cues to perform 280 trials of MI for the right hand and right foot. Experimental results have shown increased classification accuracy (81.79%) using the WC-based selected 16 channels compared to the one (56.79%) achieved using all the available 118 channels. The associative channels lie mostly around the sensorimotor regions of the brain, reinforced by the previous literature, describing spatial brain dynamics during sensorimotor oscillations. Apparently, the proposed approach paves the way for optimised EEG channel selection that could boost further the efficiency and real-time performance of BCI systems.

  6. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  7. Albuminuria Is Associated with Open-Angle Glaucoma in Nondiabetic Korean Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu Ah; Park, Se Hee; Ko, Jaesang; Lee, Si Hyung; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Systemic vascular dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to glaucomatous damage. Albuminuria is a surrogate marker of endothelial injury, including vessels. However, their relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between albuminuria and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in nondiabetic subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4186 nondiabetic participants aged 19 years or older from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. OAG was defined based on the criteria of the International Society for Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between albuminuria and OAG. Among the subjects, 124 had OAG. The weighted prevalences of microalbuminuria (UACR of 30-299 mg/g creatinine [Cr]) and macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 300 mg/g Cr) were 3.2 ± 0.3% and 0.4 ± 0.1%, respectively. The percentages of OAG increased in accordance with increasing UACR tertiles. Compared with subjects in the lower UACR tertile, those in the upper tertile showed an increased prevalence of OAG (odds ratio, 1.963; 95% confidence interval 1.072-3.595, P = 0.029) after adjusting for demographic factors, laboratory parameters, kidney function, and intraocular pressure. Furthermore, even after excluding 155 subjects with microalbuminuria and 19 subjects with macroalbuminuria, a positive association persisted between the upper UACR tertile (low-grade albuminuria) and an increased prevalence of OAG (odds ratio, 2.170; 95% confidence interval, 1.174-4.010, P = 0.014). Albuminuria, even low-grade, was significantly associated with OAG in nondiabetic subjects. This result implies the role of vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenic mechanism of OAG and suggests that careful monitoring of OAG is required in nondiabetic subjects with

  8. Cannabis-related working memory deficits and associated subcortical morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Cronenwett, Will J; Goldman, Morris B; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse.

  9. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse. PMID:24342821

  10. Regional Hippocampal Atrophy and Higher Levels of Plasma Amyloid-Beta Are Associated With Subjective Memory Complaints in Nondemented Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Jose L; Iglesias, Juan E.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests a link between the presence of subjective memory complaints (SMC) and lower volume of the hippocampus, one of the first regions to show neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown whether this pattern of hippocampal atrophy is region......Background: Evidence suggests a link between the presence of subjective memory complaints (SMC) and lower volume of the hippocampus, one of the first regions to show neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown whether this pattern of hippocampal atrophy...... volume differences in hippocampal subregions were further correlated with plasma Aβ levels and with objective memory performance. Results: Individuals with SMC exhibited significantly higher Aβ1-42 concentrations and lower volumes of CA1, CA4, dentate gyrus, and molecular layer compared with SMC......(-) participants. Regression analyses further showed significant associations between lower volume of the dentate gyrus and both poorer memory performance and higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels in SMC(+) participants. Conclusions: The presence of SMC, lower volumes of specific hippocampal regions, and higher plasma Aβ1...

  11. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Nikooyeh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that firstly higher vitamin D status is inversely associated with fasting glycemia, and secondly serum 25(OHD3 predicts MeS risk in the subjects with T2D. Demonstrating the association of hypovitaminosis D with disorders of glucose metabolism and higher risk for development of further complications, notably CVD, may lead to a new target for preventive efforts at the population level. Keywords: Vitamin D, Type 2 diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, Cardiovascular disease

  13. Posterior Decentering of the Humeral Head on Shoulder MR Arthrography: Significant Association With Posterior Synovial Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gabin; Kang, Yusuhn; Ahn, Joong Mo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Oh, Joo Han; Kang, Heung Sik

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze MRI findings associated with posterior decentering of the humeral head on shoulder MR arthrogram. A total of 255 MR arthrograms were obtained during a 10-month period. MR arthrograms in patients with posterior decentering of the humeral head (n = 33) were reviewed and compared with those of randomly selected control group without posterior decentering (n = 66). MR arthrograms were retrospectively evaluated by two observers for posterior factors (posterior synovial proliferation, posterior capsular thickening, and posterior labral abnormality), rotator cuff factors related to fatty degeneration, glenoid version, and anterior factors (subcoracoid bursa effusion and rotator interval tear). The chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and linear-by-linear association were used for comparison of categoric data; the t test was used for comparison of the glenoid version; and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. At univariate analysis, posterior synovial proliferation (27.3% [9/33] in the posterior decentering group vs 6.1% [4/66] in the control group; p = 0.003); posterior capsule thickening (21.2% [7/33] vs 0.0% [0/66]; p < 0.001); fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor (linear-by-linear association values, 7.944, 10.496, and 5.985, respectively; p = 0.005, 0.001, and 0.014, respectively); and rotator interval tear (51.5% [17/33] vs 30.3% [20/66]; p < 0.04) were more frequently found in the posterior decentering group, with a statistically significant difference. At multivariate analysis, only the posterior synovial proliferation was significantly associated with posterior decentering of the humeral head (odds ratio, 7.675; 95% CI, 2.159-27.288). Posterior decentering of the humeral head is most significantly associated with posterior synovial proliferation. In addition, rotator cuff interval abnormalities and rotator cuff atrophy are associated with posterior decentering of

  14. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Linda C; Fatouleh, Rania H; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The proof is in the eating: subjective peer norms are associated with adolescents’ eating behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wit, J.B.F.; Luszczynska, A.; Safron, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of self-perceived eating-related peer norms (called ‘subjective peer norms’) with adolescents’ healthy eating intentions and intake of healthy and unhealthy food. Design Cross-sectional data were collected in a large international survey Setting Two types of

  16. Objectively and subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 26 February). Objectively and subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the CELSTEC plenary, Heerlen, The

  17. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  18. Influences of Affect Associated with Routine Out-of-Home Activities on Subjective Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson Bergstad, C.J.; Gamble, A.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Gärling, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of a random sample of 1,330 Swedish residents assessed the relationships between affect associated with performance of routine out-of-home activities, mood, and judgments of life satisfaction (cognitive subjective wellbeing, CSWB). Regression analyses showed that sociodemographic

  19. Objectively versus subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 25 May). Objectively versus subjectively measured physical activity: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Poster presentation at the ISBNPA conference 2013, Ghent,

  20. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with prebeta-HDL concentrations in subjects with familial low HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Sanni; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Ehnholm, Christian; Jauhiainen, Matti; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2005-08-01

    Prebeta-HDL particles act as the primary acceptors of cellular cholesterol in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). An impairment of RCT may be the reason for the increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with familial low HDL. We studied the levels of serum prebeta-HDL and the major regulating factors of HDL metabolism in 67 subjects with familial low HDL and in 64 normolipidemic subjects. We report that the subjects with familial low HDL had markedly reduced prebeta-HDL concentrations compared with the normolipidemic subjects (17.4 +/- 7.2 vs. 23.4 +/- 7.8 mg apolipoprotein A-I/dl; P familial low HDL. The activities of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and hepatic lipase were markedly increased in subjects with familial low HDL without a significant correlation to prebeta-HDL concentration. Our results support the hypothesis that impaired RCT is one mechanism behind the increased risk for CHD in subjects with familial low HDL.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with depression in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyun Jhee

    Full Text Available Depression is reported to be the most common psychological problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Several studies have reported that lower levels of serum vitamin D are significantly associated with depression. Both vitamin D deficiency and depression are prevalent in patients with CKD, yet the relationship between these two factors remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D levels and depression among CKD patients.Totally, 21,257 individuals who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, VI from 2010-2014 were screened for the study; 533 CKD patients were included. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] ≤10 ng/mL. Patients were divided into vitamin D deficient or sufficient groups. Depression was screened for using the Korean version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form. The association between vitamin D deficiency and depression was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis.The mean participant age was 70.1±9.4 years; 262 patients (49.2% were male. The median 25(OHD3 level was 19.1±6.9 ng/mL. The prevalence of depression was higher in CKD patients than in the general population (14.3 vs. 11.1%, P = 0.03. Additionally, the prevalence of depression was significantly higher in CKD patients with (vs. without vitamin D deficiency (32.5% vs. 50.0%, P<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was a significant independent predictor of depression after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio, 6.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.02-8.75; P = 0.001.Depression was highly prevalent in CKD patients, in whom vitamin D deficiency was a significant independent predictor of depression. Therefore, management of vitamin D deficiency might help prevent depression in CKD patients.

  3. FUNC: a package for detecting significant associations between gene sets and ontological annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahm Erhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression, sequence and association studies typically yield large sets of gene candidates, which must then be further analysed and interpreted. Information about these genes is increasingly being captured and organized in ontologies, such as the Gene Ontology. Relationships between the gene sets identified by experimental methods and biological knowledge can be made explicit and used in the interpretation of results. However, it is often difficult to assess the statistical significance of such analyses since many inter-dependent categories are tested simultaneously. Results We developed the program package FUNC that includes and expands on currently available methods to identify significant associations between gene sets and ontological annotations. Implemented are several tests in particular well suited for genome wide sequence comparisons, estimates of the family-wise error rate, the false discovery rate, a sensitive estimator of the global significance of the results and an algorithm to reduce the complexity of the results. Conclusion FUNC is a versatile and useful tool for the analysis of genome-wide data. It is freely available under the GPL license and also accessible via a web service.

  4. Genetic variation within the TRPM5 locus associates with prediabetic phenotypes in subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketterer, Caroline; Müssig, Karsten; Heni, Martin

    2011-01-01

    genotyped 1798 white subjects at increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk for 9 TRPM5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (namely, rs2301696, rs800344, rs800345, rs800347, rs800348, rs2074234, rs2301698, rs886277, and rs2301699) and also performed correlational analyses with metabolic traits. An oral glucose...... tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on all subjects, and a subset (n = 525) additionally underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The 9 chosen single nucleotide polymorphisms cover 100% of the common genetic variation (minor allele frequency =0.05) within the TRPM5 locus (D' = 1.0; r² = 0.8). Rs800344...... glucagon-like peptide-1 levels at 30 minutes during the OGTT compared with major allele homozygotes (P = .0124), whereas in male subjects, no significant differences were found (P = .3). In our German population, the common TRPM5 variants are likely to be associated with prediabetic phenotypes...

  5. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  6. Association of leptin with type 2 diabetes in non-obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Ahsan; Tariq, Khalid Mehmood; Hashim, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    South Asians have a high tendency to develop type 2 diabetes even at low BMI. We evaluated serum leptin levels in a group of non-obese type 2 diabetics. An observational study conducted on 90 subjects, 55 with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 35 normal controls (non-diabetics). BMI, waist circumference, serum leptin, and serum glucose were measured. The correlation between these variables was studied by multiple regression analysis. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with BMI in obese (r = 0.976) and non-obese diabetics (r = 0.956). Serum leptin was related with diabetes (r = -0.153, p = 0.001). Serum leptin was highly correlated with waist circumference in obese than non-obese diabetics, (r = 0.753). Mean serum leptin level was 21.4 etag/ml in non-obese diabetics and 34.9 etag/ml in diabetic group. It is even lower than the non-obese, non-diabetics (23.3 etag/ml). Multivariate linear regression analysis between leptin and age, weight, BMI, waist circumference in patients shows only a strong association with BMI in diabetics (p = 0.0001), while in non-diabetic it was not significant (p = 0.07). Serum leptin was high in diabetics taking oral hypoglycaemic (37.8 +/- 19.1 etag/ml), while it was low in diabetics taking insulin injections (29.3 +/- 24.2 etag/ml). Low leptin levels are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus independent of changes in BMI.

  7. Significant association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase single nucleotide polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Tsai, Ru-Yin; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Wang, Rou-Fen; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Bau, Da-Tian; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and is a major health problem worldwide. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays an important role in folate metabolism and is also an important source of DNA methylation and DNA synthesis (nucleotide synthesis). To assess the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphisms in MTHFR and lifestyle factors with prostate cancer in Taiwan, we investigated two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), analyzed the association of specific genotypes with prostate cancer susceptibility, and discussed their joint effects with individual habits on prostate cancer risk. In total, 218 patients with prostate cancer and 436 healthy controls recruited from the China Medical Hospital in central Taiwan were genotyped for these polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility. We found the MTHFR C677T but not the A1298C genotype was differently distributed between the prostate cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T conferred a significantly (p=0.0011) decreased risk of prostate cancer. As for the A1298C polymorphism, there was no difference in distribution between the prostate cancer and control groups. Gene interactions with smoking were significant for MTHFR C677T polymorphism. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred a decreased risk of 0.501 (95% confidence interval=0.344-0.731) for prostate cancer. Our results provide the first evidence that the C allele of MTHFR C677T may be associated with the development of prostate cancer and may be a novel useful marker for primary prevention and anticancer intervention.

  8. Genome-wide association study for serum complement C3 and C4 levels in healthy Chinese subjects.

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    Xiaobo Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement C3 and C4 play key roles in the main physiological activities of complement system, and their deficiencies or over-expression are associated with many clinical infectious or immunity diseases. A two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed for serum levels of C3 and C4. The first stage was conducted in 1,999 healthy Chinese men, and the second stage was performed in an additional 1,496 subjects. We identified two SNPs, rs3753394 in CFH gene and rs3745567 in C3 gene, that are significantly associated with serum C3 levels at a genome-wide significance level (P = 7.33 × 10(-11 and P = 1.83 × 10(-9, respectively. For C4, one large genomic region on chromosome 6p21.3 is significantly associated with serum C4 levels. Two SNPs (rs1052693 and rs11575839 were located in the MHC class I area that include HLA-A, HLA-C, and HLA-B genes. Two SNPs (rs2075799 and rs2857009 were located 5' and 3' of C4 gene. The other four SNPs, rs2071278, rs3763317, rs9276606, and rs241428, were located in the MHC class II region that includes HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB, and HLA-DQB genes. The combined P-values for those eight SNPs ranged from 3.19 × 10(-22 to 5.62 × 10(-97. HBsAg-positive subjects have significantly lower C3 and C4 protein concentrations compared with HBsAg-negative subjects (P<0.05. Our study is the first GWAS report which shows genetic components influence the levels of complement C3 and C4. Our significant findings provide novel insights of their related autoimmune, infectious diseases, and molecular mechanisms.

  9. Endothelial dysfunction, ambulatory pulse pressure and albuminuria are associated in Type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Jeppesen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

    2007-01-01

    examined. We examined the relation between PP, markers of endothelial activation and albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 46 Type 2 diabetic patients and 19 non-diabetic subjects, we performed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) monitoring. Urinary albumin excretion rate was measured......: Increased PP is associated with endothelial activation and albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients. Thus, endothelial dysfunction may represent a pathophysiological link between an elevated PP and microvascular complications in these subjects. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate...

  10. The Impact of Ventilator-Associated Events in Critically Ill Subjects With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hidetsugu; Uchino, Shigehiko; Takinami, Masanori; Uezono, Shoichi

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a surveillance definition for respiratory complications in ventilated patients, ventilator-associated events (VAEs), to replace ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAEs consist of ventilator-associated conditions (VAC), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC), and possible VAP. A duration of mechanical ventilation of at least 4 d is required to diagnose VAE. However, the observed duration of mechanical ventilation was mechanical ventilation for ≥ 4 d. This single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted in the general ICU of an academic hospital. We included 407 adult subjects who were admitted to the ICU and required mechanical ventilation for at least 4 d. VAC and IVAC were identified from the electronic medical records. VAP was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2008 criteria and was identified from the surveillance data of the infection control team of our hospital. Clinical outcomes were studied in the VAC, IVAC, and VAP groups. Possible VAP was not investigated. Higher mortality was seen in VAC and IVAC subjects, but not in VAP subjects, compared with those without VAEs and VAP. By multivariable hazard analysis for hospital mortality, IVAC was independently associated with hospital mortality (hazard ratio 2.42, 95% CI 1.39-4.20, P = .002). VAC also tended to show a similar association with hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI 0.97-2.18, P = .07). On the other hand, VAP did not increase a hazard of hospital death (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.44-2.66, P = .87). We found that a VAE was related to hospital mortality in critically ill subjects with prolonged mechanical ventilation, and that VAP was not. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  12. Are depressive symptomatology and self-focused attention associated with subjective memory impairment in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Juhee; Oh, Kyung Ja; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory impairment (SMI) refers to conditions in which people complain of memory problems despite intact cognition. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the roles of self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology in subjective memory complaints. One hundred and eight patients who visited a memory disorder clinic with complaints of memory decline, but who were found on subsequent neuropsychological assessment to have normal cognitive function, were recruited to participate in the study. The severity of subjective memory complaints was measured with the modified Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire. In addition, neuropsychological functions, self-focused attention, and depressive symptomatology were also assessed. The results showed that the severity of SMI was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological test scores except for the complex figure copy. The severity of SMI, however, was significantly correlated with self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology significantly contributed to the severity of subjective memory complaints over and above the neuropsychological test performance. The interaction effects between self-focused attention/depressive symptomatology and objective memory performance on the severity of SMI were not significant. In conclusion, self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology appear to play important roles in the severity of SMI, even though it is not clear how these factors interact with objective memory performance. Clinical implications as well as limitations of the present study were discussed.

  13. Circulating resistin is a significant predictor of mortality independently from cardiovascular comorbidities in elderly, non-diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouga, Anna; Dalamaga, Maria; Kastania, Anastasia N; Kroupis, Christos; Lagiou, Maria; Saounatsou, Koralia; Dimas, Kleanthi; Vlahakos, Demetrios V

    2016-01-01

    Resistin is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) disease. To associate circulating resistin with all-cause and CV mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Serum resistin was determined in a cohort of 80 elderly, non-diabetic patients with stable CKD at different stages in a follow-up period of 5 years. Circulating resistin was significantly elevated in deceased compared to alive patients. Resistin emerged as an independent biomarker of all-cause and CV mortality after a 5-year follow-up period. Elevated circulating resistin was a significant independent predictor of CV and all-cause mortality in elderly, non-diabetic CKD patients.

  14. Significant association between parathyroid hormone and uric acid level in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin KY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yong Chin,1 Soelaiman Ima Nirwana,1 Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah21Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: Previous reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and of patients receiving teriparatide as antiosteoporotic treatment have suggested a plausible relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH and uric acid. However, similar data at population level were lacking. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between PTH and uric acid in a group of apparently healthy Malaysian men.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and above, residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their body anthropometry was measured, and their fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The relationship between PTH and uric acid was analyzed using regression analysis.Results: Increased serum PTH level was significantly associated with increased serum uric acid level (β=0.165; P=0.001. Increased PTH level was also significantly associated with the condition of hyperuricemia in the study population (odds ratio [OR], 1.045; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.075; P=0.002. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, vitamin D, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels.Conclusion: There is a significant positive relationship between PTH level and uric acid level in Malaysian men. This relationship and its clinical significance should be further investigated in a larger longitudinal study. Keywords: hyperuricemia, Asian, cross-sectional study, uric acid, urate

  15. Significance of Echocardiographically Detected Central Venous Catheter Tip-Associated Thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Reddy, Shilpa N; Bhatt, Ruchika D; Shin, Benjamin J; Kirkpatrick, James N; Trerotola, Scott O

    2016-12-01

    To explore significance, management, and outcomes of central venous catheter (CVC) tip-associated thrombi incidentally detected on echocardiography. Echocardiogram data from all patients with CVCs from October 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed (N = 170). Patients with CVC tip-associated thrombi were selected (n = 49). Echocardiograms were reviewed for ejection fraction, presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO), presence of other intracardiac shunts, and mean thrombus size. Management decisions, thrombus extension, pulmonary embolism, paradoxical emboli, and stroke within 3 months were recorded. Mean thrombus size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.5-5.7 cm). Of patients with thrombi, 11 (22%) were already on anticoagulation, and there was no change in management. Anticoagulation was started without complications in 17 (35%) patients, the catheter was removed in 4 (8%) patients, and no new treatment was initiated in 17 (35%) patients. Of these 17 patients, 16 (94%) developed no complications. One (6%) patient with a PFO and right-to-left shunt experienced a stroke before PFO closure. After surgical closure of the PFO, the same patient developed catheter tip-associated thrombus without complication. There were no pulmonary emboli, strokes, or other detected embolic phenomena. In this sample with CVC tip-associated thrombi but without PFO or other intracardiac shunts, no embolic or other complications were detected, regardless of anticoagulation status. These data suggest a benign course for such thrombi and that anticoagulation, catheter removal, thrombectomy, and thrombolysis may be unnecessary when catheter tip-associated thrombi are incidentally detected on echocardiography. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of significant psychological distress at the end of pregnancy and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2017-10-25

    The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p socio-demographic data, being an immigrant is the only protective factor reducing the social dysfunction in the last weeks of pregnancy (p stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.

  17. Position Weight Matrix, Gibbs Sampler, and the Associated Significance Tests in Motif Characterization and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhua Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Position weight matrix (PWM is not only one of the most widely used bioinformatic methods, but also a key component in more advanced computational algorithms (e.g., Gibbs sampler for characterizing and discovering motifs in nucleotide or amino acid sequences. However, few generally applicable statistical tests are available for evaluating the significance of site patterns, PWM, and PWM scores (PWMS of putative motifs. Statistical significance tests of the PWM output, that is, site-specific frequencies, PWM itself, and PWMS, are in disparate sources and have never been collected in a single paper, with the consequence that many implementations of PWM do not include any significance test. Here I review PWM-based methods used in motif characterization and prediction (including a detailed illustration of the Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery, present statistical and probabilistic rationales behind statistical significance tests relevant to PWM, and illustrate their application with real data. The multiple comparison problem associated with the test of site-specific frequencies is best handled by false discovery rate methods. The test of PWM, due to the use of pseudocounts, is best done by resampling methods. The test of individual PWMS for each sequence segment should be based on the extreme value distribution.

  18. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, using both objective and subjective measures of total sleep duration. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, 255 adult volunteers (n = 165 women; 64.7%) meeting current diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Thyroid Autoimmunity and Behçet’s Disease: Is There a Significant Association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Cebeci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Behcet’s disease (BD could be regarded as an autoimmune disease in many aspects. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD is frequently accompanied by other various autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, there is not still enough data showing the association between BD and ATD. In addition, no controlled study is present in the PubMed, which evaluates thyroidal autoimmunity using antithyroid peroxidase antibody in a large series of patients with BD. Methods. We aimed to investigate the frequency of ATD in patients with BD. The study included 124 patients with BD and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Results. Autoimmune thyroiditis was noted in 21 cases (16.9% with BD. In the control group, 22 cases (22.22% were diagnosed as autoimmune thyroiditis. There was no difference between the groups in respect to thyroid autoantibodies (. There were no statistically significant differences between baseline TSH levels of the BD patients and of the controls (. Statistically, the mean serum free T4 levels of the patients with BD were higher than those of the controls (. Conclusions. No association could be found between BD and ATD. Therefore, it is not of significance to investigate thyroid autoimmunity in BD.

  1. Association of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoma Hayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are associated with renal diseases. Association of serum lipid parameters with renal function is less studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To assess the correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with glomerular filtration rate (GFR in type 2 diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty confirmed diabetic subjects advised for HbA1c, serum creatinine, serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were included in the study. Serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, serum creatinine, HbA1c were measured by standard methods and serum LDL cholesterol was calculated by Friedewald’s formula. GFR was calculated by MDRD4 variables prediction equation. Total subjects were grouped according to sex; both males and females were subdivided into three subgroups depending on GFR values. Results of lipid parameters were compared by one-way ANOVA among different groups and correlation of lipid parameters with GFR were expressed by Pearson r. Results: HDL cholesterol was significantly different among different GFR groups (p0.05 in males. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and LDLC/HDL-C were significantly different among three different GFR groups (p<0.01 and only HDL cholesterol and LDL-C/HDL-C showed weak correlation with GFR (r = 0.0770, p<0.05 for HDL cholesterol and r = -0.0803, p<0.05 for LDL-C/HDL-C in females. Conclusion: The study revealed that HDL cholesterol was significantly and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate in both male and female diabetic subjects and assessment of lipid parameters might be a helpful tool to prevent or delay the progression of renal insufficiency.

  2. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1) control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2) group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out. Results Average age of the subjects in the control group (n = 254) was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190). Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR), and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D. Conclusion The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases

  3. Hip Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement With Capsular Management: Factors Associated With Achieving Clinically Significant Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Weber, Alexander E; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Alter, Jennifer; Harris, Joshua D; Mather, Richard C; Nho, Shane J

    2018-02-01

    There has been increasing interest in defining clinically meaningful outcomes in patient reported outcomes following orthopaedic surgery. Little is known about the factors associated with clinically meaningful outcomes after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. To report on a large, prospectively collected consecutive series of patients who underwent comprehensive arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and capsular management with greater than 2-year follow-up. The objectives were to determine (1) what percentage of patients achieve clinically significant outcomes after hip arthroscopic surgery for FAI as determined by the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) and (2) what factors are associated with achieving the MCID and PASS. Data from an institutional repository of consecutive patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopic surgery with routine capsular closure for FAI that had failed nonsurgical management between January 2012 and January 2014 were prospectively collected and analyzed. Of 474 patients during the enrollment period, 386 (81.4%) patients were available for a minimum 2-year follow-up. Demographics, radiographic measurements, intraoperative characteristics, and patient-reported outcome scores were collected. The primary outcome measure was achieving published thresholds for the MCID and PASS for the Hip Outcome Score (HOS)-Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in patients with FAI. The HOS-Sport-Specific Subscale (SSS), complications, and reoperations were secondary outcome measures. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with achieving the MCID and PASS. At a minimum of 2-year follow-up, the patients had statistically significant improvements in all patient-reported outcomes (HOS-ADL, HOS-SSS, and modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS]; P arthroscopic surgery and 1.7% rate of conversion to

  4. Genetic Association and Risk Scores in a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Meta-analysis of 16,707 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robert; Hobbs, Brian D; Zhou, Jin; Castaldi, Peter J; McGeachie, Michael J; Hardin, Megan E; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Deog K; Agusti, Alvar; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Calverley, Peter M; Donner, Claudio F; Lomas, David A; Wouters, Emiel F; Vestbo, Jørgen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Paré, Peter D; Levy, Robert D; Rennard, Stephen I; Beaty, Terri H; Hokanson, John; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H

    2017-07-01

    The heritability of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cannot be fully explained by recognized genetic risk factors identified as achieving genome-wide significance. In addition, the combined contribution of genetic variation to COPD risk has not been fully explored. We sought to determine: (1) whether studies of variants from previous studies of COPD or lung function in a larger sample could identify additional associated variants, particularly for severe COPD; and (2) the impact of genetic risk scores on COPD. We genotyped 3,346 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,588 cases (1,803 severe COPD) and 1,782 control subjects from four cohorts, and performed association testing with COPD, combining these results with existing genotyping data from 6,633 cases (3,497 severe COPD) and 5,704 control subjects. In addition, we developed genetic risk scores from SNPs associated with lung function and COPD and tested their discriminatory power for COPD-related measures. We identified significant associations between SNPs near PPIC (P = 1.28 × 10-8) and PPP4R4/SERPINA1 (P = 1.01 × 10-8) and severe COPD; the latter association may be driven by recognized variants in SERPINA1. Genetic risk scores based on SNPs previously associated with COPD and lung function had a modest ability to discriminate COPD (area under the curve, ∼0.6), and accounted for a mean 0.9-1.9% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted for each additional risk allele. In a large genetic association analysis, we identified associations with severe COPD near PPIC and SERPINA1. A risk score based on combining genetic variants had modest, but significant, effects on risk of COPD and lung function.

  5. A characteristic optic disc appearance associated with myopia in subjects with Graves' ophthalmopathy and in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sei Yamazaki,1 Rishu Inoue,2 Toshikazu Tsuboi,3 Ai Kozaki,2 Toshu Inoue,2 Toyoko Inoue,2 Yoichi Inoue21Yamazaki Eye Clinic, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Olympia Eye Hospital, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Tsuboi Eye Clinic, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To determine if qualitatively defining the appearance of optic disc change was a valid characteristic of myopia in subjects with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: We defined typical tilt appearance as the simultaneous presence of the following: an elliptical optic disc, a crescent, unequal sharpness of the cupping margin (horizontally, and nasally displaced vessels in the optic cup. Ninety-two eyes from 92 subjects each with GO or with POAG and no severe complications were included in the study after matching for spherical refractive errors. Using our definition of tilt appearance, two independent observers subjectively judged optic disc photographs. One observer repeated judgments in 70 randomly selected eyes and judgment reproducibility was assessed using kappa statistics. Tilt ratio was used as a quantitative parameter.Results: The numbers of eyes judged as having a typical tilt appearance in the GO group and in the POAG group were 25 (27.2% and 39 (42.4%, respectively, by one observer (P = 0.0297, and 12 (13% and 44 (47.8%, respectively, by another observer (P < 0.0001. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of tilt judgment were very good (kappa = 0.93 and good (kappa = 0.65, respectively. Tilt ratio did not significantly differ between the two groups. Analytical results including background factors were essentially the same for the two observers: multivariate logistic regression for one observer's judgment showed that the presence of the typical tilt appearance was associated with belonging to the glaucoma group (odds ratio [OR], 6.25; P = 0.0054, tilt ratio (OR per 0.01, 0.77; P < 0.0001, and spherical refractive error (OR per diopter, 0.80; P < 0

  6. The prognostic significance of cancer-associated fibroblasts in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Sang Yun Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF are activated fibroblasts in the cancer stroma and play an important role in cancer progression. Some reports have indicated the correlation between the expression of CAF markers and adverse prognosis in several cancers. However, no reports have studied CAF phenotype and its clinical relevance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. METHODS: We investigated CAF phenotype of ESCC based on histology and immunohistochemical expressions of five CAF markers such as fibroblast activation protein (FAP, smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ in 116 ESCC tissue samples. Besides, we also examined the correlation of the CAF phenotype with clinical relevance as well as other cancer-microenvironment related factors. RESULTS: Histologically immature CAF phenotype was correlated with poor prognosis (p<0.001 and associated with increased microvessel density, increased tumor associated macrophages, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. CAF markers were characteristically expressed in stromal fibroblast close to tumor cells and the expression pattern of 5 CAF markers was highly heterogeneous in every individual cases. Of five CAF markers, SMA, FSP1, and PDGFRα were unfavorable prognostic indicators of ESCC. The number of positive CAF markers was greater in ESCC with immature CAFs than in those with mature ones. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that histologic classification of CAF phenotype is a reliable and significant prognostic predictor in ESCC. CAF markers have the potential to be diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ESCC.

  7. KCNQ1 haplotypes associate with type 2 diabetes in Malaysian Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S; Al-Hamodi, Zaid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Siang, Lee C; Alabsi, Aied M; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysian Chinese subjects. The KCNQ1 SNPs rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 were genotyped in 300 T2D patients and 230 control subjects without diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Two logistic regression models of analysis were applied, the first adjusted for age and gender while the second adjusted for age, gender and body mass index. The additive genetic analysis showed that adjusting for body mass index (BMI) even strengthened association of rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 with T2D (OR = 2.0, P = 5.1 × 10(-5); OR = 1.9, P = 5.2 × 10(-5); OR = 1.9, P = 7.8 × 10(-5), respectively). The haplotype TCA containing the allele of rs2237892 (T), rs2283228 (C) and rs2237895 (A) was highly protective against T2D (Second model; OR = 0.17, P = 3.7 × 10(-11)). The KCNQ1 rs2237892 (TT), and the protective haplotype (TCA) were associated with higher beta-cell function (HOMA-B) in normal subjects (P = 0.0002; 0.014, respectively). This study found that KCNQ1 SNPs was associated with T2D susceptibility in Malaysian Chinese subjects. In addition, certain KCNQ1 haplotypes were strongly associated with T2D.

  8. Significant association of rheumatoid arthritis-related inflammatory markers with non-surgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning-Ya; Wang, Chen-Ying; Chyuan, I-Tsu; Wu, King-Jean; Tu, Yu-Kang; Chang, Ching-Wen; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2017-11-22

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases and their immunopathogenesis is similar. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the serum levels of RA-related inflammatory markers in patients with chronic periodontitis. Thirty-one Taiwanese adults with CP were included. Demographics and periodontal parameters, including probing depth, clinical attachment level, and number of remaining teeth in the oral cavity, were recorded. All subjects received non-surgical periodontal treatment such as scaling and subgingival root planing. Serum samples were collected before and after the treatment. Serum levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), rheumatoid factor, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduced the serum ACPA (p = 0.015) and TNF-α levels (p = 0.026) in CP patients, particularly in patients with generalized CP. Furthermore, there was a significant and positive correlation between the number of extracted teeth and the reduction in the serum ACPA (p = 0.05) and IL-1β levels (p = 0.029) after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Non-surgical periodontal therapy may aid in the control of RA-related inflammatory markers in patients with CP. A large-scale study with well-defined populations is needed to clarify the benefit of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Association of poor subjective sleep quality with suicidal ideation among pregnant Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Borba, Christina P C; Sánchez, Sixto E; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartum depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Antepartum subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep quality was more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterparts who did not (47.2% vs. 24.8%, Ppoor subjective sleep quality (defined using the recommended criteria of PSQI global score of >5 vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95% CI 1.02-2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95% CI 1.96-6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating TRAIL shows a significant post-partum decline associated to stressful conditions.

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    Giorgio Zauli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL may be important in the physiopathology of pregnancy, we tested the hypothesis that TRAIL levels change at delivery in response to stressful conditions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a longitudinal study in a cohort of 73 women examined at week 12, week 16, delivery and in the corresponding cord blood (CB. Serum TRAIL was assessed in relationship with maternal characteristics and to biochemical parameters. TRAIL did not vary between 12 (67.6±27.6 pg/ml, means±SD and 16 (64.0±16.2 pg/ml weeks' gestation, while displaying a significant decline after partum (49.3±26.4 pg/ml. Using a cut-off decline >20 pg/ml between week 12 and delivery, the subset of women with the higher decline of circulating TRAIL (41.7% showed the following characteristics: i nullipara, ii higher age, iii operational vaginal delivery or urgent CS, iv did not receive analgesia during labor, v induced labor. CB TRAIL was significantly higher (131.6±52 pg/ml with respect to the corresponding maternal TRAIL, and the variables significantly associated with the first quartile of CB TRAIL (<90 pg/ml were higher pre-pregnancy BMI, induction of labor and fetal distress. With respect to the biochemical parameters, maternal TRAIL at delivery showed an inverse correlation with C-reactive protein (CRP, total cortisol, glycemia and insulin at bivariate analysis, but only with CRP at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Stressful partum conditions and elevated CRP levels are associated with a decrease of circulating TRAIL.

  11. Variants of ESR1, APOE, LPL and IL-6 loci in young healthy subjects: association with lipid status and obesity

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    Jelakovic Bojan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Findings BMI was increased (>25 in 22% of young healthy subjects. Increased cholesterol values (>5.0 mmol/L were found in 23% of subjects, LDL-C (>3.0 mmol/L in 23%, triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/L in 11% of subjects. We found statistically significant differences in subjects' weight (p = 0.015, BMI (p = 0.023, and waist-hip ratio (WHR (p = 0.015 in regard to their diet type; subjects with Mediterranean diet had the lowest values compared to those on continental and mixed diet. Significant associations were found for: LPL genetic polymorphic variant and abdominal obesity (p = 0.013, APO epsilon4 allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.003, and ESR1-TA long allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.011. Background Human obesity is a multifactorial syndrome influenced also by genetic factors. Among gene variants found to be involved in body weight regulation and development of obesity, particular attention has been paid to polymorphisms in genes associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. We explored the association of genetic polymorphisms of: estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1-TA repeats; interleukin-6 (IL-6 G-174C; apolipoprotein E (APO epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4; lipoprotein lipase Pvu II (LPL P+/-, with clinical variables: gender, age, body mass index (BMI, diet type and biological variables: triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, CRP, homocysteine, urate, and glucose in 105 healthy young subjects (20-35 yrs of Croatian origin. Methods Genotyping of IL-6, LPL was performed by PCR-RFLP, of APOE by real-time PCR, and of ESR1 by PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Association analyses were performed of alleles and genotypes with biological variables. Conclusion ESR-1, LPL, and APO E genetic polymorphic variants could represent predictive genetic risk markers for obesity-related metabolic disorders in young healthy subjects. Mediterranean type of diet is also an important protective factor against abdominal obesity.

  12. Clinical significance of immunoglobulin A antiphospholipid antibodies: possible association with skin manifestations and small vessel vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, C; Suzuki, Y; Mizushima, Y; Ichikawa, Y

    1998-09-01

    To clarify whether immunoglobulin A (IgA) antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are an independent risk factor for specific manifestations of collagen vascular diseases. We determined IgG, IgM, and IgA anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) in 77 patients with various collagen diseases. Fifty-four patients who had positive results for either or both antibody classes were compared to 23 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who had none of these antibodies. The association between the antibodies and clinical manifestations (thrombosis, fetal loss, thrombocytopenia, biological false positive test for syphilis, cutaneous manifestations, central nervous system involvement, and renal involvement) was analyzed. Of 54 patients with aPL, 33 showed significantly high levels of IgA aCL. Among them, IgA aCL coexisted with other aCL isotypes or LAC in 24 patients. The 9 patients with IgA aCL alone frequently had vasculitis associated manifestations, although thrombotic events and recurrent fetal loss were rare. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that IgA aCL were independently associated with thrombocytopenia, skin ulcers, chilblain lupus, and vasculitis. There was also an association between IgM aCL and skin ulcers or chilblain lupus. Clinical manifestations of patients with IgA aCL differ from those of patients with IgG aCL. Determination of all 3 aCL isotypes and LAC is important to assess the risk of specific clinical manifestations in patients with aPL.

  13. Fasting proinsulin levels are significantly associated with 20 year cancer mortality rates. The Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, I; van 't Riet, E; Stehouwer, C D A; Polak, B C P; Moll, A C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2013-05-01

    Proinsulin is possibly associated with cancer through activation of insulin receptor isoform A. We sought to investigate the associations between proinsulin and 20 year cancer mortality rates. The study was performed within the Hoorn Study, a population-based study of glucose metabolism in individuals aged 50-75 years in the Dutch population. Fasting proinsulin levels were measured twice by a double-antibody radioimmunoassay. Participants were continuously followed to register mortality; causes of death were derived from medical records. Cox survival analyses were performed to assess the 20 year risk of death from cancer in relation to proinsulin. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, with additional adjustments for traditional risk factors. The effect modification of glucose metabolism and sex was tested. Proinsulin levels were measured in 438 individuals (41% normal glucose tolerance, 35.7% impaired glucose metabolism, 23.3% type 2 diabetes). Of these participants, 53 died from cancer. After adjustment for age and sex, proinsulin >16.5 pmol/l (the upper tertile) was significantly associated with a twofold risk of cancer mortality (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.16, 3.46) compared with individuals with lower proinsulin levels. Additional adjustment for glucose metabolism, BMI and smoking did not substantially change the results (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04, 3.52). No interaction with glucose metabolism or sex was observed. Individuals with fasting proinsulin levels >16.5 pmol/l have a twofold risk of cancer mortality over a 20 year time span. These findings provide population-based evidence for the independent association between high proinsulin levels and cancer mortality rates.

  14. Associations of airway inflammation and responsiveness markers in non asthmatic subjects at start of apprenticeship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Valérie; Wild, Pascal; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Tossa, Paul; Bohadana, Abraham; Barbaud, Annick; Paris, Christophe

    2010-07-06

    Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma? Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed. Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy. Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question.

  15. The proof is in the eating: subjective peer norms are associated with adolescents' eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stok, F Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Safron, Magdalena; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    To investigate associations of self-perceived eating-related peer norms (called 'subjective peer norms') with adolescents' healthy eating intentions and intake of healthy and unhealthy food. Cross-sectional data were collected in a large international survey. Two types of subjective peer norms were assessed: perceived peer encouragement of healthy eating and perceived peer discouragement of unhealthy eating. Outcome variables were healthy eating intentions, intake of healthy food (fruits and vegetables) and intake of unhealthy food (snacks and soft drinks). Over 2500 European (pre-)adolescents aged between 10 and 17 years participated. Subjective peer norms were associated with all three outcome variables. While both perceived encouragement of healthy eating and perceived discouragement of unhealthy eating were related to intentions, only peer encouragement of healthy eating was related to intakes of both healthy and unhealthy food. Subjective peer norms play a role in adolescent eating behaviour and as such are an important target for health promotion. Addressing norms that encourage healthy eating may be more promising in changing behaviour than norms that discourage unhealthy eating.

  16. No significant association between halitosis and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Adnan; Köklü, Seyfettin; Yüksel, Ilhami; Başar, Omer; Akbal, Erdem; Cimbek, Ahmet

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have focused on the relationship between halitosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and Helicobacter pylori. In this study we aimed to investigate the interaction between halitosis and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings. Patients who previously had dyspepsia and had undergone endoscopic examination were included in the study. Symptoms of dyspepsia were investigated by means of a questionnaire that investigated halitosis. Patients who suffered from objective halitosis (confirmed by questions both to the patient and their relatives) were further investigated. Patients with known local or systemic causes of halitosis or structural disorders at endoscopy were excluded. The study included 358 patients (121 men and 237 women) with dyspeptic symptoms. The patients with and without halitosis had mean ages of (39.4 ± 13.5) and (43.1 ± 14.9) years, respectively. Patients without halitosis were significantly older than those in the halitosis group (P halitosis group had significantly higher frequencies of regurgitation, bloating and nausea (P halitosis. Endoscopic findings, including esophagitis, open cardia, hiatal hernia, gastritis and duodenitis, were comparable in the two groups. The frequency of halitosis was high in patients with dyspepsia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Halitosis had a close relationship with several upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including regurgitation, nausea and bloating. There was no significant association between upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and halitosis.

  17. Future time perspective: opportunities and limitations are differentially associated with subjective well-being and hair cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Pavel; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective has been associated with subjective well-being, though depending on the line of research considered either an open-ended future time perspective or a limited future time perspective has been associated with high well-being. Most of this research however has conceptualized future time perspective as a one-dimensional construct, whereas recent evidence has demonstrated that there are likely at least two different underlying dimensions, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations. This project first seeks to replicate the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and then examines the associations these dimensions may have with different measures of subjective well-being and a biological index of chronic stress. To test if the two dimensions of the Future Time Perspective Scale, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations, differentially associate with two measures of subjective well-being and a biological indicator of chronic stress, namely hair cortisol. Sixty-six community-dwelling participants with a mean age of 72 years (SD = 5.83) completed the Future Time Perspective Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Participants also provided a 3-cm-long hair strand to index cortisol accumulation over the past 3 months. Following the results of a factor analysis, a mediation model was created for each dimension of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and significance testing was done through a bootstrapping approach to harness maximal statistical power. Factor analysis results replicated the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale. Both dimensions were then found to have unique associations with well-being. Specifically, a high focus on opportunities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and higher morale, whereas a low focus on limitations was associated with reduced hair cortisol, though this association was

  18. Hematologic toxicity associated with interferon-based hepatitis C therapy in HIV type 1-coinfected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Caroline M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lin, Feng; Chung, Raymond T; Peters, Marion G; Robbins, Gregory K; Volberding, Paul A

    2007-05-15

    This study investigates whether dose modifications for adverse hematologic effects or the use of hematopoietic growth factors influenced the outcome of therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients who were coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and who were participants in a randomized, controlled trial. Subjects were randomized to receive ribavirin plus interferon-alfa-2a (IFN-alfa-2a) or pegylated IFN-alfa-2a for a total of 48 weeks. Doses were modified for a number of adverse effects (including hematologic toxicity), and hematopoietic growth factors were administered at the discretion of the physician. Associations of dose modifications or initiation of hematopoietic growth factor support with treatment outcomes were determined by standard statistical methods. One hundred thirty-three subjects were included in this study. Subjects treated with pegylated IFN-alfa-2a were more likely to have had dose modifications (dose reduction or discontinuation) than were those treated with IFN-alfa-2a. By multivariate analysis, treatment with pegylated IFN-alfa-2a is associated with higher sustained virologic and/or histologic response. Dose modifications for nonhematologic toxicity are independently associated with lower sustained virologic and/or histologic responses. Although hematologic toxicity was not directly associated with clinical outcome in this analysis, use of hematopoietic growth factors was associated with an increased sustained virologic and/or histologic response. Dose modifications for anti-HCV therapy may adversely affect the outcome of treatment of HCV in individuals who are coinfected with HIV. The use of hematopoietic growth factor support may be associated with an improved clinical response to therapy.

  19. Associations between subjective sleep quality and brain volume in Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Mohlenhoff, Brian S; Weiner, Michael W; Neylan, Thomas C

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Cross-sectional. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). None. Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P sleep quality. Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes.

  20. A functionally significant polymorphism in ID3 is associated with human coronary pathology.

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    Ani Manichaikul

    Full Text Available We previously identified association between the ID3 SNP rs11574 and carotid intima-media thickness in the Diabetes Heart Study, a predominantly White diabetic population. The nonsynonymous SNP rs11574 results in an amino acid substitution in the C-terminal region of ID3, attenuating the dominant negative function of ID3 as an inhibitor of basic HLH factor E12-mediated transcription. In the current investigation, we characterize the association between the functionally significant polymorphism in ID3, rs11574, with human coronary pathology.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA is a longitudinal study of subclinical cardiovascular disease, including non-Hispanic White (n = 2,588, African American (n = 2,560 and Hispanic (n = 2,130 participants with data on coronary artery calcium (CAC. The Coronary Assessment in Virginia cohort (CAVA included 71 patients aged 30-80 years, undergoing a medically necessary cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at the University of Virginia. ID3 SNP rs11574 risk allele was associated with the presence of CAC in MESA Whites (P = 0.017. In addition, the risk allele was associated with greater atheroma burden and stenosis in the CAVA cohort (P = 0.003, P = 0.04 respectively. The risk allele remained predictive of atheroma burden in multivariate analysis (Model 1: covariates age, gender, and LDL, regression coefficient = 9.578, SE = 3.657, p = 0.0110; Model 2: covariates Model 1, presence of hypertension, presence of diabetes, regression coefficient = 8.389, SE = 4.788, p = 0.0163.We present additional cohorts that demonstrate association of ID3 SNP rs11574 directly with human coronary artery pathology as measured by CAC and IVUS: one a multiethnic, relatively healthy population with low levels of diabetes and the second a predominantly White population with a higher incidence of T2DM referred for cardiac catheterization.

  1. Accuracy of eyewitness identification is significantly associated with performance on a standardized test of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Hazlett, Gary; Baranoski, Madelon; Doran, Anthony; Southwick, Steven; Loftus, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between Eyewitness Accuracy regarding a person met under conditions of high stress and performance on a standardized, neutral test of memory for human faces. Fifty-three U.S. Army personnel were exposed to interrogation stress. Forty-eight hours later, participants were administered the Weschler Face Test and then asked to identify the one interrogator who they had encountered 48 h earlier. A significant positive relationship was observed between performance on the Weschler Face Test and performance on the Eyewitness task. Inaccurate eyewitnesses exhibited more False Negative errors when performing the Weschler Face Test. Trait ability to remember human faces may be related to how accurately people recall faces that are associated with highly emotional circumstances. Detection probability methods, such as ROC curve analyses, may be of assistance to forensic examiners, the police, and the courts, when assessing the probability that eyewitness evidence is accurate.

  2. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew J.; Cobia, Derin J.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Cronenwett, Will J.; Goldman, Morris B.; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M.; Breiter, Hans C.; Csernansky, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subject...

  3. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

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    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  4. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  5. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ana Cristina Macêdo; Michelin, Márcia Antoniazi; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%), being 38 (54.2%) reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71%) neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5%) ASC-US and 8 (11.41%) ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol), respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%), 19 (27.1%), 3 (27.1%), 16 (22.8%), and 1 (1.4%). A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P = .0021). High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P = .031). Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN. PMID:21760701

  6. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

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    Fabricio Batistin Zanatta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE, periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. RESULTS: The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01 and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03 were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. CONCLUSION: Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment.

  7. Comparative genomics reveals genes significantly associated with woody hosts in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

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    Nowell, Reuben W; Laue, Bridget E; Sharp, Paul M; Green, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The diversification of lineages within Pseudomonas syringae has involved a number of adaptive shifts from herbaceous hosts onto various species of tree, resulting in the emergence of highly destructive diseases such as bacterial canker of kiwi and bleeding canker of horse chestnut. This diversification has involved a high level of gene gain and loss, and these processes are likely to play major roles in the adaptation of individual lineages onto their host plants. In order to better understand the evolution of P. syringae onto woody plants, we have generated de novo genome sequences for 26 strains from the P. syringae species complex that are pathogenic on a range of woody species, and have looked for statistically significant associations between gene presence and host type (i.e. woody or herbaceous) across a phylogeny of 64 strains. We have found evidence for a common set of genes associated with strains that are able to colonize woody plants, suggesting that divergent lineages have acquired similarities in genome composition that may form the genetic basis of their adaptation to woody hosts. We also describe in detail the gain, loss and rearrangement of specific loci that may be functionally important in facilitating this adaptive shift. Overall, our analyses allow for a greater understanding of how gene gain and loss may contribute to adaptation in P. syringae. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MDC and BLC are independently associated with the significant risk of early stage lung adenocarcinoma.

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    Zhang, Yanwei; Yu, Keke; Hu, Song; Lou, Yuqing; Liu, Chunxing; Xu, Jianlin; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Huimin; Han, Baohui

    2016-12-13

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the association between ten circulating inflammatory biomarkers and the risk for early stage lung adenocarcinoma. All inflammatory biomarkers were measured in 228 patients with early stage (IA to IIB) lung adenocarcinoma and 228 age-, sex- and smoking-matched healthy controls by using the Luminex bead-based assay. Only two biomarkers were significantly associated with the risk of early stage lung adenocarcinoma after the Bonferroni correction: the multivariate odd ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval or CI) was 0.29 (0.16-0.53) for MDC and 4.17 (2.23-7.79) for BLC for the comparison of patients in the 4th quartile with the 1st quartile (both Pearly stage lung adenocarcinoma (OR, 95% CI, P: 0.37, 0.21-0.66, Pearly stage lung adenocarcinoma, even in non-smokers and in stage IA patients. BLC was further identified to play a carcinogenic role in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.

  9. Age-Associated Decline in Dendritic Cell Function and the Impact of Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Elderly Subjects

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    Sarah J. Clements

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection and age-associated chronic diseases. It is also associated with reduced vaccine responses, which is often attributed to immunosenescence and the functional decline of the immune system. Immunosenescence is characterized by a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory state termed inflammaging. Habitants of Mediterranean (MED regions maintain good health into old age; often attributed to MED diets.HypothesisAdoption of a MED-diet by elderly subjects, in Norfolk (UK, may improve immune responses of these individuals and in particular, dendritic cell (DC function.Experimental approachA total of 120 elderly subjects (65–79 years old recruited onto the Nu-AGE study, a multicenter European dietary study specifically addressing the needs of the elderly, across five countries, and were randomized to the control or MED-diet groups, for one year. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-intervention for DC analysis and were compared with each other, and to samples obtained from 45 young (18–40 years old subjects. MED-diet compliance was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography-with tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. Immune cell and DC subset numbers and concentrations of secreted proteins were determined by flow cytometric analysis.ResultsAs expected, reduced myeloid DC numbers were observed in blood samples from elderly subjects compared with young. The elevated secretion of the adipokine, resistin, after ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects, was significantly reduced after MED-diet intervention.ConclusionThis study provides further evidence of numerical and functional effects of aging on DCs. The MED-diet showed potential to impact on the aging immune cells investigated and could provide an economical approach to address problems associated with our aging population.

  10. Association of Poor Subjective Sleep Quality with Suicidal Ideation among Pregnant Peruvian Women

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    Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V.; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Henderson, David C.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality, and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartum depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. Antepartum subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep quality was more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterparts who did not (47.2%vs.24.8%, p5vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95%CI 1.02–2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95%CI 1.08–1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95%CI 1.96–6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Conclusion Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation. PMID:25983188

  11. Obesity is significantly associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in 2- to 9-year-olds.

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    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Gurnurkar, Shilpa; Alhezayen, Reem; Natale, Ruby A; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in ethnically diverse young children. A retrospective medical chart review identified overweight/obese 2- to 9-year-old children (N=147) from a local pediatric clinic who were matched (for age, sex, and ethnicity) with normal weight patients from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=294). Comparisons of mean systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were conducted. Results showed that compared with the population-based normal-weight sample, the local overweight/obese sample was significantly more likely to have diastolic prehypertension (15% vs. 75%, P<.0001), systolic prehypertension (10% vs. 43%, P<.0001), and the lowest quintile of HDL cholesterol (19% vs. 34%, P=.003). At this young age, excess weight is significantly associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. These results suggest that overweight/obese children in this age group should be monitored closely to prevent potential chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Vulvodynia-Younger Age and Combined Therapies Associate With Significant Reduction in Self-Reported Pain.

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    Aalto, Anu P; Vuoristo, Silja; Tuomaala, Heidi; Niemi, Riikka J; Staff, Synnöve M; Mäenpää, Johanna U

    2017-07-01

    Eight percent of women have vulvodynia (VD), a chronic pain disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of given VD treatments measured by numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain and patients' quality of life. Study material consisted of a retrospective VD patient cohort (N = 70). Data were collected by postal questionnaires and review of the medical records. We report here a statistically significant reduction in NRS only with combination of therapies (median NRS before treatments 8 vs median NRS 4 after treatments, p physiotherapy, topical medications, oral pharmaceutical therapy, sexual counseling by a trained nurse, sacral neuromodulation, and laser treatment or surgery. Older age (>30) and frequent (≥6) outpatient clinic visits associated with a significantly minor reduction in NRS (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively). The results of this retrospective study suggest that an effective, multimodality-based treatment is most beneficial for VD patients and VD at older age may represent a subtype more resistant to therapy.

  13. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors in overweight subjects (GOLDN population).

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    Garaulet, Marta; Lee, Yu-Chi; Shen, Jian; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Tsai, Michael Y; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-03-01

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food-intake measures. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of CLOCK single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with food intake and to explore the specific role of the cytokine system. A total of 1100 individual participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Dietary intake was estimated with a validated questionnaire. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-2 soluble receptor-alpha (IL-2sR-alpha) and adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured. Our results showed that four of five CLOCK SNPs selected were significantly associated with total energy intake (PSNP rs3749474, the energy intake and total fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in minor allele carriers than in non-carriers. Frequency of the minor allele was greater in subjects with high energy intake than in those with low intake. Subjects with the minor allele were 1.33 times more likely to have high energy intake than non-carriers (95% CI 1.09-1.72, P=0.0350). All CLOCK SNPs were associated with plasma cytokine values, in particular with those that were highly correlated with energy intake: MCP1, IL-6 and adiponectin. Interestingly, minor allele carriers with high energy intake showed decreased cytokine values, which could be related with a lower anorectic effect and decreased sleep in these subjects. In conclusion, we show a novel association of genetic variation at CLOCK with total energy intake, which was particularly relevant for SNP rs3749474. Associations could be mediated through the alteration of cytokine levels that may influence energy intake and sleep pattern.

  14. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

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    Pardis Pedram

    Full Text Available 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown.to assess 1 the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2 if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3 if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4 if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'.A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire.The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001. Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls.Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  15. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  16. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

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    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  17. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

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    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  18. Ingestion of Lantana camara is not associated with significant effects in children.

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    Carstairs, Shaun D; Luk, Joyce Y; Tomaszewski, Christian A; Cantrell, F Lee

    2010-12-01

    We sought to identify characteristics of children with reported ingestion of Lantana camara. We reviewed the California Poison Control System database for all reported pediatric ingestions of L. camara for the years 1997-2008. Data collected included age, gender, clinical effects, duration of effects, medical interventions, and outcomes. There were a total of 641 patients; patient ages ranged from 1 to 16 years, with a mean of 2.5 years. Reported effects included vomiting (n = 30), abdominal pain (n = 8), agitation (n = 6), diarrhea (n = 6), throat/mouth irritation (n = 5), tachycardia (n = 4), drowsiness (n = 3), nausea (n = 2), and mydriasis (n = 1). There was no difference in frequency of symptoms between patients who ingested ripe (15.5% [95% confidence interval: 9.1%-21.8%]) versus unripe (6.0% [95% confidence interval: 0.9%-11.1%]) berries or between patients who ingested berries (10.5% [95% confidence interval: 7.3%-13.8%]) versus other plant parts (7.1% [95% confidence interval: 4.0%-10.3%]). Fifty-one patients (8%) were treated in a health care facility and 2 (0.3%) were admitted. No significant effects and no deaths were recorded. Ingestion of L. camara (including unripe berries) was not associated with significant toxicity; patients who ingested unripe berries did not exhibit more-frequent or more-severe symptoms than did patients who ingested ripe berries or other plant parts. Most patients displayed no or minimal symptoms. Children with asymptomatic ingestions and those with mild symptoms can be treated at home.

  19. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults

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    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  20. PET/CT shows subjective pain in shoulder joints to be associated with uptake of (18)F-FDG.

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    Kamasaki, Toshihiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Miyamoto, Izumi; Usui, Toshiya; Chiba, Kenya; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the screening of musculoskeletal inflammation and injury of the shoulder region. The study included 122 participants (69 men and 53 women) who complained of shoulder pain at rest and 122 age-matched and sex-matched controls who did not experience pain at rest. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for both the left and right shoulders and compared using a four-point visual analog scale of subjective shoulder pain. Correlations between SUVs and uric acid and C-reactive proteins were also evaluated. SUVs for shoulder joints with rest and/or motion pain were significantly higher than those for pain-free shoulder joints. SUVs associated with mild and severe pain at rest were significantly higher than those associated with absence of pain at rest, and SUVs associated with moderate and severe pain on motion were significantly higher than those associated with absence of motion pain. Furthermore, SUVs were significantly correlated with uric acid in men (β=0.21, P=0.02) and in all participants (β=0.22, Pshoulder region. As shoulder pain is common, especially among elderly individuals, we should carefully consider the necessity of further examination when identifying the uptake of F-FDG in shoulder joints.

  1. Neuroplasticity associated with tactile language communication in a deaf-blind subject

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    Souzana Obretenova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding debate in cognitive neuroscience pertains to the innate nature of language development and the underlying factors that determine this faculty. We explored the neural correlates associated with language processing in a unique individual who is early blind, congenitally deaf, and possesses a high level of language function. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we compared the neural networks associated with the tactile reading of words presented in Braille, Print on Palm (POP, and a haptic form of American Sign Language (haptic ASL or hASL. With all three modes of tactile communication, indentifying words was associated with robust activation within occipital cortical regions as well as posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal language areas (lateralized within the left hemisphere. In a normally sighted and hearing interpreter, identifying words through hASL was associated with left-lateralized activation of inferior frontal language areas however robust occipital cortex activation was not observed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-based tractography revealed differences consistent with enhanced occipital-temporal connectivity in the deaf-blind subject. Our results demonstrate that in the case of early onset of both visual and auditory deprivation, tactile-based communication is associated with an extensive cortical network implicating occipital as well as posterior superior temporal and frontal associated language areas. The cortical areas activated in this deaf-blind subject are consistent with characteristic cortical regions previously implicated with language. Finally, the resilience of language function within the context of early and combined visual and auditory deprivation may be related to enhanced connectivity between relevant cortical areas.

  2. Association between serum homocysteine and subclinical atherosclerosis markers in subjects with and without diabetes mellitus

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    Hossein Fakhrzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and cardiovascular diseases has been elucidated since many years ago. In this study, the association between serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 with the pulse wave velocity and Buckberg index or subendocardial viability ratio was assessed in individuals with diabetes and also non-diabetic subjects. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 58 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 36 non-diabetic people, from April to October 2013 were enrolled in Dr. Shariati Hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed with standard methods. Fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Triglyceide, A1C, vitamin B12, folic acid and serum homocysteine levels as well as, highly sensitive complement-reactive protein (hs-CRP were measured. Artherial stiffness was assessed by calculating pulse wave velocity and aortic agumentation index via Sphygmocor. In addition, Buckberg index (Subendocardial viability ratio was assessed by dividing myocardial oxygen supply to dimand expressed as percent. The normality of distributions was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and linear regression models were utilized to detect associations. Results: Diabetic and non-diabetic subjects differed in terms of age, history of hypertension, serum levels of homocysteine, and LDL-C (P< 0.05. The pulse wave velocity in subjects with diabetes and without diabetes were 60.91 m/s and 41.91 m/s, respectively (P= 0.01. After adjustment for confounding factors in multivariate regression analysis pulse wave velocity was associated with age and homocysteine levels in non-diabetic group, (β equal to 0.441 and 0.345, respectively, and it was related to age, diastolic blood pressure and serum levels of c-reactive protein in subject with diabetes (β= 0.417, 0.302, and 0

  3. A Multilevel Structural Equation Model of Within- and Between-Person Associations among Subjective Responses to Alcohol, Craving, and Laboratory Alcohol Self-Administration

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    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age=19.90, SD=0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hour intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 minutes later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to disentangle within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is

  4. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

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    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  5. The significance of the trial outcome was associated with publication rate and time to publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung Yeon; Koo, Dong-Hoe; Jung, Sun-Young; Kang, Wonku; Kim, Eun Young

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to comprehensively assess the publication of clinical trial results and factors associated with their publication. Phase II and III trials of advanced breast cancer registered on ClinicalTrials.gov between October 1, 2000, and September 30, 2012, were identified. Publications were searched by using PubMed and reviewing those listed on the registry site. The main outcomes were publication rate, public availability of results, and time to publication. Of 352 phase II and 74 phase III trials, 12.5% and 31.1% were published, whereas 46.9% and 58.1% had publicly available results, respectively. Compared to those with significant results, studies with nonsignificant results had delays in time to publication (P time to publication (hazard ratio = 6.02; 95% confidence interval: 3.59, 10.07; P time to publish than those with nonsignificant outcomes. Underreporting of results and nonpublication or delays in the publication of negative results were identified in registered trials of advanced breast cancer. Thus, further initiatives appear necessary to urgently address such publication bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SULF 1 gene polymorphism, rs6990375 is in significant association with fetus failure in IVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Taghizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfatase 1 (SULF1 function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics. Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF technique. Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05 regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls. Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.

  7. Significant worsening sperm parameters are associated to testicular hypotrophy in patients with a high grade varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, O; Aslan, Y; Balci, M; Tuncel, A; Unal, B; Atan, A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between testicular volume and semen parameter sin patients with unilateral high grade left varicocele. One hundred eighty seven patients who had left high grade varicocele aged 19-to-25 years were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard evaluation, including medical history and physical examination. The percentage testicular volume difference between the right and left testicles was calculated. The patients were divided into the following three groups; Group 1 (n=72) testicular volume difference 20% Group 3 (n=41). The mean age and BMI of the patients were 21.5 years and 23.1kg/m(2), respectively (P=.596, P=.943). The semen parameters and testicular volumes of the three groups were compared. The total motile sperm count, percentage of motile sperm, percentage of normal morphology sperm were found to be lower in Group 3 (P=.011, P=.012, P=.029 respectively). The mean testicular volumes for the left and the right testis were found to be 15.2cm(3) and 17.7cm(3) (P<.001), respectively. No significant difference was found in the right testicular volumes between groups (17.4, 17.7 and 18.1cm(3), P=.573). A high grade left testicular varicocele is associated with ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy and parallel to worsened sperm parameters. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Association of the PGC-1α rs8192678 Variant with Microalbuminuria in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Prior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PPAR-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α is a tissue-specific transcriptional co-activator involved in the regulation of antioxidant enzymes. The A-allele of the rs8192678 PGC-1 α} (G>A gene variant has previously been associated with nephropathy in Korean and Indian-Asian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM samples. Our aim was to examine the association between this variant and urine albumin exccretion in European subjects with T2DM. Genotyping was performed on 583 European subjects with T2DM and examined in relation to urinary albumin, plasma oxidized-LDL and small dense-LDL percentage. We observed a significant association between genotype (GG/GA/AA and urinary albumin (normoalbuminuria v micro/macroalbuminuria: 48.6/39.7/11.7% v 38.2/51.2/10.5%, p=0.02; for GG v GA/AA, p=0.01. The odds ratio for micro/macroalbuminuria in GA and AA subjects relative to GG were 1.70 [1.15–2.50], p=0.008 and 1.20 [0.66–2.16], p=0.56 respectively (for GA/AA v GG: 1.58 [95% CI: 1.09–2.27], p=0.02. There was a significant association between the A allele and a higher percentage of small dense-LDL particles (GG v GA v AA: 70.8 [58.01–81.06] % v 72.8 [56.18–81.19] % v 78.9 [67.16–85.33] %, p=0.03. In European subjects with T2DM the GA relative to the GG genotype is associated with a 70% increase in the risk of micro/microalbuminuria. Furthermore, homozygosity for the A-allele is also associated with a preponderance of small dense-LDL particles.

  10. The association between right ventricular free wall strain and exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Right ventricular (RV function has been found to be a major factor of exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. However, the role of RV function in exercise capacity in healthy subjects has not been well studied. This study aims to validate the role of RV strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography for exercise capacity for health check-up subjects.This study prospectively recruited subjects from a routine health examination. All of them were symptom free. RV function represented by RV strain was derived from speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to traditional echocardiography parameters. Functional capacity was determined by a symptom limited treadmill exercise test with the Bruce protocol.Among 164 recruited subjects (age 52.2 ±9.2 years, 66.4% male, 32 subjects represented impaired functional capacity (MET<8, which was significantly correlated with age, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular filling pressure (E/e', global longitudinal strain of the left ventricle (LVGLS (-16.0±2.5% vs. -18.9±3.8%, p < 0.001 and RV free wall strain (RVLS_FW (-17.0±4.9% vs. -21.9±3.2%, p <0.001. After multivariate logistic regression, RVS_FW was an independent predictor for impaired functional capacity (OR 1.62, CI 1.32-1.98; p <0.001.In conclusion, RV strain is independently associated with exercise capacity for health check-up subjects. RV function is an important factor for functional capacity.

  11. Association of Parkinson's disease with altered serum levels of lead and transition metals among South Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudini, Nadella; Uma, Addepally; Devi, Yalavarthy Prameela; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Mridula, Rukmini; Borgohain, Rupam; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between the Parkinson's disease (PD) and exposure to heavy metals, such as lead, iron, copper, manganese, etc. A growing body of evidence suggests that heavy metals stimulate free radical formation in the brain and can lead to neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated whether such association exists in PD cases from rural and urban areas in our study population. The plasma levels of copper, iron, manganese and lead in PD cases (n = 150) and controls (n = 170) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and correlated with the oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and total glutathione. Results indicated significant increase in the levels of copper (17.73 +/- 4.48 vs. 13.0 + 3.22 ng/ml) and iron (554.4 +/- 123.8 vs. 421.7 +/- 126.1 ng/ml) in PD cases compared to controls, whereas no significant differences in the levels of manganese and lead were observed. Further, the data based on urban or rural residence showed that plasma copper, iron, manganese levels were comparatively higher in rural subjects, whereas plasma lead levels were significantly higher in urban subjects. Increased plasma iron showed positive correlation with marker of lipid peroxidation (MDA), suggesting that increased iron levels induced oxidative stress in PD. These results substantiated the earlier observations about the role of environmental exposure and metal-induced oxidative stress in the etiology of PD.

  12. Is risk associated with drinking water in Australia of significant concern to justify mandatory regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, J; Moeller, A

    2001-10-01

    Presently in Australia there are no mandatory drinking water standards. Here we argue that the risk associated with drinking water in Australia is of a dimension discernible to warrant mandatory regulations. The catchments that supply the major metropolitan areas of Sydney and Adelaide, and the groundwater for the city of Perth have been seriously compromised by the encroachment of development and activities. Melbourne in the past has generally relied on a closed catchment reservoir system; however, population growth in the near future will sequester the full online operation of additional reservoirs, which have multiple land use catchments. In addition to the current landscape circumstances, the management of a water system in itself proposes significant issues of risk. Two critical assumptions that are unique to a mass medium substance like water and dramatically alter the appraisal of risk are: (1) very large numbers of people are potentially exposed, and (2) small changes in contaminant levels may have adverse population outcomes. It is also known that water reticulation systems frequently suffer from contamination problems caused solely by the distribution system, and optimal management of these facilities would best be served by statutory protected transparency and dedicated water quality programs. In 1979, an Australian parliamentary committee stated that an "uncontaminated water supply is" a "basic requirement for the obtainment of good health"; however, recent surveys of Australian water systems show many are not meeting basic water quality criteria, and many communities are not receiving regular monitoring or testing as required by government authorized Australian drinking water guidelines. Exacerbating this situation is the lack of reporting and statutory endorsed standardized procedures to ensure information is properly and promptly recorded and that data are centralized for maximum benefit. The evaluation of risk associated with drinking water in

  13. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M

    1987-01-01

    Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes...

  14. Absence of significant interactive effects of high-dose D-cycloserine and ethanol in healthy human subjects: preliminary insights into ethanol actions at the glycine B site of NMDA glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Louis; Petrakis, Ismene L; Pittman, Brian; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; D'Souza, D Cyril; Perry, Edward; Limoncelli, Diana; Krystal, John H

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol reduces N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function via multiple cellular targets. It is not yet clear whether direct ethanol antagonism of the glycine(B) co-agonist site of NMDA receptors is relevant to this effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ethanol effects at the glycine(B) co-agonist site was clinically relevant by evaluating some aspects of the psychopharmacologic interactions between the glycine(B) partial agonist, D-cycloserine (DCS), and ethanol in healthy human subjects. All subjects completed 4 test days under double-blind conditions in which DCS or placebo was administered orally prior to ethanol or an ethanol-tainted placebo drink. Two groups of healthy subjects were studied. A first group of subjects (n = 25) were pretreated orally with DCS 500 mg or placebo 4 hours prior to ethanol (0.8 g/kg, p.o. or placebo) administration. A second group of subjects (n = 20) were pretreated with DCS 1000 mg or placebo prior to ethanol administration. Outcomes included subjective and cognitive responses to the experimental interventions. Predictable ethanol responses were observed in both groups of subjects, although the response to ethanol and the breath alcohol levels, but not plasma alcohol levels, were slightly but significantly lower in the group that received the higher DCS dose. DCS produced mild sedative effects that were greater for the lower than the higher dose. It also produced a mild impairment of verbal fluency without impairing attention. No statistically significant interactions between ethanol and DCS emerged in analyses. However, the combination of ethanol and DCS produced significantly greater impairment than both ethanol or DCS administered alone on a test of verbal fluency and aspects of memory function. DCS and ethanol both produced sedative and cognitive effects, consistent with their ability to reduce NMDA receptor function. However, the absence of interactive effects observed in this study raises

  15. Generational association studies of dopaminergic genes in reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) subjects: selecting appropriate phenotypes for reward dependence behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda L C; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Chen, Thomas J H; Lubar, Joel; White, Nancy; Lubar, Judith; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Braverman, Eric; Schoolfield, John; Waite, Roger L; Downs, Bernard W; Madigan, Margaret; Comings, David E; Davis, Caroline; Kerner, Mallory M; Knopf, Jennifer; Palomo, Tomas; Giordano, John J; Morse, Siobhan A; Fornari, Frank; Barh, Debmalya; Femino, John; Bailey, John A

    2011-12-01

    Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). RDS results from a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic). Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]). We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms). Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific "reward" phenotype may be a paradigm shift in future association and linkage studies involving dopaminergic polymorphisms and other neurotransmitter gene candidates.

  16. Sleep Duration of Inpatients With a Depressive Disorder: Associations With Age, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias J; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are common in depression; however, the association of sleep duration and subjective sleep quality has been rarely investigated. Thus, subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were analyzed in depressed inpatients. Questionnaire data comprising clinical and sleep-related questions were sampled over a one-year period from adult inpatients with depressive syndromes. Sleep duration and items related to sleep quality were analyzed by means of group comparisons (sleep duration categories) and correlation analyses. Data of 154 patients (age 58.2±17.0 years, 63.6% women) were analyzed. Mean sleep duration was 7.2±2.1 h (16.9% of patients were below and 7.1% above age-specific recommendations), 25-40% of patients reported almost always daytime sleepiness, non-restorative sleep, attention deficits, or memory complaints with significant correlations between all variables (Pdepression, and both were associated with poor sleep quality and subjectively impaired cognitive functions. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships. During hospitalization, a more individualized sleep-wake schedule should be applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seizure-associated aphasia has good lateralizing but poor localizing significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Steger, Hannah; Losher, Claudia; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the occurrence of ictal and postictal aphasia in different focal epilepsy syndromes. We retrospectively analyzed the video-electroencephalographic monitoring data of 1,118 patients with focal epilepsy for seizure-associated aphasia (SAA). Statistical analysis included chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. We identified 102 of 1,118 patients (9.1%) in whom ictal or postictal aphasia (SAA) was part of their recorded seizures (n = 59 of 102; 57.8%) or who reported aphasia by history (n = 43; 42.2% only reported aphasia by history). Postictal aphasia was present in 18 patients (30.5%). Six of the 59 patients had both ictal and postictal aphasia (10.2%). SAA occurred either with left hemisphere seizure onset or with seizures spreading from the right to the left hemisphere. SAA was most common in patients with parieto-occipital epilepsy (10.9%; five of 46 patients), followed by patients with temporal (6.7%; 28 of 420 patients), focal (not further localized; 4.8%; 22 of 462 patients), and frontal epilepsy (2.1%; four of 190 patients; p = 0.04). SAA was more common in parieto-occipital epilepsy than in frontal epilepsy (p = 0.02). In contrast, there was no significant difference in SAA between temporal and parieto-occipital epilepsy (p = 0.36). SAA has a high lateralizing but limited localizing value, as it often reflects spread of epileptic activity into speech-harboring brain regions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...... controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...

  19. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Mass Level Is Increased in Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortunato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 is extensively expressed by advanced atherosclerotic lesions and may play a role in plaque instability. We selected a group of elderly subjects that underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI or balloon angioplasty (BA and separated them into two groups, diabetic and nondiabetic, to compare the level of Lp-PLA2 mass between them. Methods. 44 patients aged 79.6±5.6 years with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis underwent TAVI (n=35 or BA (n=9. 21 subjects had confirmed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lp-PLA2 mass was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (USCN Life Science, China before and 3 days after the procedure. Results. Lp-PLA2 mass was significantly elevated in this population (1296±358 ng/mL before TAVI; 1413±268 ng/mL before BA and further increased after TAVI (1604±437 ng/mL, P<0.01 or BA (1808±303 ng/mL, P<0.01. Lp-PLA2 mass was significantly increased on the diabetic group before these interventions. Conclusion. Lp-PLA2 may be a novel biomarker for the presence of rupture-prone atherosclerotic lesions in elderly patients. Levels of Lp-PLA2 in diabetic patients may accompany the higher amount of small dense LDL particles seen in these subjects.

  20. OBESITY IS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN 2-TO-9 YEAR OLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Messiah, Sarah E.; Vidot, Denise C.; Gurnurkar, Shilpa; Alhezayen, Reem; Natale, Ruby A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in ethnically diverse 2-to-9 year olds. A retrospective medical chart review identified overweight/obese 2-to-9 year olds (N=147) from a local pediatric clinic who were matched (on age, sex and ethnicity) to normal weight subjects from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (N=294). Comparisons of mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, total- ...

  1. A Study to Interpret the Biological Significance of Behavior Associated with 3S Experimental Sonar Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    species; 2.) quantitative comparison of behavior , and behavioral changes, during sonar presentation and playback of killer whale sounds across the 3S...be conducted to explicitly contrast the behavior of whale subjects in the 3S dataset during sonar exposure and playback of killer whale sounds, with...the goal to evaluate the risk-disturbance hypothesis (Frid & Dill, 2002). Focused analysis of behavior changes following playback of killer whale

  2. Associations between liver histology and cortisol secretion in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targher, Giovanni; Bertolini, Lorenzo; Rodella, Stefano; Zoppini, Giacomo; Zenari, Luciano; Falezza, Giancarlo

    2006-03-01

    To assess associations between the activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 50 consecutive, overweight, NAFLD patients and 40 control subjects who were comparable for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). NAFLD (by liver biopsy), HPA axis activity (by 24-hour urinary free cortisol [UFC] excretion and serum cortisol levels after 1 mg dexamethasone), insulin resistance (by homeostasis model assessment: HOMA-IR), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. NAFLD patients had markedly higher (P fibrosis stage (P fibrosis, but not necroinflammation, after adjustment for potential confounders. These results suggest that NAFLD patients have a subtle, chronic overactivity in the HPA axis (that is closely associated with the severity of liver histopathology) leading to subclinical hypercortisolism that might be implicated in the development of NAFLD.

  3. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Interleukin-4 Genes Variable Number Tandem Repeats Are Associated with Adiposity in Malaysian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yean Kok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA intron 2 86 bp repeat and interleukin-4 (IL4 intron 3 70 bp repeat are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs that have been associated with various diseases, but their role in obesity is elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL1RA and IL4 VNTRs with obesity and adiposity in 315 Malaysian subjects (128 M/187 F; 23 Malays/251 ethnic Chinese/41 ethnic Indians. The allelic distributions of IL1RA and IL4 were significantly different among ethnicities, and the alleles were associated with total body fat (TBF classes. Individuals with IL1RA I/II genotype or allele II had greater risk of having higher overall adiposity, relative to those having the I/I genotype or I allele, respectively, even after controlling for ethnicity [Odds Ratio (OR of I/II genotype = 12.21 (CI = 2.54, 58.79; p=0.002; II allele = 5.78 (CI = 1.73, 19.29; p=0.004]. However, IL4 VNTR B2 allele was only significantly associated with overall adiposity status before adjusting for ethnicity [OR = 1.53 (CI = 1.04, 2.23; p=0.03]. Individuals with IL1RA II allele had significantly higher TBF than those with I allele (31.79±2.52 versus 23.51±0.40; p=0.005. Taken together, IL1RA intron 2 VNTR seems to be a genetic marker for overall adiposity status in Malaysian subjects.

  4. Association of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Bangladeshi Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shoma Hayat; Shahnaj Begum; Muhammad Rezwanur Rahman; Muhammad Saiedullah; Md. Aminul Haque Khan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are associated with renal diseases. Association of serum lipid parameters with renal function is less studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To assess the correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty confirmed diabetic subjects advised for HbA1c, serum creatinine, serum total ch...

  5. Cardiac reactivity during the ascending phase of acute intravenous alcohol exposure and association with subjective perceptions of intoxication in social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac reactivity measures, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV), following acute intravenous (IV) alcohol administration and their association with subjective responses in social drinkers. Twenty-four subjects (11 females) received IV alcohol infusions to attain and clamp the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) at 50 mg% or placebo in separate sessions. Serial 5-minute cardiac recordings at baseline and during the infusion were analyzed to obtain frequency and time domain cardiac measures. Self-reported subjective perceptions were also obtained at the same time points. HR showed significant decreases from baseline, while the HRV measure pNN50 showed steady increases during the ascending phase of alcohol infusion. HR was inversely correlated with pNN50 across time and treatment. There was a significant association of HR with subjective feelings of high, intoxication, feeling drug effects, and liking drug effects across time during the ascending phase. Acute IV alcohol resulted in decreases in HR and increases in HRV consistent with autonomic parasympathetic activation. The association of these changes with subjective responses suggests that cardiac reactivity may serve as a physiological marker of subjective alcohol effects. This study broadens the understanding of acute cardiovascular effects of alcohol and clinically significant cardiac conditions such as arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy associated with chronic alcohol drinking. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  7. Association between the dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) and cognitive functions in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hori, Hiroaki; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Takeda, Masatoshi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    The dysbindin gene (dystrobrevin binding protein 1: DTNBP1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Susceptibility genes for schizophrenia have been hypothesized to mediate liability for the disorder at least partly by influencing cognitive performance. This report investigated the relationship between cognitive function and the dysbindin gene. The possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of DTNBP1 (rs2619539: P1655), which is a risk-independent SNP for schizophrenia in Japanese populations, and memory and IQ was investigated in 70 schizophrenia patients and 165 healthy volunteers in a Japanese population. This SNP was associated with two memory scales, verbal memory and general memory, on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and three subcategories of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), vocabulary, similarities and picture completion in healthy subjects. The SNP, however, did not influence either the indices of WMS-R, IQ or subcategories of WAIS-R in schizophrenia patients. A risk-independent SNP in DTNBP1 may have an impact on cognitive functions such as memory and IQ in healthy subjects.

  8. Associations between poor subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elaine K H; Tan, Joyce; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mai; Teoh, Oon-Hoe; Goh, Daniel Y T; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P

    2016-09-15

    Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. A risk factor for mood disorders is poor sleep quality. In this study we investigate the effects of poor subjective prenatal sleep quality on postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of prenatal depression or anxiety, amongst pregnant women in the general population. We analysed data from a subset of women taking part in a prospective cohort study, Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes. The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory between 26 and 28 weeks of pregnancy (Time 1) and at 3 months postpartum (Time 2), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at Time 1. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adjusting for prenatal depressive/anxiety symptoms and education. Although borderline-high depressive/anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictors of postnatal depressive/anxiety, independent of this, poor subjective sleep quality during pregnancy was also associated with borderline-high postnatal depressive symptoms, but not with postnatal anxiety. Sleep quality and prenatal/postnatal mood were derived from self-reported questionnaires, which may be more susceptible to bias. Although treatment of symptoms of prenatal depression and anxiety will be the most important for reducing postnatal depression and anxiety, in addition to that, future studies may explore treatments improving prenatal sleep quality, particularly for women with antenatal depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations Among Individuals' Perceptions of Future Time, Individual Resources, and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of future time are of key interest to aging research because of their implications for subjective well-being. Interestingly, perceptions about future time are only moderately associated with age when looking at the second half of life, pointing to a vast heterogeneity in future time perceptions among older adults. We examine associations between future time perceptions, age, and subjective well-being across two studies, including moderations by individual resources. Using data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; Mage = 85 years), we link one operationalization (subjective nearness to death) and age to subjective well-being. Using Health and Retirement Study data (N = 2,596; Mage = 77 years), we examine associations of another future time perception indicator (subjective future life expectancy) and age with subjective well-being. Consistent across studies, perceptions of limited time left were associated with poorer subjective well-being (lower life satisfaction and positive affect; more negative affect and depressive symptoms). Importantly, individual resources moderated future time perception-subjective well-being associations with those of better health exhibiting reduced future time perception-subjective well-being associations. We discuss our findings in the context of the Model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration.

  10. Associations between subjective social status and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-12-01

    The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high

  11. Relationship between indoor chemical concentrations and subjective symptoms associated with sick building syndrome in newly built houses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Tomoko; Wang, Bing-Ling; Saijo, Yasuaki; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Shibata, Eiji; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Ogino, Keiki; Kishi, Reiko

    2010-02-01

    This study explored possible associations between chemical substances and sick building syndrome (SBS)-type symptoms of residents living in new houses in Japan. We randomly sampled 5,709 newly built conventional homes. In the end, 1,479 residents in 425 households completed a questionnaire survey and agreed to environmental monitoring for indoor aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be conducted in their homes. If the residents had complained about at least one SBS-related symptom, they were classified as suffering from SBS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select predictive chemical factors of SBS symptoms. About 14% of the subjects suffered from SBS. Many aldehydes and VOCs were associated factors of optical, nasal, and gular symptoms in univariate analysis. After adjustment for other possible risk factors, formaldehyde dose-dependently showed to be a significant risk factor for SBS. Several chemicals had tendency to be associated with SBS symptoms. Chemicals detected in Japanese newly built houses tend to increase the risk of subjective symptoms in residents suffering from SBS.

  12. Glycoprotein YKL-40 Levels in Plasma Are Associated with Fibrotic Changes on HRCT in Asbestos-Exposed Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Väänänen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available YKL-40 is a chitinase-like glycoprotein produced by alternatively activated macrophages that are associated with wound healing and fibrosis. Asbestosis is a chronic asbestos-induced lung disease, in which injury of epithelial cells and activation of alveolar macrophages lead to enhanced collagen production and fibrosis. We studied if YKL-40 is related to inflammation, fibrosis, and/or lung function in subjects exposed to asbestosis. Venous blood samples were collected from 85 men with moderate or heavy occupational asbestos exposure and from 28 healthy, age-matched controls. Levels of plasma YKL-40, CRP, IL-6, adipsin, and MMP-9 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in subjects with asbestosis (n=19 than in those with no fibrotic findings in HRCT following asbestos exposure (n=66 or in unexposed healthy controls. In asbestos-exposed subjects, plasma YKL-40 correlated negatively with lung function capacity parameters FVC (Pearson’s r −0.259, p=0.018 and FEV1 (Pearson’s r −0.240, p=0.028 and positively with CRP (Spearman’s rho 0.371, p<0.001, IL-6 (Spearman’s rho 0.314, p=0.003, adipsin (Spearman’s rho 0.459, p<0.001, and MMP-9 (Spearman’s rho 0.243, p=0.025. The present finding suggests YKL-40 as a biomarker associated with fibrosis and inflammation in asbestos-exposed subjects.

  13. Significant intersections Daugavpils Region Artists Association during from 1998 till 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Folkmane, Mairita

    2013-01-01

    Daugavpils Region Artists Association (DRAA) is a professional creative organization, which now comprises 37 artists from different generations, schools and professional industry: painters, graphic artists, sculptors, textile artists, potters, stage designers, etc. DRAA was founded in 1998. Organization is to promote conditions for creativity, to promote the association's creative work, to defend artists' creative freedom, moral, economic, social rights and professional interests. In its 15 y...

  14. Are inmates’ subjective sleep problems associated with borderline personality, psychopathy, and antisocial personality independent of depression and substance dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Laura; Duckworth, Rebecca; Thompson, Aaron; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and sleep problems, independent of depression, has been conducted on small atypical samples with mixed results. This study extends the literature by utilizing a much larger sample and by statistically controlling for depression and substance dependence. Subjective reports of sleep problems were obtained from 513 jail inmates (70% male) incarcerated on felony charges. Symptoms of BPD were significantly associated with sleep problems even when controlling for depression. Thus, sleep problems associated with BPD cannot be attributed simply to co-morbid symptoms of depression and substance dependence was ruled out as proximal causes for this relationship. Symptoms of depression, but not Antisocial Personality features, were related to sleep problems independent of substance dependence. Treatment of individuals with BPD may be more effective if sleep problems are explicitly addressed in the treatment plan. PMID:20198127

  15. Dietary phosphorus is associated with a significant increase in left ventricular mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C.; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A.C.; Siscovick, David; Weiss, Noel S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4,494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1,167 mg/day in men and 1,017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 gram greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 gram greater LVM compared to the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies. PMID:23283134

  16. Factors associated with diabetes mellitus prediction among pregnant Arab subjects with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Naji; Al Serehi, Amal; Ahmed, Amjad M; Buhary, Badr Aldin M; Alzahrani, Saad; At-Taras, Eeman; Almujally, Najla; Alsharqi, Maha; Alqahtani, Mohammed; Almalki, Mussa

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of available information on the possible significant risk factors related to diabetes mellitus (DM) prediction among expectant Saudi mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study is the first to identify such risk factors in the Arab cohort. A total of 300 pregnant subjects (mean age 33.45 ± 6.5 years) were randomly selected from all the deliveries registered at the Obstetrics Department of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh Saudi Arabia from April 2011 to March 2013. Demographic and baseline glycemic information were collected. A total of 7 highly significant and independent risk factors were identified: age, obesity, and family history of DM, GDM < 20 weeks, macrosomia, insulin therapy and recurrent GDM. Among these factors, subjects who had insulin therapy use are 5 times more likely to develop DMT2 (p-value 3.94 × 10(-14)) followed by recurrent GDM [odds-ratio 4.69 (Confidence Interval 2.34-4.84); P = 1.24 × 10(-13)). The identification of the risk factors mentioned with their respective predictive powers in the detection of DMT2 needs to be taken seriously in the post-partum assessment of Saudi pregnant patients at highest risk.

  17. Beta-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca G Baez-Duarte

    2010-08-01

    subjects in the control group (n = 254 was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190. Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR, and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05 of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D. This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D.Conclusion: The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases.Keywords: insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, b-cell function

  18. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P nutritional status assessed by SGA during the first year of dialysis were associated with all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients.

  19. Significance of bacteria associated with invertebrates in drinking water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, E; du Preez, H H; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2005-01-01

    The implication of invertebrates found in drinking water distribution networks to public health is of concern to water utilities. Previous studies have shown that the bacteria associated with the invertebrates could be potentially pathogenic to humans. This study investigated the level and identity of bacteria commonly associated with invertebrates collected from the drinking water treatment systems as well as from the main pipelines leaving the treatment works. On all sampling occasions bacteria were isolated from the invertebrate samples collected. The highest bacterial counts were observed for the samples taken before filtration as was expected. There were, however, indications that optimal removal of invertebrates from water did not always occur. During the investigation, 116 colonies were sampled for further identification. The isolates represent several bacterial genera and species that are pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Diarrhoea, meningitis, septicaemia and skin infections are among the diseases associated with these organisms. The estimated number of bacteria that could be associated with a single invertebrate (as based on average invertebrate numbers) could range from 10 to 4000 bacteria per organism. It can, therefore, be concluded that bacteria associated with invertebrates might under the worst case scenario pose a potential health risk to water users. In the light of the above findings it is clear that invertebrates in drinking water should be controlled at levels as low as technically and economically feasible.

  20. Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity Associated with Vascular Depression or Apathy in Community-Dwelling Elderly Subjects: The Sefuri Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Araki, Yuko; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2015-11-01

    Although physical inactivity is a major public health problem, the causative factors for physical inactivity per se are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the relationship between deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging, apathy, and physical activities using structural equation modeling (SEM). We examined 317 community-dwelling elderly subjects (137 men and 180 women with a mean age of 64.5 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. Physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire consisting of 3 components (leisure-time, work, and sport activities). The mean score from the apathy scale (a visual analogue version of Starkstein's apathy scale) of the Grades 2-3 DWML group was 420 (95% confidence interval [CI] 379-461), which was lower (more apathetic) than the Grade 0 DWML group score of 478 (95% CI 463-492) after adjustment for education as a covariate. SEM showed that the direct paths from DWMLs or education to apathy were significant, and the direct path from apathy to leisure-time activity was highly significant (β = .25, P effects on leisure-time physical activity in community-dwelling elderly subjects. Even a minor level of apathy without major depression would have a significant impact on activities of daily living and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiano, C.M. [United Cerebral Palsy of Nassau County, Roosevelt, NY (United States); Demb, H.B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brown, W.T. [Inst. for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1995-12-04

    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  2. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  3. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  4. Association of leukocyte count and hsCRP with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (CURES - 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, K; Deepa, R; Sampathkumar, R; Balasubramanyam, M; Mohan, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association of leukocyte count and high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP) with metabolic abnormalities in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) (n = 865) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES]. Standard methods were used for assessing hsCRP [Nephelometry, in a subset] and leukocytes [Flowcytometry, Sysmex SF-3000]. Insulin resistance was calculated using the Homeostasis Assessment model (HOMA-IR). Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA IR and hsCRP increased significantly with increasing tertiles of leukocyte count [p for trend leukocyte count and hsCRP showed a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. Leukocyte count showed a positive correlation with hsCRP [p = 0.008]. Both mean leukocyte count [p leukocyte count [p leukocyte count and hsCRP] and MS/cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians even among non-diabetic subjects.

  5. Haptoglobin 2-2 Genotype Is Associated with TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Subjects with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brissia Lazalde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the association between Haptoglobin (HP gene polymorphisms with inflammatory status in obese subjects. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 276 apparently healthy men and nonpregnant obese women were enrolled and allocated according to the HP genotype into the HP1/HP1, HP2/HP1, and HP2/HP2 groups. Distribution of HP genotypes was 49, 87, and 140 for the HP1/HP1, HP2/HP1, and HP2/HP2, respectively. The HP genotype was determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, waist circumference, and total body fat was used to determine the association between HP genotypes with TNF-α, IL-6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels. Results. A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted by sex, waist circumference, and total body fat was performed showing a significant association between the HP2/HP2 genotype and TNF-α (β = 0.180; 95% CI 14.41–159.64, P = 0.01 and IL-6 (β = 0.188; 95% CI 1.53–12.72, P = 0.01 levels, but not with hsCRP (β = −0.008; 95% CI −1.64–1.47, P = 0.914 levels, whereas the HP2/HP1 genotype showed no association compared with the HP1/HP1 genotype (control group. Conclusion. Results of our study show that the HP2/HP2 genotype is associated with elevated TNF-α and IL-6, but not with hsCRP, levels in obese subjects.

  6. Tuberculosis relapse in Vietnam is significantly associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Buu, Tran N.; Tiemersma, Edine; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Dung, Nguyen H.; Kremer, Kristin; Soolingen, Dick V.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with multi-drug resistance and is emerging. A possible explanation for this genotype's success is an increased rate of relapse. In a prospective cohort study, isolates from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis were

  7. Retroaortic left innominate vein - Incidence, association with congenital heart defects, embryology, and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Snehal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective analysis of echocardiograms, the incidence of retroaortic innominate vein was found to be 0.55% amongst children with congenital heart disease. It was most commonly associated with tetralogy of Fallot and right aortic arch.

  8. Acute Exercise in Vietnam Veterans is Associated with Positive Subjective Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Rebecca M

    A person's subjective experience to their first exercise session is likely to influence their long-term adherence to regular exercise. The aim of the current pilot study therefore is to quantify the subjective exercise experience of previously sedentary Vietnam War Veterans undertaking an initial bout of one of three different exercise interventions. Thirty-two Vietnam Veterans presenting with one or more chronic diseases/conditions participated in one of three acute exercise bouts: 1) lower-body vibration, upper-body resistance and stretching (WBVT); 2) lower-body vibration, upper-body resistance, aerobic exercise and stretching (WBVT+CV); and 3) full-body resistance, aerobic exercise and stretching (R+CV). Pre and post acute exercise measures of positive well being, psychological distress and fatigue were assessed with the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES). A 3(conditions) × 2(time) repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD was used to identify any significant differences in SEES between exercise groups and pre and post-exercise. All interventions increased positive well being, with WBVT and R+CV reporting improvements across all areas of the SEES. The WBVT+CV group reported slightly increased psychological distress and the greatest increase in fatigue. An acute bout of exercise increases positive well-being in previously sedentary War Veterans however a longer-duration exercise bout containing multiple exercise modes may be too demanding for this population. Exercise professionals should consider commencing with a simple program to minimise psychological distress and fatigue as this may negatively impact on exercise adherence.

  9. Association between significant decrease in barometric pressure and onset of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E A; Fleschler, R G; Cohen, S M

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether there is any correlation between sudden decrease in barometric pressure and onset of labor, a non-experimental, retrospective study at a 948-bed tertiary care hospital was done. Pregnant patients of 36 weeks gestation or more who presented with spontaneous onset of labor during the 48 hours surrounding the 12 occurrences of significant drop in barometric pressure in 1992 were included in the study. Significantly more occurrences of onset of labor were identified in the 24 hours after a drop in barometric pressure than were identified in the 24 hours prior to the drop in barometric pressure (P barometric pressure.

  10. Tonal association in neutral and subject-narrow-focus sentences in Brazilian Portuguese: a comparison with European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Romani Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description and analysis of the intonational contours of Brazilian Portuguese (BP sentences in neutral and subject-narrow-focus conditions. Making use of the literature on European Portuguese (EP intonation, it also compares BP intonation with the intonation of EP sentences under the same conditions, looking for similarities and differences between the intonational patterns of these two Portuguese varieties. Our results indicate that BP neutral sentences can optionally show pitch accents associated with all prosodic words (ωs. In subject-narrow- focus conditions, the same type of pitch accents that are found associated with non-focused subjects can also be found with focused subjects. In addition, it is also possible to find a phrasal accent associated with the right boundary of the phonological phrase (φ that contains the focused subject. In contrast to BP, in EP neutral sentences, pitch accents are associated with the I-initial and I-final ωs. Furthermore, in this variety, in subject-narrow-focus conditions there is always a special bitonal pitch accent carried by the focused subject and there are no phrasal accents associated with boundaries of the φ that contains the subject.

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  12. Expression of YES-associated protein (YAP) and its clinical significance in breast cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lanqing; Sun, Ping-Li; Yao, Min; Jia, Meng; Gao, Hongwen

    2017-09-09

    The transcriptional co-activator YES-associated protein (YAP) has been reported to act as both an oncogene and tumor suppressor in breast cancers. In this study, we evaluated YAP expression immunohistochemically in 324 breast cancer tissues and correlated the expression with clinicopathological findings and patient survival data. Additionally, we reviewed the literature to clarify the role of YAP in breast cancer. We detected YAP, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2) expression and a Ki67 labeling index >20% in 53.4%, 49.0%, 45.0%, 28.3%, and 57.4% of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues, respectively. YAP is mainly localized within the tumor cell nuclei, and its expression was associated with the PR status and Luminal A subtype. YAP expression also inversely correlated with the HER2 and Ki67 levels and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed associations of YAP expression with favorable disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with Luminal A subtype breast cancer and with favorable DFS association among patients with IDC, Luminal B (HER2-) and Luminal B (HER2+) subtype breast cancers. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that YAP expression and PR status were independent favorable predictors of DFS and OS, respectively, among patients with breast cancer, whereas TNM stage and an old age were independent predictors of a poor DFS. Our results, together with the literature review findings, suggest that YAP could be a prognostic marker in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The ecological significance of biofilm formation by plant-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cindy E; Monier, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria associated with plants have been observed frequently to form assemblages referred to as aggregates, microcolonies, symplasmata, or biofilms on leaves and on root surfaces and within intercellular spaces of plant tissues. In a wide range of habitats, biofilms are purported to be microniches of conditions markedly different from those of the ambient environment and drive microbial cells to effect functions not possible alone or outside of biofilms. This review constructs a portrait of how biofilms associated with leaves, roots and within intercellular spaces influence the ecology of the bacteria they harbor and the relationship of bacteria with plants. We also consider how biofilms may enhance airborne dissemination, ubiquity and diversification of plant-associated bacteria and may influence strategies for biological control of plant disease and for assuring food safety. Trapped by a nexus, coordinates uncertain Ever expanding or contracting Cannibalistic and scavenging sorties Excavations through signs of past alliances Consensus signals sound revelry Then time warped by viscosity Genomes showing codependence A virtual microbial beach party With no curfew and no time-out A few estranged cells seeking exit options, Looking for another menagerie. David Sands, Montana State University, Bozeman, February 2003

  14. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  15. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, W J; Lee, S H; Milaneschi, Y; Abdellaoui, A; Byrne, E M; Esko, T; de Geus, E J C; Hemani, G; Hottenga, J J; Kloiber, S; Levinson, D F; Lucae, S; Martin, N G; Medland, S E; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Noethen, M M; Potash, J B; Rietschel, M; Rietveld, C A; Ripke, S; Shi, J; Willemsen, G; Zhu, Z; Boomsma, D I; Wray, N R; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-06-01

    An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status.

  16. Association between seasonal affective disorder and subjective quality of the sleep/wake cycle in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Erbacci, Alex; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subjective quality of sleep/wake cycle in adolescents was explored. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SPAQ-CA) and Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to 345 adolescents living in the city of Cesena (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) (299 females; age range: 14-18 years), to determine SAD and perceived quality of the sleep/wake cycle. The response rate was 92% for females and 90.2% for males. The MSQ includes two factors, sleep and wake, with lower scores corresponding to a lower quality of sleep and wake. The MSQ includes cut-off criteria to detect a good or bad sleep and wake quality. Adolescents with SAD (16 ± 5.7) scored significantly lower than those not affected on wake factor (19.5 ± 4.3), while no effect has been observed on sleep factor. SAD was the only one significant predictor of good/bad wake quality, while it did not reach significant level with reference to good/bad sleep quality. Present results are indications of a possible influence of SAD on wake quality and further studies are necessary to confirm them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Macêdo Barcelos; Márcia Antoniazi Michelin; Sheila Jorge Adad; Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, A...

  18. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  19. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromium supplementation in non-obese non-diabetic subjects is associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masharani Umesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of chromium supplements is widespread for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus but there are conflicting reports on efficacy, possibly reflecting discrepant effects across different populations. In the present studies, we test the hypothesis that chromium supplementation raises serum chromium levels and correspondingly improves insulin sensitivity. Methods A double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was conducted on 31 non-obese, normoglycemic subjects. After baseline studies, the subjects were randomized to placebo or chromium picolinate 500 μg twice a day. The primary endpoint was change in insulin sensitivity as measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Pre-specified secondary endpoints included fasting lipids, blood pressure, weight, body composition measured by DXA scan. Results After 16 weeks of chromium picolinate therapy there was no significant change in insulin sensitivity between groups (p=0.83. There was, however, a strong association between serum chromium and change in insulin resistance (β = -0.83, p=0.01, where subjects with the highest serum chromium had a worsening of insulin sensitivity. This effect could not be explained by changes in physiological parameters such as body weight, truncal fat and serum lipids with chromium therapy. Conclusions Chromium therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity in non-obese normoglycemic individuals. Further, subjects who have high serum chromium levels paradoxically had a decline in insulin sensitivity. Caution therefore should be exercised in recommending the use of this supplement. Trial registration The study was registered on the NIH registry (clinicaltrials.gov and the identifier is NCT00846248

  1. CCK-4-induced anxiety but not panic is associated with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, E; Tõru, I; Mäemets, K; Sepp, S; Vasar, V; Shlik, J; Zharkovsky, A

    2009-06-01

    Recent animal studies consistently confirm the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of anxiety-related behaviours. The role of BDNF in human anxiety has been less investigated. The aim of our study was to examine the association between serum BDNF levels and panic/anxiety responses to cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) challenge in healthy subjects. BDNF concentrations were detected in serum samples of 37 male and female volunteers before and 120 min after CCK-4 injection. The baseline levels of serum BDNF did not predict the occurrence of CCK-4-induced panic attacks or intensity of panic symptoms and did not significantly change 2 h after the challenge. BDNF serum concentrations 120 min after provocation did not differentiate panickers from non-panickers; however, the subjects reporting stronger anxiety response showed higher levels of BDNF than those with mild anxiety. The anxiety net increase on the Visual Analogue Scale, but not severity of panic symptoms, significantly and positively correlated with the change in BDNF concentration from baseline values. This is the first challenge study to demonstrate a possible impact of BDNF on human anxiety. Our findings suggest a general involvement of BDNF in the regulation of anxiety rather than a specific role of BDNF in disposition to panic attacks.

  2. IS COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING ASSOCIATED WITH SUBJECTIVE QUALITY OF LIFE IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA AND HYDROCEPHALUS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, Hans A.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Verhoef, Marjolein; Gooskens, Rob H. J. M.; Prevo, Arie J. H.

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is associated with subjective quality of life of young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBHC). Design: Cross-sectional multi-centre study in The Netherlands. Subjects: A total of 110 young adults with SBHC (16-25 years old, 63%

  3. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...... of HCG administration and the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH agonists and gonadotrophins for assisted reproduction treatment.Instead, late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration appears to be governed by the number of preovulatory follicles and LH...

  4. Clinical Significance of Tumor-Associated Inflammatory Cells in Metastatic Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Salo, Jill A.; Ji, Lingyun; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Berthold, Frank; Hadjidaniel, Michael; Liu, Cathy Wei-Yao; Metelitsa, Leonid S.; Pique-Regi, Roger; Wakamatsu, Peter; Villablanca, Judith G.; Kreissman, Susan G.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Shimada, Hiroyuki; London, Wendy B.; Sposto, Richard; Seeger, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with metastatic MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma (NBL-NA) are at high risk for disease relapse, whereas those diagnosed at age < 18 months are nearly always cured. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that expression of genes related to tumor-associated inflammatory cells correlates with the observed differences in survival by age at diagnosis and contributes to a prognostic signature. Methods Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in localized and metastatic neuroblastomas (n = 71) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of 44 genes representing tumor and inflammatory cells was quantified in 133 metastatic NBL-NAs to assess age-dependent expression and to develop a logistic regression model to provide low- and high-risk scores for predicting progression-free survival (PFS). Tumors from high-risk patients enrolled onto two additional studies (n = 91) served as independent validation cohorts. Results Metastatic neuroblastomas had higher infiltration of TAMs than locoregional tumors, and metastatic tumors diagnosed in patients at age ≥ 18 months had higher expression of inflammation-related genes than those in patients diagnosed at age < 18 months. Expression of genes representing TAMs (CD33/CD16/IL6R/IL10/FCGR3) contributed to 25% of the accuracy of a novel 14-gene tumor classification score. PFS at 5 years for children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with NBL-NA with a low- versus high-risk score was 47% versus 12%, 57% versus 8%, and 50% versus 20% in three independent clinical trials, respectively. Conclusion These data suggest that interactions between tumor and inflammatory cells may contribute to the clinical metastatic neuroblastoma phenotype, improve prognostication, and reveal novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22927533

  5. Weight loss is associated with plasma free amino acid alterations in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochikubo, O; Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Yoshida, H; Kageyama, N; Miyano, H

    2016-02-29

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, especially in Asian populations. Early detection and effective intervention are vital. Plasma free amino acid profile is a potential biomarker for the early detection for lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about whether the altered plasma free amino acid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome are related to the effectiveness of dietary and exercise interventions. Eighty-five Japanese subjects who fulfilled the Japanese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were enrolled in a 3-month diet and exercise intervention. The plasma free amino acid concentrations and metabolic variables were measured, and the relationships between plasma free amino acid profiles, metabolic variables and the extent of body weight reduction were investigated. Those who lost more than 3% of body weight were compared with those who lost less than 3%. Baseline levels of most amino acids in the subset that went on to lose weight were markedly lower compared with the counterpart, although both groups showed similar proportional pattern of plasma amino acid profiles. The weight loss induced by the diet and exercise intervention normalized plasma free amino acid profiles. For those with a high degree of weight loss, those changes were also associated with improvement in blood pressure, triglyceride and hemoglobin A1c levels. These data suggest that among Japanese adults meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome, baseline plasma free amino acid profiles may differ in ways that predict who will be more vs less beneficially responsive to a standard diet and exercise program. Plasma free amino acid profiles may also be useful as markers for monitoring the risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases and measuring improvement in physiological states.

  6. Association of Vitamin B12 with Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Biochemical Markers Related to Cardiometabolic Risk in Saudi Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population. Methods: A total of 364 subjects (224 children, age: 12.99 ± 2.73 (mean ± SD years; BMI: 20.07 ± 4.92 kg/m2 and 140 adults, age: 41.87 ± 8.82 years; BMI: 31.65 ± 5.77 kg/m2 were studied. Fasting blood, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Serum cytokines were quantified using multiplex assay kits and B12 concentrations were measured using immunoassay analyzer. Results: Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = −0.14, p < 0.05, insulin (r = −0.230, p < 0.01 and HOMA-IR (r = −0.252, p < 0.01 in all subjects. In children, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with serum resistin (r = −0.160, p < 0.01, insulin (r = −0.248, p < 0.01, HOMA-IR (r = −0.261, p < 0.01. In adults, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = −0.242, p < 0.01 while positively associated with resistin (r = 0.248, p < 0.01. Serum resistin was the most significant predictor for circulating vitamin B12 in all subjects (r2 = −0.17, p < 0.05 and in children (r2 = −0.167, p < 0.01 while HDL-cholesterol was the predictor of B12 in adults (r2 = −0.78, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risks in adults. Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 concentrations may lower inflammation-induced cardiometabolic risk in the Saudi adult population.

  7. Generational Association Studies of Dopaminergic Genes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS Subjects: Selecting Appropriate Phenotypes for Reward Dependence Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Fornari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS. RDS results from a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic. Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]. Methodology: We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms. Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Results: Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p < 0.015 more often found in the RDS families vs. controls. The TaqA1 allele occurred in 100% of Family A individuals (N = 32 and 47.8% of Family B subjects (11 of 23. No significant differences were found between the experimental and control positive rates for the other variants. Conclusions: Although our sample size was limited, and linkage analysis is necessary, the results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors. This study shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific

  8. Vitamin D deficiency associates with γ-tocopherol and quadriceps weakness but not inflammatory cytokines in subjects with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Barker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint condition and a leading cause of physical disability in the United States. Quadriceps weakness and inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of knee OA, and both of which, increase with vitamin D deficiency. Other micronutrients, such as vitamins C and E and β-carotene, modulate inflammatory cytokines and decrease during inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency associates with quadriceps weakness, an increase in serum cytokines, and a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with knee OA. Subjects (age, 48±1 y; serum 25(OHD, 25.8±1.1 ng/mL with knee OA were categorized as vitamin D deficient (n=17; serum 25(OHD≤20 ng/mL, insufficient (n=21; serum 25(OHD 20–29 ng/mL, or sufficient (n=18; serum 25(OHD≥30 ng/mL. Single-leg strength (concentric knee extension–flexion contraction cycles at 60 °/s and blood cytokine, carotene (α and β, ascorbic acid, and tocopherol (α and γ concentrations were measured. Quadriceps peak torque, average power, total work, and deceleration were significantly (all p<0.05 impaired with vitamin D deficiency. Serum γ-tocopherol concentrations were significantly (p<0.05 increased with vitamin D deficiency. In the vitamin D sufficient group, γ-tocopherol inversely correlated (r=−0.47, p<0.05 with TNF-α, suggesting a pro-inflammatory increase with a γ-tocopherol decrease despite a sufficient serum 25(OHD concentration. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is detrimental to quadriceps function, and in subjects with vitamin D sufficiency, γ-tocopherol could have an important anti-inflammatory role in a pathophysiological condition mediated by inflammation.

  9. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy. RESULTS: We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency associates with γ-tocopherol and quadriceps weakness but not inflammatory cytokines in subjects with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tyler; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Rogers, Victoria E; Aguirre, Dale; Trawick, Roy H; Lynn Rasmussen, G; Momberger, Nathan G

    2014-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint condition and a leading cause of physical disability in the United States. Quadriceps weakness and inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of knee OA, and both of which, increase with vitamin D deficiency. Other micronutrients, such as vitamins C and E and β-carotene, modulate inflammatory cytokines and decrease during inflammation. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency associates with quadriceps weakness, an increase in serum cytokines, and a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with knee OA. Subjects (age, 48±1 y; serum 25(OH)D, 25.8±1.1 ng/mL) with knee OA were categorized as vitamin D deficient (n=17; serum 25(OH)D≤20 ng/mL), insufficient (n=21; serum 25(OH)D 20-29 ng/mL), or sufficient (n=18; serum 25(OH)D≥30 ng/mL). Single-leg strength (concentric knee extension-flexion contraction cycles at 60 °/s) and blood cytokine, carotene (α and β), ascorbic acid, and tocopherol (α and γ) concentrations were measured. Quadriceps peak torque, average power, total work, and deceleration were significantly (all p<0.05) impaired with vitamin D deficiency. Serum γ-tocopherol concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) increased with vitamin D deficiency. In the vitamin D sufficient group, γ-tocopherol inversely correlated (r=-0.47, p<0.05) with TNF-α, suggesting a pro-inflammatory increase with a γ-tocopherol decrease despite a sufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is detrimental to quadriceps function, and in subjects with vitamin D sufficiency, γ-tocopherol could have an important anti-inflammatory role in a pathophysiological condition mediated by inflammation.

  11. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  12. Exercise and vitamin E intake are independently associated with metabolic abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Alina; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Doweiko, John; Nagy, G Sonia; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Hsu, William; Karchmer, Adolf W; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-06-15

    We investigated the relationship among habitual exercise, diet, and the presence of metabolic abnormalities (body fat redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance) in a cross-sectional study of 120 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with use of bivariate and multivariate regression-analysis models. Total and aerobic exercise were significantly and negatively associated with fasting plasma triglyceride levels in the entire sample and in the fat redistribution group. Inverse associations between total or aerobic exercise and insulin resistance were suggestive but did not achieve statistical significance. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly and inversely associated with supplemental or total but not habitual dietary intake of vitamin E. In conclusion, exercise and vitamin E intake were independently and negatively associated with several phenotypic manifestations of HIV-associated metabolic syndrome, whereas other macro- or micronutrients did not have comparable significance.

  13. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J M; Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Baker, E T; Resing, J A; Walker, S L

    2016-05-09

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 10(5) ± 1.1 10(5 )kg d(-1) which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  14. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  15. Consumption of Red/Processed Meat and Colorectal Carcinoma: Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Significant Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Ulf; Bergman Laurila, Jonas; Grafström, Roland; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology and experimental studies provide an overwhelming support of the notion that diets high in red or processed meat accompany an elevated risk of developing pre-neoplastic colorectal adenoma and frank colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The underlying mechanisms are disputed; thus several hypotheses have been proposed. A large body of reports converges, however, on haem and nitrosyl haem as major contributors to the CRC development, presumably acting through various mechanisms. Apart from a potentially higher intestinal mutagenic load among consumers on a diet rich in red/processed meat, other mechanisms involving subtle interference with colorectal stem/progenitor cell survival or maturation are likewise at play. From an overarching perspective, suggested candidate mechanisms for red/processed meat-induced CRC appear as three partly overlapping tenets: (i) increased N-nitrosation/oxidative load leading to DNA adducts and lipid peroxidation in the intestinal epithelium, (ii) proliferative stimulation of the epithelium through haem or food-derived metabolites that either act directly or subsequent to conversion, and (iii) higher inflammatory response, which may trigger a wide cascade of pro-malignant processes. In this review, we summarize and discuss major findings of the area in the context of potentially pertinent mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned association between consumption of red/processed meat and increased risk of developing CRC.

  16. Physical exercise associated with NO production: Signaling pathways and significance in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yu Dyakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we review available data on nitric oxide (NO-mediated signaling in skeletal muscle during physical exercise. Nitric oxide modulates skeletal myocyte function, hormone regulation, and local microcirculation. Nitric oxide underlies the therapeutic effects of physical activity whereas the pharmacological modulators of NO-mediated signaling are the promising therapeutic agents in different diseases. Nitric oxide production increases in skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. This molecule can alter energy supply in skeletal muscle through hormonal modulation. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue are highly abundant and play a pivotal role in metabolism. Considering NO a plausible regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis that directly affects cellular respiration, we discuss the mechanisms of NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle cells. We also review available data on myokines, the molecules that are expressed and released by the muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects. The article suggests the presence of putative interplay between NO-mediated signaling and myokines in skeletal muscle. Data demonstrate an important role of NO in various diseases and suggest that physical training may improve health of patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure, and even degenerative muscle diseases. We conclude that NO-associated signaling represents a promising target for the treatment of various diseases and for the achievement of better athletic performance.

  17. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with insulin resistance in humans and is regulated by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, or liraglutide administration: cross-sectional and interventional studies in normal subjects, insulin-resistant subjects, and subjects with newly diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Liu, Rui; Li, Shu; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Dongfang; Wang, Yaxu; Xiong, Zhengai; Boden, Guenther; Chen, Shirong; Li, Ling; Yang, Gangyi

    2013-05-01

    Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Previous studies in humans and in rodents have produced conflicting results regarding the link between ZAG and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between ZAG and insulin resistance in cross-sectional and interventional studies. Serum ZAG (determined with ELISA) was compared with various parameters related to insulin resistance in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed in healthy and PCOS women. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of ZAG. The effect of a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist on ZAG was studied in a 12-week liraglutide treatment trial. Circulating ZAG was lower in patients with IGT and newly diagnosed T2DM than in controls. Circulating ZAG correlated positively with HDL cholesterol and adiponectin, and correlated inversely with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). On multivariate analysis, ZAG was independently associated with BMI, HOMA-IR, and adiponectin. ZAG mRNA and protein were decreased in adipose tissue of T2DM patients. Moreover, circulating ZAG levels were lower in women with PCOS than in women with high insulin sensitivity. Liraglutide treatment for 12 weeks significantly increased circulating ZAG levels. We conclude that ZAG may be an adipokine associated with insulin resistance.

  18. Mediating Role of Mindfulness on the Associations of Friendship Quality and Subjective Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Umran; Akin, Ahmet; Uğur, Erol

    2016-10-01

    This research investigated the mediator role of mindfulness on the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Participants were 273 university students (M age = 21 years, SD = 1.1) who completed a questionnaire package that included the Friendship Quality Scale, the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. Both mindfulness and subjective vitality were correlated positively with friendship quality and subjective vitality was correlated positively with mindfulness. Mindfulness mediated the relationship between friendship quality and subjective vitality. Together, the findings illuminate the importance of friendship quality in psychological and cognitive adjustment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system...

  20. Autism-associated gene expression in peripheral leucocytes commonly observed between subjects with autism and healthy women having autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kuwano

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has complex pathobiology with profound influences of genetic factors in its development. Although the numerous autism susceptible genes were identified, the etiology of autism is not fully explained. Using DNA microarray, we examined gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from 21 individuals in each of the four groups; young adults with ASD, age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (ASD control, healthy mothers having children with ASD (asdMO, and asdMO control. There was no blood relationship between ASD and asdMO. Comparing the ASD group with control, 19 genes were found to be significantly changed. These genes were mainly involved in cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and nerve system development and function. In addition, the asdMO group possessed a unique gene expression signature shown as significant alterations of protein synthesis despite of their nonautistic diagnostic status. Moreover, an ASD-associated gene expression signature was commonly observed in both individuals with ASD and asdMO. This unique gene expression profiling detected in peripheral leukocytes from affected subjects with ASD and unaffected mothers having ASD children suggest that a genetic predisposition to ASD may be detectable even in peripheral cells. Altered expression of several autism candidate genes such as FMR-1 and MECP2, could be detected in leukocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ASD-associated genes identified in leukocytes are informative to explore the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental background of ASD and might become potential tools to assess the crucial factors related to the clinical onset of the disorder.

  1. The moderating effect of subjective age on the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hee Yun; Shin, Hye Ri; Park, SeolWoo; Cho, Sung Eun

    2017-10-20

    Depressive symptoms are greatly associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Recent growing body of literature has reported that the subjective perception of one's own age (subjective age) predicts both cognitive performance and mental well-being in old age. This study aims to examine whether subjective age moderates the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in a representative sample of Korean older adults. To address this research question, we employed the Stereotype-Embodiment Theory as a theoretical guide. Data are from the 2016 Dementia Literacy Survey collected by Kyung Hee University, and 526 community-dwelling Korean older adults (ages 60-79) completed the questionnaire about depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and subjective age. According to the hierarchical regression analysis, both higher levels of depressive symptoms and older subjective age were associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Further analyses showed that subjective age attenuated the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning: when older adults have a higher level of depression, those with younger subjective age reported a higher level of cognitive functioning than those with older subjective age. Based on the findings from this study, both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  2. MDS-associated somatic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis are common in idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Brian; Hall, Jeff M; Witte, John S; Xu, Yin; Reddy, Prashanti; Lin, Keming; Flamholz, Rachel; Dabbas, Bashar; Yung, Aine; Al-Hafidh, Jenan; Balmert, Emily; Vaupel, Christine; El Hader, Carlos; McGinniss, Matthew J; Nahas, Shareef A; Kines, Julie; Bejar, Rafael

    2015-11-19

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients suspected of having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be challenging and could be informed by the identification of somatic mutations. We performed a prospective study to examine the frequency and types of mutations encountered in 144 patients with unexplained cytopenias. Based on bone marrow findings, 17% were diagnosed with MDS, 15% with idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS) and some evidence of dysplasia, and 69% with ICUS and no dysplasia. Bone marrow DNA was sequenced for mutations in 22 frequently mutated myeloid malignancy genes. Somatic mutations were identified in 71% of MDS patients, 62% of patients with ICUS and some dysplasia, and 20% of ICUS patients and no dysplasia. In total, 35% of ICUS patients carried a somatic mutation or chromosomal abnormality indicative of clonal hematopoiesis. We validated these results in a cohort of 91 lower-risk MDS and 249 ICUS cases identified over a 6-month interval. Mutations were found in 79% of those with MDS, in 45% of those with ICUS with dysplasia, and in 17% of those with ICUS without dysplasia. The spectrum of mutated genes was similar with the exception of SF3B1 which was rarely mutated in patients without dysplasia. Variant allele fractions were comparable between clonal ICUS (CCUS) and MDS as were mean age and blood counts. We demonstrate that CCUS is a more frequent diagnosis than MDS in cytopenic patients. Clinical and mutational features are similar in these groups and may have diagnostic utility once outcomes in CCUS patients are better understood. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Rajath; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. METHODS: A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine...... need (r = -0.460). Participants with some prosthesis need had significantly lower MNA and GOHAI scores as compared to those with no prosthesis need. Though prosthesis need was high (79.7 %), demand was low (39.3 %). CONCLUSION: Prosthesis need affects nutritional status and OHrQoL in elderly...... clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. RESULTS: Significant associations...

  4. Clinical and prognostic significance of human papillomavirus DNA in the sperm or exfoliated cells of infertile patients and subjects with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Pizzol, Damiano; Moretti, Afra; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Garolla, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in infertile patients and subjects with risk factors. Cross-sectional clinical study. Andrology and microbiology sections at a university hospital. A cohort of 290 subjects: 26 with genital warts, 66 with HPV positive partners, 108 infertile patients, and 90 fertile controls. Semen analysis, sperm culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HPV detection. Statistical analysis was performed with a two-tailed Student's t-test. The prevalence of HPV semen infection found in all groups was as follows: patients with genital warts, 53.8%; infected partners, 40.9%; infertile patients, 10.2%, fertile controls, 2.2%. Infertile patients had a higher HPV DNA prevalence in sperm cells than the other groups. The results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and the results of FISH analysis. Sperm motility was more frequently reduced in infected samples and in particular when the infection was present in the sperm. This study demonstrated a very high prevalence of infection in the semen of patients with risk factors for HPV. In each group of subjects, HPV seems to be preferentially located in sperm or exfoliated cells, with different effects on sperm motility. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence in HIV-infected North American subjects and the impact of allele testing on the incidence of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction in HLA-B*57:01-negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Catherine Butkus; Margolis, David A; Shaefer, Mark S; Ross, Lisa L

    2017-04-11

    The presence of the HLA-B*57:01 allele in HIV-infected subjects is associated with a higher risk of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (ABC HSR). HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence varies in different populations, but HLA-B*57:01 testing with immunological confirmation has had a negative predictive value for ABC HSR between 97 and 100%. In the ASSURE study (EPZ113734), the HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in virologically suppressed, antiretroviral treatment-experienced, HIV-infected subjects from the United States, including Puerto Rico, was assessed. Three hundred eighty-five subjects were screened; 13 were HLA-B*57:01 positive and 372 were negative. Only HLA-B*57:01-negative, abacavir-naive subjects were eligible to enroll into the ASSURE trial. Eleven of the 13 subjects who possessed the HLA-B*57:01 allele were white, the other 2 were African-American. There was no geographic clustering of HLA-B*57:01-positive subjects, and the incidence correlated roughly with those states with the greatest numbers of subjects screened. Similarly, there was no statistically significant correlation between subjects who possessed or lacked the allele and age, gender, ethnicity or CD4+ T-cell numbers. The incidence of ABC HSR following abacavir initiation was also evaluated. Only 1 of 199 HLA-B*57:01-negative subjects (an African-American male) randomized to receive abacavir-containing treatment developed symptoms consistent with suspected ABC HSR; ABC HSR was not immunologically confirmed. These findings confirm the utility of HLA-B*57:01 allele testing to reduce the frequency of ABC HSR. The prevalence of HLA-B*57:01 positivity was higher in white than in African-American subjects. In HLA-B*57:01-negative subjects, suspected ABC HSR is very rare, but should lead to discontinuation of abacavir when ABC HSR cannot be definitively excluded from the differential diagnosis. The ASSURE (EPZ113734) study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov registration on April 8th 2010 and the

  6. High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sugiura

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent epidemiological studies show that high intakes of carotenoids might be useful to maintain bone health, but little is known about the association of serum carotenoids with change of bone mineral density (BMD. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether serum carotenoids are associated with bone loss. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up on 146 male and 99 pre- and 212 post-menopausal female subjects from the Mikkabi study. Those who participated in previous BMD surveys and completed four years of follow-up were examined longitudinally. RESULTS: During a 4-year follow-up, 15 of the post-menopausal female subjects developed new-onset osteoporosis. In contrast, none of the male and pre-menopausal female subjects did. In male and pre-menopausal female subjects, the six serum carotenoids at the baseline were not associated with bone loss. On the other hand, in post-menopausal female subjects, the 4-year bone loss of radius was inversely associated with the serum carotenoid concentrations, especially in β-carotene. After adjustments for confounders, the odds ratios (OR for osteoporosis in the highest tertiles of serum β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin against the lowest tertiles were 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.05-1.21 and 0.07 (CI: 0.01-0.88, respectively. Serum β-cryptoxanthin was also inversely associated with the risk for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis (P for trend, 0.037. In addition, our retrospective analysis revealed that subjects who developed osteoporosis and/or osteopenia during the survey period had significantly lower serum concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene at the baseline than those in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidant carotenoids, especially β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, are inversely associated with the change of radial BMD in post-menopausal female subjects.

  7. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  8. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  9. [The association between subjective symptoms and lifestyle habits among junior high school students a cross-sectional survey in Kumamoto, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junko; Watanabe, Mariko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Nemoto, Asuka; Adachi, Misa; Yokotsuka, Masako; Tango, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between subjective symptoms and lifestyle habits among junior high school students by using a cross-sectional survey. The survey was conducted during May-November 2012. The study subjects were 1229 adolescents (527 boys and 702 girls, age 12-13 years) from 10 junior high schools in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Data from 1182 students (500 boys and 682 girls; response rate 96.2%) were used for the analyses. School nurses measured students' body weights and heights. A self-administered questionnaire examining dietary intake (FFQW82), subjective symptoms (12 items), lifestyle habits (18 items), and diet- and health-related topics (9 items) was used. The 4 categories of each of the 12 subjective symptoms were classified into dichotomous variables (1=always or sometimes; 0=occasionally or never). The subjective symptom score was calculated as a total score by summing up the dichotomous variables for the 12 subjective symptoms. Associations were examined using a chi-square test, Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and a stepwise regression model. The structure of factors was examined by factor analysis (varimax rotation) and associations among the question items were examined by principal component analysis. A significance level of 5% (two-sided) was applied and SAS ver. 9.3 software was used for the analyses. Students' body weights and heights were mostly at or near national averages. The ratio of energy intake at breakfast, lunch, and dinner for the 1-day total energy intake (kcal) was respectively 2:3:4, indicating decreased energy intake at breakfast. The percent energy (%E) from fat of the 1-day total energy intake was 29%E for boys and 30%E for girls. Using regression models, we found that the following lifestyle factors were significantly related to fewer subjective symptoms: "balanced diet," and "sleeping 6 hours or more per day" were for boys and girls, "regularly eating three meals a day," "strong appetite," and

  10. Factors associated with early atherosclerosis and arterial calcifications in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Matteo, Silvia; Caffetto, Katherine; Croci, Marina; Girola, Andrea; Invitti, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, body composition, dietary history, white blood cells count, lipids, uric acid, adiponectin, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. Obese children with carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) values >75° percentile (0.55 mm), compared to those with lower cIMT, were more obese, more often pubertal and had higher prevalence of family history of CV disease (CVD) (P puberty, obesity, and insulin levels, only PAI-I remained significantly different between the two groups (10.9 (7.2-29.8) vs. 6.2 (4.3-10.6) ng/ml, P early arterial diseases in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity, (ii) a PTH rise resulting from a subclinical imbalance in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis may affect the biological process of vascular calcifications.

  11. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  12. More severe hypoxemia is associated with better subjective sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ni; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Liou, Li-Min; Yen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Hsieh, Sun-Wung; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2015-10-12

    Perceived sleep quality may play an important role in diagnosis and therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, few studies have assessed factors that are associated with perceived sleep quality in OSA patients. Hypoxemia depresses the central nervous system and attenuates the perceived respiratory load in asthmatic patients. This study aimed to investigate the factors related to perceived sleep quality, focusing on the role of hypoxemia. Polysomnography studies of 156 OSA patients were reviewed. Traditional polysomnographic parameters, including parameters of oxy-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), were calculated, and the sleep questionnaire and scales were used. Considering the possible pitfalls of absolute values of SpO2 and individualized responses to hypoxemia, the amplitude of desaturation was further computed as "median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2 "and "highest 5 % SpO2 minus median 5 % SpO2". Correlations between these parameters and perceived sleep quality, represented as the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), were performed. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted to investigate the factors associated with the PSQI. Although the PSQI was not correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = -0.113, p = 0.162) and oxygen desaturation index (r = -0.085, p = 0.291), the PSQI was negatively correlated with "median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2" (r = -0.161, p = 0.045). After adjusting for age, total sleep time, the periodic limb movements index, tendency of depression, and the lowest 5 % SpO2, the "median SpO2 minus lowest SpO2" was still a significant predictor for a lower PSQI (β = -0.357, p = 0.015). More severe hypoxemia is associated with better perceived sleep quality among OSA patients. This paradox may be associated with hypoxemia-related impairment of perception. The effect of hypoxemia did not appear to be significant in relatively mild hypoxemia but become significant in severe hypoxemia." Median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2" may also

  13. Association of urgent dental care with subjective oral health indicators and psychosocial impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, L; Jones, K; Spencer, A J; Roberts-Thomson, K F

    2009-06-01

    Pressures on public dental services require new approaches to managing demand. To identify possible predictors of urgency of clinically assessed emergency dental care using self-reported oral health indicators. This study was a prospective study examining associations between patient reports of oral health indicators and psychosocial impact of oral disorders and a clinical determination of a hierarchy of urgency of emergency dental care. The data set comprised a random sample of 839 eligible adults presenting to nine public dental clinics across South Australia and New South Wales for emergency dental care. All participants held a government health concession card and were aged 18+ years and had a minimum of six natural teeth. Significant associations between self-reported oral health indicators and psychosocial impacts and a normative clinical assessment of urgency of emergency dental care were examined by means of binary logistic regression analysis in order to develop prediction models. Prediction of the urgency of emergency dental care was based on the assessment of two models--Model 1: urgency of care = dental care within 48 hours, 2-7 days and 8+ days respectively. For Model 1, difficulty sleeping all the time (OR = 4.8, CI = 3.0-8.0), pain in the jaw when opening wide (OR=2.4, CI=1.6-3.7), having a broken filling (OR = 1.7, C1 = 1.1-2.4), having a loose tooth (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.5-3.8), bleeding gums (OR = 0.7, CI = 0.5-1.0) and being dentally anxious (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.0-2.3) had a statistically significant association with needing to be seen within 48 hours. For Model 2, factors significantly associated with an urgency of care in the period 2-7 days included experience of toothache (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.6-4.3), pain in teeth with hot food or fluids (1.9, CI = 1.2-2.9), bleeding gums (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.3-3.2), having a broken filling (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.2-3.5), difficulty sleeping all the time (OR = 2.9, CI=1.4-6.4), and being concerned about the appearance of teeth

  14. Are changes in conduit artery function associated with intima-medial thickness in young subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nicola Dominique; van den Munckhof, Inge; Thijssen, Dick Henricus Julianus; Tinken, Toni Marie; Cable, Nigel Tim; Stratton, Gareth; Green, Daniel John

    2013-10-01

    Impaired brachial artery endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), provides a strong prognostic index of cardiovascular events in asymptomatic adults and those with cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between FMD and carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT) in young people is unknown. We hypothesized that impaired FMD, and decreased FMD over time, would predict cIMT. FMD and cIMT were assessed using high-resolution Doppler ultrasound in 53 children (18 boys) aged 10.3 ± 0.3 years. FMD was assessed at baseline and 4-month and 30-month follow up. cIMT was assessed at 30-months. There was no significant relationship between FMD measured at baseline (10.7 ± 4.3) and cIMT at 30 months. FMD was depressed at 4 months (7.2 ± 3.5, p < 0.05) and 30 months (8.2 ± 3.3, p = 0.51). However, there was no correlation between changes in FMD and cIMT. Changes in arterial function occurred in young subjects across a 30-month time frame; however, these changes were unrelated to individual differences in cIMT in this cohort. These data contrast with findings in adults and indicate that longer periods of functional impairment may be necessary before atherosclerotic wall thickening becomes apparent in young people, suggesting there is a 'window of opportunity' for preventative intervention strategies.

  15. Factors associated with developing a fear of falling in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sayaka; Yuki, Kenya; Awano-Tanabe, Sachiko; Ono, Takeshi; Shiba, Daisuke; Murata, Hiroshi; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-13

    To investigate the relationship between clinical risk factors, including visual field (VF) defects and visual acuity, and a fear of falling, among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). All participants answered the following question at a baseline ophthalmic examination: Are you afraid of falling? The same question was then answered every 12 months for 3 years. A binocular integrated visual field was calculated by merging a patient's monocular Humphrey field analyzer VFs, using the 'best sensitivity' method. The means of total deviation values in the whole, superior peripheral, superior central, inferior central, and inferior peripheral VFs were calculated. The relationship between these mean VF measurements, and various clinical factors, against patients' baseline fear of falling and future fear of falling was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Among 392 POAG subjects, 342 patients (87.2%) responded to the fear of falling question at least twice in the 3 years study period. The optimal regression model for patients' baseline fear of falling included age, gender, mean of total deviation values in the inferior peripheral VF and number of previous falls. The optimal regression equation for future fear of falling included age, gender, mean of total deviation values in the inferior peripheral VF and number of previous falls. Defects in the inferior peripheral VF area are significantly related to the development of a fear of falling.

  16. Epicardial fat volume is associated with coronary microvascular response in healthy subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Kober, Frank; Jacquier, Alexis; Moro, Pierre Julien; Flavian, Antonin; Quilici, Jacques; Cuisset, Thomas; Simeoni, Umberto; Cozzone, Patrick; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is an active ectopic fat depot, which has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis, and which could early influence endothelial function. We thus investigated the relationship between EF and endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity of the coronary microcirculation, in highly selected healthy volunteers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined by measuring coronary sinus flow with velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T. We measured MBF at baseline and in response to sympathetic stimulation by cold pressor testing (CPT) in 30 healthy volunteers with normal left ventricular (LV) function (age 22 ± 4 years, BMI = 21.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). EF volume was volumetrically assessed by manual delineation on short-axis views. CPT was applied by immersing one foot in ice water for 4 min. Mean EF volume was 56 ± 26 ml and mean LV mass 100 ± 28 g. CPT significantly increased heart rate (HR) by 32 ± 19%, systolic blood pressure by 14 ± 10%, and rate-pressure product by 45 ± 25%, P glycemic parameters. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin and EF volume remained both independently associated with ΔMBF. A high EF amount is associated with a lower coronary microvascular response, suggesting that EF could early influence endothelial function.

  17. Objective and subjective financial burden and its associations with health-related quality of life among lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieling Elaine; Lou, Vivian Weiqun; Jian, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Yan, Meiqiong; Zhu, Jingfen; Li, Guohong; He, Yaping

    2017-11-06

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of financial burden, using objective and subjective indicators, on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in lung cancer patients. A total of 227 patients diagnosed with lung cancer (from the inpatient unit of the department of internal medicine-chest oncology, in Shanghai Chest Hospital, China) participated in the study. Financial information was measured by direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, healthcare-cost-to-income ratio, and perceived financial difficulty. HRQOL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) scale. Catastrophic health spending, defined as a healthcare-cost-to-income ratio of more than 40%, was reported in 72.7% of the participants, whereas 37.0% reported that healthcare costs exceeded annual household income. Financial difficulty was perceived in 83.7% of the participants. Patients whose healthcare costs exceeded their annual household income and who perceived financial difficulty reported a clinically meaningful difference in overall HRQOL (> 6 points on the FACT-L) compared with participants without catastrophic health spending or perceived financial difficulty. Healthcare costs did not show a significant effect on HRQOL. Healthcare costs exceeding total annual household income and perceived financial difficulty are associated with poorer HRQOL in lung cancer patients. Subjective indicator of financial burden has a stronger effect on quality of life than objective indicators. Health-cost-to-income ratio and perceived financial difficulty can be implied as objective and subjective indicators of financial burden to identify the patients who may need additional assistance. Communication on deciding on cost-effective treatments can be facilitated.

  18. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  19. Transcription factor-7-like 2 gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in Tunisian Arab subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Amira; Al-Zaben, Ghadeer S; Mtiraoui, Nabil; Marmmuoch, Hela; Mahjoub, Touhami; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2013-01-25

    Genome-wide association studies validated transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene as confirmed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) susceptibility locus, and an ethnic contribution of TCF7L2 variants to T2DM risk was indicated. The aim of this study was to replicate in a Tunisian Arab population identified associations of common TCF7L2 variants with T2DM. We tested the association of TCF7L2 variants: rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326, and rs12255372, with T2DM in 900 Tunisian patients and 875 control subjects. TCF7L2 genotyping was done by allelic discrimination/real-time PCR method. Minor allele frequencies of rs4506565 (P=2.4×10(-8)), rs7903146 (P=1.2×10(-6)), rs12243326 (P=8.4×10(-8)) and rs12255372 (P=1.1×10(-5)) were significantly higher in cases. The four tested TCF7L2 variants were in linkage disequilibrium, and 4-locus (rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326, rs12255372) haplotype analysis demonstrated that haplotype 1111 was negatively associated (Pc<0.001), while haplotypes 2222 (Pc=0.008) and 2211 (Pc=0.020) were positively associated with T2DM risk, after controlling for a number of covariates. The strong contribution of TCF7L2 gene variants to T2DM among Tunisians is in line with similar findings in other ethnic groups, confirming TCF7L2 as a common T2DM candidate gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Significant association of TREM-1 with HMGB1, TLRs and RAGE in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese diabetic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Pallati, Pradeep K; Sharma, Poonam; Agrawal, Devendra K; Nandipati, Kalyana C

    2017-01-01

    Activated cell surface and intracellular receptors lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Among these receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1, toll like receptors (TLRs), and receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) play a significant role in the induction of inflammatory response in innate immunity. TREM-1 potentially amplifies TLRs and RAGE synergistically with DNA-binding high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1). The objective of the study was to analyze the association between TREM-1/DAP12 and HMGB-1, RAGE and TLRs in obesity-induced insulin resistance. We examined the mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence for TREM-1, TREM-2, DAP-12, HMGB-1, RAGE, TLR-4 and TLR-2 in omentum, subcutaneous and liver biopsy tissues of obese diabetic (n=22) and non-diabetic subjects (n=24) and compared with the non-obese non-diabetic controls (n=5). There was a significantly increased expression of TREM-1, DAP-12, HMGB-1, RAGE, TLR-4 and TLR-2 and decreased expression of TREM-2 in the omentum, subcutaneous and liver biopsy of obese diabetic subjects compared to obese non-diabetics and the non-obese population. Overall, obese diabetic subjects had high expression of TREM-1 in association with HMGB1 (100% vs 58.3%, P=0.003), RAGE (77.3% vs 41.7%, P=0.045), TLR4 (100% vs 58.3%, P=0.003), and TLR2 (100% vs 50%, P=0.003) in liver biopsy samples in comparison to obese non-diabetic subjects. Obese diabetics have significantly increased TREM-1, HMGB1, RAGE, and TLRs compared to obese non-diabetics. Our findings suggest a potential pathophysiological role of TREM-1 in conjunction with HMGB1 and inflammatory cell receptors (RAGE, TLR-4 and TLR-2) in obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  1. Absence of a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between atorvastatin and fenofibrate: A randomized, crossover, study of a fixed-dose formulation in healthy Mexican subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar ePatiño-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing atorvastatin 20 mg, or the combination of atorvastatin 20 mg with fenofibrate 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20 to 50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax were measured for atorvastatin as the reference and atorvastatin and fenofibrate as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals for atorvastatin and fenofibrate combination versus atorvastatin for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95 and 120,97% respectively. These results suggest that atorvastatin and fenofibrate have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction.

  2. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S.; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A.; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity & mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remain less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Methods: Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Results: Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Conclusions

  3. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity& mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remains less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Overall, our review provided mixed

  4. Microvesicle phenotypes are associated with transfusion requirements and mortality in subjects with severe injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Matijevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe injury often results in substantial bleeding and mortality. Injury provokes cellular activation and release of extracellular vesicles. Circulating microvesicles (MVs are predominantly platelet-derived and highly procoagulant. They support hemostasis and vascular function. The roles of MVs in survival after severe injury are largely unknown. We hypothesized that altered MV phenotypes would be associated with transfusion requirements and poor outcomes. Methods: This single-centre study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The study cohort consisted of patients with major trauma requiring blood product transfusion and 26 healthy controls. Plasma samples for MVs were collected upon admission to the emergency department (n=169 and post-resuscitation (n=42, and analysed by flow cytometry for MV counts and cellular origin: platelet (PMV, erythrocyte (RMV, leukocyte (LMV, endothelial (EMV, tissue factor (TFMV, and annexin V (AVMV. Twenty-four hour mortality is the outcome measurement used to classify survivors versus non-survivors. Data were compared over time and analysed with demographic and clinical data. Results: The median age was 34 (IQR 23, 51, 72% were male, Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 19, 36, and 24 h mortality was 13%. MV levels and phenotypes differed between patients and controls. Elevated admission EMVs were found both in survivors (409/µL and non-survivors (393/µL compared to controls (23/µL, p<0.001 and persisted over time. Admission levels of PMV, AVMV, RMV, and TFMV were significantly lower in patients who died compared to survivors, but were not independently associated with the 24 h mortality rate. Patients with low MV levels at admission received the most blood products within the first 24 h. AVMV and PMV levels either increased over time or stabilized in survivors but decreased in non-survivors, resulting in significantly lower levels at intensive care unit admission in non-survivors (1,048 vs

  5. Fatigue in cystic fibrosis: a novel prospective study investigating subjective and objective factors associated with fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, N A; Sequeiros, I M; Patel, P; Bristow, K; Sund, Z

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating symptom in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although fatigue is commonly reported in these patients, an effective treatment for this symptom has not been found. The factors associated with fatigue in CF have not been investigated. We conducted a prospective, case-control study in adult patients with CF. All the patients were chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and were enrolled in the study during disease stability. A gender and age-matched control group was also recruited. Subjective assessment included three questionnaires: the Chalder fatigue questionnaire, St Mary's Hospital sleep questionnaire (SQ), and the scaled general health and Hillier questionnaire (GHQ). For patients with CF, spirometry, body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin level, C-reactive protein, and the burden of pulmonary exacerbations (PExs) were assessed. The control group completed all the three questionnaires, and their BMI was measured. A total of 78 participants were enrolled in the study (44 patients with CF and 34 control). Female patients with CF received antibiotics for more days than male patients with CF. The fatigue score did not differ between female and male participants in either the patients with CF or the control group; however, the fatigue score was greater for both the sexes in the patients with CF compared with the control group: p = 0.038 for female and p = 0.048 for male. The scores for the SQ and the GHQ did not differ between the two study groups. The fatigue score correlated with the total score for SQ (p < 0.0001) in patients with CF, but not in control participants. In patients with CF and the individuals in the control group, a close correlation was found between the fatigue score and the GHQ domain-specific scores and with the total score; p < 0.0001 for patients with CF and p = 0.001 for control. No correlations were found between the fatigue score and any of the objective parameters studied.

  6. Insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria in Korean subjects without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheol Min; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu Beck; Kim, Hyang

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria. However, most studies are done on a background of diabetes or metabolic syndrome and there is little data from general population. The aim of this study is to define the effect of insulin resistance on the development of albuminuria in healthy individuals without diabetes. We analyzed 60,047 participants without baseline diabetes or chronic kidney disease, who underwent at least two health maintenance visits at a 2-year interval between 2002 and 2009 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We measured the incidence of albuminuria at the second examination and calculated the odds ratio for the development of albuminuria according to the quintile of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 2 years, 880 cases of incident albuminuria were observed. The cumulative incidences of albuminuria were 1.08, 1.50, 1.35, 1.47, and 1.92% for the 1st to 5th quintiles of HOMA-IR. On multivariate logistic analysis, the odds ratios for incident albuminuria compared to those in the 1st quintile were 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.73; P=0.006), 1.23 (95% CI 0.97-1.55; P=0.087), 1.32 (95% CI 1.04-1.67; P=0.020), and 1.66 (95% CI 1.31-2.09; Palbuminuria in relatively healthy subjects without diabetes. Further research is needed to verify the role of insulin resistance in the development of albuminuria and renal injury.

  7. The Association between Deliberate Self-harm and College Student Subjective Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J

    2016-03-01

    The association between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and domain-based life satisfaction reports and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was explored simultaneously among college students. Randomly selected participants (N = 723) completed an online survey. Relationships among DSH, 7 life satisfaction domains, and HRQOL (as assessed by mean good physical and mental health days, GHDs) were examined through correlational and general linear modeling procedures with post hoc analyses. DSH was a significant predictor for all life satisfaction domains, overall life satisfaction, and mean GHDs, even after controlling for covariates (p romantic relationships. Lastly, those engaging in DSH experience on average 60 fewer GHDs each year than those not engaging in DSH.

  8. Subjective Sleep Quality in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients and Association with Disease Characteristics and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Zini, Avraham; Zakuto, Avraham; Slutzky, Hulio; Haviv, Yaron; Sharav, Yair; Almoznino, Galit

    2017-01-01

    To measure sleep quality in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, to compare it with that of control subjects, and to analyze its association with disease characteristics and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The collected data included demographics, tobacco use, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), trauma history, presence of coexisting headaches and/or body pain, parafunctional habits, pain scores, muscle tenderness to palpation scores, and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Differences between groups were examined with Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and independent t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for numeric variables. Significant differences were then further tested with multivariate backward stepwise linear regression analysis. The final analysis was performed on 286 individuals (187 TMD patients and 99 controls). Poor sleep (PSQI global score > 5) was exhibited in 43.3% of the TMD group and in 28.3% of the control group (P = .013) (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score = 5.53 ± 2.85 for TMD patients and 4.41 ± 2.64 for controls, P = .001). TMD patients had significantly worse scores in the sleep quality component of the PSQI questionnaire (P = .006). Higher PSQI global scores and poor sleep were positively associated with whiplash history (P = .009 and P = .004, respectively), coexisting headaches (P = .005 and P = .002), body pain (P = .001 and P quality was positively associated with TMD disease characteristics, comorbid pain conditions, and poorer OHRQoL. Assessing sleep quality should be a routine part of the diagnostic work-up of TMD patients. A multidisciplinary management approach is needed to address all the factors-including sleep-that modulate pain experience.

  9. The association between the subjective memory complaints scale and depressive state and cognitive impairment: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Takahashi, Ippei; Sawada, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to discriminate individuals with depressive state from individuals with cognitive impairment among community-dwelling people using the subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. The study group consisted of 289 volunteers (over 60 years old; 104 males and 185 females). Participants' SMCs were assessed using the SMC scale. The Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered. Participants whose Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scores were 16 or higher were defined as the depressive group and participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination scores were less than 24 were defined as the cognitive impairment group. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure of the items of the SMC scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis of the association between depressive state and cognitive impairment and the score of each factor was performed. In the final factor analysis model, six items of the SMC scale remained, and a two-factor structure was adequate. Factor 1 included the items 8, 9, and 10 about thought or the ability to think; thus, Factor 1 was defined as "thought disturbance factor". Factor 2 included the items 1, 2, and 4 about memory or forgetfulness; thus, Factor 2 was defined as "memory disturbance factor". In the multiple logistic regression analysis, Factor 1 was significantly associated with depressive state and Factor 2 was significantly associated with cognitive impairment. For individuals with SMCs, we might be able to discriminate depressive state or depression from cognitive impairment or dementia through a detailed investigation using the SMC scale.

  10. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  11. Hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction associated with physical inactivity in community-dwelling elderly subjects: The Sefuri study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Yuki; Nogami, Kohjiro; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the modifiable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the relationship between physical activity, hippocampal atrophy, and memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). We examined 213 community-dwelling elderly subjects (99 men and 114 women with a mean age of 68.9 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. All participants underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). Physical activities were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We evaluated the degree of hippocampal atrophy (z-score-referred to as ZAdvance hereafter), using a free software program-the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 plus Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through an Exponentiated Lie algebra. Routine magnetic resonance imaging findings were as follows: silent brain infarction, n = 24 (11.3%); deep white matter lesions, n = 72 (33.8%); periventricular hyperintensities, n = 35 (16.4%); and cerebral microbleeds, n = 14 (6.6%). Path analysis based on SEM indicated that the direct paths from leisure-time activity to hippocampal atrophy (β = -.18, p < .01) and from hippocampal atrophy to memory dysfunction (RBMT) (β = -.20, p < .01) were significant. Direct paths from "hippocampus" gray matter volume to RBMT and MMSE were highly significant, while direct paths from "whole brain" gray matter volume to RBMT and MMSE were not significant. The presented SEM model fit the data reasonably well. Based on the present SEM analysis, we found that hippocampal atrophy was associated with age and leisure-time physical inactivity, and hippocampal atrophy appeared to cause memory dysfunction, although we are unable to infer a causal or temporal association between hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction from the present observational study.

  12. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rajath Sasidharan; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena; Shah, Naseem; Kalra, Sandeep; Kumar, Pravesh; Dey, A B

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. Significant associations exist between prosthesis need and age (p = 0.005), MNA (p = 0.006) and GOHAI (p = 0.000). Prosthesis demand too was influenced by age (p = 0.004), posterior occluding pairs (p = 0.000), MNA (p = 0.012) and GOHAI (p = 0.000). GOHAI was negatively correlated with upper (r = -0.445) and lower prosthesis need (r = -0.460). Participants with some prosthesis need had significantly lower MNA and GOHAI scores as compared to those with no prosthesis need. Though prosthesis need was high (79.7 %), demand was low (39.3 %). Prosthesis need affects nutritional status and OHrQoL in elderly, and a wide gap exists between need and want of prosthesis.

  13. Objective and subjective measures of sleepiness, and their associations with on-road driving events in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L; Howard, Mark; Anderson, Clare; Lenné, Michael G; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2013-02-01

    To assess the relationships between sleepiness and the incidence of adverse driving events in nurses commuting to and from night and rotating shifts, 27 rotating and permanent night shift-working nurses were asked to complete daily sleep and duty logs, and wear wrist-activity monitors for 2 weeks (369 driving sessions). During all commutes, ocular measures of drowsiness, including the Johns Drowsiness Scale score, were assessed using the Optalert™ system. Participants self-reported their subjective sleepiness at the beginning and end of each drive, and any events that occurred during the drive. Rotating shift nurses reported higher levels of sleepiness compared with permanent night shift nurses. In both shift-working groups, self-reported sleepiness, drowsiness and drive events were significantly higher during commutes following night shifts compared with commutes before night shifts. Strong associations were found between objective drowsiness and increased odds of driving events during commutes following night shifts. Maximum total blink duration (mean = 7.96 s) during the drive and pre-drive Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (mean = 5.0) were associated with greater incidence of sleep-related events [OR, 5.35 (95% CI, 1.32, 21.60), OR, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.73), respectively]. Inattention was strongly associated with a Johns Drowsiness Scale score equal to or above 4.5 [OR, 4.58 (95% CI, 1.26-16.69)]. Hazardous driving events were more likely to occur when drivers had been awake for 16 h or more [OR, 4.50 (95% CI, 1.81, 11.16)]. Under real-world driving conditions, shift-working nurses experience high levels of drowsiness as indicated by ocular measures, which are associated with impaired driving performance following night shift work. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Does the frequency of participation change after stroke and is this change associated with the subjective experience of participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömer, Anne-Marije V; van Mierlo, Maria L; Visser-Meily, Johanna M; van Heugten, Caroline M; Post, Marcel W

    2015-03-01

    To investigate changes in the frequency of participation 6 months poststroke compared with prestroke; and to establish whether the change is associated with participation restrictions and satisfaction with participation 6 months poststroke. Inception cohort study. Prestroke frequency of participation was measured retrospectively in the first week poststroke. Frequency, participation restrictions, and satisfaction with participation were assessed 6 months poststroke. General hospitals and home residences. Patients with stroke (N=325; 65.5% men; mean age, 66.9±12.2y) admitted to 1 of 6 participating general hospitals. Not applicable. Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (0-100), which consists of 3 scales: frequency, restrictions, and satisfaction. The frequency scale consists of 2 parts: vocational activities (work, volunteer work, education, household activities) and leisure and social activities. Vocational activities showed a large decrease (effect size: 0.6) poststroke; leisure and social activities showed a small decrease (effect size: 0.13) poststroke. In multiple regression analyses, both the frequency of participation in vocational activities 6 months poststroke and the decrease in vocational activities compared with before the stroke were significantly associated with the participation restrictions experienced and satisfaction with participation after controlling for age, sex, level of education, dependency in activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, and presence of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms showed the strongest association with the subjective experience of participation. The frequency of participation decreased after a stroke, and this decrease was associated with participation restrictions experienced and satisfaction with participation. Resuming vocational activities and screening and, if applicable, treatment of depressive symptoms should be priorities in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright

  15. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  16. Event-level associations between objective and subjective alcohol intoxication and driving after drinking across the college years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of subjective symptoms associated with exposure to low levels of formaldehyde between students enrolled and not enrolled in a gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mihoko; Matsumoto, Yuuki; Kushino, Nanae; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-ichi; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate students' subjective symptoms associated with exposure to low levels of formaldehyde (FA) during a gross anatomy course and to survey how the risk of subjective symptoms was affected by exposure to FA. We conducted three questionnaire surveys of 125 students enrolled in an anatomy course (FA exposure group) and 124 students not enrolled in the course (FA nonexposure group) before, during, and 6 months after the course. The questionnaire included questions inquiring about subjective symptoms, sex, age, and allergies. We analyzed differences in the prevalence of subjective symptoms in distinct survey periods. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the subjective symptoms and exposure to FA after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age using multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of some of the ocular, nasal, and nonspecific symptoms in the FA exposure group was low before the course, increased during the course and decreased 6 months after the course. A significant positive relationship was observed between exposure to FA and some symptoms after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age. We identified some concrete symptoms associated with exposure to FA. We suggest that the exposure to low levels of FA influences students' subjective symptoms.

  18. Determining the association of medical co-morbidity with subjective and objective cognitive performance in an inner city memory disorders clinic: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Depeng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical co-morbidity may be associated with impaired cognitive function based on prior studies. However, no studies to date have determined to what extent this association is linked to medical illness or other factors that may be linked to medical illness (such as education, income levels, depression or subjective memory loss. The present study examined how medical co-morbidity, socioeconomic status (defined as residential SES, education and depression are associated with subjective and objective memory function in a sample of patients recruited from a university affiliated Memory Disorders Clinic located in a large Canadian inner city teaching hospital. Methods Data was collected from 85 consecutive referrals to an Inner City Memory Disorders Clinic including socio-demographic characteristics, cognitive status and medical co-morbidity. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Results Impaired objective cognitive function correlated significantly with increased medical co-morbidity and partially with education but not with residential SES or depression. Elevated memory complaints correlated significantly with depression, inversely with residential SES and not at all with medical co-morbidity or education. Conclusions Increased medical co-morbidity is significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance but not with subjective memory complaints in an Inner City Memory Clinic sample.

  19. The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.

  20. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects...... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P pressure...... UAER, fasting insulin level, and 24-h AMBP and a reduced diurnal blood pressure variation. This study indicates that parental type 2 diabetes has an impact on the cardiac autonomic function in nondiabetic subjects....

  1. The significance of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G in non-thrombocytopenic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Mickley, H; Fristed, P

    1985-01-01

    The possible pathogenetic significance of platelet-associated immunoglobulin G in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been studied, using a semiquantitative immunofluorescence technique. The study included 22 patients suffering from SLE during the period 1973-81. Thirteen patients had various...

  2. Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Brunna Cristina Bremer; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Stefanuto, Aliny; Klein, Graziela Alessandra; de Morais, Elayne Cristina; de Andrade, Fernanda; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ingestion of mate tea, with or without dietary intervention, on the markers of oxidative stress in dyslipidemic individuals. Seventy-four dyslipidemic volunteers participated in this randomized clinical trial. Subjects were divided into three treatment groups: mate tea (MT), dietary intervention (DI), and mate tea with dietary intervention (MD). Biochemical and dietary variables were assessed at the beginning of the study (baseline) and after 20, 40, 60, and 90 d of treatment. Participants in the MT and MD groups consumed 1 L/d of mate tea. Those in the DI and MD groups were instructed to increase their intake of fruit, legumes and vegetables and decrease their consumption of foods rich in cholesterol and saturated and trans-fatty acids. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as antioxidant capacity of serum (ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay), uric acid, reduced glutathione, paraoxonase-1 enzyme, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and protein carbonyl were analyzed. Participants in the DI group showed a significant decrease in total fat and saturated fatty acid intakes. Those in the DI and MD groups presented a significant increase in vitamin C consumption. For all groups, there was a significant increase in ferric reducing antioxidant potential and reduced glutathione concentrations but no significant changes in LOOH, protein carbonyl, and paraoxonase-1 values. The reduced glutathione concentration was positively correlated with the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, and vitamin C, whereas levels of LOOH were inversely correlated with intakes of vitamin C and fiber. In addition, LOOH correlated positively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inversely with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which had a positive association with paraoxonase-1. The ingestion of mate tea independently of the dietary intervention increased plasma and blood antioxidant protection in patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright

  3. Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jane Edmonds

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Participants (N=34 undertook a CANTAB battery on two separate occasions after fasting and abstaining from fluid intake since the previous evening. On one occasion they were offered 500 ml water shortly before testing, and on the other occasion no water was consumed prior to testing. Reaction times, as measured by Simple Reaction Time (SRT, were faster on the occasion on which they consumed water. Furthermore, subjective thirst was found to moderate the effect of water consumption on speed of responding. Response latencies in the SRT task were greater under the no water condition than under the water condition, but only for those participants with relatively high subjective thirst after abstaining from fluid intake overnight. For those participants with relatively low subjective thirst, latencies were unaffected by water consumption, and were similarly fast as those recorded for thirsty participants who had consumed water. These results reveal the novel finding that subjective thirst moderates the positive effect of fluid consumption on speed of responding. The results also showed evidence that practice also affected task performance. These results imply that, for speed of responding at least, the positive effects of water supplementation may result from an attenuation of the central processing resources consumed by the subjective sensation of thirst that otherwise impair the execution of speeded cognitive processes.

  4. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2) mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2) range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  5. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretja Schnell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA, targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2 mean = 2.27 days. However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay. The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  6. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  7. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Subjective Well-Being among Individuals from 138 Countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Hoa T; Smith, Michael D; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha

    2017-04-01

    Background: Food insecurity is an aspect of living conditions that is particularly important for quality of life, health, and subjective well-being. The implementation of the 8-item Food Insecurity Experience Scale in 147 countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll provided an unprecedented opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with subjective well-being.Objective: We examined how food insecurity relates with measures of living conditions and how food insecurity and other living conditions relate with physical health and, in turn, subjective well-being.Methods: Data were collected from individuals aged ≥15 y by telephone in 38 countries and via face-to-face interviews in 111 others. The available sample was 132,618 (138 countries) and 122,137 (137 countries) for the daily experience and life evaluation indexes of subjective well-being, respectively. Daily experience was a continuous measure and life evaluation was categorized into thriving, struggling, and suffering. We estimated 6 linear or logistic regression models for each index controlling for country as a fixed effect.Results: Food insecurity was associated with the other 3 measures of living conditions: household income, shelter and housing, and employment. Food insecurity explained poor physical health and lower subjective well-being beyond other measures of living conditions. Instrumental and emotional support was associated with higher subjective well-being. The associations of food insecurity with subjective well-being were larger than with other explanatory variables. Food insecurity was associated with subjective well-being within each of the 4 World Bank income classes of countries, with a larger magnitude of differences for the higher-income classes.Conclusions: Food insecurity was strongly and negatively associated with subjective well-being in a large global sample of individuals aged ≥15 y. These results demonstrate the consistency of goal 2 of the Sustainable Development

  8. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  9. Alcohol-associated acute head trauma in human subjects is associated with early deficits in serum ionized Mg and Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, B M; Memon, Z S; Altura, B T; Cracco, R Q

    1995-01-01

    Acute head trauma (AHT) (caused by motor vehicle accidents that did not produce loss of consciousness or observed brain lesions on CT scan, or falls) was found to result in early (1-8 h after injury) serum deficits in ionized magnesium (IMg2+) and ionized calcium (ICa2+) assessed with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Total Mg (TMg) and other electrolytes as well as serum biochemical analytes were all within the normal reference ranges. AHT patients with acute alcohol intoxication (BAC > or = 150 mg/dl) or alcohol abuse (BAC > 200 mg/dl) demonstrated deficits (15-35% less than normal) in IMg2+, but serum TMg levels were normal as were electrolytes and serum biochemical analytes. AHT patients with alcohol intoxication or alcohol abuse required hospitalization for 1-3 days prior to release, whereas AHT patients without alcohol intoxication were released in less than 24 h. The ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and vascular reactivity, was significantly elevated in AHT patients with alcohol intoxication but not in AHT patients without alcohol intoxication or abuse. These serum divalent cation changes early after traumatic brain injury could be of considerable practicable diagnostic value in the assessment of alcohol-associated head injury. Use of ion-selective electrodes to accurately measure IMg2+ could serve as a logical basis for monitoring the response of the body to AHT.

  10. Association between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy among Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kazunori; Saruwatari, Junji; Miyagawa, Haruna; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Oniki, Kentaro; Sakata, Misaki; Kajiwara, Ayami; Yoshida, Akira; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2013-09-13

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies reactive aldehydes in the micro- and macrovasculature. These substrates, including methylglyoxal and 4-hydroxynonenal formed from glucose and lipids, cause protein carbonylation and mitochondrial dysfunction, forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study aimed to confirm the association between the inactive ALDH2*2 allele and diabetic retinopathy (DR). A retrospective longitudinal analysis was conducted, among 234 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (156 males and 78 females) who had no DR signs at baseline and were treated for more than half a year. The ALDH2*1/*2 alleles were determined using a real-time TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) for the cumulative incidence of the development of DR were examined using a Cox proportional hazard model, taking drinking habits and the serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level into consideration. The frequency of the ALDH2*2 allele was 22.3%. Fifty-two subjects cumulatively developed DR during the follow-up period of 5.5 ± 2.5 years. The ALDH2*2 allele carriers had a significantly higher incidence of DR than the non-carriers (HR: 1.92; P = 0.02). The incidence of DR was significantly higher in the drinkers with the ALDH2*2 allele than in those with the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype (HR: 2.61; P = 0.03), while the incidence of DR in the non-drinkers did not differ significantly between the ALDH2 genotype groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of DR was significantly higher in the ALDH2*2 allele carriers with a high GGT level than in the non-carriers with a high or low GGT level (HR: 2.45; P = 0.03; and HR: 2.63; P = 0.03, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a significant association between the ALDH2*2 allele and the incidence of DR. These findings provide additional evidence that ALDH2 protects both microvasculature and

  11. Older age is associated with peripheral blood expansion of naïve B cells in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Van Epps

    Full Text Available Older HIV infected subjects were previously found to have significant B cell expansion during initial antiretroviral therapy in a prospective age-differentiated cohort of older and younger (≥45 vs. ≤30 years HIV-infected subjects initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART through the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Here to further describe this expansion, using a subset of subjects from the same cohort, we characterized B cell phenotypes at baseline and after 192 weeks of ART in both older and younger HIV-infected groups and compared them to uninfected age-matched controls. We also examined whether phenotypes at baseline associated with response to tetanus and hepatitis A vaccine at 12 weeks. Forty six subjects were analyzed in the HIV infected group (21 older, 25 younger and 30 in the control group (15 per age group. We observed naïve B cells to normalize in younger subjects after 192 weeks of ART, while in older subjects naïve B cells increased to greater levels than those of controls (p = 0.045. Absolute resting memory (RM cell count was significantly lower in the older HIV infected group at baseline compared to controls and numbers normalized after 192 weeks of ART (p<0.001. Baseline RM cell count positively correlated with week 12 increase in antibody to tetanus vaccine among both younger and older HIV-infected subjects combined (p = 0.01, but not in controls. The age-associated naïve B cell expansion is a novel finding and we discuss several possible explanations for this observation. Relationship between RM cells at baseline and tetanus responses may lead to insights about the effects of HIV infection on B cell memory function and vaccine responses.

  12. The antibiotic resistome of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Sangwan, Naseer; Li, Hong-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Oyang, Wei-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ping, Fan; Zhang, Han-Luo

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics as veterinary feed additives is potentially contributing to a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance in agricultural farmlands via the application of antibiotic-contaminated manure. Vermicomposting of swine manure using housefly larvae is a promising biotechnology for waste reduction and control of antibiotic pollution. To determine how vermicomposting influences antibiotic resistance traits in swine manure, we explored the resistome and associated bacterial community dynamics during larvae gut transit over 6 days of treatment. In total, 94 out of 158 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were significantly attenuated (by 85%), while 23 were significantly enriched (3.9-fold) following vermicomposting. The manure-borne bacterial community showed a decrease in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically Ignatzschineria, following gut transit. ARG attenuation was significantly correlated with changes in microbial community succession, especially reduction in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. Six genomes were assembled from the manure, vermicompost (final product) and gut samples, including Pseudomonas, Providencia, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Alcanivorax. Transposon-linked ARGs were more abundant in gut-associated bacteria compared with those from manure and vermicompost. Further, ARG-transposon gene cassettes had a high degree of synteny between metagenomic assemblies from gut and vermicompost samples, highlighting the significant contribution of gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer to the resistome of vermicompost. In conclusion, the larvae gut microbiome significantly influences manure-borne community succession and the antibiotic resistome during animal manure processing. PMID:27458785

  13. Significant association between renal function and amyloid-positive area in renal biopsy specimens in AL amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis that often affects the kidney including proteinura, and elevated serum creatinine (Cr). The correlation between amount of amyloid deposits and clinical parameters is not known. The aim of this study was to clarify correlation the amyloid area in all renal biopsy specimen and clinical parameters. Methods Fifty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of AL amyloidosis participated in the study. All patients showed amyloid deposits in renal biopsies. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data and amyloid occupied area in whole renal biopsy specimens. Results The area occupied by amyloid was less than 10% in 57 of the 58 patients, and was under 2% in 40. For statistical analyses, %amyloid-positive areas were transformed to common logarithmic values (Log10%amyloid). Cr showed significant correlation with Log10%amyloid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) showed the significant negative correlation. Patient age, cleatinine clearance (Ccr), blood urea nitorogen, and urinary protein was not significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. The correlation with other clinical factors such as sex, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, compliments was evaluated. None of these factors significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. According to sex- and age- adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, Log10%amyloid had significant positive association with Cr and significant negative association with eGFR. Conclusion There is significant association between amyloid-positive area in renal tissue and renal function, especially Cr and eGFR. The level of Cr and eGFR may be a marker of amount of amyloid in renal tissue. PMID:23006903

  14. Significant association between renal function and amyloid-positive area in renal biopsy specimens in AL amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis that often affects the kidney including proteinura, and elevated serum creatinine (Cr. The correlation between amount of amyloid deposits and clinical parameters is not known. The aim of this study was to clarify correlation the amyloid area in all renal biopsy specimen and clinical parameters. Methods Fifty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of AL amyloidosis participated in the study. All patients showed amyloid deposits in renal biopsies. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data and amyloid occupied area in whole renal biopsy specimens. Results The area occupied by amyloid was less than 10% in 57 of the 58 patients, and was under 2% in 40. For statistical analyses, %amyloid-positive areas were transformed to common logarithmic values (Log10%amyloid. Cr showed significant correlation with Log10%amyloid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR showed the significant negative correlation. Patient age, cleatinine clearance (Ccr, blood urea nitorogen, and urinary protein was not significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. The correlation with other clinical factors such as sex, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, compliments was evaluated. None of these factors significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. According to sex- and age- adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, Log10%amyloid had significant positive association with Cr and significant negative association with eGFR. Conclusion There is significant association between amyloid-positive area in renal tissue and renal function, especially Cr and eGFR. The level of Cr and eGFR may be a marker of amount of amyloid in renal tissue.

  15. Clinically significant fatigue: prevalence and associated factors in an international sample of adults with multiple sclerosis recruited via the internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J Weiland

    Full Text Available Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS. Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors.To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS.PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate.Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6% completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7-67.7 screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil.This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this sample may help clarify the contribution

  16. Hemizygous Deletion on Chromosome 3p26.1 Is Associated with Heavy Smoking among African American Subjects in the COPDGene Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdouse Begum

    Full Text Available Many well-powered genome-wide association studies have identified genetic determinants of self-reported smoking behaviors and measures of nicotine dependence, but most have not considered the role of structural variants, such as copy number variation (CNVs, influencing these phenotypes. Here, we included 2,889 African American and 6,187 non-Hispanic White subjects from the COPDGene cohort (http://www.copdgene.org to carefully investigate the role of polymorphic CNVs across the genome on various measures of smoking behavior. We identified a CNV component (a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 3p26.1 associated with two quantitative phenotypes related to smoking behavior among African Americans. This polymorphic hemizygous deletion is significantly associated with pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day among African American subjects in the COPDGene study. We sought evidence of replication in African Americans from the population based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. While we observed similar CNV counts, the extent of exposure to cigarette smoking among ARIC subjects was quite different and the smaller sample size of heavy smokers in ARIC severely limited statistical power, so we were unable to replicate our findings from the COPDGene cohort. But meta-analyses of COPDGene and ARIC study subjects strengthened our association signal. However, a few linkage studies have reported suggestive linkage to the 3p26.1 region, and a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS have reported markers in the gene (GRM7 nearest to this 3p26.1 area of polymorphic deletions are associated with measures of nicotine dependence among subjects of European ancestry.

  17. Associations of Sexual Subjectivity with Global and Sexual Well-Being: A New Measure for Young Males and Comparison to Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; French, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Sexual subjectivity refers to multiple aspects of sexual self-perceptions, including sexual body-esteem, perceptions of efficacy and entitlement to sexual desire and pleasure, and sexual self-reflection (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2006). Previous research on sexual subjectivity has shown that it is elevated in young women who report better global well-being and have more sexual experience. However, research has not focused on young men. Thus, two studies were conducted to develop a new measure to assess young men's sexual subjectivity (Study 1, N = 304 men) and to examine associations of sexual subjectivity with general and sexual well-being among young men and women (Study 2, N = 208 men and 214 women). In Study 1, five elements of men's sexual subjectivity were found, which paralleled the elements found in previous research with young women. In Study 2, sexual subjectivity, especially two elements of sexual body-esteem and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, was significantly associated with enhanced global and sexual well-being in both men and women. Gender did not moderate these associations, supporting sexual subjectivity as an aspect of sexual health in all young adults. As anticipated, men reported greater entitlement to self-pleasure and self-efficacy in achieving pleasure, but women reported greater entitlement to pleasure with partners. Women's feelings of less efficacy but more entitlement to pleasure with partners suggest that feelings of entitlement may not be consistent with their experiences. Future research with young men and women will be important for understanding sexual health and development during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  18. Psychological factors are associated with subjective cognitive complaints 2 months post-stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Britta; van Heugten, Caroline M.; van Mierlo, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480856; Post, Marcel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137146426; de Kort, Paul L M; Visser-Meily, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180428047

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which psychological factors are related to post-stroke subjective cognitive complaints, taking into account the influence of demographic and stroke-related characteristics, cognitive deficits and emotional problems. In this cross-sectional study, 350 patients

  19. False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

  20. Frequency of Acentric Fragments Are Associated with Cancer Risk in Subjects Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fucic, A.; Bonassi, S.; Gundy, S.; Šrám, Radim; Ceppi, M.; Lucas, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2016), s. 2451-2457 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : ionizing radiation * cancer risk * acentric fragments * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.937, year: 2016

  1. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (Pautism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Subjective Memory with Memory Performance and Depressive Symptoms: Between-Person and Within-Person Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to nine waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and 0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one’s own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. PMID:25244464

  3. No significant association of the 5' end of neuregulin 1 and schizophrenia in a large Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingason, Andrés; Søeby, Karen; Timm, Sally

    2006-01-01

    schizophrenia patients. We found that the at-risk haplotype initially reported in the Icelandic population was not found in significant excess (or = 1.4, p = 0.12). The haplotype structure in the Danish sample was similar to that of other reported in other Caucasian populations and highly different from......Neuregulin 1 has been implicated as a susceptibility gene in schizophrenia. Several research groups have reported association with the 5' end of the gene although no causative variant has been reported. We have investigated whether there is association with the 5' end of the gene in Danish...

  4. Exercise significantly increases plasma adrenaline and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in normal healthy subjects but not in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ito, Tomoyuki; Umemoto, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Keiko; Kinoshita, Tokio; Nakagawa, Masafumi; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2012-04-01

    To compare plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and adrenaline during exercise between persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals. Randomized controlled study. Human laboratory at a medical university. Persons with SCI (n=7) and AB individuals (n=9). Two-hour arm crank ergometer exercise at 60% maximum oxygen consumption. Plasma oxLDL and adrenaline levels. Exercise significantly increased plasma adrenaline levels in AB persons (mean ± SD: rest, 45.4±32.2 pg/mL; exercise, 200.9±113.7 pg/mL; Pplasma oxLDL levels in AB persons (mean ± SD: rest, 102.2±30.2 U/L; exercise, 179.7±60.0 U/L; Pplasma adrenaline levels during exercise contribute to the increase in plasma oxLDL levels. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shweta; Mhapuskar, Amit; Hiremutt, Darshan; Giroh, Versha R; Kalyanpur, Kedarnath; Alpana, K R

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender. The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients. The location of the representation of the mental foramen was traced. Measurements for evaluating distance of superior and inferior borders of the foramen in relation to the lower border of the mandible were made using the reference lines drawn from anatomical landmarks. The data so obtained were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The most common position of mental foramen among Pune population in horizontal plane in both male and female patients was in line with second premolar followed by position in between first and second premolar, whereas in the vertical plane, most common position was at or in line with apex of second premolar followed by in between apex of first and second premolar. The variation in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender was found to be significant, with p-value forensic identification of gender.

  6. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  7. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted ...

  8. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Turley (Patrick); M. Nivard (Michel); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); J. Derringer; J. Gratten (Jacob); J.J. Lee (James J.); Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer); Buchwald, J. (Jadwiga); A. Cavadino (Alana); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis C.); Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A); Garfield, V. (Victoria); Geisel, M.H. (Marie Henrike); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); R. Karlsson (Robert); Der Laan, S.W. (Sander Wvan); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Liu, T. (Tian); Matteson, L. (Lindsay); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); CMinica, C. (Camelia); MNolte, I. (Ilja); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); Y. Qian (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); R. Rawal (R.); A. Realo; Rueedi, R. (Rico); Schmidt, B. (Börge); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); E. Stergiakouli (Evangelia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Wedenoja, J. (Juho); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); MWillems, S. (Sara); Zhao, W. (Wei); L.C. Study (LifeLines Cohort); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); Cherney, S. (Samantha); Cox, S.R. (Simon R); G. Davies (Gail); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); J. Ding (Jun); N. Direk (Nese); Eibich, P. (Peter); R. Emeny (Rebecca); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); J.D. Faul; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); C. Gieger (Christian); Gupta, R. (Richa); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); J.M. Harris (Juliette); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); M. Kaakinen (Marika); E. Kajantie (Eero); Karhunen, V. (Ville); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kumari (Meena); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L. Franke (Lude); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); Koini, M. (Marisa); A. Loukola (Anu); P. Marques-Vidal; G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M. Mosing (Miriam); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); Pulkki-R'back, L. (Laura); L. Quaye (Lydia); R'ikkönen, K. (Katri); I. Rudan (Igor); R. Scott (Rodney); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A.R. Sutin; Trzaskowski, M. (Maciej); Vinkhuyze, A.E. (Anna E.); L. Yu (Lei); D. Zabaneh (Delilah); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Snieder (Harold); Chang, S.-C. (Shun-Chiao); F. Cucca (Francesco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); U. Bültmann (Ute); E.J. Geus (Eeco); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T. Hansen (T.); Hartman, C.A. (Catharine A); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.A. Hinds (David A.); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); Keltikangas-J'rvinen, L. (Liisa); P. Kraft (Peter); Kubzansky, L.D. (Laura D.); Lehtim'ki, T. (Terho); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Mills (Melinda); R. de Mutsert (Reneé); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); R. Plomin (Robert); O. Polasek (Ozren); C. Power (Christopher); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Svento (Rauli); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); DSpector, T. (Tim); Steptoe, A. (Andrew); A. Terracciano; A.R. Thurik (Roy); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Wagner, G.G. (Gert G.); D.R. Weir (David); J. Yang (Joanna); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); M. Johannesson (Magnus); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Esko, T. (T'nu); R.F. Krueger; J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); M. Bartels (Meike); D. Cesarini (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data.

  9. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  10. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conduct...

  11. Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate exposure and association with iron homeostasis and other biological functions among NHANES 2005-2008 subjects Schreinemachers DM, Ghio AJ, Cascio WE, Sobus JR. U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA Perchlorate (ClO4-), an environmental pollutant, is a known thyroid toxicant and...

  12. Altered intrinsic hippocmapus declarative memory network and its association with impulsivity in abstinent heroin dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tian-Ye; Shao, Yong-Cong; Xie, Chun-Ming; Ye, En-Mao; Zou, Feng; Fu, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zheng-Guo; Li, Shi-Jiang; Yang, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Converging evidence suggests that addiction can be considered a disease of aberrant learning and memory with impulsive decision-making. In the past decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that drug addiction is involved in multiple memory systems such as classical conditioned drug memory, instrumental learning memory and the habitual learning memory. However, most of these studies have focused on the contributions of non-declarative memory, and declarative memory has largely been neglected in the research of addiction. Based on a recent finding that hippocampus, as a core functioning region of declarative memory, was proved biased the decision-making process based on past experiences by spreading associated reward values throughout memory. Our present study focused on the hippocampus. By utilizing seed-based network analysis on the resting-state functional MRI datasets with the seed hippocampus we tested how the intrinsic hippocampal memory network altered toward drug addiction, and examined how the functional connectivity strength within the altered hippocampal network correlated with behavioral index 'impulsivity'. Our results demonstrated that HD group showed enhanced coherence between hippocampus which represents declarative memory system and non-declarative reward-guided learning memory system, and also showed attenuated intrinsic functional link between hippocampus and top-down control system, compared to the CN group. This alteration was furthered found to have behavioral significance over the behavioral index 'impulsivity' measured with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). These results provide insights into the mechanism of declarative memory underlying the impulsive behavior in drug addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes in Iranian Subjects: No Association with Observed SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Neyestani, Tirang R; Djazayery, Abolghassem

    2017-02-10

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene in Iranian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Overall, 730 Iranian subjects (372 patients and 358 controls) were enrolled in this case-control study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The statistical difference in genotype distribution among the groups was assessed by χ2 test. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for the association of the genotype frequencies in different groups with the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The most common genotypes for BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, and FokI were Bb, Aa, TT, and FF, respectively. Adjusted χ2 test revealed that there was no difference between the groups in the genotypes frequencies of 4 vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes subjects. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes subjects with Tt genotype presented a signifi cantly higher fasting blood glucose than those with TT and tt genotypes in TaqI polymorphisms (p = 0.009). Logistic regression showed no association between metabolic syndrome risk and vitamin D receptor genotypes. We found no evidence for the association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Iranian subjects. Further examinations using genome-wide association in large prospective cohort studies are warranted.

  14. Painful Intercourse Is Significantly Associated with Evoked Pain Perception and Cognitive Aspects of Pain in Women with Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.

  15. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  16. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-09-22

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus x B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and associated genotypes prove more

  17. Subjective memory complaints are associated with brain activation supporting successful memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jessica M; Tang, Lingfei; Viviano, Raymond P; van Rooden, Sanneke; Ofen, Noa; Damoiseaux, Jessica S

    2017-12-01

    Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints. Older adults with memory complaints, compared to those without, showed lower subsequent memory effects in the occipital lobe, superior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, older adults with more memory complaints showed a more negative subsequent memory effects in areas of the default mode network, including the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that for successful memory formation, older adults with subjective memory complaints rely on distinct neural mechanisms which may reflect an overall decreased task-directed attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression Profiles of Bovine Adeno-Associated Virus and Avian Adeno-Associated Virus Display Significant Similarity to That of Adeno-Associated Virus Type 5

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Jianming; Cheng, Fang; Pintel, David J.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first detailed expression profiles of nonprimate-derived adeno-associated viruses, namely, bovine adeno-associated virus (B-AAV) and avian adeno-associated virus (A-AAV), which were obtained after the infection of cell lines derived from their natural hosts. In general, the profiles of B-AAV and A-AAV were quite similar to that of AAV5; however, both exhibited features found for AAV2 as well. Like adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5), B-AAV and A-AAV utilized an internal polyad...

  19. Somatic Complaints Are Significantly Associated with Chronic Uninvestigated Dyspepsia and Its Symptoms: A Large Cross-sectional Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Payman

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Somatization may influence persistence and severity of symptoms in gastrointestinal diseases. Some studies suggest that somatization is associated with chronic uninvestigated dyspepsia (CUD); however, the association is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between the profiles of somatic complaints with CUD and its symptoms. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted on 4763 Iranian adults, somatic complaints were assessed using a comprehensive 31-items questionnaire. Patients with CUD were identified by the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Profiles of somatic complaints were derived from factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between extracted profiles with CUD and its symptoms. Results CUD, bothersome postprandial fullness, early satiation, and epigastric pain or burning was identified in 723 (15.2%), 384 (8.1%), 302 (6.3%), and 371 (7.8%) of the study population. The frequency of all 31 somatic complaints was significantly higher in patients with CUD compared with controls (P < 0.001), and the most frequent was severe fatigue (45.1%). The profiles of somatic complaints were extracted in 4 domains, including “psychological”, “gastrointestinal”, “neuro-skeletal”, and “pharyngeal-respiratory”. The psychological (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.44–1.54), gastrointestinal (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.09–2.37), neuro-skeletal (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.44–1.59), and pharyngeal-respiratory (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.94–2.25) profiles were significantly associated with greater odds of CUD. Conclusions CUD and its symptoms are strongly associated with higher levels of somatic complaints and their related extracted profiles. This perhaps explains that why it can be difficult to treat, however further prospective investigations are required to confirm these associations. PMID:27503912

  20. Independent self-construal mediates the association between CYP19A1 gene variant and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Yang, Yafang; Xue, Mengying; Fang, Pengpeng; Shen, Guomin; Zhang, Kejin; Gao, Xiaocai; Yu, Rongjun; Gong, Pingyuan

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol. In study 2, an empirical study of individuals with the GG (n=115), AG (n=286) and AA (n=193) genotypes indicated that individuals with the GG genotype exhibited higher independent self-construal and higher subjective well-being. The association between the GG genotype of CYP19A1 Val80 and subjective well-being was mediated by the independent self-construal. Our findings reinforce the idea that personality traits such as independent self-construal explain the link between genetic variant and subjective well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant association of deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and high homocysteine level with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wu, Yang-Che; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-04-01

    A portion of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) may have nutritional deficiency. This study evaluated whether there was an intimate association of the deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and high blood homocysteine level with RAS. The blood hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine concentrations in 273 RAS patients were measured and compared with the corresponding levels in 273 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We found that 57 (20.9%), 55 (20.1%), 13 (4.8%), and 7 (2.6%) RAS patients had deficiencies of hemoglobin (Men < 13 g/dl, Women < 12 g/dl), iron (<60 μg/dl), vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and folic acid (<4 ng/ml), respectively. Moreover, 21 (7.7%) RAS patients had abnormally high blood homocysteine level. RAS patients had a significantly higher frequency of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid deficiency and of abnormally elevated blood homocysteine level than healthy control subjects (all P-values = 0.000 except for folic acid P = 0.022). If 273 RAS patients were further divided into 32 patients with major-typed RAS (MjRAS) and 241 patients with minor-typed RAS (MiRAS), we found that male MjRAS patients had a significantly lower mean hemoglobin concentration than MiRAS patients (P = 0.021), but MjRAS patients had a significantly higher mean homocysteine level than MiRAS patients (P = 0.000). We conclude that there is a significant association of deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and abnormally high blood homocysteine level with RAS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genome-wide significant associations in schizophrenia to ITIH3/4, CACNA1C and SDCCAG8, and extensive replication of associations reported by the Schizophrenia PGC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamshere, M L; Walters, J T R; Smith, R

    2013-01-01

    -locus tests suggested some SNPs that did not do so represented true associations. We tested 78 of the 81 SNPs in 2640 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia attending a clozapine clinic (CLOZUK), 2504 cases with a research diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and 2878 controls. In CLOZUK, we......The Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC) highlighted 81 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with moderate evidence for association to schizophrenia. After follow-up in independent samples, seven loci attained genome-wide significance (GWS), but multi...... obtained significant replication to the PGC-associated allele for no fewer than 37 (47%) of the SNPs, including many prior GWS major histocompatibility complex (MHC) SNPs as well as 3/6 non-MHC SNPs for which we had data that were reported as GWS by the PGC. After combining the new schizophrenia data...

  3. The relationship between faecal-associated and mucosal-associated microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangel, I.; Sundin, J.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Repsilber, D.; Vos, de W.M.; Brummer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The faecal-associated microbiota is commonly seen as a surrogate of the mucosal-associated microbiota. However, previous studies indicate that they are different. Furthermore, analyses of the mucosal microbiota are commonly done after standard bowel cleansing, affecting the microbial

  4. Lack of association between serum syndecan-4, myocardial fibrosis and ventricular dysfunction in subjects with chronic Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Ticiana Ferreira; Macêdo, Carolina Thé; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia; Lemos Correia, Luís Cláudio; Moreira, Moisés Imbassahy; Caldas, Alessandra Carvalho; Torreão, Jorge Andion; Souza, Bruno Solano de Freitas; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Carvalho da Silva, Alexandre Schaer; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Syndecan-4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Increased syndecan-4 levels were previously detected after acute myocardial infarction and in subjects with heart failure. However, the levels of syndecan-4 in subjects with Chagas disease have not so far been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of serum sydencan-4 as a novel biomarker for myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in subjects with Chagas disease. This study comprised subjects with Chagas disease (n = 56), being 14 (25%) with the indeterminate form, 16 (29%) with the cardiac form without ventricular dysfunction, and 26 (46%) with the cardiac form with ventricular dysfunction. Syndecan-4 serum concentrations did not correlate with presence or absence of myocardial fibrosis (P = 0.386) nor disease severity in subjects with Chagas disease (P = 0.918). Additionally, no correlation was found either between the degree of myocardial fibrosis and serum syndecan-4 [r = 0.08; P = 0.567] or between left ventricular ejection fraction and syndecan-4 [r = 0.02; P = 0.864]. In contrast, NT-proBNP levels correlated with ejection fraction and myocardial fibrosis. Our results demonstrate the lack of correlations between serum syndecan-4, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in subjects with Chagas disease. Further studies are required to show if syndecan-4 concentrations can be marker for prognosis assessment or disease progression.

  5. Association between circulating leukocyte subtype counts and carotid intima-media thickness in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background An increased leukocyte count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, but the association between leukocyte subtype counts and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes has not been determined. We therefore investigated the correlation between leukocyte subtype counts and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 484 in-patients with type 2 diabetes (282 males and 202 females), who were hospitalized for glycemic control and underwent carotid ultrasonography at Kumamoto University Hospital between 2005 and 2011. Mean and maximum CCA-IMT was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Results Univariate analyses revealed that mean CCA-IMT was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV), urinary albumin excretion and duration of diabetes, but was negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose. Maximum CCA-IMT was positively and negatively correlated with the same factors as mean CCA-IMT except for fasting plasma glucose. Mean CCA-IMT was positively correlated with total leukocyte (r = 0.124, p = 0.007), monocyte (r = 0.373, p leukocyte (r = 0.154, p < 0.001), monocyte (r = 0.398, p < 0.001), neutrophil (r = 0.152, p < 0.001) and basophil counts (r = 0.102, p = 0.027). Multiple regression analyses showed that monocyte count, age and PWV were significant and independent factors associated with mean CCA-IMT (adjusted R2 = 0.239, p < 0.001), and that monocyte count, age and urinary albumin excretion were significant and independent factors associated with maximum CCA-IMT (adjusted R2 = 0.277, p < 0.001). Conclusions Monocyte counts were positively correlated with both mean CCA-IMT and maximum CCA-IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes. Monocyte count may be a useful predictor of

  6. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shiang Chu

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  8. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  9. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  10. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Davies, Gail; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Miller, Michael B; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Bergmann, Sven; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Liewald, David C; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  11. Increased reactive oxygen metabolites is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular endothelial damage in middle-aged Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiura T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Sugiura1, Yasuaki Dohi1, Hiroyuki Takase2, Sumiyo Yamashita1, Satoru Tanaka1, Genjiro Kimura11Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Enshu Hospital, Hamamatsu, JapanBackground: Vascular endothelium, a provider of nitric oxide, is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in healthy vascular systems. Increased oxidative stress promotes vascular inflammation and is a common pathway involved in endothelial damage. The present study sought to investigate the usefulness of derivative reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM as an oxidative stress marker for detecting endothelial damage in the clinical setting in subjects with early-stage atherosclerosis.Methods: Study 1 investigated the relationship between serum d-ROM levels and cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects (n = 1992, 49 ± 8 years who participated in our health checkup program. Study 2 analyzed the association between d-ROM levels and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation and that between d-ROM levels and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in middle-aged outpatients with mild-to-moderate cardiovascular risk (n = 43, 40 ± 5 years.Results: In study 1, the d-ROM level was independently correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and brain natriuretic peptide in univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In study 2, the d-ROM level was correlated positively with the hs-CRP level and inversely with the flow-mediated dilation value. Patients in the highest tertile of d-ROM had significantly lower flow-mediated dilation values compared with patients in the other tertiles. Moreover, after subdivision of patients into four groups according to d-ROM and hs-CRP levels, patients with high levels of both d-ROM and hs-CRP showed

  12. Decreased insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are associated with liver function in subjects with fasting glucose between 100 and 109 mg/dL in Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jeng-Yueh; Wang, Chiao-Ling; Hsia, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Hsin, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Kun-Der; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the American Diabetes Association recommended that the lower limit for the diagnosis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) should be reduced from 110 to 100 mg/dL in the analysis of the associated risk factors of IFG. It has been proposed that liver dysfunction may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. A primary aim was to investigate the relationship between liver enzyme and insulin resistance (IR) in IFG group. The secondary aim was to investigate IR and beta-cell function assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B, respectively) in subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 100 and 109 mg/dL. We enrolled 284 subjects whose medical history and physical examination required tests to screen for metabolic abnormalities. In addition, we also excluded all factors affecting glucose or insulin metabolism. According to the FPG level, they were divided into the following groups: group A, FPG population, the fasting insulin level, the fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, and the diastolic blood pressure all increased significantly as the glycemic status progressed, whereas HOMA-%B levels decreased significantly as the glycemic status progressed. The lipid profile, alkaline phosphatase, and systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly among 3 different glycemic classifications. Study results indicate that, first, there was a significant decrease of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in subjects with fasting glucose from 100 to 109 mg/dL compared with subjects with normal fasting glucose. Second, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were associated with IR as the glycemic status progressed in the IFG group.

  13. Genome-wide association study for rotator cuff tears identifies two significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Granger, Erin K; Farnham, James M; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Teerlink, Craig C

    2016-02-01

    The precise etiology of rotator cuff disease is unknown, but prior evidence suggests a role for genetic factors. Limited data exist identifying specific genes associated with rotator cuff tearing. The purpose of this study was to identify specific genes or genetic variants associated with rotator cuff tearing by a genome-wide association study with an independent set of rotator cuff tear cases. A set of 311 full-thickness rotator cuff tear cases genotyped on the Illumina 5M single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform were used in a genome-wide association study with 2641 genetically matched white population controls available from the Illumina iControls database. Tests of association were performed with GEMMA software at 257,558 SNPs that compose the intersection of Illumina SNP platforms and that passed general quality control metrics. SNPs were considered significant if P development of rotator cuff tearing. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and one possible explanation is that elevated UAE reflects a generalized vascular dysfunction. The present study tests whether the plasma concentrations of the two main endothelial vasoactive substances (nitric oxide...... and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...

  15. Significant inverse association of equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification but not dietary isoflavones in healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Miura, Katsuyuki; Vishnu, Abhishek; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert; Zaid, Maryam; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Equol, a metabolite of the dietary isoflavone daidzein, is produced by the action of gut bacteria in some individuals who are termed as equol-producers. It is proposed to have stronger atheroprotective properties than dietary isoflavones. We examined a cross-sectional association of dietary isoflavones and equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, among men in Japan. A population-based sample of 272 Japanese men aged 40-49 years recruited from 2004 to 2007 was examined for serum isoflavones, serum equol, CAC and other factors. Equol-producers were classified as individuals having a serum level of equol >83 nm. The presence of CAC was defined as a coronary Ca score ≥10 Agatston units. The associations of dietary isoflavones and equol-producers with CAC were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The median of dietary isoflavones, equol and CAC were 512·7 (interquartile range (IQR) 194·1, 1170·0), 9·1 (IQR 0·10, 33·1) and 0·0 (IQR 0·0, 1·0) nm, respectively. Prevalence of CAC and equol-producers was 9·6 and 16·0 %, respectively. Dietary isoflavones were not significantly associated with CAC. After multivariable adjustment, the OR for the presence of CAC in equol-producers compared with equol non-producers was 0·10 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·90, PEquol-producers had significantly lower CAC than equol non-producers, but there was no significant association between dietary isoflavones and CAC, suggesting that equol may be a key factor for atheroprotective properties of isoflavones in Japanese men. This finding must be confirmed in larger studies or clinical trials of equol that is now available as a dietary supplement.

  16. Achievement goals and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players and its association with perceived pressure from significant social agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Trindade Vaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to characterize the achievement goals and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players and their association with perceived pressure from different significant social agents (parents/family, coaches, teammates and friends. The sample of the study was comprised of 118 young soccer players, aged between 11 and 19 years (M= 14.68, SD= 2.16. Athletes had 5.40 ± 2.39 years of sport experience and 71 (60.2% of the athletes had competed at a regional level, while 47 (39.8% had participated in national competitions. Participants completed a socio-demographic survey, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire and the Sports Values Questionnaire. The statistical analyses involved univariate normality and descriptive, comparative and correlational analyses. Results revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with sportsmanlike attitudes (r= 0.47, p<0.01 and negatively associated with unsportsmanlike attitudes (r= −0.46, p<0.01, whereas ego orientation effects were contrary (sportsmanlike attitudes: r= −0.33, p<0.01 and unsportsmanlike attitudes: r= 0.42, p<0.01. Perceived pressures from all significant social agents were positively and significantly associated with unsportsmanlike attitudes (p<0.05, with perceived pressure from coaches also being associated with higher ego orientation scores and with lower task orientation and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players. In summary, these results indicate the need for coaches and other social agents to promote a competition climate that reinforces selfreferenced improvements and the expression of positive social attitudes in sports contexts.

  17. Association between physical exercise and quality of erection in men with ischaemic heart disease and erectile dysfunction subjected to physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałka, Dariusz; Domagała, Zygmunt; Dworak, Jacek; Womperski, Krzysztof; Rusiecki, Lesław; Marciniak, Wojciech; Adamus, Jerzy; Pilecki, Witold

    2013-01-01

    In addition to a beneficial effect on exercise tolerance and an associated reduction of global cardiovascular risk, modification of physical activity has a positive effect on the quality of life, reducing, among other things, the severity of erectile dysfunction (ED). The specific nature of sexual activity, which combines the need to maintain appropriate exercise tolerance and good erection quality, prompted us to evaluate the association between exercise tolerance and severity of ED in an intervention group of subjects with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and ED in the context of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). A total of 138 men treated invasively for IHD (including 99 treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and 39 treated with coronary artery bypass grafting) who scored 21 or less in the initial IIEF-5 test were investigated. Subjects were randomised into two groups. The study group included 103 subjects (mean age 62.07 ± 8.59 years) who were subjected to a CR cycle. The control group included 35 subjects (mean age 61.43 ± 8.81 years) who were not subjected to any CR. All subjects filled out an initial and final IIEF-5 questionnaire and were evaluated twice with a treadmill exercise test. The CR cycle was carried out for a period of 6 months and included interval endurance training on a cycle ergometer (three times a week) and general fitness exercises and resistance training (twice a week). The CR cycle in the study group resulted in a statistically significant increase in exercise tolerance (7.15 ± 1.69 vs. 9.16 ± 1.84 METs,p < 0.05) and an increase in erection quality (12.51 ± 5.98 vs. 14.39 ± 6.82, p < 0.05) which was not observed in the control group. A significant effect of age on a progressive decrease in exercise tolerance and erection quality was found in the study group. Exercise tolerance and erection quality were also negatively affected by hypertension and smoking. A significant correlation between exercise tolerance and erection quality

  18. Assessing the proposed association between tooth agenesis and taurodontism in 975 paediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano Küchler, Erika; De Andrade Risso, Patrícia; De Castro Costa, Marcelo; Modesto, Adriana; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende

    2008-05-01

    An association between tooth agenesis and taurodontism has been suggested. The identification of subpopulations with specific associated dental anomalies (subphenotype) would allow testing of the specific hypothesis that certain genetic factors contribute to the specific subphenotype. This work aims to assess a large cohort to verify if the association between tooth agenesis and taurodontism is present. Panoramic radiographs of 1002 patients were examined and 975 were used in this study. The presence of tooth agenesis and taurodontism was assessed in the study population. The frequency of tooth agenesis was 4.6% and the frequency of taurodontism was 1.6%. There were, however, no observations of concomitant tooth agenesis and taurodontism. Our data do not support the hypothesis that isolated tooth agenesis is associated with isolated taurodontism.

  19. Retinol Binding Protein-4 Is Associated with TNF-α and Not Insulin Resistance in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association between RBP4 and various markers related to insulin resistance and diabetic complications as well as inflammatory markers in Saudi population suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into 3 groups according to the type of treatment and involvement of coronary artery disease. Serum RBP4, TNF-α, insulin, CRP, resistin, leptin and adiponectin were analysed in all samples. RBP4 levels increased significantly in the group of diabetic subjects treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (30.2 ± 11.8; 33.4 ± 13.6 respectively, while there was no significant change in the other group for diabetic subjects on low-carbohydrate diet (25.1 ± 10.9 compared to control group (22.6 ± 9.5. RPB4 levels were positively correlated with TNF-α in the group of diabetic subjects on oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (r = 0.52, P < 0.05; r = 0.58, P < 0.05 respectively. No correlations were found between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance in all studied groups. Our findings suggest that serum RBP4 levels is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and is not associated with insulin resistance among patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

  20. Association Between Airway Caliber Changes With Lung Inflation and Emphysema Assessed by Volumetric CT Scan in Subjects With COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Come, Carolyn E.; Ross, James C.; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K.; Loring, Stephen H.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Washko, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increase in airway caliber (airway distensibility) with lung inflation is attenuated in COPD. Furthermore, some subjects have a decrease in airway caliber with lung inflation. We aimed to test the hypothesis that airway caliber increases are lower in subjects with emphysema-predominant (EP) compared with airway-predominant (AP) CT scan subtypes. Additionally, we compared clinical and CT scan features of subjects with (airway constrictors) and without a decrease in airway caliber. Methods: Based on GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stages and CT scan subtypes, we created a control group (n = 46) and the following matched COPD groups (n = 23 each): GOLD-2-AP, GOLD-2-EP, GOLD-4-AP, and GOLD-4-EP. From the CT scans of all 138 subjects, we measured emphysema, lung volumes, and caliber changes in the third and fourth airway generations of two bronchi. We expressed airway distensibility (ratio of airway lumen diameter change to lung volume change from end tidal breathing to full inspiration) as a global or lobar measure based on normalization by whole-lung or lobar volume changes. Results: Global distensibility in the third and fourth airway generations was significantly lower in the GOLD-2-EP and GOLD-4-EP groups than in control subjects. In GOLD-2 subjects, lobar distensibility of the right-upper-lobe fourth airway generation was significantly lower in those with EP than in those with AP. In multivariate analysis, emphysema was an independent determinant of global and lobar airway distensibility. Compared with nonconstrictors, airway constrictors experienced more dyspnea, were more hyperinflated, and had a higher percentage of emphysema. Conclusions: Distensibility of large- to medium-sized airways is reduced in subjects with an EP CT scan subtype. Emphysema seems to alter airway-parenchyma interdependence. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00608764; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21940776

  1. Significant association of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism with bladder cancer instead of prostate and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Yu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Tianyu; Yan, Haibiao; Mo, Zengnan

    2016-05-28

    Urological cancers occur worldwide. Many factors, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, are said to be associated with the cancer risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between urological cancer susceptibility and COMT Val158Met in different genetic models. This study was based on material obtained from the PubMed, HuGENet and Embase databases. Four models including dominant (AA + AG vs. GG), recessive (AA vs. AG + GG), codominant (AA vs. AG, AA vs. GG) and per-allele analysis (A vs. G) were applied. Odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate the power of the associations. Fourteen eligible studies comprising 3,285 cases and 3,594 controls were included. Although we could not detect a positive function of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in urological cancers, the polymorphism might be significantly associated with bladder cancer risk (dominant model [AA + AG vs. GG]: OR = 0.736, 95% CI = 0.586-0.925, I2 = 0.00%; recessive model [AA vs. AG + GG]: OR = 0.822, 95%CI = 0.653-1.035, I2 = 6.30%; codominant model [AA vs. AG]: OR = 0.908, 95% CI = 0.710-1.161, I2 = 0.00%; codominant model [AA vs. GG]: OR = 0.693, 95% CI = 0.524-0.917, I2 = 30.20%; allele analysis [A vs. G]: OR = 0.826, 95%CI = 0.717-0.951, I2 = 30.20%). The same significant associations were not found for kidney cancer and prostate cancer risk in different ethnicities. There also seemed to be no distinct effect of the polymorphism on benign prostatic hyperplasia. We suggest that bladder cancer but not prostate cancer and kidney cancer could be significantly associated with the Val158Met polymorphism. Interaction of COMT genetic and related environmental factors for urological cancers should not be ignored in future.

  2. Significant Association of the RNF213 p.R4810K Polymorphism with Quasi-Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takaaki; Mineharu, Yohei; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Funaki, Takeshi; Takagi, Yasushi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-moyamoya disease is an angiographical moyamoya disease equivalent accompanied by known underlying diseases. Mysterin/RNF213 is a major susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease, of which the p.R4810K variant is a founder polymorphism. The genetics of quasi-moyamoya disease is poorly understood, therefore, this study investigated a potential association between the p.R4810K polymorphism and quasi-moyamoya disease. Genotyping of the p.R4810K variant was performed on 18 quasi-moyamoya disease cases and 91 controls, who visited Kyoto University Hospital or Kobe City Medical Center, Japan, between 2006 and 2015. The p.R4810K variant was found in 12 of 18 quasi-moyamoya disease patients. The frequency of p.R4810K carriers was significantly higher in quasi-moyamoya disease cases than in controls (66.7% versus 2.2%, odds ratio 89.0, 95% confidence interval: 19.2-669.4). Our data showed that the RNF213 p.R4810K polymorphism was significantly associated with quasi-moyamoya disease. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved children's motor learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by associating subjective error estimation and extrinsic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro de Carvalho da; Pereira-Monfredini, Carla Ferro; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed at assessing the interaction between subjective error estimation and frequency of extrinsic feedback in the learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by children. 10- to 12-year olds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups combining subjective error estimation and relative frequency of extrinsic feedback (33% × 100%). Analysis of performance was based on quality of movement pattern. Analysis showed superior learning of the group combining error estimation and 100% feedback frequency, both groups receiving feedback on 33% of trials achieved intermediate results, and the group combining no requirement of error estimation and 100% feedback frequency had the poorest learning. Our results show the benefit of subjective error estimation in association with high frequency of extrinsic feedback in children's motor learning of a sport motor pattern.

  4. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent-child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Polymorphism Is Significantly Associated with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian; Ding, Haixia; Yang, Keming; Mao, Lina; Zhao, Hailong; Zhan, Yiyang; Shen, Chong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Chinese Han population. Three tagSNPs (rs11574129, rs2228570 and rs739837) were genotyped using TaqMan assays in a case-control study including 669 cases with T2DM, 1084 individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 1,961 controls with normal fasting glucose. Multiple logistic regression was applied to analyze the association of SNPs and the risk of diabetes by adjusting for covariates including age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and smoking. General linear model (GLM) was applied to compare fasting blood glucose levels between genotypes and adjusted for confounding factors. The results showed that rs739837 was significantly associated with increased risk of T2DM in additive model (OR = 1.166, 95% CI 1.017-1.337, p = 0.028) and dominant (OR = 1.166, 95% CI 1.017-1.337, p = 0.002) model. Stratified analysis showed that rs739837 and rs2228570 were, respectively, correlated with T2DM in females and males. Significant associations were found between three SNPs and T2DM in the population analysis indicated that the CC group of rs2228570 has lower fasting glucose than TT/TC genotype group in controls. This study provides further evidence that rs739837 in the VDR gene is associated with increased risk of T2DM in a Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Significant association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W; Meng, Q; Liu, J H; Wu, L X; Chen, Y; Chen, S D

    2015-12-07

    The A1298C polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has been reported to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but there are conflicting results from previous studies. The present study aimed to investigate the association between this polymorphism and the risk of HCC using a meta-analysis of the published studies. Published literature from PubMed and Embase databases was systematically searched to identify relevant studies before October 2014. The Begg test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were performed to ensure the authenticity of the outcome. The meta-analysis results showed significant association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and HCC risk (CC vs AA: OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.33-0.81; CC vs AC: OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.32-0.79; dominant model: OR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.24-3.02; recessive model: OR = 1.00, 95%CI = 0.84-1.18). In the subgroup analysis, significant associations between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and HCC risk were found in Asians (CC vs AA: OR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.27-0.78; CC vs AC: OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.24-0.71; dominant model: OR = 2.27, 95%CI = 1.33-3.86; recessive model: OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.86-1.24). Our results suggest that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism might be related to increased risk of HCC in Asians. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  8. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly M Verhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. RESULTS: Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18% while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37% and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%. Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and

  9. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...... for each setting of the specified allele risk and frequency parameters under different modes of inheritance and for different sample sizes. The indirect genetic association analysis is a valid approach for studying gene-longevity association, but the sample size requirement is about 3-4 time larger than...

  10. Circulating CD36 and oxLDL levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Arellano, Luz E; Muñoz-Valle, José F; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2014-04-28

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results from a combination of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and susceptibility to thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD. CD36 has been shown to play a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions by its capacity to bind and promote endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is implicated in the formation of foam cells. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there is an association of sCD36 and oxLDL levels with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects. A total of 188 subjects, 18 to 25 years old, 133 normal-weight and 55 obese subjects from the state of Guerrero, Mexico were recruited in the study. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) for oxLDL and sCD36 were performed. Statistical analyses of data were performed with Wilcoxon- Mann Whitney and chi-square tests as well as with multinomial regression. TC, LDL-C, TG, oxLDL and sCD36 levels were higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight controls, as well as, monocyte and platelet counts (P Obese subjects had 5.8 times higher risk of sCD36 in the third tertil (>97.8 ng/mL) than normal-weight controls (P = 0.014), and 7.4 times higher risk of oxLDL levels in third tertile (>48 U/L) than control group. The subjects with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, fasting impaired LDL-C had a higher risk of oxLDL levels in the third tertile (>48 U/L) than the control group (P cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects and may be potential early markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  11. Gut-associated plasmacytoid dendritic cells display an immature phenotype and upregulated granzyme B in subjects with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V Boichuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the periphery of subjects with HIV/AIDS decrease over time and the fate of these cells has been the subject of ongoing investigation. Previous studies using animal models as well as studies with humans suggest that these cells may redistribute to the gut. Other studies using animal models propose that the periphery pDCs are depleted and gut is repopulated with naïve pDCs from the bone marrow. In the present study, we utilized immunohistochemistry to survey duodenum biopsies of subjects with HIV/AIDS and controls. We observed that subjects with HIV/AIDS had increased infiltration of Ki-67+/CD303+ pDCs, a phenotype consistent with bone marrow derived pre-pDCs. In contrast, Ki-67+/CD303+ pDCs were not observed in control biopsies. We additionally observed that gut-associated pDCs in HIV/AIDS cases upregulate the proapototic enzyme granzyme B; however, no granzyme B was observed in the pDCs of control biopsies. Our data are consistent with reports in animal models that suggest periphery pDCs are depleted by exhaustion and that naïve pDCs egress from the bone marrow and ultimately infiltrate the gut mucosa. Additionally, our observation of granzyme B upregulation in naïve pDCs may identify a contributing factor to the gut pathology associated with HIV infection.

  12. Factors associated with daily tenofovir exposure in thai subjects taking combination antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, S.J.; Punyawudho, B.; Thammajaruk, N.; Colbers, A.; Chaiyahong, P.; Phonphithak, S.; Sapsirisavat, V.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Burger, D.M.; Avihingsanon, A.

    2015-01-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) exposure is associated with antiretroviral efficacy and risk of kidney disease. There is evidence of high interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetics of TFV. The effect of several clinical conditions on the pharmacokinetics of TFV has been observed and may partly explain its

  13. Association of lipoprotein levels with mortality in subjects aged 50 + without previous diabetes or cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Depont Christensen, René; Engers Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of lipoprotein and triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality in a population free from diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. The European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention state that in general total cholesterol (TC...

  14. Associations of subjective vitality with DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Hansen, A-M

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance with vitality, in middle-aged men. We also sought to elucidate underlying factors of physical performance by comparing physical performance parameters to DNA damage parameters and cardiovascular risk factors....

  15. The fatty liver index is associated with increased mortality in subjects referred to coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, E.; Pilz, S.; Grammer, T.B.; Boehm, B.O.; Stojakovic, T.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.; Marz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Fatty liver index (FLI), a surrogate parameter for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. We aimed to evaluate whether FLI is associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality as well as

  16. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether

  17. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Kimura, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that inhibit the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) extend the lifespan of worms, flies and mice. However, it appears that relatively low circulating levels of IGF-1 in humans are associated with aging-related diseases and diminished longevity. As leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is os...

  18. Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hypertensive Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome Defined by Three Different Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different authorities have put forward their criteria to defi ne metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to fi nd the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive individuals by the available three different defi nitions from National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, International diabetes Federation (IDF and WHO and their association with other cardiac risk factors. Methods: After anthropometric measurements fasting blood was analyzed for glucose, lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and anti-oxidized LDL antibody in 150 hypertensive individuals. A ten-year coronary heart disease risk was predicted using the Framingham risk score (FRS. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 54.7 % by NCEP, 42.0 % by IDF and 18.7 % by WHO. As many as 63.4 % had MetS by any defi nition, while only 9.4 % fulfi lled all the criteria of the three definitions. The association of cardiac risk factors also varied according to the defi nition used. hsCRP was signifi cantly elevated in MetS compared to non-MetS. Body mass index, waist circumference and HDL-C were associated in MetS defi ned by NCEP and IDF. FRS was higher in MetS defi ned by Adult Treatment Panel and WHO defi nitions. An increase in urine albumin and a decrease in eGFR were associated with MetS individuals defi ned by WHO only. Conclusions: There is a wide variation in the prevalence of MetS and associated cardiac risk factors according to three different defi nitions used. The different cardiac risk factors among MetS also vary with the defi nitions used. However, hsCRP and emerging risk factor are signifi cantly elevated in hypertensive individuals with MetS as defi ned by all defi nitions. Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension,metabolic syndrome.

  19. The expression and significance of P-glycoprotein, lung resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Lung resistnce protein (LRP and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features. Methods The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery. Results The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742, but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant. Conclusion The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.

  20. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 and its clinical significance in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Yang, Guosheng; Qiu, Xiaofu; Luo, Youhua; Liu, Baichuan; Wang, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of TRAP1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1) in kidney cancer. TRAP1 expression was detected in kidney cancer and normal kidney tissues by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Then, the correlation of TRAP1 expression with clinicopathological characters and patients' prognosis was evaluated in kidney cancer. IHC results revealed that the high-expression rates of TRAP1 in kidney cancer tissues and normal kidney tissues were 51.3% (41/80), 23.3% (7/30), and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.01). Also, TRAP1 mRNA level in kidney cancer was found to be significantly greater compared with those in normal kidney by qRT-PCR. In addition, TRAP1 expression in kidney cancer significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (Pkidney cancer and correlates with patients prognosis, which may be served as a potential marker for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney cancer.

  1. Concordance between women's physiological and subjective sexual arousal is associated with consistency of orgasm during intercourse but not other sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, Stuart; Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have found a discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. We hypothesized that the association between the physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency during

  2. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Ren, Jiwei; Shi, Lei; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui

    2014-07-30

    Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined. A random sample of 20,505 children aged 5.00 to 11.92 years old (boys: 49.5% vs. girls: 50.5%) participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, sleep perception, and potential influential factors of FNA from six domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of FNA was 9.8% (10.0% for boys vs. 8.9% for girls) in our sampled children. The prominent FNA-related factors inclued biological health problems, such as overweight/obesity (OR = 1.70), chronic pain during night (OR = 2.47), and chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.23), poor psychosocial condition, such as poor mental and emotional functioning (OR = 1.34), poor sleep hygiene, such as frequently doing exciting activities before bedtime (OR = 1.24) and bedtime resistance (OR = 1.42), and parents' history of insomnia (OR = 1.31). FNA was associated with subjective poor sleep quality (OR = 1.24), subjective insufficient sleep (OR = 1.21), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.35). FNA was associated with poor sleep and daytime sleepiness. Compared to sleep environment and family susceptibility, chronic health problems, poor psychosocial condition, and poor sleep hygiene had greater impact on FNA, indicating childhood FNA could be partly prevented by health promotion, by psychological intervention, and by

  3. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppämäki, Sami; Partonen, Timo; Vakkuri, Olli; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partinen, Markku; Laudon, Moshe

    2003-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of melatonin on sleep, waking up and well being in subjects with varying degrees of seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Fifty-eight healthy adults exhibiting subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (s-SAD) and/or the negative or positive type of weather-associated syndrome (WAS) were randomised to either 2 mg of sustained-release melatonin or placebo tablets 1-2 h before a desired bedtime for 3 weeks. Outcome measures were changes from baseline in sleep quality, sleepiness after waking, atypical depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life by week three. Early morning salivary melatonin concentrations were measured at baseline and treatment cessation in all subjects. Melatonin administration significantly improved the quality of sleep (P=0.03) and vitality (P=0.02) in the subjects with s-SAD, but attenuated the improvement of atypical symptoms and physical parameters of quality of life compared to placebo in the subjects with WAS, positive type.

  4. Expression of Yes-associated protein 1 and its clinical significance in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Yeon; Kim, Kwanghun; Park, Min Soo; Jang, Mi Young; Choi, Young Hwan; Han, Suyeon; Shin, Hyun Mo; Chung, Chaeuk; Han, Hye Young; Yang, Jung Bo; Ko, Young Bok; Yoo, Heon Jong

    2017-05-01

    Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a key transcriptional regulator in the Hippo signaling pathway that plays a critical role in the development and progression of several types of malignancies, including ovarian cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression of YAP1 and its clinical significance in a large population of patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OSC), which is the most common form of epithelial ovarian neoplasm, using the TCGA database. Surprisingly, cross-cancer mRNA expression and alterations in YAP1 were higher in OSC than in those of other types of cancers in the TCGA database. YAP1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in OSC compared with normal ovarian samples, and was higher in stages III and IV, than stages I and II. The level of YAP1 protein, which is mainly localized to the nucleus, was also higher in stage IV as compared with stages I, II and III. However, the protein level of pYAP1, which is inactive and is localized to the cytoplasm, was not significantly different between stages. The ratio of pYAP/YAP, which shows higher activity at a low ratio, was lower in stage III than in stages I and II. High YAP and low pYAP levels were significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with OSC. The mRNA and protein expression of YAP1 were significantly increased in the proliferative subtype as compared to the differentiated, immunoreactive and mesenchymal subtypes. According to bioinformatics analysis, YAP1 is most highly correlated with the cell cycle. TGF-β signaling and WNT signaling were significantly increased in the high YAP1 group according to gene set enrichment analysis. Taken together, our results suggest that not only high YAP1 expression but also its subcellular distribution may be associated with poor overall survival in patients with OSC.

  5. Operating Room Anesthesia Subspecialization Is Not Associated With Significantly Greater Quality of Supervision of Anesthesia Residents and Nurse Anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes; Epstein, Richard H; Hindman, Bradley J

    2017-04-01

    Supervision of anesthesia residents and nurse anesthetists is a major responsibility of faculty anesthesiologists. The quality of their supervision can be assessed quantitatively by the anesthesia residents and nurse anesthetists. Supervision scores are an independent measure of the contribution of the anesthesiologist to patient care. We evaluated the association between quality of supervision and level of specialization of anesthesiologists. We used two 6-month periods, one with no feedback to anesthesiologists of the residents' and nurse anesthetists' evaluations, and the other with feedback. Supervision scores provided by residents and nurse anesthetists were considered separately. Sample sizes among the 4 combinations ranged from n = 51 to n = 62 University of Iowa faculty. For each supervising anesthesiologist and 6-month period, we calculated the proportion of anesthetic cases attributable to each anesthesia Current Procedural Terminology code. The sum of the square of the proportions, a measurement of diversity, is known as the Herfindahl index. The inverse of this index represents the effective number of common procedures. The diversity (degree of specialization) of each faculty anesthesiologist was measured attributing each case to: (1) the anesthesiologist who supervised for the longest total period of time, (2) the anesthesiologist who started the case, or (3) the anesthesiologist who started the case, limited to cases started during "regular hours" (defined as nonholiday Monday to Friday, 07:00 AM to 02:59 PM). Inferential analysis was performed using bivariate-weighted least-squares regression. The point estimates of all 12 slopes were in the direction of greater specialization of practice of the evaluated faculty anesthesiologist being associated with significantly lower supervision scores. Among supervision scores provided by nurse anesthetists, the association was statistically significant for the third of the 6-month periods under the first and

  6. The association between subjective socioeconomic status and health inequity in victims of occupational accidents in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Lee, Wanhyung; Rhie, Jeongbae; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate the health inequity of victims of occupational accidents through the association between socioeconomic status and unmet healthcare need. Methods: Data from the first and second Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance were used, which included 1,803 participants. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the unmet healthcare needs of participants with a lower socioeconomic status and other socioeconomic statuses were investigated using multivari...

  7. Association between amebic liver abscess and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Taiwanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Invasive amebiasis is an emerging parasitic disorder in Taiwan, especially in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Thirty-three Taiwanese subjects with amebic liver abscess (ALA were examined and a possible correlation between ALA and HIV infection was investigated. Results Among ALA patients, the proportion of HIV-positive individuals increased during the study period. ALA was the first major clinical presentation in 54% of HIV patients with ALA. Overall, 58% (14/24 of HIV-infected patients had a CD4+ count > 200 cells/μL and 82.1% (23/28 had no concurrent opportunistic infection or other evidence of HIV infection. There was no marked difference in clinical characteristics between HIV-positive and HIV-negative ALA patients except the level of leukocytosis. Conclusion While the clinical characteristics described herein cannot be used to determine whether ALA patients have HIV infection, routine HIV testing is recommended in patients with ALA, even in the absence of HIV symptoms.

  8. Prognostic and diagnostic significance of tumor budding associated with β-catenin expression in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Ken; Takagi, Sho; Shimada, Takenobu; Masuda, Takayuki; Shiga, Hisashi; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Takahashi, Seiichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shibuya, Daisuke; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has become a major curative treatment for early colorectal carcinoma without lymph node metastasis. However, lymph node metastasis, a poor prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma, occurs in about 10% of the patients with submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma. Therefore, it is important to identify a high-risk factor for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma. This study was designed to identify the relationship between tumor budding with β-catenin expression and lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma. We investigated the immunohistochemistry of tumor budding in the 142 patients who underwent surgical resection for submucosal invasive colorectal carcinomas between 1984 and 1999 and the expression pattern of β-catenin in budding tumor cells. Accordingly, all the patients were followed up for at least 10 years or until death. Among the 142 patients, lymph node metastasis was detected in 14 patients (9.9%). Univariate analysis showed that tumor budding with ≥ 5 tumor cells or cell clusters with expression of β-catenin in the nucleus was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.005). In contrast, tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining was not associated with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor budding with ≥ 5 tumor cells or cell clusters with expression of β-catenin in the nucleus was a significant risk factor for lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 7.124; 95% confidence interval, 1.407-36.062). Thus, tumor budding associated with β-catenin expression is a risk factor for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma.

  9. Quality of life and physical activity associated to lower prevalence of depression in community-dwelling elderly subjects from Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos-Ferreira, Ricardo; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Steffens, David C; Bottino, Cassio M C

    2013-09-05

    Studies investigating major depression and associated factors in older people from developing countries are scarce. Cross-sectional study of a community-based sample of 1563 elderly subjects aged 60 years or older from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The frequency of major depression (MD) and the relationship with sociodemographic factors, cognitive and functional impairment (CFI), clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) and clinical diseases were analyzed. A brief instrument for screening of depressive symptoms in elderly people, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, the Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination, and a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were applied to the subjects. Major depression was diagnosed in 60 patients (3.8%). A higher odds ratio of MD was associated with female gender, being widowed, previous depressive episode, hypertension, use of psychotropic medication, (CFI), and alcohol use. A lower odds ratio of depression diagnosis was associated with physical activity and going to cinema. The cross-sectional design of the study; our sample was restricted only to community residents, excluding persons in hospitals or nursing homes. Our study shows significant association between depression and potentially modifiable factors, reinforcing the benefit of probable preventive measures, to incentive healthy lifestyle, leisure activities and the practice of physical exercise, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of CSDS, especially in primary care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between sleep disordered breathing, academic grades, and cognitive and behavioral functioning among overweight subjects during middle to late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W; Ris, M Douglas; Kramer, Megan E; Long, Elizabeth; Amin, Raouf

    2010-11-01

    (1) to determine the associations of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with behavioral functioning, cognitive test scores, and school grades during middle- to late-childhood, an under-researched developmental period in the SDB literature, and (2) to clarify whether associations between SDB and school grades are mediated by deficits in cognitive or behavioral functioning. cross-sectional correlative study. Office/hospital, plus reported functioning at home and at school. 163 overweight subjects aged 10-16.9 years were divided into 4 groups based upon their obstructive apnea+hypopnea index (AHI) during overnight polysomnography and parent report of snoring: Moderate-Severe OSA (AHI > 5, n = 42), Mild OSA (AHI = 1-5, n = 58), Snorers (AHI grades and sleep, parent- and teacher-report of daytime behaviors, and office-based neuropsychological testing. The 4 groups significantly differed in academic grades and parent- and teacher-reported behaviors, particularly inattention and learning problems. These findings remained significant after adjusting for subject sex, race, socioeconomic status, and school night sleep duration. Associations with SDB were confined to reports of behavioral difficulties in real-world situations, and did not extend to office-based neuropsychological tests. Findings from secondary analyses were consistent with, but could not definitively confirm, a causal model in which SDB affects school grades via its impact on behavioral functioning. SDB during middle- to late-childhood is related to important aspects of behavioral functioning, especially inattention and learning difficulties, that may result in significant functional impairment at school.

  11. Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Patients Younger than 65 Years Are Significantly Associated with CKD: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo You-Hsien Lin

    Full Text Available Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASD and sleep-related problems are associated with poor health outcomes. However, the association between NASD and the development and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has not been investigated thoroughly. We explored the association between CKD and NASD in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database with1,000,000 representative data for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009. We investigated the incidence and risk of CKD in 7,006 newly diagnosed NASD cases compared with 21,018 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization, region, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio.The subsequent risk of CKD was 1.48-foldhigher in the NASD cohort than in the control cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-1.73, p< 0.001. Men, older age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and gout were significant factors associated with the increased risk of CKD (p< 0.001. Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 52% increased risk of developing CKD (95%CI = 1.23-1.84; P<0.01, whereas patients with sleep disturbance had a 49%increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.19-1.87; P<0.001. Younger women (aged < 65 years were at a high risk of CKD with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio, [HR] = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.35-2.40, p< 0.001.In this nationwide population-based cohort study, patients with NASD, particularly men of all ages and women aged younger than 65 years, were at high risk of CKD.

  12. Association study of IL2/IL21 and FcgRIIa: significant association with the IL2/IL21 region in Scandinavian coeliac disease families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovic, S; Amundsen, S S; Lie, B A; Gudjónsdóttir, A H; Ascher, H; Ek, J; van Heel, D A; Nilsson, S; Sollid, L M; Torinsson Naluai, A

    2008-06-01

    The first genome-wide association study performed in a UK coeliac disease (CD) case-control cohort revealed association with a linkage disequilibrium block containing the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 genes. Also recently, an association with a non-synonymous polymorphism in FcgammaRIIa (CD32a) was reported in CD with an unusually strong P-value. We aimed to replicate the reported associations with the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs13119723 A>G and rs6822844 G>T in the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 region and rs1801274 G>A in the FcgammaRIIa gene in a family sample consisting of 325 Swedish/Norwegian families using the robust transmission disequilibrium test. The family sample used in this study included 100 families with two or more children affected by CD and 225 families with one affected child. We could confirm significant association between the polymorphisms rs13119723 A>G and rs6822844 G>T located in the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 region and CD (P-value 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). However, we found no association with the FcgammaRIIa rs1801274 G>A polymorphism (P-value=0.3). In conclusion, our results support the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 region as a true CD susceptibility region.

  13. Association between the Postprandial Glucose Levels and Arterial Stiffness Measured According to the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Non-diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Atsuko; Ito, Chikako; Fujikawa, Rumi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-01-01

    Although a relationship between post-challenge hyperglycemia and arterial stiffness has been reported, the relationship between the postprandial glucose levels and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in non-diabetic subjects is not clear. This study thus evaluated the association between the postprandial glucose levels after a composite meal and the degree of arterial stiffness measured according to CAVI in non-diabetic subjects. The subjects included 1,291 individuals (655 men and 636 women; mean age, 48.6 years; range, 23-85 years) who underwent medical examinations, including blood tests and CAVI assessments, between October 2005 and April 2012. The 1-hour postprandial glucose levels were determined after a 600-kcal traditional Japanese meal. The CAVI values were significantly higher in the subjects with higher 1-hour postprandial glucose levels (≥140 mg/dL in men; ≥158 mg/dL in women). A simple regression analysis indicated that the CAVI values were significantly correlated with the 1-hour postprandial glucose levels in men (r=0.286, pblood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 1-hour postprandial glucose, homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance, estimated glemerular filtration rate, and high sensitive C-reactive protein, stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the 1-hour postprandial glucose level was an independent predictor associated with the CAVI in men (p=0.003) and older women 50 years of age or older (p=0.003). This study demonstrated that the 1-hour postprandial glucose levels are associated with increased CAVI values in non-diabetic men and older women 50 years of age or older.

  14. Subjective perceptions associated with the ascending and descending slopes of breath alcohol exposure vary with recent drinking history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Leah; Morzorati, Sandra L; Foroud, Tatiana; Windisch, Kyle; Darlington, Todd; Zimmerman, Ulrich S; Plawecki, Martin H; O'Connor, Sean J

    2012-06-01

    The differentiator model predicts that individuals with a positive family history of alcoholism (FHA) or heavy alcohol consumers will feel more sensitive to the effects of alcohol on the ascending phase of the blood alcohol content while feeling less sedated on the descending phase. This study tested whether subjective perceptions are sensitive to the slope of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and whether that sensitivity is associated with an FHA and/or recent drinking history (RDH). Family-history-positive (FHP, n = 27) and family-history-negative (FHN, n = 27) young adult nondependent drinkers were infused intravenously with alcohol in 2 sessions separated by 1 week. After 20 minutes, one session had an ascending BrAC (+3.0 mg%/min), while the other session had a descending BrAC (-1 mg%/min). The BrAC for both sessions at this point was approximately 60 mg%, referred to as the crossover point. Subjective perceptions of intoxication, high, stimulated, and sedation were sampled frequently and then interpolated to the crossover point. Within-subject differences between ascending and descending responses were examined for associations with FHA and/or RDH. Recent moderate drinkers reported increased perceptions of feeling intoxicated (p perceptions in young adult social drinkers depend on the slope of the BrAC when examined in association with RDH. These results support the differentiator model hypothesis concerning the ascending slope and suggest that moderate alcohol consumers could be at risk for increased alcohol consumption because they feel more intoxicated and high on the ascending slope. Subjects did not feel less sedated on the descending slope, contrary to the differentiator model but replicating several previous studies. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  16. Caffeinated energy drink consumption among adolescents and potential health consequences associated with their use: a significant public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Nada; Soliman, Ashraf T; Elsedfy, Heba; Di Maio, Salvatore; El Kholy, Mohamed; Fiscina, Bernadette

    2017-08-23

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. The consumption of EDs has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. EDs contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of EDs poses a risk of caffeine toxicity and other ill effects when consumed by young people. Caffeine intoxication may result in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and even death. Other health concerns related to consumption of EDs include obesity and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of EDs. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors in adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. Several researchers have demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. 1) health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks; 2) emergency department clinicians should consider asking patients about ED and traditional caffeine usage and substance use when assessing patient symptoms; 3) policy makers should  increase their attention on introducing regulatory policies on television food advertising to which youth are exposed;  4) failure to comply with standards for efficacious product labelling, and absence of broader education regarding guidelines, need to be addressed and 5) further studies must be done to

  17. Genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 alzheimer's disease candidate proteins: significant associations with proteins involved in amyloid processing and inflammation.